Chapter 4 Movement of Substances across Membrane

4.1
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Transporting materials in and out of cells Cell membrane is selectively permeable. It controls the movement of substances in and out of the cell. The transport of materials in and out of a cell involves diffusion, osmosis, active transport, phagocytosis and exocytosis.

4.2 Diffusion • the net movement of the molecules from the region of higher concentration to the region of lower concentration  diffusion is a random movement of molecules ∴ no additional energy is needed • if there is a concentration gradient, molecules move from places of higher concentration to the places of lower concentration • when concentration gradient no longer exists, diffusion in each directions continues at the same rate Concentration gradient refers to the difference in concentration of a substance between two regions divided by the distance of diffusion. The greater the concentration gradient, the higher is the rate of diffusion. Factors that affect the rate of diffusion • Molecular size: smallerfaster • Concentration gradient: steeper gradientfaster • Temperature: higher temperaturemore K.E.faster • Surface area: larger surface areamore molecules can pass through per unit timefaster • Diffusion distance: shorter distancefaster Significance / importance • responsible for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in and out of the cells • small, non-polar enough to pass through phospholipids • helps distribution of substances within the cytoplasm all over the cell (ref.: facilitated diffusion for nutrients and wastes 4.3 Osmosis • the net movement of the water molecules across a differentially permeable membrane from a region of higher water potential to a region of lower water potential What is water potential? • Water potential is the TOTAL ENERGY for the water molecules (FREELY MOVING water molecules) in a solution to move about. Show the tendency of water molecules to move away from a solution.  pure water at 25°C, 1 atm pressure, water potential = 0, other solution = -ve value [unit: usually kilopascal] • Dependent on a number of factors, such as concentration of the solution (solute potential), external pressure acting on the solution (pressure potential)

water moves through the cells of roots • support in plants ~ plant cells gain water.• water potential = solute potential + pressure potential (total energy for water to (amount of freely moving (hydrostatic pressure / Difference between diffusion and osmosis move about) water present) wall pressure) .a selectively permeable membrane is needed in osmosis . diffusion: any molecules Factors that affect the rate of osmosis • water potential gradient: steeper water potential gradientfaster • Temperature: higher temperaturemore K.osmosis is a kind of diffusion .g.4 Active Transport • substances are transported against the concentration gradient (may sometimes take place along the concentration gradient in order to speed up the rate of diffusion) • requires energy (ATP) produced by respiration (any factors inhibit respiration inhibit active transport) • takes place only in living cells which can out respiration • involves specific carrier protein movement of essential materials and waste materials across cell membrane if diffusion is too slow or if there is no concentration gradient . haemolysis of red blood cells) • Takes in water • Swells and becomes turgid In an isotonic solution • No net movement of water molecules into or out of the cells • No net movement of water molecules into or out of the cells In a hypertonic solution • Loses water • Shrinks in size • Loses water • Shrinks in size and becomes flaccid (showing plasmolysis) Animal cell Plant cell Significance / importance • responsible for the entry and exit of water to or from cells ~ especially the movement of water from one cell to another in plant e.E.osmosis: water . become turgidstem is able to stand upright ~ plant cells lose water.g.faster • Surface area: larger surface areafaster • Diffusion distance: shorter distancefaster The effects of osmosis in animal and plant cells In a hypotonic solution • Takes in water • Swells and bursts (e. become flaccidthe plant will wilt Application • canned food ~ pineapple (concentrated sugar solution) ~ tuna (concentrated salt solution / brine)  waters are drawn out from the food to the solution by OSMOSIS ∴ bacteria cannot grow (they cannot grow in cytoplasm that is too dry) 4.

exocytosis • transport of substances out of a cell • a vesicle inside the cell fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents to the outside .Significance / importance • responsible for the 4.5 Phagocytosis transport of materials if diffusion is too slow or if there is no 1.g.g. absorption of materials from the soil into root hair endocytosis gradient cells)intake of substances into the cell from the surrounding by forming a vesicle •  membrane is able to fuse and break > phagocytosis: cell eating (take in the large substances e.concentration(into cells) (e. bacterium or food) > pinocytosis: cell drinking (take in liquid) 2.