# Engineering Sciences for Engineers – Assignment 3

DC and AC Theory
DC Electrical Principles
1.1)
1.2)

R = R1 + R2 + R3 +R4+ R5
R = 20Ω + 30Ω + 40Ω + 10Ω + 50Ω
R = 150Ω

1.3)

V = IR
I=V÷R
I = 300 ÷ 150
I = 2 amps

1.4)

V = IR
Therefore:
V1 = I x R1 = 2amps x 20Ω = 40v
V2 = I x R2 = 2amps x 30Ω = 60v
V3 = I x R3 = 2amps x 40Ω = 80v
V4 = I x R4 = 2amps x 10Ω = 20v
V5 = I x R5 = 2amps x 50Ω = 100v

1.5)

Potential Difference across:
AD = V1 + V2 + V3 = 40v + 60v + 80v = 180v
BE = V2 + V3 + V4 = 60v + 80v + 20v = 160v
CE = V3 + V4 = 80v + 20v = 100v
DF = V4 + V5 = 20v + 100v = 120v

With a circuit of resistors in parallel.1) 2.3) V = IR I=V÷R I = 10v ÷ 50Ω I = 0. the current is divided between the parallel branches.2 ÷ 2 (number of resistors in parallel) I at R2 = 0.5) With a circuit of resistors in series.2 amps I at R3 = 0. I = 0. the current is divided between the parallel branches. I = 0. the applied voltage is divided across the resistors.2) Req = R2 x R3 R2 + R3 Req = 20Ω x 30Ω 20Ω x 30Ω Req = 600Ω 50Ω Req = 12Ω R = R1 + Req + R4 R = 28Ω + 12Ω + 10Ω R = 50Ω 2. A parallel circuit is thus a current divider circuit.1 amps 2.4) With a circuit of resistors in series.2 ÷ 2 (number of resistors in parallel) I at R3 = 0.2 amps 2. With a circuit of resistors in parallel.1 amps . A parallel circuit is thus a current divider circuit. the applied voltage is divided across the resistors.2.2 amps I at R2 = 0.

Thus if the fundamental (i. For example. sawtooth generators produce ramp waveforms. major sinewave component has a frequency f equal to the frequency of the complex wave and this frequency is called the fundamental frequency. supplies can be assumed to be sinusoidal. and so on. any supply waveforms are not sinusoidal. supply) frequency of a complex wave is 50 Hz. The other sine wave components are known as harmonics.C. then the third harmonic frequency is 150 Hz. the third harmonic has a frequency of 3 f . .e. Such a waveform may be shown to be composed of the sum of a series of sinusoidal waves having various interrelated periodic times. and rectangular waveforms may be produced by multivibrators. and so on. these having frequencies which are integer multiples of frequency f . this being a form of alternating quantity commonly encountered in electrical engineering. However. The initial. Hence the second harmonic has a frequency of 2 f .3) A. the fourth harmonic frequency is 200 Hz. A waveform that is not sinusoidal is called a complex wave.

4 etc.2.1) 150 100 50 X Axis 0 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67 70 73 76 79 82 85 88 91 94 97 100 y Axis z Axis -50 -100 -150 t (ms) (1=0.) .4. 2=0. 2=0.

270509831 -17.53169549 -24.17220927 77.270509831 -28.31022072 -55.17220927 -87.63355757 30 17.The data below produced the above graph.90169944 58.3079E-14 -24.53169549 24.10565163 -80.17220927 -77.31022072 -90.6 7.27050983 28.6 4.22515E-14 -30.4 3.47209406 90.90169944 95.31022072 90.53169549 9.8 6 6.90169944 58.27050983 3.90169944 -58.53169549 24.10565163 -100 -95.31113E-14 55.27050983 28.2 2.270509831 -17.90169944 58.90169944 -7.47209406 -70 -77.6 6.6 10.270509831 -17.6158E-14 24.10565163 100 95.2 3.90169944 6.8 9 9.77852523 30.27050983 -2.6 1.53169549 9.47209406 70 77.32778E-14 -55.47209406 70 77.17220927 87.90169944 -58.10565163 C y 0 24.31022072 55.17220927 87.31022072 -55.10565163 100 95.2 1.63355757 D z 0 55.31022072 -90.17220927 -9.63355757 -30 -17.6 9.53169549 -9.8 11 11.10565163 100 95.77852523 80.8 3 3.90169944 1.270509831 -28.10263E-14 -24.31022072 55.270509831 -17.10565163 80.27050983 1.63355757 -9.17220927 -1.17220927 -4.77852523 -30.2 8.2 B x 0 30. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 A t (ms) 0 0.47209406 90.63355757 9.90169944 -95.17220927 -87.6 11.10565163 80.17220927 87.31022072 -55.90169944 95.2 4.77852523 80.17220927 77.4 8.10565163 -80.47209406 .8 7 7.2 0.270509831 -28.47209406 70 77.90169944 58.65556E-14 55.4 11.98335E-14 -55.17220927 2.90169944 -58.90169944 -58.17220927 -87.20527E-14 24.31022072 55.10565163 100 95.8 10 10.4 5.6 12.61713E-13 -24.4 12.4 4.31022072 -90.31022072 90.77852523 80.27050983 -28.27050983 -6.63355757 -9.8 8 8.17220927 87.63355757 9.10565163 -80.27050983 1.12574E-14 -30.31022072 90.47209406 -90.90169944 58.270509831 17.63355757 -30 -17.31022072 90.47209406 90.90169944 -2.17220927 -87.270509831 28.17220927 -87.27050983 28.27050983 -4.90169944 -4.2 10.90169944 95.63355757 -30 -17.8 1 1.53169549 9.8 4 4.4 10.10565163 -100 -95.90169944 95.90169944 3.77852523 -80.6 8.53169549 -24.63355757 9.270509831 28.8 13 13.2 11.2 6.17220927 77.10565163 -100 -95.8 12 12.17220927 2.77852523 -80.2 5.47209406 -90.53169549 9.4 0.77852523 -30.63355757 30 17.6 3.47209406 -70 -77.17220927 87.39667E-13 55.17220927 87.8 2 2.77852523 80.2 12.17220927 -77.47209406 -90.27050983 28.47209406 70 77.53169549 24.4 9.77852523 -30.17220927 87.35089E-14 30.41053E-14 24.270509831 17.53169549 -9.90169944 -95.90169944 58.10565163 80.270509831 17.27050983 -28.63355757 -30 -17.77852523 -80.90169944 58.17220927 6.6 0.270509831 28.90169944 -58.17220927 77.4 6.17220927 -77.77852523 30.4 7.77852523 30.90059E-14 30.63355757 30 17.90169944 -58.90169944 -95.47209406 -70 -77.6 2.4503E-14 30.4 2.67545E-14 -30.63355757 -9.27050983 -28.6 5.53169549 -24.4 1.22971E-13 -55.53169549 -9.17220927 -87.8 5 5.2 7.2 9.

63355757 -30 -17.77852523 80.93971E-14 -24.77852523 -30.8 16 16.4 18.90169944 -95.31022072 -90.27050983 90.6 14.05818E-13 -24.2 19.31022072 -55.80119E-14 30.82107E-14 24.6 17.8 17 17.17220927 87.53169549 -9.270509831 17.8 80.90169944 1.17220927 .10565163 -100 -95.270509831 28.63355757 -9.77852523 -80.17220927 -87.77852523 -30.47209406 -70 -77.17220927 -87.53169549 -24.77852523 -80.6 19.47209406 90.57604E-14 -30.31022072 -90.63355757 9.6 16.10565163 -80.27050983 -28.10565163 -80.10565163 80.2 15.53169549 -24.90169944 8.86223E-13 55.90169944 -58.16082E-13 -55.27050983 -8.47209406 70 77.4 13.17220927 5.90169944 58.270509831 28.90169944 -58.53169549 9.270509831 -17.90169944 -58.4 17.90169944 95.8 18 18.270509831 -28.90169944 9.90169944 -58.10565163 -100 -95.17220927 -77.90169944 58.17220927 3.10565163 100 95.4 16.47209406 -90.63355757 30 17.47209406 -70 -77.8 14 14.2 16.53169549 -9.8 15 15.8 19 19.77852523 30.90169944 -95.17220927 77.31022072 55.31022072 -55.63633E-14 -55.6 18.63355757 30 17.17220927 87.4 14.63355757 -9.27050983 28.27050983 -28.31022072 55.2 18.90169944 -9.68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 4.17220927 -87.270509831 -28.4 19.270509831 17.90169944 58.17220927 -87.2 14.27050983 2.77852523 30.2 17.17220927 -1.47209406 -90.53169549 24.6 15.2) 13.10263E-13 -30.4 15.17220927 -77.53169549 24.31022072 90.17220927 87.27050983 -2.6 13.