Report of summer training On

“Recruitment and Selection”

Final Project Report Submitted To:BIS COLLEGE GAGRA (MOGA)

In partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of degree of Master of business Administration

Submitted By:Saroj Kumari University Roll-(100152243427)

This is to certify that the Project entitled, “Recruitment and Selection” submitted by Saroj Kumari (MBA, 100152243427) to Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar in partial fulfillment of Degree of Master of Business Administration, has been approved after an oral examination, in collaboration with external examiner. Mr. Rajdeep Sharma (Project Advisor) External Examiner


First of all I would like to thank all mighty God, because without his blessings, the undertaken Project was not possible for me. My special thanks to honorable Principal of this Institute facilities. With high reference, I express my thanks to the stages of development of my studies. for providing all the necessary

for providing her excellent guidance at all

Hearted thanks to all my seniors for their help during the course of my study.



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Company Profile Introduction of the Project Literature Review Objective and Scope of study Research Methodology Analysis and Interpretation Findings and Suggestions Conclusion Bibliography Annexure

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began to assemble the entire cycle at their manufacturing plant in Ludhiana. has diversified into newer segments like Information Technology. either in the form of collaborations. technocrats. Over the next few years. this volume has catapulted Hero in the ‘Guinness Books of World Records’ in 1986 and edge over global players is being maintained since then. integrity. Brotherhood apart. motorcycles and chains to this date. The Group boasts of superb operational efficiencies. ambition & determination. Hero’s colossal journey started before independence. From a modest beginning of mere 639 bicycles in the year 1956. joint ventures or fully owned subsidiaries. attracting skilled engineers. and the Hero Group came into being. as tomorrow isn’t just another day. IT Enabled Services and Financial Services. the operational base was shifted to Ludhiana. we see the past. In the year 1944. with more than Rs. But the dark clouds of partition eclipsed their plans of the future. From cycle to two . employees. as also worldwide recognition. Every assembly line worker operates two . It is modest beginning and the next 3 years saw the business grow rapidly. the brothers had began manufacturing key components of bicycles and as a logical way forward. the Bicycle Unit started growing in stature and size. what knit the men together was the wealth of will. The Hero Group. they decided to start a business of bicycle spare parts in Amritsar. now in Pakistan. In the early days. the plant had a capacity for 25 cycles per day. administrators and entrepreneurs. GROUP THE HERO The Hero Group has done business differently right from the inception and that is what has helped us to achieve break-through in whatever product category we have ventured. With renewed vigour and optimism. but focused. The growth of the Group through the years has been influenced by the number of factor: The Hero Group through the Hero Cycles Division was the first to introduce the concept of just-in-time inventory. hailing from a small town called Kamalia. it’s another chance for us to better ourselves and to excel. A tiny acorn has now become a mighty Oak. team work and foresight. With the 48% share of the Indian market. vendors and dealers. are the men who are behind the mission. is a vast conglomerate of companies. the highest in global reckoning. Hero Cycles products over 18500 cycles a day today. besides being the world’s largest manufacturers of bicycles. today. By 1956. The Group’s low key. The four Munjal brothers. Hero Cycles is a product of this philosophy.wheeler was a natural step. The philosophy that instills commitment. style of management has earned the plaudits amidst investors. 10000 Crore turnover annually. Hero Group. We use it to make a better present and a beautiful tomorrow.HERO CYCLES LIMITED The Beginning We look over our shoulders.

This is the Japanese style of production and in India. Hero is the first company to have mastered the art of the just-in-time inventory principle .machines simultaneously to save time and improve productivity. In Hero cycles Limited. The vendors bring in the raw material and by the end of the day the finished product is rolled out of the factory. the just-in-time inventory principle has been working since the beginning of production in the limit in the unit and is functional even till date. The fact that most of the machines are either developed or fabricated in-house has resulted in low inventory levels.

HERO GROUP COMPANIES Hero Group ranks amongst the Top 10 Indian Business Houses comprising 18 companies. Hero Cycles Limited Hero Honda Motors Limited Hero Cold Rolling Division Hero Motors Limited Hero Exports LO GO Majestic Auto Limited Rockman Cycle Industries LOG O Highway Cycle Industries LOG O Sunbeam Auto Limited LOGO Munjal Auto Industries Limited .8 billion during the fiscal year 2003-2004. with an estimated turnover of US$1.

Munjal Showa Limited Munjal Castings Munjal Auto Components Hero Global Design Hero Corporate Services Limited Hero ITES Hero Mind mine Hero Soft Munjale-systems Easy Bill Limited .

MILESTONES Hero’s success saga contains the element of courage. Japan to manufacture Motorcycles. -100cc Hero Honda Motorcycle was launched. 1961 Rockman Cycle Industries Ltd. later on in 1988. It is today the largest manufacturer of single speed & multi-speed freewheels in the country. 1975 Hero Cycles Limited became the largest manufacturer of bicycles in India. 1963 Bicycle exports take off from India – a foray into the international market. established which is today the largest manufacturer of bicycles chains & hubs in the world. determination. enterprises and perseverance coupled with vision and meticulous planning: 1956 Hero Cycles Ltd. 1971 Highway Cycles was set up. established to manufacture shock absorbers and struts and is today one of the topmost shock absorber manufacturers companies in this country.1 among all motorcycles in India. 1981 Munjal Casting established. became No. which. 1985 -Munjal Showa Ltd. . 1984 Hero Honda Motors Limited established in joint venture with Honda Motors. great. 1978 Majestic Auto Limited was formed and Hero Majestic Moped was introduced. is established. It is now the world’s largest producer of two-wheelers.

1987 Hero Motors. 1987 Gujarat Cycles Limited. 1992 . 1988 Hero Puch was introduced by Hero Motors Ltd. 1987 Sunbeam Auto Limited.1986 Hero Cycles Limited entered the Guinness Books of World Records as the largest bicycle manufacturer in the world. 1992 Hero Cycles introduces Impact. It has the largest die casting plant in India. Ltd. earlier a unit of Highway Cycle Ind. the first citibike in India. which was a revolutionary machine to set new records of petrol. 1991 Hero Cycles introduced Kid – the first branded bike in children’s segment. 1989 Ranger bicycles (a generic name for Mountain Bikes today) was introduced by Hero Cycles Limited. 1991 Hero Honda received National Productivity Council Award and also the Economic Times – Harvard Business School Association Award against 200 contenders. was established to Manufacture and export state-of-the-art bicycles and light products in its full automated plant at Wagodia. established as an ancillary to Hero Honda. a division of Majestic Auto Limited set up on collaboration with Steyr DiamlerPuch of Austria.. 1990 Hero Cold Rolling Division established which is one of the most modern steel cold rolling plants in India. now known as Munjal Auto Centre Ltd..

1993 Hero Exports was established as International Trading Division for group & non-group products. 1996 Hero Winner. was set up to produce 4-stroke two wheeler engines in various cubic capacities. was established. to manufacture high-end bicycles. Hero Corporate diversified into I. 2000 The first fully automated bicycles by the name ‘POWERBIKE’ was introduced by Hero Cycles Limited.T.Munjal Showa Ltd.T. 1995 -Hero Corporate Services Ltd. a large wheeled scooter with a choice of 50 cc & 75 cc engines was launched by Hero Motors Ltd. a part of Matsushita Group. 2002 Easy Bills Limited established to offer utility bill collection and retail services. Japan. 2002 Hero Cycles Limited ties up with National Bicycle Industries. . -The first exerbike from Hero Group was introduced with the name–Allegro. 1998 Hero Briggs & Stratton Auto (P) Ltd. 2001 Hero Honda emerges as the market leader in motorcycles with the sales of over a million motorcycles and a market share of 47%. Fastener World established. and I. Enabled Services through its services segment Hero Corporate Services Limited. 1998 Munjal Auto Components established to manufacture gear shaft & gear blanks for motorcycles. received national safety award.

2003 Super Starter Series Launched by Hero Cycles Limited. 2004 Hero Retail Insurance Business established. U. 2005 Hero ITES strengthens its relationship with ACS. 2007 Hero group has made 13 models of e-bikes.2003 Tie-up with Live Bridge Inc. 2003 Hero Honda continues to be the world’s largest manufacturer of two-wheelers with the market of more than 48%... launches 100 cc “pleasure”. USA USD 5 BILLION-market cap and fortune 500 companies. Haly& Bombardier Rotax GmbH of Germany. 2006 Hero Honda enters the scooters segment. Aprilia Scooters. 2006 Hero Honda crosses a unit sales threshold of 3 MILLION motorcycles. . It was commemorated by sales of over 15 million motorcycles & over 100 million bicycles.A.S. Super Smart Series introduced by Hero Cycles Limited. 2006 Hero group celebrates GOLDEN JUBILLEE YEAR since inception.

the Hero Group's foray into the overseas markets in 1963 pioneered Indian exports in the bicycle segment. Group Company. . It was a move prompted essentially by the need to remain attuned to the global market place. Munjal Showa Limited is one of the largest suppliers of shock absorbers to major auto giants in Japan. to meet international quality standards.GLOBAL GEARING: EXPORTS As early as in the 1960s' very few Indian bicycle manufacturers were interested in exports. The Government of India recognizes Hero Exports as a Trading House. Munjal Auto Industries Limited has state-of-the-art equipments imported from Europe and Taiwan. and France Gujarat Cycles Limited (now Munjal Auto Industries Limited). And the latest diversification for the Group in the export market is in the area of Software exports and providing Business Processing and Contact Centre Services through Hero Corporate Service limited. However. The Group has been continuously upgrading technology and has set up special units . Hero Puch is perhaps the first Indian two-wheeler to be homologated abroad (in Spain) and has assembly plants in Mauritius and Egypt. The success of the Hero Majestic moped did not remain confined to Indian shores. Mexico. The unit is designed to match international standards and is an Export Oriented Unit (EOU). today more than 50 percent of the exports from Hero Cycles Limited meet the demands of sophisticated markets in Europe and America. Argentina. United States and the United Kingdom. Today Hero Puch mini-motorcycles can also be seen in Paraguay. The Group's exports have gone beyond cycles and their components. The company exports services to many Fortune 1000 corporations in the USA. Finding enthusiastic buyers across the world. Germany. While initial exports were restricted to Africa and the Middle East. Turkey and Holland. amongst other developed markets. it became the largest exported moped from India. In 1993 Hero Exports was established as the International Trading Division for Group and non-Group products. UK and Australia and has offices in UK & USA to manage client relationships. This is primarily because of appropriate product development and excellent quality that Hero offers. Its products are supplied to the International Markets of developed countries like United Kingdom.

. While doing so. Mr. We are committed to move ahead resolutely on this path. we maintain the highest standards of ethics and societal responsibilities. Raman Kant Munjal. to produce products and services that meet the quality. shown to us by visionaries like Mr. systems and human resources to provide products and services that meet the quality.” MISSION STATEMENT “ It’s our mission to strive for synergy between technology. and price aspirations of the customers. we maintain the highest standards of ethics and societal responsibilities. performance.VISION OF THE COMPANY “We. Om Prakash Munjal. Satyanand Munjal. systems and human resources. at the Hero Group are continuously striving for synergy between technology. and develop teams that keep the momentum going to take the group to excellence in everything we do. performance and price aspirations of our customers. While doing so. the late Mr. Mr. Chairman & MD – THE HERO GROUP. Dayanand Munjal and late Mr.” This mission is what drives us to new heights in excellence and helps us forge a unique and mutually beneficial relationship with all our stakeholders. constantly innovate products and processes. Brijmohan Lall Munjal.

BrijmohanLallMunjal received the coveted “ Ernst& Young Entrepreneur of the Year” award for 2001. UK and INSEAD. France. • Group Chairman. • Hero Group’s Partnership with Showa Manufacturing Corporation. UK. • Hero Cycles is the World’s largest manufacturer of Bicycles with annual sales volume of over 4. • . in India.8 million cycles. • Boston Consulting Group has ranked Hero Group as one of the top ten Business Houses on Economic value. The London Business School. Hero Group is discussed as a case study at London Business School. . • Hero Cycles was ranked 3rd amongst top Indian Companies Review 2000 Asia’s leading companies award (2003) by Far Eastern Economic Review. World Bank has acclaimed Hero Cycles as a role model in vendor development based on a worldwide study. • The Hero Group is recognized as a long-term partner and an ideal employer: • Hero Group’s Partnership with Honda Motors. UK. has done a case study on the Group as model of entrepreneurship. Japan is over 20 years old. Mr.The Achievements The Group and its management have acquired a number of accolades and achievements over the years: Hero Group Management style has been acclaimed internationally by World Bank and BBC. Japan is over 18 years old.

• Engineering Exports Promotion Council has awarded Hero Cycles with the Best Exporter Award for the last 28 years in succession.2 million bicycles in FY 2004. . with annual sales volume of 5.• Hero Cycles Limited is a Guinness Book Record holder since 1986 as the world’s largest manufacturer of bicycles.

free wheels. hubs & chains and cold rolled strips as a main product.MAJOR PRODUCTS The Hero Cycles Ltd.KW. Manufactures cycles. it can export its remaining quantity. Company has long portfolio of different range of cycles. After fulfilling the requirements of company. rims. It also manufactures cycle’s parts for its own requirements. Company has 132models in the list. The main products are:• • • • • • COMPETITORS IN CYCLE MARKET: • • • • • AVON OPERA TI ATLAS OTHERS (NEELAM.BS) Cycles Rims Free wheels Hubs and Chains Cold Rolled strips E-Bikes IN E-BIKE MARKET: • • • • • CHINA HITECH AVON OPERA ULTRA TVS . ladies and kids. covers all the three section-gents.

m.m.2:00 p.m.. This unit is working in different shifts. Third Night shift One General shift 10:00 p. officers’ jobs. .m.SHIFTING REPORT In this unit 3171 workers are working for production and 508 officers and staff members are working as administration. managerial. . Second Evening shift 2:00 p.m.m. First morning shift 6:00 a.m. .m. .5:00 p. All the departments are interrelated with each other for working process. 8:30 p.6:00 a.10:00 p.



HRM means employing people. utilizing. maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirements with a view to contribute to the goals of the organization. none of these factors are more significant than efficient and committed man power. It is often felt that though the exploitation of natural resources.” there are great difference in developing between countries which seem to have roughly equal resources. in a company. developing their resources. HRM can be defined as managing (planning. as talented employees are a company's most important asset and greatest competitive advantage. individual and social goals. Human Resources (HR) departments are responsible for all polices and activities that impact employees. talents and aptitude of an organization’s workplace. directing and controlling the functions of employing. Arthur Lewis observed. The HR department is a crucial area of business success. According to Leon C Megginson. skills. as well as the value. • Planning . the term human resource can be thought of as “the total knowledge. HR executives are tasked with developing strategies that ensure employees contribute to the company's success. creative abilities. Thus. individual and the society. as opposed to capital and equipment resources. It is in fact said that all developments from the human mind. Developing and compensating human resource resulting in the creation and development of human relations with a view to contribute to proportionately to the organizational. so it is necessary to enquire into the different in human behavior”. availability of physical and financial and international aid play prominent roles in the growth of modern economies. Functions of HRM The functions of HRM can be broadly classified into 2 categories • • Managerial functions Operative functions Managerial functions of personal management involves.Introduction to HRM Employees are the Human Resources. Meaning and definition of HRM In the simple sense . organizing. Importance of HRM: Human resource plays a crucial role in the development process of modern economics. attitudes and beliefs of the individuals involved”.

• • • Organizing Directing Controlling Operative functions of HRM are related to specific activities of personnel management • • • • • Employment Human resource development Compensation Training and Development Industrial relations .

• Adjustable/adaptable nature in any type of working environment and to ready work under pressure. HRD. • He should knows his job well and to understand the goals of organization and its management. • A good decision maker. He should keep himself involved and updated with the latest change in system and what is going on its surroundings. . • A person with cool temperament and good inter-action level.QUALITIES/ROLE OF H. • A good guide with helping attitude to its team/subordinates • Should be honest.MANAGER IN A COMPANY • Should be a qualified person (Minimum Graduate/MBA/MSW) in Personnel Management. HRM. IR and Welfare. industrious and loyal to management being a key person of company.R. • A good listener with a quality to work as team leader not as individual.

• To create good industrial relations between workmen and management. • To ensure that there is no over manpower/over staffing/over manning in the company in order to control the wage bill. • To persuade and guide management for providing reasonably good salary to employees with benefits. • To create healthy liaison with Government officials. Also to understand the job profile of individuals. • To recruit right person for the right job. . Judiciary and local administration etc. • To ensure timely distribution of salary/advance/loans etc to employees in order to maintain standard of company. • Social security of employees and their families • To provide canteen facility including drinking water facility etc in the organization.AREA OF WORKING (Hr manager) • To create healthy and clean working environment in an organization. • To comply with all the statutory requirements under various labor laws/Acts etc.

. particularly at hazardous operations in order to avoid and minimize the accident rate.• To arrange good training to its employees (at all levels) whether from in house facility or outsource in order to further strengthen the skill of employees. • Any other job assigned by management from time to time. • To enforce/implement safety measures in the plant.


etc. • Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for selection of most suitable candidates.” Need for Recruitment: The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons/ situation: • Vacancies due to promotions. new vacancies are possible due to job satisfaction Purpose and Importance of Recruitment • Determine the present and future requirements of the organization on conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities. For this different source such as newspaper advertisements. the available vacancies are given wide publicity and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit applications so as to have a pool of eligible candidates for scientific selection. In recruitment. death and labor turnover. . internal promotion. In addition. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees.Recruitment and Selection RECRUITMENT MEANING: Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. information is collected from interested candidates. Definition: According to Edwin flippo. When more persons apply for jobs then there will be a scope for recruiting better persons. In this. termination. The job seekers too. employment exchanges. transfer. are used. are in search of organisations offering them employment. In the recruitment. permanent disability. “Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. Recruitment is a linkage activity bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs. expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. • Creation of new vacancies due to the growth. on the other hand. retirement.

. A well.• Help reduce the probability that job applicants. • Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. once recruited and selected. It is through recruitment that many individuals will come to know a company.managed recruiting effort will result in high quality applicants. • Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number of visibility under qualified or overqualified job applicants. a haphazard and piecemeal efforts will result in mediocre ones. • Meet the organization legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its work force. and eventually decided whether they wish to work for it. • Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in the short term and long term. Recruitment is a positive function in which publicity is given to the jobs available in the organization and interested candidates are encouraged to submit applications for the purpose of selection.planned and well. will leave the organization only after a short period of time. Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. whereas.

However. those chosen internally are familiar with the organization thus reducing the orientation time and energy and also act as a training device for developing middle.level and top-level managers.ins The sources of recruitment can be broadly categorized into internal and external sources:• Internal Recruitment-Internal recruitment seeks applicants for positions from within the company. Job posting requires notifying vacant positions by posting notices. Promotions has many advantages like it is good public relations. is cheaper than going outside to recruit. talk. improve the probability of good selection since information on the individual’s performance is readily available. builds morale. promotions restrict the field of selection preventing fresh blood & ideas from . circulating publications or announcing at staff meetings and inviting employees to apply. Personnel records help discover employees who are doing jobs below their educational qualifications or skill levels.Selection process diagram SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT SOURCES OF MANAGERIAL RECRUITMENT INTERNAL SOURCES • • • • • • • Promotion Transfers Internal notification Retirement Recall Former employees Miscellaneous external sources EXTERNAL SOURCES 1) Campus recruitment 2) Press advertisement 3) Management consultancy services 4) Deputation of personnel 5) Management training scheme 6) Walk-ins. write-ins. encourages competent individuals who are ambitious. The various internal sources include :Promotions and Transfers - • Promotion is an effective means using job posting and personnel records.

based view of the organization. banks follow this policy. his/ her spouse or son or daughter is recruited in their place. individuals who left work and are willing to come back for higher compensations. • Former employees – These include retired employees who are willing to work on a part. furnishing them with introduction and encouraging them to apply. which can be solved only by a manager who has proceeded on long leave. it may be decided to recall that persons after the problem is solved. If an employee dies.time basis. The advantage here is that the people are already known to the organization and there is no need to find out their past performance and character. In this way. his leave may be extended. This is usually an effective way to fulfill social obligation and create goodwill. The organization can be assured of the reliability and the character of the referrals. necessary for future promotions. management issues an internal notification for the benefit of existing employees. since they are familiar with the organization. Most employees know from their own experience about the requirement of the job and what sort of person the company is looking for.entering the organization. • Employee referrals – Employee can develop good prospects for their families and friends by acquainting them with the advantages of a job with the company. . the organization can also fulfill social obligations and create goodwill. there is no need of an orientation program me for them. Under the circumstances. management may not find suitable candidates in place of the one who had retired. Transfers are also important in providing employees with a broad. This is a very effective means as many qualified people can be reached at a very low cost to the company. • Retirements – At times. management may decide to call retired managers with new extension. The other advantage is that the employees would bring only those referrals that they feel would be able to fit in the organization based on their own experience. It also leads to inbreeding in the organization. Also. • Dependents of deceased employees - Usually. • Internal notification (advertisement) – Sometimes. • Recalls – When management faces a problem. after meritorious service. Even retrenched employees are taken up once again.

advertisements may . 2. no innovations worth the name can be made.MERITS OF INTERNAL SOURCES: 1. This method can be used to motivate employees. this source of recruitment has the support of trade unions also. They will feel a part and parcel of the organization and will always try to promote its interests. It also promotes loyalty among employees. Since the learner does not know more than the trainer. The likes and dislikes ant the personal biases of the management may also play an important role in the selection of the personnel. this practice is not followed. They are preferred to consider at the time of filling up higher positions. The management is in a better position to evaluate the performance of existing employees before considering them for higher positions. 3. 4. on jobs which require original thinking. The method of internal recruitment is economical. identify the employer and tell those interested how to apply. The internal source of recruitment will boost morale of employees. External Recruitment: External recruitment seeks applicants for positions from sources outside the company. as many recruiters prefer advertisements because of their wide reach. They are assured of higher positions whenever vacancies arise. Therefore. Want ads describe the job benefits. Every enterprise has to use external sources for recruitment to higher positions when existing employees are not suitable. The service records of existing employees will be a guide to study their suitability for ensuring vacancies. Moreover. DEMERITS OF Internal SOURCES: 1. 3. The cost incurred in selecting a person is saved. 2. The internal sources often lead to inbreeding and discourage new blood from entering into the organisation. It also ensures stability of employees. Newspaper is the most common medium but for highly specialized recruits. More persons are needed when expansions are undertaken. External methods are discussed as follows: • Advertisements:- It is a popular method of seeking recruits.

walk. • Campus Recruitments:- Colleges. research laboratories. it is often an expensive placed in professional or business journals. Yet. compensation including fringe benefits. job specifications. They also keep prospective employer and employee anonymous. universities. university department or institute will have a placement officer to handle recruitment functions.ins - The most common and least expensive approach for candidates is direct applications. • Consultants:- They are in the profession for recruiting and selecting managerial and executive personnel. Some companies recruit a given number of candidates from these institutes every year. Advertisement must contain proper information like the job content. • Employment Exchanges:- Employment exchanges have been set up all over the country in deference to the provisions of the Employment Exchanges (Compulsory Notification of Vacancies) Act. However. The advertisement has to sell the idea that the company and job are perfect for the candidates. These jobseekers are asked to complete application forms for further processing. • Walk-ins. The major functions of the exchanges are to increase the pool of possible applicants and to do the preliminary screening. The Act requires all the industrial establishments to notify the vacancies before they are filled.ins and Talk. growth aspects. Write. It also cost effective. location of jobs. Direct applications can also provide a pool of potential employees to meet future needs. • Head Hunters:- . Write. However. difficulties experienced in maintaining permanent workers are avoided. The names of the workers are not entered in the company records and. Talk. working conditions. sports fields and institutes are fertile ground for recruiters. A majority leave the organization within the first five years of their employment. Campus recruitment is so much sought after that each college.INS involves the job aspirants application is required to be submitted to the recruiter. even if recruiting process produces job offers and acceptances eventually. They are useful as they have nationwide contacts and lend professionalism to the hiring process. etc. the cost can be a deterrent factor. it is a major source of recruitment for prestigious companies. in which job seekers submit unsolicited application letters or resumes. particularly the institutes.INS is those who send written enquiries.INS is preferable as they are free from the hassles associated with other methods of recruitment. The act applies to all industrial establishments having 25 workers or more each. to this extent. 1959. • Contractors:- They are used to recruit casual workers. From employee’s viewpoint.

out of whom some may not be necessary any longer. 2. in effect. a pool of qualified job applicants. . talent. • Competitors:- This method is popularly known as “poaching” or “raiding” which involves identifying the right people in rival companies. their orientation and training is necessary. 3.They are useful in specialized and skilled candidate working in a particular company. several executives of HMT left to join Titan Watch Company. If higher level jobs are filled from external sources. It enables an organization to pursue a business plan. It will help in bringing new ideas. the new organization has. This method facilitates the immediate implementation of an organization strategic plan. The suitable candidates with skill. The existing employees will also broaden their personality. 3. offering them better terms and luring them away. As a result. they have a pool of employees. DEMERITS OF EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT: 1. Detailed screening is necessary as very little is known about the candidate. An agent is sent to represent the recruiting company and offer is made to the candidate. As a result. 2. 4. new jobs may be created. For instance. There are legal and ethical issues involved in raiding rival firms for potential candidates. From the legal point of view. The entry of qualitative persons from outside will be in the interest of the organisation in the long run. better techniques and improved methods to the organisation. It is more expansive and time consuming to recruit people from outside. Both new and old jobs may be readily staffed by drawing the best qualified applicants from this employee pool. an employee is expected to join a new organization only after obtaining a ‘no objection certificate’ from his/ her present employer. • Mergers and Acquisitions:- When organizations combine. This is a useful source when both the companies involved are in the same field. MERITS OF EXTERNAL RECRUITMENT: 1. knowledge are available from external sources. The employee being unfamiliar with the organisation. motivation and loyalty of existing staff are affected.

Preliminary interview is brief and generally carried out by a junior executive across the counter or at the reception office. Preliminary interview saves time and efforts of both the company and the candidate. but it is simple and short while hiring lower level employees. . “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes . External and internal environment: Selection is influenced by several external and internal environmental factors. he is selected for further screening. The selection process is a series of successive hurdles or barriers which an applicant must cross. human resource planning and cost of hiring. The scrutiny of applications is essential to take out those applications which do not fulfill the requirements of posts. A receptionist in the personnel department gives information about new openings to the visitors and receives their applications. organisation’s policy.those who are to be offered employment and those who are not. legal and political considerations etc.SELECTION MEANING: To select is to choose. These hurdles are designed to eliminate an unqualified candidate at any point in the selection process.Selection procedure for the senior managers will be long drawn and rigorous. If the candidate is found suitable. unemployment rate. 2. Necessary information is obtained from the candidates about their education. 3. Each step must be successfully cleared before the applicant proceeds to the next. DEFINITON: According to DALE YODER. will waste their own time and that of the company.Reception: The receipt and scrutiny of applications is the first step in the process of selection. experience. expected salary etc. Selection is the process of picking up individuals (out of pool of job applicants) with requisite qualification and competence to fill jobs in the organisation. Steps involved in employee selection are explained in detail as follows: 1. this technique is called “SUCCESSIVE HURDLES TECHNIQUE” . labour market conditions. skills.Preliminary Interview: Preliminary interview is a sorting process in which the prospective candidates are given the necessary information about the nature of the job and the organization. The important external factors affecting selection are supply and demand of specific skills in the labour market. The internal factors are organisation’s image. Thus. These applicants if called for interviews.” SELECTION PROCESS: The selection procedure consists of a series of steps.

Selection Test: Applicants who pass the screening and the preliminary interview are called for tests. sports. height.C.Selection Interview: Interview is the oral examination conducted for the purpose of employment. 5. date of birth. A test provides a systematic basis for comparing the behavior attitudes and performance of two or more persons. place of birth. but should not be . etc.C.4. reasons for leaving the present job.. etc. managerial and professional employees.S. (v)References: The applicant is also asked to give some references from where an enquiry may be made about his nature and work. physical disability etc. (iv)Curricular Activities: The information about participation in extra-curricular activities like N. father’s name. salaries received. similar or other jobs held. marital status. Blank Application Form: A blank application form is a widely accepted device for getting information from a prospective applicant. subjects studied. (ii)Educational Qualifications: This part of educational qualifications relates to education acquired. Tests are useful when the number of applicants is large 6. which evaluates the applicant’s acceptability. 7. It is also a very flexible device which can be adopted to select unskilled. is also received in blank application form. In selection interview the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidate through various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his own observations during the interviews. Tests help in better matching of candidates and the job. weight.. ability. This is a way of getting written information about candidate’s particulars in his own handwriting. skill. in depth conversation. Tests help in reducing bias in selection by serving as a supplementary screening device. Different types of tests may be administered depending on the job and the company. The applicants are normally asked to name two or three persons who know about his experience.S. identification mark.Checking References: The references may provide significant information about the candidate if they happened to be his former employers or with whom he might have been working earlier. areas of specialization. names of previous employers. permanent address. The references are normally the persons with whom the applicant has worked but are not related to him. nature of duties. (vi)Salary Demanded: The salary demanded by the applicant is also given in the application blank. N. skilled. (iii)Work Experience: Application blank also enquires about previous experience. debates and declamations. The information collected in blank application relates to the following particulars: (i)Bio-data:Bio-data includes name of the applicant. It is a formal.

related to him. The prospective employer normally makes an investigation on the references supplied by the candidate and undertakes search into his past employment, education, personal reputation, etc. 8.Final Selection: Upto this stage selection is handled by personnel department or staff executives. Since the persons employed are to work under line officers, the candidates are referred to them. Line officers will finally decide about the work to be assigned to them. If the candidate is not suitable for one job then he is tried at some other. 9.Physical Examination: After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo physical fitness test. Candidates are sent for physical examination either to the company’s physician or to a medical officer approved for the purpose. A job offer is often, contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination. The results of medical fitness test are recorded in a statement and preserved in the personnel records. 10.Job Offer: The next step in the selection process is the job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. Job offer is made in the form of an appointment letter. Such a letter, generally, contains a date by which the candidate must report for duty. Reasonable reporting time is given to all the appointed candidates. 11.Contract Of Employment : After the job offer has been made and the candidate accepts the offer, a contract for employment is executed by the employer and the candidate. The basic information that is included in a written contract varies according to the level of the Job. Generally, the following details are included in the contract: (i)Job tittle (ii)Details of duties (iii)Date when the continuous employment starts (iv)Remuneration and method of payments (v)Hours of work including lunch break, overtime and shift arrangements (vi)Holiday arrangements and details of holidays (vii)Sickness leave rules (viii)Length of notice due to and from employee (ix)Grievance procedure

(x)Disciplinary procedure (xi)Work Rules (xii)Terms of Termination of employment (xiii)Terms for union membership (xiv)Employer’s right to vary terms of the contract subject to proper notification being given. Great care is taken in drafting the contracts. 12. Evaluation: The selection process, if properly performed will ensure availability of competent and committed personnel. A period audit conducted by people who work independently of the human resource department will evaluate the effectiveness of the selection process.

Research done on Recruitment and Selection Practices by Sheila M. Roux, Ph.D., Research Consultant and Paul Bertha, Ph.D., Manager of Development Dimensions International (DDI).

Better recruitment and selection strategies result in improved organizational outcomes. The more effectively organization recruit and select candidates, the more likely they are to hire and retain satisfied employees. Recruitment is the process of identifying and attracting potential candidates from within and outside an organization to begin evaluating them for future employment. Once candidates are identified, an organization can begin the selection process. This includes collecting, measuring, and evaluating information about candidate’s qualifications for specified positions. Organizations use these processes to increase the likelihood of hiring individuals who possess the right skills and abilities to be successful at their job. Research done on How to tailor your recruitment and selection process to reflect a changing economy by Co-operative Personnel Services (CPS) human resource service.

The purpose was to identify what other agencies have been doing in their recruitment and selection processes to account for the changing economy. Wanted information in terms of strategies and processes used or changed over the past few years in order to account for the change in the economy, the number of applications, and the number of qualified applicants. Research done on how can HRM Improve recruitment and selection within organization by Carter Mc Namarari. Research done on a dissertation on recruitment and selection process in TATA INDICOM by Shweta Dass.

To minimize the recruitment cost & time, telephonic interview / video conferencing are being conducted for the outstation candidates. The other important source of recruitment considered in this sector is the HR Databank/ References from the interviewed candidate. Number of rounds conducted for interview depends upon the level of job it varies according to that. Telephonic interview is used very less instead of that other mode of interview is used i.e. mix and one to one “How you select people is more important than how manage them once they are on the job.”


3. To know about organizational structure of the company. 4. No other city was covered. Due to different shifts all workers who were imparted training could not be interviewed. In order to meet the recruitments of the project. 2.OBJECTIVES OF STUDY The objectives of research are as follows: 1. To know about the manpower planning and recruitment policy of the company. the survey was conducted at LUDHIANA. The time period for the training was short enough to study the organization in detail. . recruitment and selection policy of HERO CYCLES is restricted to the city LUDHIANA LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY • • • • Limitation of time and resources may have narrowed the scope of study. Thus the accuracy of the data could not be achieved. The scope of the study about the manpower planning. • The sample size of 100 is very small and more than that could not be possible. To know about brief introduction of the company. SCOPE OF THE STUDY Each and every project study along with its certain objectives also has scope for future. To recommend suggestions for improvement. The employees hesitated disclosing the true facts.


Scheduling RESEARCH DESIGN The research design was purposefully exploratory and descriptive because little research had previously been conducted that investigated commitment issues in organizations. The data may be collected for either theoretical or practical research for example management research may be strategically conceptualized along with operational planning methods and change management.Descriptive Research INFORMATION COLLECTION:The core findings of the study are based on the information collected through primary data & secondary data.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. PRIMARY DATA: which we collect through • • • SECONDARY DATA: • • • • • Observation method Companies literature Internet Trainer Books Questionnaire. Type of research:. Sample size The study sample constitutes 100 respondents constituting in the Research area. . The system of collecting data for research projects is known as research methodology. Interviews.

Thus. STATISTICAL TOOLS The statistical tools used for analyzing the data collected are percentage Method. All the questions in the questionnaire are organized in such a way that elicits all the relevant information that is needed forth study. Questionnaire is the data collection instrument used in the study. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT We use questionnaire and give multiple choice questions in order to get data. pie diagrams.Collection of Data Most of the data collected by the researcher is primary data through personal interview. questionnaire. RESEARCH PERIOD The research period of the study has from June 6th 2011 to July 30st 2011. .



another most 31% of the respondents lies in the age group of 21.30 years. 15% of respondents lies in the age group of 41-50 years. 42% respondents are in 31 -40 years.AGE GROUP OF WORKERS Age Group 41-50 15% <20 12% 21-30 31% 31-40 42% INTERPRETATION The above pie chart shows that out of total 25 respondents 12% of the respondents are in the age group of less than 20 years. .

15% are from Bihar. and the remaining 12% are from West Bengal. 46% of the respondents are from UP. . 12% are from HP.STATE OF THE WORKERS State West Bengal 12% 0% Bihar 15% UP 46% Punjab 15% HP 12% INTERPRETATION The above pie charts shows that out of the sample of 25 respondents. 15% are from Punjab.

26% respondents are middle school graduates i.e.11% respondents are in school graduates i. up to 8th standard. 44% are secondary school graduate i.e. up to 7th and 9th.QUALIFICATION OF WORKERS Up to 7th 7% Illiterate 4% Up to 12th 15% Up to 8th 26% Up to 10th 44% Up to 9th 4% INTERPRETATION The above pie chart describe that 4% respondent are illiterate. up to 12th.e. at least 15% respondents are higher school graduate i. .e. up to 10th.

REASON TO SELECT HCL ACCORDING TO WORKERS Why did you select Hero Cycles for job? Friendly environment 4% Image of the company 4% Better working conditions 28% Better salary 64% INTERPRETATION The above pie chart illustrates that out of the sample of 25 respondents 68% respondents selected Hero Cycles Ltd because of its better salary and better career growth/ opportunity and 32% of the respondents selected HCL because of its better working conditions/ environment and reputation of company in the market. .

e. the percentage of the respondents who came to know the availability of job in HCL reached at the peak i. . 76% while 24% of the respondents came to know the availability of job in HCL through advertisements/ notice boards.MODES FOLLOWED BY WORKERS TO APPLY IN HCL How do you come to know the availability of job in Hero Cycles? Employment Placement agency 0% exchanges 0% Advertisements 24% Friends/ Relatives 76% INTERPRETATION The above pie chart illustrates that out of the sample of 25 respondents.

WORKERS SATISFIED FROM THE METHOD OF RECRUITMENT Are you satisfied with method used by the company for recruitment? Neutral 0% 0% No 20% Yes 80% INTERPRETATION From the above pie chart we conclude that the maximum number of respondents i.e. 80% is satisfied from the method of recruitment and remaining 20% respondents are not satisfied from the method of recruitment because of communication gap between newly recruited workers and personnel department. .

27% of the workers left their previous company due to unsatisfactory conditions. .REASONS T O LEAVE PREVIOUS COMPANY AND OPTED FOR HCL Why did you leave previous company and opted for Hero Cycles? Others Stagnation 0% 0% Less salary 40% Unsatisfactory working conditions 60% INTERPRETATION From the above pie chart we conclude that the 18% of the workers leave their previous company and opted for HCL because of less salary.

while 40% are not happy.WORKERS FAMILIES SATISFIED BY THE DECISION OF OPTING HCL Is your family happy over your decision for this change? 0% 0% No 40% Yes 60% INTERPRETATION From the above pie chart we conclude that 60% of the families of workers are happy over the decision of their family members for opting the HCL. .

.RISE IN THE SALARY PACKAGE OF WORKERS Did you get any rise in your salary package/redesignation after coming to Hero Cycles? 0% No 10% 0% Yes 90% INTERPRETATION The above pie chart illustrates that out of the sample of 25 respondents. 90% of the workers get rise in the salary package after coming to Hero Cycles whereas 10% didn’t get any rise in their salary package.

.NUMBER OF WORKERS SATISFIED WITH THEIR SALARY Are you satisfied with the salary/wages being paid to you according to your qualification and experience? 0% Neutral 20% Yes 50% No 30% INTERPRETATION The above pie chart illustrates that 50% of the workers in HCL are satisfied with their salaries but 30% of the workers in HCL are not satisfied with their salaries while remaining 20% of the workers working in HCL are neutral.

CATEGORY OF WORKERS In which category are you selected? Casual 12% 0% 0% Permanent 88% INTERPRETATION The above pie chart defines that 88% of the workers working in HCL are selected under permanent category. whereas remaining 12% of the workers working in HCL are selected under casual category. .

100%. However.e.TRAINING GIVEN TO WORKERS ACCORDING TO THEIR JOB Are you getting full training according to your job? No 0% 0% 0% Yes 100% INTERPRETATION The above pie chart depicts that the percentage of workers getting full training according to their jobs reached at the top i. training is always imparted on the basis of nature of job. .

.AWARENESS ABOUT COMPANY’S POLICIES Are you aware about the company's policies? 0% 0% No 60% Yes 40% INTERPRETATION From the above pie chart we conclude that the only 40% of the workers are aware about the company’s policies whereas remaining 60% of the workers are not aware about the company’s policies.


and maximum number of respondents lie in the age group of 41-50 and 5% lie in the age group of 61-70 years respectively in this sample.AGE GROUP OF STAFF AGE GROUP 61-70 4% 21-30 12% 51-60 40% 31-40 12% 41-50 32% INTERPRETATION The above pie chart defines that 5% of the respondents lay in the age group of 21-30. 25% of respondents lie in the age group of 31-40. .

.DESIGNATION OF THE STAFF DESIGNATION DGM 8% Engineer 12% Manager 4% HR 4% Asstt. 8% respondents are auditor. Manager. 20% respondents are Asstt.Manager 28% INTERPRETATION It is clear from the above chart that 4% of respondents are HOD’s whereas 12% respondents are engineers on the other hand 4% respondents are managers. 28% respondents are Dy.Manager 20% Auditor 8% Store Officer 16% Dy. 8% respondents are DGM out of the total samples. 16% respondents are store officer. Manager.

32% respondents have their length of service between 11-20 years. 32% respondents have length of service between 21-30 years and only 20% respondents have their length of service between 31-40 years. .LENGTH OF SERVICE OF STAFF LENGTH OF SERVICE (0-10) 16% (31-40) 20% (21-30) 32% (11-20) 32% INTERPRETATION We can interpret from the above diagram that out of the total sample of respondents 16% of respondents are having their length of service between 0-10 years.

. 8% respondents select employment exchange as source of recruitment and 8% respondents select other source of recruitment like internet etc. 16% respondents choose internal source of recruitment in their department.SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT OF STAFF SOURCE OF RECRUITMENT Employment Exchanges 8% Others 8% Internal 16% External 68% INTERPRETATION The above figure illustrates that 68% of the respondents says that the source of recruitment in their department is external.

. it is based on the nature and type of the job and its recruitment.THE BASIC PURPOSE OF RECRUITMENT IS ONLY TO RECRUIT QUALIFIED PEOPLE RECRUITMENT IS ONLY FOR QUALIFIED PEOPLE 0% 0% No 20% Yes 80% INTERPRETATION The above chart depicts that 80% of respondents say yes that the basic purpose of recruitment is to recruit qualified persons and other 20% respondents says no that the basic purpose of recruitment is not only to recruit qualified persons.

.ROLE OF THE STAFF WHILE RECRUITING THE MANPOWER ROLE IN RECRUITMENT 0% 0% Yes 40% No 60% INTERPRETATION It is clear from the above chart that 40% out of the total respondents play role in the procedure of recruitment in their department but 60% respondents are those who never play any role in recruitment.

.PRIMARY ROLE OF RECRUITMENT AND MANPOWER PLANNING PRIMARY GOAL OF RECRUITMENT Business Expansion 16% 0% Replacement 40% Increased productivity of firm 44% INTERPRETATION The above chart describes that 40% of the respondents select replacement against left employees as the primary role of recruitment. 44% of the respondents says that the primary goal of recruitment is to increase the productivity/ capability of the firm by adding new skills. 16% respondents prefer current or future business expansion as the primary goal of recruitment.

8% respondents prefer overtime to plan their manpower and 61% select standardization of employees to plan their manpower. To other 23% Standardization of employees 61% Rotation of shift 8% Overtime against absenteeism 8% INTERPRETATION The above chart shows that 23% respondents said that they plan manpower in their department by transfer from one department to another. 8% of the respondents plan their manpower by rotation of shifts. .HOW MANPOWER IS PLANNING IN DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS MANPOWER PLANNING Transfer from one Deptt.

MANPOWER VARIABLE IN DIFFERENT DEPARTMENTS MANPOWER VARIABLE 0% 0% No 35% Yes 65% INTERPRETATION The above chart illustrates that 65% respondents says yes that there is manpower variability in their department while the remaining 35% respondents said that there is not any manpower variability in their department. .




d) 40% of the workers have selected Hero Cycles Ltd. For job because of better salary and better career growth/ opportunity while 60% of the workers have selected HCL because of better working conditions/ Environment reputation of the company.100% of the workers are satisfied from the method of recruitment method.P.FINDINGS The following are the findings with respect to recruitment and selection for the Hero Cycles Ltd. f) Almost all the workers found that the faculty is good & effective and they use to welcome the doubt workers and solve them.: The following are the findings of the research conducted at the workers level: a) It has been found that while recruiting the workers. and hence are younger. And 30% are agreed that they are getting their wages according to their qualification and experience and 20% workers have no idea about this. c) 76% of the workers are permanent while 24% are casuals and almost each and every worker gets training according to their job. e) 50% of the workforce is satisfied from their salary. their qualification & experience is taken as most important part. b) It has been found that 42% workers lie in the age group of 21. 36% workers lie in the age group of 31-40 years and 65% of workers belongs to the state of Punjab and 30% are from U. .30 tears.

:1) It has been found that most of the staff lie in the staff lies in the age group of 41. And 40% have 1-10 years of length of service in HCL and 35% 11-20 years of length of service. 2) 65% of the staff members are managers and only 15% are HOD’s. SUGGESTIONS The following are the suggestions with respect to manpower planning. recruitment and selection for Hero Cycles Ltd. e) There should be effective programs conducted to motivate the employees and build up positive attitude of employees. hours. wage rate or incentive. And most of the staff is much experienced. work place. . f) There are some reservation for persons having with maximum qualification & experience.:a) Detailed description of job. c) After recruitment there must be a periodically Training program by personnel department for different jobs.50 years and only 5% lie in the age group of 61. d) Personnel policies. what new employee can expect of the company and what is company expecting of them. its duties.The following are the suggestions with respect to manpower planning. recruitment and selection for Hero Cycles Ltd. equipment should be specifying to employees. must be clear at the time of recruitment. And training on the job should be supplemented by instructor in the class room. b) Experience should be counted by the company at the time of recruitment.70 years.


It is on that the purpose of the study for it was conducted to know the manpower planning. Most of the staff agreed that the manpower planning is varying in their department.CONCLUSION The Hero Cycles Factory in Ludhiana is considered to be the largest and the most efficient factories in the world. There are less sources of information about manpower planning. recruitment and selection of HCL. And according to them the basic purpose of recruitment qualified people. We found that many workers are unaware about the manpower planning. In short Hero Cycles Limited believes in to provide excellent transportation to the common man at easily affordable price. recruitment and selection due to communication gap between management and workers. Most of the staff employees are experienced. Most of the workers are younger and dissatisfied with their salary. After doing the survey study at employees level certain results and findings were derived on the basis of which we came to certain conclusions. . recruitment and selection procedure of HCL. The primary goal of manpower planning in HCL is replacement against left employees and increases the production of the firm by adding new skills.



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Why did you select Hero Cycles for job? a) Better salary b) Better working conditions c) Friendly environment d) Image of the company 2. NAME AGE DEPTT/EMP CODE JOB ROLE QUALIFICATION STATE 1. Are you satisfied with the method used by the company to recruit the workers? a) Yes b) No 4. How do you come to know the availability of the job in Hero Cycles? a) Friends / relatives b) Advertisements c) Employment exchanges d) Head hunting 3. So be honest and true in your response. Please put tick against appropriate answer.QUESTIONNAIRE FOR WORKERS Dear respondents. Why did you leave previous company and opted for Hero Cycles? a) Less salary b) Unsatisfactory working conditions c) Stagnation d) Others 5. Is your family happy over your decision? . This questionnaire is only for academic purposes.

What is your objective of life? THANK YOU FOR KIND COOPERATION . Are you aware about the company’s policies? a) Yes b) No 11.a) Yes b) No 6. Did you get any rise in your salary package after coming to Hero Cycles? a) Yes b) No 7. In which category are you selected? a) Permanent b) Casual 9. Are you satisfied salary/ wages being paid to you according to your qualification and experience? a) Yes b) No 8. Are you getting full training according to your job? a) Yes b) No 10.

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STAFF Dear respondent. please specify 3. Do you think the basic purpose of recruitment is only to recruit qualified people? a) Yes b) No 4. How do you agree that following parameters are significant for effective utilization of manpower and promotion within department? METHODS STRONGLY AGREE SOMEWHAT STRONGLY DISAGREE SOMEWHAT AGREE AGREE DISAGREE DISAGREE JOB ROTATION PROMOTION TRANSFER FRESHER . NAME AGE DEPTT/EMP CODE JOB ROLE QUALIFICATION LENGTH OF SERVICE 1. What is the source of recruitment in Hero Cycles? a) Internal b) External c) Employment exchanges d) Others e) If other. So be honest and true in your response. This questionnaire is only for academic purposes. Please put tick against appropriate answer. Do you play any role while recruiting the manpower in your department? a) Yes b) No 5. How many employees are working in your department? a) Staff b) workers 2.

EXPERIENCE ED 6 What is your primary goal of recruitment and manpower planning? a) Replacement against left employees b) Current and future business expansion c) Increase the production of the firm by adding new skills/ automation 7 How do you plan your manpower in your department? a) Transfer from one section to another b) Rotation of shifts c) Overtime against absenteeism d) Standardization of employees 8 Is the manpower is variable in your department? a) Yes b) No 9 What are your suggestions to increase the production & output by modifying the recruitment & manpower process? THANK YOU FOR KIND COOPERATION .