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C82 4.

The optimal operating length for muscle fibers is the length at which they can generate maximum force (9.21 and 9.22) W/in a sarcomere, the ideal length-tension relationsip occurs when a muscle is slightly stretched and the thin and thick filaments overlap optimally, because this relationship permits sliding along nearly the entire length of the thin filaments. If muscle fiber stretches to much so that filaments dont overlap, myosin heads have nothing to attach to and cannot generate tension On the other hand, if sarcomeres are so compressed & cramped that Z discs abut thick myofilaments, & the thin filaments touch & interfere w/ one another, little or no further shortening can occur. A severely stretched muscle (say 180% of optimal length) cannot develop tension. Likewise, @ 75% of a muscles resting length, force generation (or shortening) is limited because the actin myofilaments in its sarcomeres overlap and the thick filaments run into the Z discs, restricting further shortening. In the body, skeletal muscles are at optimal operating length by the way theyre attached to bones. Joints normally prevent joint movements that would stretch attached muscles beyond optimal range. Page 10 slide5 When calcium channels in the caveolae open, calcium ion influx occurs rapidly. Although the SR does release some of the calcium that triggers contraction, most enters through calcium channels directly from the extracellular space. Contraction ends when calcium is actively transported into the SR and out of the cell; This situation is quite different from what we see in skeletal muscle, which does not depend on extracellular CA for excitation-contraction coupling. See bottom of page 10 after lowest handwriting: The proportion and organization of the myofilaments in smooth muscle differs from that of skeletal muscle: 1. Thick filaments are fewer but have myosin heads along their entire length. 2. No troponin complex in thin filaments 3. Thick and thin filaments arranged diagonally 4. Intermediate filament-dense body network. Section right before Developmental Aspects of Muscles: Types of Smooth Muscle The smooth muscle in different body organs varies substantially in its 1. Fiber arrangement and organization 2. Innervation 3. Responsiveness to various stimuli 4. Smooth muscle is usually categorized into two major types: single-unit and multiunit Single-Unit Smooth Muscle: commonly called visceral muscle bc its in the walls of all hollow organs except the heart. All the smooth muscle characteristics described so far pertain to single-unit smooth muscle. For example, the cells of the single-unit smooth muscle: 1. Are arranged in opposing (longitudinal and circular) sheets 2. Are innervated by ANS variscosities and often exhibit rhythmic spontaneous action potentials 3. Are electrically coupled by gap junctions and so contract as a unit (for this reason recruitment is not an option in smooth muscle) 4. Respond to various chemical stimuli Multiunit Smooth Muscle: muscles in large airways to the lungs and in large arteries, the arrector pili muscles attached to hair follicles, and the internal eye muscles that adjust pupil size and allow the eye to focus visually In contrast to single-unit muscle, gap junctions are rare, and spontaneous synchronous depolarizations are infrequent. Like skeletal muscle, multiunit smooth muscle: 1. Consists of muscle fibers that are structurally independent of one another 2. Is richly supplied w/nerve endings, each of which forms a motor unit w/a number of muscle fibers 3. Responds to neural stimulation w/graded contractions that involve recruitment However, while skeletal muscle is served by the somatic (voluntary) division of the nervous system, multiunit smooth muscle (like single-unit smooth muscle) is innervated by the autonomic (involuntary) division and is also responsive to hormonal controls.