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D.

C Generator

A generator is the one, which converts the available mechanical energy in to electrical energy. There are several types of generators depending on the type of precise field excitation are classified in to

1) 2)

Separately-excited generators Self-excited generator

Separately-excited generators

Generators in which the excitation required for the coil is provided by a external source are termed as separately excited generators. This type of generators employs a separate voltage source for the field excitation of the coil in general a D.C battery is employed for giving the excitation.

Self excited generators

Generators in which the excitation required by the coil is provided internally are termed as self excited generators. Self-excited generators are again sub divided in to 1) 2) 3) Shunt generator Series generators Compound generators

Shunt Generators

In these generators the field winding is shunted across the armature, which means that the field winding is connected in parallel with the armature. Only a part of total current flows through the field winding.

Series generator

series generators are those type of generators in which the field winding is connected in series with the normal connections. In these generators the total current flowing through the circuit flows through the field winding.

Compound generator

This is a special type of generator which have the field winding connected in both parallel and in line with the normal circuit that is two small windings are used in place of using a large winding in a single connection. Compound generators also have two sub classifications a. b. Long shunt generator Short shunt generator

This sub classification is done based on the size of the shunt employed if the winding of shunt field winding is larger than that of a series one then it is called as long short generator. And the reverse of this is called as short shunt generator.

Parts of a D.C Generator

Some of the most important parts of a D.C generators are 1) 2) a. b. c. Yoke Field system Pole core Pole shoe Field core

3) a. b. 4) 5) 6)

Conductor system Armature core Armature winding Commutator Brushes and brush-gears Shaft and bearings

Yoke

This is the outer most cover, which acts as a protective cover for all the various windings and all the electrical circuit present in the generator. Two main functions of yoke are a. b. Acts as a mechanical support for the poles This provides a path for the low reluctance magnetic flux

Field system

The whole field system comprises of the following parts

pole core

In general a pole core is a rectangular cross- section. Generally used materials for the manufacturing of pole core are either cast iron or wrought iron. Bolts and nut system or rivets are engaged for fixing the pole core to the yoke. Pole core is also called as pole body. The main function of pole body is to act as support for the field coil, which is to be wound around it. Lamination is done to the pole cores in some of the latest generators so as preventing the problem of conduction through the pole core.

Pole shoe

Naturally pole shoe is a projection over pole core and is always with connection with pole body and fills the gap between the yoke and the pole body. Some of the basic functions to be performed by the pole shoe are Supports field coil Spreads out magnetic flux over a larger area of the air gap Enables the lines of magnetic flux to cross the gap radially. The amount air gap under the pole is increased.

A combination of pole body and pole shoe is termed as field magnet. This behaves as a field magnet when direct current is passed through the field coil.

Conductor system

Conductor system consists of two parts a. b. Armature core Armature winding

Armature core

The armature core is a cylindrical structure built in laminations, which is usually made of high grade silicon sheet steel. Laminated sheets are used in order to minimize power loss due to eddy currents in the core of armature. High grade silicon is used in order to minimize the current losses due to hysteresis. Armature core has a main function to act as a support to armature winding.

Armature winding

These are also called as armature conductors, which act as a conductor of electricity in general copper bars of required dimension or wire of same material of required cross section are used.

Commutator

Commutator is a most important and vital part in a D.C generator without which the generator fails to work. Commutator is the part through which one can determine weather the generator is a D.C generator or an A.C. Rectification of current is the main function of the Commutator. It converts the alternating current induced in the armature winding in to un directional current.

Brushes and brush gears

Brushes and brush gears are used for the transmission of current from the Commutator to the external load circuit. In general carbon is used for the manufacturing of these brushes. They are housed in a box type brush holders which are open at both the ends.

Shafts and bearings

shaft is the central one over which the whole parts are loaded. Shaft is the only part which transfers the generated power to the storage cell or to the required operation. The shaft is supported on both the ends by bearings which help in easy movement of the shaft as it is the moving part mounted inside non moving parts.