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I. Abstract Density is an important intensive physical property of matter. This lab measures waters density indirectly by obtaining its mass and volume in two methods. It provides evidence to show that water has a density of 0.997g/mL at room temperature and remains constant even when data are extracted from different amount of water. In addition, a linear regression analysis of mass vs. volume plots from both methods show that waters mass that is directly proportional to its volume. II. Introduction Density is an important physical property of matter. It represents the amount of substance per unit volume. A given subjects density is expressed as the ratio between its mass and volume. Since density is an intensive property, it should not be affect by the quantity measured. According to Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (p.F4), the density of water is 0.997g/mL at room temperature. The main purpose of this lab is to confirm the density of water from its mass and volume. In addition, this lab also aims to provide evidence to show that the mass of water is directly proportional to its volume. III. Materials and Methods Two methods were used to quantify waters density. Each method is repeated 3 times. Method I: Method II: One 25 mL graduated cylinder One 10mL graduated pipette One 100 mL beaker One 50mL graduated cylinder One electrical balance, precise to One electrical balance precise 0.001g. 0.001g. IV. Experimental Procedures Method I: 1. One clean 100mL beaker was tared on the electrical balance. 2. Measure 25mL of water using one clean 25mL graduated cylinder. 3. Transfer the water into the beaker and record the mass of water using the electrical balance. 4. Repeat these steps using 50mL and 75mL of water.

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Method II: 1. One clean 50mL beaker was tared on the electrical balance. 2. Measure 10mL of water using one clean 10mL graduated pipette. 3. Transfer the water into the beaker and record the mass of water using the electrical balance. 4. Repeat these steps using 20mL and 30mL of water.

V. Results The average density of water determined using method I is 0.986g/mL, while the average deviation between trials is 0.002g/mL (Table 1). There is a 0.2% variation between trials. Likewise, the average density of water determined using method II is 0.984g/mL, and the average deviation between trials is 0.002g/mL (Table 2). In addition, there is also a 0.2% variation between trials. The average water density from both methods is 0.985g.mL

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The slope of the mass vs. volume graph obtained from method I is 0.989g/mL, and the R2 is equal to 1 (Figure 1). The slope of the mass vs. volume graph obtained from method II is 0.983g/mL, and the R2 is also equal to 1 (Figure 2). Table 1. 0, 25, 50, 75mL of water and their respective mass measured from Method I Volume (mL) Mass (g) Density (g/mL) Deviation (g/mL) 0.0 0.00 0.000 0.000 25.0 24.58 0.983 0.003 50.0 49.39 0.988 0.001 75.0 74.12 0.988 0.002 Average Density (g/mL) 0.986 Average Deviation (g/mL) 0.002 Relative Average Deviation 0.2% Table 2. 0, 10, 20, 30mL of water and their respective mass measured from Method II. Volume (mL) Mass (g) Density (g/mL) Deviation (g/mL) 0.0 0.00 0.000 10.0 9.87 0.987 0.003 20.0 19.61 0.981 0.003 30.0 29.51 0.984 0.000 Average Density (g/mL) 0.984 Average Deviation (g/mL) 0.002 Relative Average Deviation 0.2%

## Mass vs. Volume: Method I

80 70 60 50 Mass (g) 40 30 20 10 0 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Volume (mL) 60 70 80 y = 0.9887x - 0.053 R = 1

Figure 1. Mass of water measured from method I is plotted against its respective volume with a slop of +0.9887. A linear regression was done, and R2 is equal to 1.

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## Mass vs. Volume: Method II

35 30 25 Mass (g) 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Volume (mL) y = 0.9827x + 0.007 R = 1

Figure 2. Mass of water measured from method II is plotted against its respective volume with a slop of +0.9827. A linear regression was done, and R2 is equal to 1. VI. Discussion Figure 1 and Figure 2 are showing the mass of water in relation to its volume. Both plots are linear, which is to say that waters mass to volume ratio (density) is constant and independent of its quantity. According to the experimental data, the average density of water is 0.985g/mL, assuming that room temperature was 25C. The percent error is 0.12%, thus the value is acceptable comparing to the tabulated value of 0.997g/mL (Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 53rd Ed., p.F4). Water density calculated from experimental data is less than the actual value, because water may be lost during transfer, such as droplets stick to glass walls of containers. As a result less than actual mass is recorded and used for calculation. Moreover, reading errors may also render experiment result less accurate. The slopes of both figures are linear, meaning that as the volume of water increases, its respective mass also increases at a mixed proportion. In addition, R2 measures the degree of consistency of this direct relation; a value of 1 confirms that the positive correlation is valid. This evidence supports the hypothesis that mass of water is positively proportional to its volume. VII. Conclusion According to the data presented above, the mass of water increases with its volume. Water has a density that is approximately 0.985g/mL, which is irrespective of its quantity. VIII. Reference Robert, RC. (1972). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (53rd Edition) p. F4. Chemical Rubber Co. Retrieved on June 8, 2011 from http://www2.volstate.edu/CHEM/Density_of_Water.htm.