You are on page 1of 33

CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY

1.1 Problem Background


Lichens is the combination of fungi and algae that is morphologically and physiology is a unity. In their live, lichens do not need the high live requirements and hold out toward the lacking of water for a long time. Lichens products more than 500 uniques biochemical compound to adaptate in extrim habitat. Those compounds is used to control the sun light, Senyawa tersebut berguna untuk mengontrol sinar terik matahari, drive out, or repellen the herbivores, kill the microba and decrease the competition with animals, and others. Inspite of lichens grow well in nature in the unpriofitable condition, the lichens is very sensitive to the air pollution and quickly loss in the bad air pollution area. A reason that caused this is occurred that lichens can absorb a fluid and precipitate minerals from rain water and air and they can not take it outside. Therefore, the concentration of lethalic compound as SO2 is enter easily.

1.2 Problem Identifications


a. Lichens need the high of live requsite. b. Lichens hold out toward the lacking of water for a long time. c. Lichens produce more than 500 biochemical compounds. d. Lichens can adapt in extrim habitat. e. Lichens is very sensitive to the air pollution. f. Lichens can quickly loss in bad air condition. g. Lichens can absorb and precipitate the minerals from rainwater and air. h. The lethalic compound as SO2 can enter to the lichens body easily so that candeadly the body itself. i. Lichens can not take out the minerals from their own body.

1 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

1.3 Problem Formulation


a. How to know the air pollution effects by observe the lichense colony. b. How to know the polluted and unpolluted area based on the lichens that are observed in the several locations of observation. c. The students do not understand yet about the varieties of lichens species that can be used to indicate the air pollution.

1.4 Objectives of Observation


a. Students can know the effects of air pollution by observing the lichense colony and dust particles. b. Students can know the polluted and unpolluted area by observing the lichens colony and compute the colony of lichense. c. Students can know the level of pollution in several areas that are observed by compute the dust particles. d. Students can explain why the lichens can be used as bioindicators of air pollution. e. f. Students can understand the lichense specieses in the location of observation. Students can explain why the dust particles can be used as bioindicators of air pollution `

1.5 Benefit of Observation


After doing the observation of lichense and dust as bioindicator of air pollution, the students are expected to: a. Understanding the varieties of lichens in the location of observation. b. Understanding how the lichens reaction to respon the condition of their environment. c. Understanding where the polluted area and unpolluted area by observe the lichens in the location object of observation. d. Understanding the impact of air pollution by observe lichense in the location of observation.

2 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

CHAPTER II

THEORY

2.1 Lichen Structure


Lichens are not plants. They are "composite organisms" made up of two, or maybe three, completely different kinds of organisms. It's as if you combined an animal such as a dog with a plant such as an oak, maybe with a fungus thrown in as well, and ended up with something very different from animal, plant or fungus. Something that was its own thing, with its own identity and manner of being. Every lichen species is part fungus. Usually the other species is a

photosynthesizing alga, but sometimes it can be a photosynthesizing bacterium known as a cyanobacterium. Sometimes all three kinds of organisms are found in one lichen. The above drawing gives an idea of what fungal hyphae wrapping around alga cells might look like at the microscopic level. In this amazing association the fungus benefits from the algae because fungi, having no chlorophyll, can't photosynthesize their own food. A lichen's fungal part is thus "fed" by its photosynthesizing algal part. The alga and/or cyanobacterium benefit from the association because the fungus is better able to find, soak up, and retain water and nutrients than they. Also, the fungus provides the resulting lichen shape, and the reproductive structures. This kind of relationship between two or more organisms, where all organisms benefit, is known as mutualism. The main body of a lichen is called a thallus. At the left you see the British Soldier Lichen, Cladonia cristatella. It's only about -inch high (6 mm). In this common lichen the red spore-producing reproductive structures are clearly visible. The lichen's name,Cladonia cristatella, is actually the name of the fungus. The alga species in the lichen is known as Trebouxia erici. However, it's

3 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

customary to name a lichen after its fungal part, so the whole lichen is known asCladonia cristatella. British Soldiers are usually found on decaying wood, soil, mossy logs, tree bases, and stumps. They help break down old wood and put nutrients back into the soil where they can be used by plants. Lichens also take nitrogen from the air and put it into the soil so plants can use it. The main structure on lichen is the body, called the thallus. Lichens are put into four groups according to the shape of the thallus.

Foliose lichens

flat, leaf-like structure

Fruticose lichens

bushy structure

Squamulose lichens

tiny, scale-like squamules

Crustose lichens

flat crust on or below rocks or under the bark of a tree

4 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

2.2 Lichen Ecology


Ecologically, lichens are important because they often occupy niches that, at least sometime during the season, are so dry, or hot, or sterile, that nothing else will grow there. For example, often the only plant growing on a bare rock will be a crustose lichen. That crustose lichen will be patiently collecting around and beneath itself tiny amounts of moisture, and mineral and organic fragments. When freezing temperatures come, the lichen's collected water will expand as it forms ice and maybe this expanding action will pry off a few more mineral particles from the rock below the lichen, thus making more soil. The water itself is a bit acidic, plus humic acids from the organic matter collected by the lichen will also be acidic, so these acids will likewise eat away at the stone. Over a period of perhaps many years, even centuries, the lichen gathers an extremely thin and fragile hint of a soil around it. As the lichen grows the soilproducing processes speeds up and takes place over an ever-larger area.. Eventually other more complex plants, perhaps a foliose or fruticose lichen, or mosses or ferns, or even some form of flowering plant, may take root in the modest soil and replace the crustose lichen. Thus crustose lichens on bare rock often begin a succession of communities, as described on one of our ecology pages. And when your heel dislodges a patch of lichen from a rock, you may be undoing the patient work of centuries... Certain lichens live on leaves, sometimes as parasites. These special leaf-living lichens are known as foliicolous lichens (not foliose). You might enjoy downloading a free, well-illustrated field guide to foliicolous lichens, in PDF format, presented by the Field Museum of Chicago.

2.3 Lichen Reproduction


Lichens reproduce in two main ways:
5 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

The fungus part produces reproductive structures that further produce spores. If a spore lands and germinates, and the resulting hypha finds the right species of alga in the neighborhood, the hypha will grow through the algal cells and a new lichen will start developing.

By asexual (vegetative) techniques. One asexual strategy is that of fragmentation, which simply involves a piece of a lichen breaking off and this fragment then grows into a new lichen. Lichens also produce on their surfaces microscopic, dust-like particles composed of one or several algal cells closely enveloped by fungus hyphae. These are known assoredia. Each soredium can produce a new plant. Lichen fragments and soredia can be transported great distances by wind and water.

2.4 Lichen Symbiosis


The dual nature of lichen organisms was first proposed in 1869 by the Swiss botanist Simon Schwendener. Soon afterwards an imaginative Scottish priest described the dual relationship as the unnatural union between a captive algal damsel and a tyrant fungal master! This remark had a great effect on the Scottish psyche that has lasted to this day. See Scottish Lichenology. Lichens are the result of a physiological relationship between a fungus and a photosynthesising partner termed the photobiont. The photobiont is either green algae or bacteria that use blue-green pigment to photosynthesise; such bacteria are called cyanobacteria. The photobiont supplies food in the form of carbohydrate to the fungal partner; the fungal or mycobiont partner provides a home and some nutrients for the photobiont. Working together they take on the form and functionality of lichen. In the case of the photobiont being a green algae, when both are separated and grown separately, they form an amorphous mass unlike the original lichen form. This enforces the idea that the partnership is one of equality and not, as some writers have suggested, that the algae is prisoner to the fungus.

6 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

An interesting element of the symbiotic relationship is that in each lichen species the mycobiont is different, whereas the photobiont is one of a few algae or cyanobacteria. Because of the individuality of each fungus to a lichen, the naming of lichens is derived from the fungus. Most of the fungal partners come from the Class Ascomycetes. The photobiont is frequently one of the following: Green algae: Trebouxia, Myrmecia, Stichococcus, Heterococcus and Trentepohlia. Cyanobacteria: Stigonema, Chroococcus, Nostoc, Gloeocapsa and Scytonema.

2.5 Lichen As Bioindicator


Lichens are widely used as environmental indicators or bio-indicators. If air is very badly polluted with sulphur dioxide there may be no lichens present, just green algae may be found. If the air is clean, shrubby, hairy and leafy lichens become abundant. A few lichen species can tolerate quite high levels of pollution and are commonly found on pavements, walls and tree bark in urban areas. The most sensitive lichens are shrubby and leafy while the most tolerant lichens are all crusty in appearance. Since industrialisation many of the shrubby and leafy lichens such as Ramalina, Usnea and Lobaria species have very limited ranges, often being confined to the parts of Britain with the purest air such as northern and western Scotland and Devon and Cornwall. Lichens traditionally have the name of indicating that the environment is clean. This is a simplistic view however. Some lichens will only survive in a clean environment, while others flourish with certain pollutants. For example, some species of the genus Xanthoria establish and grow abundantly in nitrogen rich areas, such as near farms or chemical factories, while species of the genus Usnea are sensitive to the amount of sulphur in the air and will only grow in areas where the air sulphur content is low. Lichens, unlike most living organisms, are unable to refuse entry to many chemicals into their bodies. This means that chemicals can freely invade them and interfere with their metabolic processes, often killing the lichen, but sometimes increasing their growth rate. Also, lichens are unable to excrete or secrete these
7 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

chemicals and so they accumulate within the thallus. The lichen is therefore an excellent bioaccumulator. Lichenologists can monitor pollution levels in a habitat by looking at the species present and analysing specific species to see which toxins have accumulated. An important study into the effect of air pollution on lichens was carried out by Hawksworth and Rose (1970) and Gilbert (1970). These lichenologists divided lichen sensitivity to air borne sulphur dioxide into 10 zones. This 10 zone system is still in use today, although it has been modified and developed since its creation. Ten Point Hawksworth-Rose Sulphur Dioxide Pollution Scale. one for acid bark and one for eutrophic bark. Highest levels of pollution are indicated by 0 and lowest levels by 10. With reference only to the acid bark scale the following species are good indicators.

2.6 Some Pofile of Lichens


2.6.1 Lepraria incana Ach.(as morphospecies) Thallus a diffuse, thin, powdery crust, lacking a medulla or any marginal differentiation into lobes, pale grey to distinctly blue-grey, apothecia unknown. In shaded places on acid rocks, walls and tree-trunks, widespread and evidently common, but part of a complex of species that require thin-layer chromatography for certain identification. (Photograph shown here is named on morphological grounds.) 2.6.2 Ochrolceria tartarea Thallus crustose, coarsely warted, cream, pale grey or tinged with buff, soredia absent; apothecia usually abundant, with thick, notched, flexuous margins and pale pink- to yellow-brown disks. Can be very similar to O. androgyna, with which it grows, but lacks
8 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

soredia; it differs from variants of O. parella with non-pruinose disks in being more coarsely granular, and can be confirmed by its thallus context testing red with sodium hypochlorite. Mainly in upland areas and in the north and west, on base-poor rocks and nutrient-poor tree bark.

2.6.3

Candelariella vitellina Thallus of dispersed to densely aggregated, minute, flat, yellow to yellow-orange granules, non-reactive with KOH; apothecia bright yellow, asci with 12-32 ascospores. Widespread and very common on rocks and walls. States with a dispersed thallus are liable to be confused with C. aurella, but the latter has 8-spored asci. Species of theCaloplaca citrina group may also look similar but react purple with potassium hydroxide (KOH).

2.6.4 Cladonia sp Podetia tall, erect, very variable in shape, usually with one or more erect branches, often forming irregular, perforate cups that continue to proliferate from the margins, patchily corticate and densely covered with small, incised, peeling squamules, soredia absent, basal squamules much incised and fan-like, often in dense clumps; apothecia small, brown, in clusters on tips of short branches. Widespread and locally common in woodland, in heathland and on moorland, on rotting wood, on degraded peat and on boulders.

The usual variant, var. squamosa, fluoresces white under UV light and is negative to usual chemical tests. Var. subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leight.) Vain. is a probably minor chemical variant, K+ yellow-orange, PD+ orange, and UV negative, said to be possibly more robust, also widespread.

9 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

2.6.5

Caloplaca ferruginea Thallus greenish- or greyish-yellow to yellow, or infrequently tinged orange, placodioid with marginal lobes usually long and finger-like, pruinose, inner parts of thallus surface becoming covered by dense, globose or flattened-globose isidia; apothecia rare. Generally on nutrient-enriched coastal rocks, often below below sea-bird colonies, in the north and west. Potentially can be confused with C. decipiens, which can occur on coastal rocks, but which is brighter orange and has globose soredia developing from soralia initially on the lobule margins, whereas C. verruculifera has globose isidia developing directly from the thallus surface.

2.6.6

Usnea sp Fruticose, much branched, prostrate or pendulous, often detached and draped over branches, continuing to grow, grey-green, not blackened at the base, branches smooth to minutely nodulose or sparsely spinulose, main branches becoming articulated into inflated, sausage-like sections. Formerly widespread in southern and western Britain but highly pollution sensitive and now rare except in the extreme south-west, on branches in tree canopies ond on hedges, sometimes terrestrial.

2.6.7

Graphis scripta A thin, smooth, pale crust with prominent, long, very narrow, curved, often forked apothecia (lirellae), with a grey hymenium and raised, black, unfurrowed margins; spores colourless, with transverse septa only. Widespread and often common on smooth bark. Generally the commonest of a group of very similar pending), species, that including species

of Graphina and Phaeographis (pages examination for certain identification.

require

microscopic

10 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

2.6.8

Usnea dasypoga Fruticose, tufted, much branched, variable, grey- to blueish-green, paler in well-lit situations, not blackened at the base, branches generally constricted or annulate at their junctions, finer branches sorediate and isidiate, small lateral branches rather rigid and curved, claw-like. Western and southern Britain, locally common, on trees and rocks.

2.6.9

Pertusaria corallina Thallus whitish grey to grey, surface usually covered by abundant, cylindrical to coralloid isidia, but these can become eroded (weathering, being sat on) to reveal the cracked-areolate thallus beneath; apothecia rare. Common in the north and west on exposed, base-poor boulders.

2.6.10 Addition

11 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

12 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

2.6.11 Common Lichen Air Pollution Indicators a. Lichens Of Polluted Areas : Buellia punctata Cladonia coniocraea Cladonia macilenta Desmococcus viridis (algae) Diploicia canescens Lecanora conizaeoides Lecanora dispersa Lecanora expallens Lepraria incana Xantoria parietina

b. Lichens of Moderate Pollution : Evernia prunastri Foraminella ambigua Hypogymnia physodes Lecanora chlarotera Lecidella elaeochroma Parmelia glabratula Parmelia saxatilis Parmelia sulcata Physcia adscendens Physcia tenella Plastismatia glauca Ramalina farinacea

c. Lichens of Slight Pollution : Anaptychia ciliaris Bryoria fuscescens Graphis elegans Graphis scripta
13 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

Opegrapha varia Parmelia acetabulum Parmelia caperata Phaeophyscia orbicularis Physcia aipolia Physconia distorta Physconia enteroxantha Pseudevernia furfuracea

d. Lichens of Clean Air Degelia plumbea Lobaria pulmonaria Lobaria scrobiculata Pannaria rubiginosa Permelia perlata Ramalina calicaris Ramalina fastigiata Ramalina fraxinea Teloschistes flavicans Usnea articulata Usnea florida Usnea rubicunda Usnea subfloridana

14 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

CHAPTER III

OBSERVATION METHOD

3.1 Location and Time of Observation


a. Location 1. 2. 3. Simpang Si Debuk-Debuk. The main street throughout the Simpang Si Debuk-Debuk until the Tahura. Tahura (Taman Hutan Raya)

b. Time Day, date Time : Saturday, May, 5th , 2012 : 10.00 end

3.2 Preparation of Observation


a. Preparing the rules and meters to measure the bounded area of tree and measure the diameter of the tree. b. Preparing the camera to take the picture of lichenes that observe. c. Preparing the stationary such as written board, pen, pencil and notebook to write the number of lichenes colony on the tree according to the area bounded.

3.3 Prosedure of Observation


1. 2. Preparing the tools and materials. Visiting the roads that passed by public transport as: bus, spot or pedicab, private transportation, etc. In this chance, we visit several locations: Simpang Si Debuk-Debuk, main street throughout Simpang Si Debuk-Debuk until Tahura, and the last is Tahura. 3. Looking for trees (not lump or bushes) then measure the height of the tree about 1 m from the under of tree. 4. Measure 10 cm up and down from the first measure.
15 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

5. 6. 7. 8.

Measure the diameter of the tree as sample. Computing the total of Lichens colony (big or small colony). Taking a photo of this observation (lichens and group photos). Making the data of observation result in the form of table.

3.4 Data Analysis Method


a. Present data in tabular form that is filled with observations obtained during the data acquisition research. b. Describes the contents of the table to explain the observations with the datacontained in the observation table. c. Discussion and discuss the results of research conducted

16 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

CHAPTER IV

EXPERIMENT RESULT AND EXPLANATION

4.1 Table of Observation Result

No

Street Name (Location) Simpang si debuk-debuk

Lichense Name

Amount of Lichense Colony

Diameter of Tree Stem

Percentage of Lichense Density

1.

Tree 1 Pertusaria corallina Tree 2 Parmelia sulcata Tree3 1.Pertusaria corallina 2. Xanthoria eleganse Total of Lichense

35

7 cm

500%

13

9 cm

144%

24 15 39

6.4 cm 6.4 cm 6.4 cm

218% 236% 609%

2.

Jln. Raya si debukdebuk until Tahura

Tree 1 Parmelia sulcata Tree 2 Parmelia sulcata Tree 1 1. Parmelia sulcata 2.Usnea Dasypoga 3. Xanthoria eleganse 4. Pertusaria corallina Total of lichense Tree 2 1. Parmelia sulcata 2. Pertusaria corallina 3. Usnea Dasypoga Total of lichense Tree 3 1. Parmelia sulcata

21

24 cm

87.5%

27 32 40 35 22 129

21 cm 69 cm 69 cm 69 cm 69 cm 69 cm

129% 46% 58% 50% 32% 187%

3.

Taman Hutan Raya ( TAHURA)

8 45 12 65

35 cm 35 cm 35 cm 35 cm

23% 129% 34% 186%

41 cm

48%

17 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

2. Pertusaria corallina 3. Xanthoria eleganse Total of lichense

32 20 54

41 cm 41 cm 41 cm

78% 49% 132%

4.2 Explanation and Discussion


From the table of observation result above, we can see there are some types of lichense speciesthat found on the observation location.Lichense species that found there are: 1. Parmelia sulcata 2. Usnea Dasypoga 3. Xanthoria eleganse 4. Pertusaria corallina All of these lichense species live on the different trees and have different amount in difeerent trees. Then based on the percentage on the table above, lichense density have the value above 80%. It shows that the air in the observation location doesnot occure serious air pollution there. Or in the other words, the air there is health enough and unpolluted. We use lichense as air pollution bioindicator here because lichense has ability to response the environment changing surround its habitat. If on the stone or on the trees find much of lichense colony, the condition of that area can be said has contaminate by a little air pollution. Vice versa, if the trees or stone planted by a little lichense colony, it can be said that area had be contamined by much of air pollution. Generally, we also found bryophyte, weeds, surrond the area of tree that observed. It shows thatthe soil there is very fertil and the air is damp. To find the amount of lichense densityon a tree can be used the formula below: Lichense density = x 100%

For the explanation below, it will show the amount of lichense density percentage on every tree in the observation location: a. Simpang Si Debuk-Debuk Tree 1 Pertusaria corallina

18 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

Lichens density Tree 2 Parmelia sulcata Lichens density

35 x100% 500% 7

13 x100% 144% 9

Tree3 1. Pertusaria corallina 2. Xanthoria eleganse Lichens density =

39 x100% 609% 6.4

b. Jln. Raya si debukdebuk until Tahura Tree 1 Parmelia sulcata Lichens density =

21 x100% 87.5% 24

Tree 2 Parmelia sulcata Lichens density =

27 x100% 129% 21

c.

Taman Hutan Raya ( TAHURA) Tree 1 1. Parmelia sulcata 2. Usnea Dasypoga 3. Xanthoria eleganse 4. Pertusaria corallina Lichens density =

129 x100% 187% 69

19 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

Tree 2 1. Parmelia sulcata 2. Pertusaria corallina 3. Usnea Dasypoga Lichens density =

65 x100% 186% 35

Tree 3 1. Parmelia sulcata 2. Pertusaria corallina 3. Xanthoria eleganse Lichens density =

54 x100% 132% 41

Based on data that be gotten, can be said that the air on the three places as areas of research are well and are not tainted because the number of density lichens at trees in the areas have a value of approximately 80%. Therefore, the O2 levels in all three study sites, namely Simpang Si Debuk-Debuk, TAHURA and Jln. Raya si debukdebuk until Tahura are very much and the air is clean to breathe.

4.3 Picture of Experiment Result 4.3.1 Simpang si Debuk-Debuk Unknown Tree

Pertusaria corallina Bryophyta


20 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

Unknown Tree

Parmelia sulcata Weeds Bryophyta

Citrus sinensis

Xanthoria elegans Pertusaria corallina

4.3.2 Jln. Raya si Debuk-Debuk Casuarina sp.

Bryophyta Pertusaria corallina

21 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

Casuarina sp.

Pertusaria corallina

Bryophyta

4.3.3 Taman Hutan Raya (TAHURA) Altingla excelsa noronha Bryophyta Parmelia sulcata Usnea comosa Pertusaria corallina Xanthoria elegans

Altingla excelsa noronha Parmelia sulcata Pertusaria corallina Bryophyta Usnea comosa

22 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

Altingla excelsa noronha Bryophyta


8

Xanthoria elegans Parmelia sulcata Pertusaria corallina

4.4 Lichens and Air Pollution


From the observation that we did, we found the lichens cover the stem of tree which pecentage more than 80%. It shows that the nature there still fresh and unpolluted (relevant with the theory in chapter II). Because of this reason, we can conclude that lichens can be used as bioindicator. For example, some species of the genus Xanthoria establish and grow abundantly in nitrogen rich areas, such as near farms or chemical factories, while species of the genus Usnea are sensitive to the amount of sulphur in the air and will only grow in areas where the air sulphur content is low (Theory). We found Xanthoria elegans and Usnea comosa. It shows that our observation location are rich of nitrogen and content just low of sulphur.

4.5 Economical Benefits of Lichens


4.5.1 Lichens as Medicine Many lichens have been used medicinally across the world. A lichen's usefulness as medicine probably usually comes from the lichen secondary compounds that are abundant in most lichen thalli. Different lichens produce a wide variety of these compounds, most of which are
23 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

unique to lichens. The exact use of these lichen compounds is still being debated, but some lichen compounds can act as antibiotics, fungicides, and herbivore deterrents. This undoubtedly gives the lichen some protection, and probably endows the lichen with some medicinal characters as well. Sharnoff (1997) estimates that 50% of all lichen species have antibiotic properties. The scientific search for antibiotics in lichens started in 1944 when Burkholder found that extracts from 27 out of the 42 different species of lichen that he tested inhibited the growth of certain bacteria. Lichen compounds have been found to act as anti-tumor agents (Kupchan and Kopperman 1975; Takai et al 1979), antibiotics (Burkholder 1944; Vartia 1973), and anti-inflammatories (Handa et al. 1992; Skidmore and Whitehouse 1965). Research to develop pharmaceuticals from lichens continues, especially in Japan (Sharnoff 1997). There is currently work being done to genetically engineer lichens so that lichen products could easily be produced in the lab (Miao et al. 2001). Patent Number 6132984 (issued on October 17th, 2000 to J. E. Davies, B. Walters, and G. Saxena from TerraGen Discovery Inc.) is for a method for inhibiting eukaryotic protein kinase activity (and thus the sporulation of Streptomyces) with vulpinic acid or usnic acid (two lichen compounds). Some of the most widely studied lichen compounds are usnic acid, vulpinic acid, atranorin, and protolichesterinic acid. Usnic acid is found in large quantities in Usnea spp., as well as in several other lichen genera. It is a fairly wide spectrum antibiotic and is the most active antibiotic to be characterized from lichens (Abo-Khatwa et al. 1996; Shibamoto and Wei 1984; Rowe et al. 1991; Dobrescu et al. 1993). Usnic acid and diffractaic acid (a derivative of usnic acid) have both been demonstrated to be analgesic when tested on mice (Okuyama et al. 1995). And a mixture of usnic acid and isolichenin has been demonstrated to have moderate activity against sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich tumor cells (Periera et al. 1994).
24 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

There is some research to indicate that protolicheresterinic acid may be valuable in the treatment of ulcers and cancers, and in AIDS prevention. It has been documented that protolicheresterinic acid has in vitro activity against Helicobacter pylori (Ingolfsdottir et al. 1997) and DNA polymerase activity of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase (Pengsuparp et al. 1995). Protolicheresterinic acid was also found to be antiproliferative and cytotoxic to T-47D and ZR-75-1 cell lines cultured from breast carcinomas, and to K-562 from erythroleukemia (Ogmundsdottir et al. 1998). Protolichesterinic acid may perform these functions by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase, and this would also contribute to protolichesterinic acid's reported anti-inflammatory actions (Ogmundsdottir et al., 1998). Vulpinic acid also has some mild antibiotic properties, but it is not as strong of an antibiotic as usnic acid. It is, however, a significant herbivore deterrent and has been found to be toxic to animals in large doses (Lawrey 1986). Atranorin has been found to be much less biologically active than the above mentioned compounds (Lawrey 1986), but it is still a bit of a herbivore deterrent (Abo-Khatwa et al. 1996). Another property of lichens that had them being used for medicines is their cool little shapes. According to the 'Doctrine of Signatures' of the 15th century Europe a plant could be used to treat whatever ailment it most looked like. This use was mostly obsolete be 1800 (Llano 1944b), but some of these uses have persisted. Some lichens commonly used according to the Doctrine of Signatures include species

of Cladonia, Evernia, Lobaria, Parmelia, Peltigera, Pertusaria, Physcia, Roccella, Usnea, and Xanthoria. The importance of this use is evident when one looks at the origin of the word 'lichen'. 'Lichen' comes from the Greek word 'Leprous' and refers to the use of some lichens for treating cutaneous diseases due to their peeling-skin appearance (Llano 1944b).

25 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

4.5.2

Lichens as Food Dr. Hansteen, who was the chief lecturer in the Agricultural School at Aas, Norway in 1911, prophesized that lichen was to become the great popular food of the masses, because of its cheapness and nutritive properties (Swartz 1911). This didn't happen, but lichens have frequently been used as food by people. They have often been used as famine food, but there are also many peoples who have used lichens for food on a more regular basis. Lichens are sometimes even been used as a delicacy (like Umbilicaria esculenta in Japan) or a dessert

(like Cetraria islandica in Scandinavia). There are two problems that people have generally encountered when eating lichens. The first problem is the secondary lichen compound often found in lichens. Most lichens contain a variety of secondary compounds. These compounds are generally unique to lichens and because of this are referred to as 'lichen compounds'. Lichen compounds are usually acids and thus have an acrid flavor. Only two lichen compounds have been found to be poisonous, vulpinic acid and pinastric acid, and these compounds would have to be ingested in significant amounts to be fatal for humans. But many other lichen compounds are herbivore deterrents, and can be very bad tasting, a digestive irritant, and would could probably even be toxic if eaten in large quantities for extended periods of time. The second problem with eating lichens is that the complex carbohydrates in lichens are not easily broken down in the human digestive tract. Lichens contain a variety of polysaccharides. They usually contain lichenin (soluble in hot water) and/or isolichenin (soluble in cold water, turns iodine purple), and can often also contain other lichen polysaccharides such as evernin and usnin (Swartz 1911). Lichens can also often contain small quantities of

polysaccharides often found in other plants, such as cellulose and inulin (Perez-Llano 1944). Lichen carbohydrates were fairly well studied over a century ago, after Klz suggested in 1874 that they could be eaten as
26 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

substitute carbohydrates by diabetics (Swartz 1911). They did not discover a cure for diabetes, but they did discover that these lichen polysaccharides were not digestible by humans, dogs, or rabbits (Swartz, 1911). However, if lichenin and isolichenin are hydrolyzed, they yield glucose and other readily digestible simple sugars. People have traditionally used various preparation methods to make lichens edible by removing the lichen secondary compounds and hydrolyzing the lichen polysaccharides. The most frequently used preparation technique is boiling or steaming. This has been used by groups of people from North America, Europe, and India. Boiling would help to hydrolyze the lichen polysaccharides into digestible forms. It would also help to remove many lichen compounds. It is often recorded that people would boil the lichen and discard the water, which indicates that the boiling water was being used to remove the lichen compounds. The lichen was also often soaked or rinsed with water. This could have removed some lichen compounds as well, but they are generally not very soluble in pure water. Both the Iroquois and northern Europeans are recorded to have soaked the lichens in ash water. Wood ash is alkaline, and so it would have been a lot more effective in removing the acidic lichen compounds. Alkali could also help to hydrolyze lichen polysaccharides. The addition of dilute acid, or acidic things like onion, is common when cooking lichen. Acids could possible have helped to hydrolyze lichen polysaccharides, or they might make some lichen compounds more water soluble. The value of lichens as a food stuff is probably usually just as a source of carbohydrates. The nutrient composition of lichens varies widely between different species of lichens but they are generally high in carbohydrates and low in most other nutrients. Lichens may also provide some other nutrients. Lal and Ranganatha Rao (1956) found calcium and iron levels to higher in lichens than
27 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

cereals and more comparable to green leafy materials. The calcium to phosphorus ratio they found was from 2 to 14, showed that lichens could serve as a good source of calcium. Peltigera canina has been found to be relatively high in protein and essential amino acids. Various studies have shown lichens to contain some vitamins, but results have not been consistent. The various findings have not been consistent. This variation probably partly arises from variation in nutrient composition between and within species. Some of the variation is also likely experimental error as some of the studies are quite old. Lichens can also accumulate toxins from their environment. Cetraria islandica and Cladina spp. have been found to contain particularly high levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury. Parmelia saxatilis and Xanthoria parietina have been found to absorb enough beryllium from their environment to harmful to animals (Perez-Llano 1944). In some areas Parmelia molliusculacan contain toxic levels of selenium salt (Perez-Llano 1944). And the natural radionuclides Po-210 and Pb-210 both accumulate in lichens, as well as Cs-137 and Sr-90 from nuclear test explosions (Airaksinen et al. 1986).

4.5.3 Lichens as Dyes Lichens are frequently used as dyes. The lichen dye can be extracted by boiling the lichen in water or by fermenting the lichen in ammonia. Traditionally urine was often used as an ammonia source, and the lichen would be fermented for at least 2 to 3 weeks. There is no record of the ammonia fermentation method being used in North America. It seems to be restricted to Europe. This is an incomplete list. For more complete information on the subject, refer to Brough (1984, 1988), Casselman (1999), and Kok (1966).

28 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

CHAPTER V

CLOSING

5.1 Conclution
1. Lichens are very sensitive to air pollution and quickly disappeared in the areas that have levels of air pollution levels are heavy. This proves that lichens can be used as a bioindicator air pollution in a particular area as a measure of the level of air pollution with a natural and simple way, namely through the presence or absence of lichens 2. All species of lichens, that lives in the different trees, has a number of lichens too. Then, based on the percentage that have been searched, density in the area has a dominant total above 80%. It is proved, that the air in the area as a research site did not have enough air pollution that worrying. That said, the air in the area quite well and are not tainted because the number of density of lichens at the trees in the area has much less value above 80%. 3. We found Xanthoria elegan in observation location. So it shows that this area is rich of nitrogen. 4. We found Usnea comosa in observation result.. It shows that our observation location have low content of sulphur. 5. From our observation, we can conclude that lichens can be used as

bioindicator. Beside that, it also can be used for the other purposes. Such as medicine, food and dyes.

5.2 Suggestion
There are some suggestions that we asked after doing research about lichens ,those are: a. Doing counseling - Educate the public about the importance of keeping nature and do not ruin it, especially lichens b. Local governments should make funding for the researchers to can make local community be maximally in using the lichens
29 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

c. Protect the environment to keep them clean of pollution so can ensure the life of lichen survive. d. Protect the continuity of lichense so that our grandchildren will be able to know what the lichen vegetation. e. Lichen serves as bioindicator pollution in a particular area, should really be used as a measuring of the level pollution . f. Lichen can be used to fulfill of human needs such as pharmaceuticals, flavor and aroma enhancer, can be made litmus paper, and so forth, for it must be preserved. g. The content contained in plants should be more examined and researched so that the content in plants can be used as raw materials that more useful. h. Lichens can be exported to overseas if the benefits contained in be well known and used well . so of course add to state revenues and local revenues.

30 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

REFERENCES
Brodo, Irwan M. 2001. Lichens of North America. London: Yale University Press. Hale, Mason E. 1988. Lichens of California. London: University of California Press. Nash, Thomas H. 1996. Lichens Biology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://www.backyardnature.net/lichens.htm http://www.biology.ed.ac.uk/archive/jdeacon/microbes/lichen.htm http://www.countrysideinfo.co.uk/fungi/lichens.htm http://www.lichens.ie/lichens-as-biomonitors/ http://web.uvic.ca/~stucraw/part1.html

31 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

AUTOBIOGRAPHY

1. Dewi Bakara Dewi as her nickname. Was born in Sidikalang, January 5th 1993. She comes from SMA N 1 Sidikalang. Now she gets her education on Bilingual Mathematics Education 2011 class with 4113111018 as her identity number there.

2. Mahendra Galang Known as Galang. Was born in Sidoarjo, May 6th 1993. Has him senior high school at SMA N 1 Panai Hulu. Now she gets her education on Bilingual Mathematics Education 2011 class with 4113312009 as him identity number there.

32 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION

3. Rizky Nurul Hafni Famous as Aci. Was born in Medan, on February, 9th 1992. She is from MAN 2 Model Medan. Now she gets her education on Bilingual Mathematics Education 2011 class with 4113111066 as her identity number there.

4. Tika Mindari Tika Mindari, was born in Sidamanik, October 17th 1993. She comes from MAN Pematangsiantar. Now she gets her education on Bilingual Mathematics Education 2011 class with 4113111076 as her identity number there.

5. Widi Aulia Widakdo Everyday call as Widi, was born in Medan, November 10th 2011. Before has collage, she goes to school at SMA N 1 Batam. Now she gets her education on Bilingual Mathematics Education 2011 class with 4113111076 as her identity number there.

33 | OBSERVATION OF LICHENS AS BIOINDICATOR OF AIR POLLUTION