You are on page 1of 75

Arab Spring

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search

Arab Spring

Clockwise from top left: Protesters gathering in Tahrir Square in Cairo, Egypt; Demonstrators marching through Habib Bourguib Avenue in Tunis, Tunisia; Political dissidents in Sana'a, Yemen; Protesters gathering in Pearl Roundabout in Manama, Bahrain; Mass demonstration in Douma, Damascus, Syria; Demonstrators in Bayda, Libya. 17 December 2010 present Date (1 year, 5 months, 3 weeks and 3 days) Location Arab World (see list of countries) Demographic structural factors Authoritarian states Government corruption Human rights Causes violations Inflation Kleptocracy Sectarianism Goals

Unemployment Democracy Human rights

Free and fair elections Regime change Civil disobedience Civil resistance Defection Demonstrations Online activism Protest camps Rebellion Revolution Riots Self-immolations Strike actions Uprising



Urban warfare Ongoing Tunisian President Ben Ali ousted, and government overthrown. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak ousted, and government overthrown. Continued popular protest against military provisional government. Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi killed after a civil war with foreign military intervention, and government overthrown. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh ousted, and hands power to a national unity government. Sudan President Omar alBashir announced not to seek re-election in 2015. Syria experiences civil uprising and armed conflicts between the government and opposition forces. Civil uprising against the government of Bahrain, despite government changes. Kuwait, Lebanon and Oman implementing government changes in response to protests. Morocco, Jordan implementing

constitutional reforms in response to protests. Protests ended in many countries. Ongoing protests in Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and some other countries.

Casualties Death(s) 50,000+[citation needed] (International estimate; see table below)

The Arab Spring (Arabic: al-Thawrt al- Arabiyyah ; literally the Arabic Rebellions or the Arab Revolutions) is a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests occurring in the Arab world that began on 18 December 2010. To date, rulers have been forced from power in Tunisia,[1] Egypt,[2] Libya,[3] and Yemen;[4] civil uprisings have erupted in Bahrain[5] and Syria;[6] major protests have broken out in Algeria,[7] Iraq,[8] Jordan,[9] Kuwait,[10] and Morocco;[11] and minor protests have occurred in Lebanon,[12] Mauritania, Oman,[13] Saudi Arabia,[14] Sudan,[15] and Western Sahara,[16] as well as clashes at the borders of Israel in May 2011.[17] In neighboring Iran, a non-Arab country, protests by the Arab minority in Khuzestan erupted in 2011 as well.[18] Weapons from the Libyan civil war stoked a simmering rebellion in Mali, and the consequent Malian coup d'tat has been described as "fallout" from the Arab Spring in North Africa.[19] The sectarian clashes in Lebanon were described as a direct result of the Syrian uprising and hence the regional Arab Spring.[20] The protests have shared techniques of mostly civil resistance in sustained campaigns involving strikes, demonstrations, marches, and rallies, as well as the use of social media to organize, communicate, and raise awareness in the face of state attempts at repression and Internet censorship.[21][22] Many demonstrations have met violent responses from authorities,[23][24][25] as well as from progovernment militias and counter-demonstrators. These attacks have been answered with violence from protestors in some cases.[26][27][28] A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world has been Ash-sha yurd isq an-nim ("the people want to bring down the regime"). b


1 Overview o 1.1 Summary of protests by country 2 Background o 2.1 Motivations o 2.2 Recent history 3 Tunisia 4 Egypt 5 Libya 6 Yemen

7 Syria 8 Bahrain 9 Lebanon o 9.1 Protests o 9.2 Sectarian clashes 10 Concurrent incidents o 10.1 Algeria o 10.2 Djibouti o 10.3 Iraq o 10.4 Israeli border areas o 10.5 Jordan o 10.6 Kuwait o 10.7 Morocco o 10.8 Oman o 10.9 Saudi Arabia o 10.10 Sudan o 10.11 Others 11 Analysis o 11.1 Ethnic scope o 11.2 Impact of the Arab Spring o 11.3 International reactions 12 Effect of Social Media on the Arab Spring 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

[edit] Overview
See also: Timeline of the Arab Spring The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa has become known as the "Arab Spring",[30][31][32] and sometimes as the "Arab Spring and Winter",[33] "Arab Awakening"[34][35][36] or "Arab Uprisings"[37][38] even though not all the participants in the protests are Arab. It was sparked by the first protests that occurred in Tunisia on 18 December 2010 in Sidi Bouzid, following Mohamed Bouazizi's self-immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment.[39][40] With the success of the protests in Tunisia, a wave of unrest sparked by the Tunisian "Burning Man" struck Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, and Yemen,[41] then spread to other countries. The largest, most organised demonstrations have often occurred on a "day of rage", usually Friday afternoon prayers.[42][43][44] The protests have also triggered similar unrest outside the region. As of February 2012, governments have been overthrown in four countries. Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia on 14 January 2011 following the Tunisian revolution protests. In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned on 11 February 2011 after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. The Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown on 23 August 2011, after the National Transitional Council (NTC) took control of Bab al-Azizia. He was killed on 20 October 2011, in his hometown of Sirte after the NTC

took control of the city. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh signed the GCC power-transfer deal in which a presidential election was held, resulting in his successor Abd al-Rab Mansur alHadi formally replacing him as the president of Yemen on 27 February 2012, in exchange for immunity from prosecution. During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their current terms. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek re-election in 2015,[45] as did Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, whose term ends in 2014,[46] although there have been increasingly violent demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation.[47] Protests in Jordan have also caused the sacking of two successive governments[48][49] by King Abdullah.[50] The geopolitical implications of the protests have drawn global attention,[51] including the suggestion that some protesters may be nominated for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize.[52] Tawakel Karman from Yemen was one of the three laureates of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize as a prominent leader in the Arab Spring. In December 2011, Time magazine named "The Protester" its "Person of the Year".[53] Another award was noted when the Spanish photographer Samuel Aranda, won the 2011 World Press Photo award for his image of a Yemeni woman holding an injured family member, taken during the civil uprising in Yemen on 15 October 2011.[54]

Algeria Libya Egypt Sudan Mauritania Tunisia Morocco Western Sahara Saudi Arabia Jordan

Lebanon Israeli border/ Syria Iraq Kuwait Bahrain Oman Yemen

Government overthrown Sustained civil disorder and governmental changes governmental changes Major protests Minor protests

Protests and

[edit] Summary of protests by country

Country Date Status of started protests 18 Tunisia December Government 2010 overthrown on 14 January 2011 Ended in March 2011 Outcome Overthrow of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali; Ben Ali flees into exile in Saudi Arabia

Death toll 338[59]

Situation Government overthrown

Resignation of Prime Minister Ghannouchi Dissolution of the political police[55] Dissolution of the RCD, the former ruling party of Tunisia and liquidation of its assets[56] Release of political


Date started

Status of protests

Outcome prisoners[57]

Death toll


28 Ended in Algeria December January 2010 2012

Elections to a Constituent Assembly on 23 October 2011[58] Lifting of the 19-yearold state of 8[62] emergency[60][61] King Abdullah II dismisses Prime Minister Rifai and his cabinet[63] Months later, 1[65][66] Abdullah dismisses Prime Minister Bakhit and his cabinet after complaints of slow progress on promised reforms[64] 3[67]

Major protests

14 Jordan January 2011


Protests and governmental changes

Maurita nia

17 January 2011


Minor protests Minor protests

17 Sudan January 2011

Ended in March 2011

17 Oman January 2011

Ended in May 2011

Saudi Arabia

21 January 2011

Eastern Province protests ongoing, women's rights campaigns ongoing

President Bashir announces he will not [69] 1 seek another term in 2015[68] Economic concessions by Sultan Qaboos[70][71] Dismissal of ministers[72][73] 26[75][76][77] Granting of lawmaking powers to Oman's elected legislature[74] Economic concessions by King Abdullah[78][79] Male-only municipal elections held 29 September 2011[80][81] 10[83][84][85][86][87] King Abdullah announces women's approval to vote and be elected in 2015 municipal elections and to be nominated to the Shura Council[82]

Protests and governmental changes

Minor protests


Date started

Status of protests

Outcome Overthrow of Hosni Mubarak; Mubarak sentenced to life in prison for killing protesters[88]

Death toll


25 Egypt January 2011

Government overthrown on 11 February 2011 Protests ongoing

Resignation of Prime Minister(s) Nazif and Shafik[89] Assumption of power by the Armed Forces[90] Suspension of the Constitution, dissolution of the Parliament[91] Disbanding of State 841[98] Security Investigations Service[92] Dissolution of the NDP, the former ruling party of Egypt and transfer of its assets to the state[93] Prosecution of Mubarak, his family and his former ministers[94][95][96]

Government overthrown

Yemen 27 January 2011

31-year-old State of Emergency law lifted[97] Overthrow of Ali Abdullah 2,000[101] Government Saleh; Saleh granted overthrown immunity from prosecution on 27 February Resignation of Prime 2012 Minister Mujawar Resignation of MPs Protests from the ruling ongoing party[99] Approval of President's immunity from prosecution by Yemeni legislators[100]

Government overthrown

Presidential election held to replace Saleh as the new president of Yemen; Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi


Date started

Status of protests

Outcome elected and inaugurated Prime Minister Maliki announces that he will not run for a 3rd term;

Death toll



10 Ended in February December 2011 2011


14 Bahrain February Ongoing 2011

Resignation of provincial governors and local authorities[103] Economic concessions by King Hamad[105] Release of political prisoners[106] Negotiations with Shia representatives[107] GCC intervention at the request of the Government of 86[110] Bahrain Head of the National Security Apparatus removed from post[108]

Major protests

Sustained civil disorder and government changes

Formation of a committee to implement BICI report recommendations[109] Libya 17 Overthrow of Muammar 30,000[113] February Government Gaddafi; Gaddafi killed by 35,000[114] 2011 overthrown rebel forces on 23 August 2011 UN-mandated military intervention ended War ended with NATO on 23 withdrawal[111] October Opposition forces 2011 takes control of all Libyan cities Assumption of interim control by National Transitional Council International recognition of NTC as the sole governing authority for Libya

Government overthrown


Date started

Status of protests


Death toll


18 Ended in Kuwait February December 2011 2011

Beginning of sporadic low-level fighting and clashes[112] Resignation of Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed AlAhmed Al-Sabah[115] 0[117] Dissolution of the Parliament[116] Political concessions by King Mohammed VI;[118] Referendum on constitutional reforms; 1[120] Respect to civil rights and an end to corruption[119] 0

Protests and governmental changes

Morocc o

20 Ended in February November 2011 2011

Protests and governmental changes

26 Wester Ended in February n Sahara May 2011 2011 Syria 15 March Ongoing 2011 -

Minor protests Sustained civil disorder and government changes

Release of some 12,340 [121] political prisoners 17,760[130]-[131]


End of Emergency Law Dismissal of Provincial Governors[123][124] Military action in Hama, Daraa, Idlib, Homs and other areas[125] Battles between the Syrian government's army and the Free Syrian Army in many governorates such as Homs, Idlib, Daraa and others. Bombings in Damascus and Aleppo. Resignations from Parliament[126] Resignation of the Government[127]


Date started

Status of protests

Outcome Large defections from the Syrian army and clashes between soldiers and defectors[128] Formation of the Free Syrian Army Formation of the Syrian National Council[129] Syria suspended from the Arab League Support by 15 countries for a new Syrian government in exile 12

Death toll


Iranian 15 April Khuzestan 2011 Israeli 15 May border areas 2011

Ended in April 2011 Ended on 5 June 2011

3040[132][133] Syrian uprising causes tensions between Lebanese Sunni and Alawite communities, the tensions escalate to bloody clashes in May 44-45 2012. Protests concerning the kidnapping of the 13 Lebanese people in Syria.

Major protests Major protests

Lebano 17 May 2011


Sustained civil disorder

[edit] Background
[edit] Motivations

A commemorative logo for the Arab Spring which began on 18 December 2010. Numerous factors have led to the protests, including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy, human rights violations, government corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables),[134] economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors,[135] such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the population.[136] Also, some, like Slovenian philosopher Slavoj Zizek attribute the 2009 Iranian protests as one of the reasons behind the Arab Spring.[137] The catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries have been the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo.[138] Increasing food prices and global famine rates have also been a significant factor,[139][140] as they involve threats to food security worldwide and prices that approach levels of the 20072008 world food price crisis.[141] Amnesty International singled out Wikileaks' release of US diplomatic cables as a catalyst for the revolts.[142] In recent decades rising living standards and literacy rates, as well as the increased availability of higher education, have resulted in an improved human development index in the affected countries. The tension between rising aspirations and a lack of government reform may have been a contributing factor in all of the protests.[138][143][144] Many of the Internet-savvy youth of these countries have, increasingly over the years, been viewing autocrats and absolute monarchies as anachronisms. A university professor of Oman, Al-Najma Zidjaly referred to this upheaval as youthquake.[138] Tunisia and Egypt, the first to witness major uprisings, differ from other North African and Middle Eastern nations such as Algeria and Libya in that they lack significant oil revenue, and were thus unable to make concessions to calm the masses.[138] The relative success of the democratic Republic of Turkey, with its substantially free and vigorously contested but peaceful elections, fast-growing but liberal economy, secular constitution but (moderate) Islamist government, created a model (the Turkish model) if not a motivation for protestors in neighbouring states.[145]

[edit] Recent history

The current wave of protests is not an entirely new phenomenon, resulting in part from the activities of dissident activists as well as members of a variety of social and union organizations that have been active for years in Tunisia, Algeria, Egypt, and other countries in the area, as well as in the territory of Western Sahara.[146] Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts over the past three years, the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa in 2008, where protests continued for many months. These protests included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes, during which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests.[146][147] The Egyptian labor movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004.[148] One important demonstration was an attempted workers' strike on 6 April 2008 at the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kubra, just outside Cairo. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country, promoted by computer-literate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students.[148] A Facebook page, set up to promote the strike, attracted tens of thousands of followers. The government mobilized to break the strike through infiltration and riot police, and while the regime was somewhat successful in forestalling a strike, dissidents formed the "6 April Committee" of youths and labor activists, which became one of the major forces calling for the anti-Mubarak demonstration on 25 January in Tahrir Square.[148] In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. In February 2008, United States Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is 'unhappy' with long-standing political alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week; that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corrupt and fragile.[149] Some have claimed that during 2010 there were as many as '9,700 riots and unrests' throughout the country.[150] Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care, while others cited rampant corruption.[151] In Western Sahara, the Gdeim Izik protest camp was erected 12 km south-east of El Aain by a group of young Sahrawis on 9 October 2010. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses.[152] The camp contained between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, but on 8 November 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by Moroccan security forces. The security forces faced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians, and rioting soon spread to El Aain and other towns within the territory, resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths. Violence against Sahrawis in the aftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later, after the start of the Arab Spring.[153] The catalyst for the current escalation of protests was the self-immolation of Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi. Unable to find work and selling fruit at a roadside stand, on 17 December, a municipal inspector confiscated his wares. An hour later he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. His death on 4 January[154] brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others to begin the Tunisian Revolution.[146]

[edit] Tunisia

Protesters in downtown Tunis on 14 January 2011 Main article: Tunisian revolution Following the self-immolation of Mohamed Bouazizi in Sidi Bouzid, a series of increasingly violent street demonstrations through December 2010 ultimately led to the ouster of longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali on 14 January 2011. The demonstrations were preceded by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption,[155] lack of freedom of speech and other forms of political freedom,[156] and poor living conditions. The protests constituted the most dramatic wave of social and political unrest in Tunisia in three decades,[157][158] and have resulted in scores of deaths and injuries, most of which were the result of action by police and security forces against demonstrators. Ben Ali fled into exile in Saudi Arabia, ending his 23 years in power.[159]

Following Ben Ali's departure, a state of emergency was declared and a caretaker coalition government was created, which included members of Ben Ali's party, the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), as well as opposition figures from other ministries. However, the five newly appointed non-RCD ministers resigned almost immediately.[161][162] As a result of continued daily protests, on 27 January Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi reshuffled the government, removing all former RCD members other than himself, and on 6 February the former ruling party was suspended;[163] later, on 9 March, it was dissolved.[164] Following further public protests, Ghannouchi himself resigned on 27 February, and Beji Caid el Sebsi became Prime Minister. On 23 October 2011, citizens voted in the first post-revolution election to elect representatives to a 217-member constituent assembly that would be responsible for the new constitution.[165] The leading Islamist party, Ennahda, won over 40% of the vote, and managed to elect 42 women to the Constituent Assembly.[166] Despite the advent of democracy, in the six months immediately after Mohamed Bouazizi's death, at least 107 Tunisians self-immolated.

[edit] Egypt
Main article: 2011 Egyptian revolution See also: Timeline of the 2011 Egyptian revolution under Supreme Council of the Armed Forces

Celebrations in Tahrir Square after Omar Suleiman's statement concerning Hosni Mubarak's resignation Inspired by the uprising in Tunisia and prior to his entry as a central figure in Egyptian politics, potential presidential candidate Mohamed ElBaradei warned of a "Tunisia-style explosion" in Egypt.[167] Protests in Egypt began on January 25 and ran for 18 days. Beginning around midnight on January 28, the Egyptian government attempted, somewhat successfully, to eliminate the nation's Internet access[22], in order to inhibit the protesters' ability to organize through social media.[168] Later that day, as tens of thousands protested on the streets of Egypt's major cities, President Mubarak dismissed his government, later appointing a new cabinet. Mubarak also appointed the first Vice President in almost 30 years. On February 10, Mubarak ceded all presidential power to Vice President Omar Suleiman, but soon thereafter announced that he would remain as President until the end of his term.[169] However, protests continued the next day, and Suleiman quickly announced that Mubarak had resigned from the presidency and transferred power to the Armed Forces of Egypt.[170] The military immediately dissolved the Egyptian Parliament, suspended the Constitution of Egypt, and promised to lift the nation's thirty-year "emergency laws". A civilian, Essam Sharaf, was appointed as Prime Minister of Egypt on March 4 to widespread approval among Egyptians in Tahrir Square.[171] Protests continued through the end of 2011, however, in response to Sharaf and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces' perceived sluggishness in instituting reforms.[172] The current Prime Minister of Egypt is Kamal Ganzouri, who took over for 2nd term.

[edit] Libya

Thousands of demonstrators gather in Bayda Main article: Libyan civil war After the success of the revolution in Tunisia, a protest on living conditions began on 14 November in Bayda, Libya, where protesters clashed with police and attacked government offices.[173] Anti-government protests began in Libya on 15 February 2011. By 18 February, the

opposition controlled most of Benghazi, the country's second-largest city. The government dispatched elite troops and mercenaries in an attempt to recapture it, but they were repelled. By 20 February, protests had spread to the capital Tripoli, leading to a television address by Saif alIslam Gaddafi, who warned the protestors that their country could descend into civil war. The rising death toll, numbering in the thousands, drew international condemnation and resulted in the resignation of several Libyan diplomats, along with calls for the government's dismantlement.[174] On 26 December 2010, amidst ongoing efforts by demonstrators and rebel forces to wrest control of Tripoli from the Jamahiriya, the opposition set up an interim government in Benghazi to oppose Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's rule.[175][176] However, despite initial opposition success, government forces subsequently took back much of the Mediterranean coast. On 17 March, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 was adopted, authorising a nofly zone over Libya, and "all necessary measures" to protect civilians. Two days later, France, the United States and the United Kingdom intervened in Libya with a bombing campaign against pro-Gaddafi forces. A coalition of 27 states from Europe and the Middle East soon joined the intervention. The forces were driven back from the outskirts of Benghazi, and the rebels mounted an offensive, capturing scores of towns across the coast of Libya. The offensive stalled however, and a counter-offensive by the government retook most of the towns, until a stalemate was formed between Brega and Ajdabiya, the former being held by the government and the latter in the hands of the rebels. Focus then shifted to the west of the country, where bitter fighting continued. After a three-month-long battle, a loyalist siege of rebel-held Misrata, the third largest city in Libya, was broken in large part due to coalition air strikes. The four major fronts of combat were generally considered to be the Nafusa Mountains, the Tripolitanian coast, the Gulf of Sidra,[177] and the southern Libyan Desert.[178] In late August, anti-Gaddafi fighters captured Tripoli, scattering Gaddafi's government and marking the end of his 42 years of power. Many institutions of the government, including Gaddafi and several top government officials, regrouped in Sirte, which Gaddafi declared to be Libya's new capital.[179] Others fled to Sabha, Bani Walid, and remote reaches of the Libyan Desert, or to surrounding countries.[180][181] However, Sabha fell in late September,[182] Bani Walid was captured after a grueling siege weeks later,[183] and on 20 October, fighters under the aegis of the National Transitional Council seized Sirte, killing Gaddafi in the process.[184]

[edit] Yemen
Main article: 20112012 Yemeni revolution

Protests in Sana'a

Protests occurred in many towns in both the north and south of Yemen starting in mid-January. Demonstrators initially protested against governmental proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen, unemployment and economic conditions,[185] and corruption,[186] but their demands soon included a call for the resignation of President Ali Abdullah Saleh,[186][187][188] who had been facing internal opposition from his closest advisors since 2009.[189] A major demonstration of over 16,000 protesters took place in Sana'a on 27 January,[190] and soon thereafter human rights activist and politician Tawakel Karman called for a "Day of Rage" on 3 February.[191] According to Xinhua News, organizers were calling for a million protesters. [192] In response to the planned protest, Ali Abdullah Saleh stated that he would not seek another presidential term in 2013.[193] On 3 February, 20,000 protesters demonstrated against the government in Sana'a,[194][195] others participated in a "Day of Rage" in Aden[196] that was called for by Tawakel Karman,[191] while soldiers, armed members of the General People's Congress, and many protestors held a pro-government rally in Sana'a.[197] Concurrent with the resignation of Egyptian president Mubarak, Yemenis again took to the streets protesting President Saleh on 11 February, in what has been dubbed a "Friday of Rage".[198] The protests continued in the days following despite clashes with government advocates.[199] In a "Friday of Anger" held on 18 February, tens of thousands of Yemenis took part in anti-government demonstrations in the major cities of Sana'a, Taiz, and Aden. Protests continued over the following months, especially in the three major cities, and briefly intensified in late May into urban warfare between Hashid tribesmen and army defectors allied with the opposition on one side and security forces and militias loyal to Saleh on the other.[200] After Saleh pretended to accept a Gulf Cooperation Council-brokered plan allowing him to cede power in exchange for immunity only to back away before signing three separate times,[201][202] an assassination attempt on 3 June left him and several other high-ranking Yemeni officials injured by a blast in the presidential compound's mosque.[203] Saleh was evacuated to Saudi Arabia for treatment, but he handed over power to Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi, who has largely continued his policies[204] and ordered the arrest of several Yemenis in connection with the attack on the presidential compound.[203] While in Saudi Arabia, Saleh kept hinting that he could return any time and continued to be present in the political sphere through television appearances from Riyadh starting with an address to the Yemeni people on 7 July.[205] On 12 September, Saleh issued a presidential decree while still receiving treatment in Riyadh authorizing Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi to negotiate a deal with the opposition and sign the GCC initiative.[206] On 23 September 2011, three months since the assassination attempt, Saleh returned to Yemen abruptly, defying all earlier expectations.[207] Pressure on Saleh to sign the GCC initiative eventually led to his signing of it in Riyadh on 23 November, in which Saleh agreed to step down and set the stage for the transfer of power to his vice-president.[208] A Presidential election was then held on 21 February 2012, in which Hadi (the only candidate) got 99.8 percent of the vote.[209] Hadi then took the oath of office in Yemen's parliament on 25 February 2012.[210] By 27 February 2012, Saleh had resigned from the presidency and transferred power to his successor, marking the end of his 33-year rule.[211] During this period of unrest, Tawakul Karman was awarded 2011 Nobel Peace Prize for her role in supporting women rights and involvement in the Arab Spring.

[edit] Syria

Main article: 20112012 Syrian uprising A demonstration in the city of Idlib Protests in Syria started on 26 January 2011, when a police officer assaulted a man on public at "Al-Hareeka Street" in old Damascus. The man got arrested right after the assault. As a result, protesters called for the freedom of the arrested man. Soon a "day of rage" was set for 45 February, but it was uneventful.[212][213] On 6 March, the Syrian security forces arrested about 15 children in Daraa, in southern Syria, for writing slogans against the government. Soon protests erupted over the arrest and alleged mistreatment of the children. Daraa was to be the first city to protest against the Baathist regime, which has been ruling Syria since 1963.[214] Thousands of protestors gathered in Damascus, Aleppo, al-Hasakah, Daraa, Deir ez-Zor, and Hama on 15 March,[215][216][217] with recently released politician Suhair Atassi becoming an unofficial spokesperson for the "Syrian revolution".[218] The next day there were reports of approximately 3000 arrests and a few martyrs, but there are no official figures on the number of deaths.[219] On 18 April 2011, approximately 100,000 protesters sat in the central Square of Homs calling for the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad. Protests continued through July 2011, the government responding with harsh security clampdowns and military operations in several districts, especially in the north.[220] On 31 July, Syrian army tanks stormed several cities, including Hama, Deir Ez-Zour, AlBukamal, and Herak in Daraa. At least 136 people were killed in the most violent and bloody day since the uprising started.[221] By late November early December, the Baba Amr district of Homs fell under armed Syrian opposition control. By late December, the battles between the government's security forces and the rebel Free Syrian Army intensified in Idlib Governorate. Cities in Idlib and neighborhoods in Homs and Hama began falling into the control of the opposition, during this time military operations in Homs and Hama ceased and stopped. By mid-January the FSA gained control over Zabadani and Madaya. By late January, the Free Syrian Army launched a full-scale attack against the government in Rif Dimashq, where they took over Saqba, Hamoreya, Harasta and other cities in Damascus's Eastern suburbs. On 29 January, the fourth regiment of the Syrian Army led by the president's brother Maher al-Assad and the Syrian Army digged in Damascus, and the fighting continued where the FSA was 8 km away from the Republican palace in Damascus. Fighting broke out near Damascus international airport, but by the next day the Syrian government deployed the Republican Guards. The military gained the upper hand and regained all land the opposition gained in Rif Dimashq by early February. On 4 February, the Syrian Army launched a massive bombardment on Homs and committed a huge massacre, killing 500 civilians in one night in Homs. By mid-February, the Syrian army regained control over Zabadani and Madaya. In late February, Army forces entered Baba Amro after a big military operation and heavy fighting. Following this, the opposition forces began losing neighborhoods in Homs to the Syrian Army including al-Insaat, Jobr, Karm el-Zaytoon and only Homs's old neighborhood's, including al-Khalidiya, remained in opposition hands.

By March 2012, the government began military operations against the opposition in Idlib Governorate including the city of Idlib, which fell to the Army by mid-March. Saraqab and Sarmin were also recaptured by the government during the month. Still, at this time, the opposition managed to capture Al Qusayr and Rastan. Heavy fighting also continued in several neighborhoods in Homs and in the city of Hama. The FSA also started to conduct hit-and-run attacks in the pro-Assad Aleppo Governorate, which they were not able to do before. Heavy-tosporadic fighting was also continuing in the Daraa and Deir ez-Zor Governorates. By late April 2012, despite a cease-fire being declared in the whole country, sporadic fighting continued, with heavy clashes specifically in Al-Qusayr, where rebel forces controlled the northern part of the city, while the military held the southern part. FSA forces were holding onto Al-Qusayr, due to it being the last major transit point toward the Lebanese border. A rebel commander from the Farouq Brigade in the town reported that 2,000 Farouq fighters had been killed in Homs province since August 2011. At this point, there were talks among the rebels in Al-Qusayr, where many of the retreating rebels from Homs city's Baba Amr district had gone, of Homs being abandoned completely.

[edit] Bahrain
Main article: 20112012 Bahraini uprising

More than 17% of Bahraini citizens[222] taking part in a pro-democracy march on 22 February 2011. The protests in Bahrain started on 14 February, and were initially aimed at achieving greater political freedom and respect for human rights; they were not intended to directly threaten the monarchy.[5][223](pp162-3) Lingering frustration among the Shiite majority with being ruled by the Sunni government was a major root cause, but the protests in Tunisia and Egypt are cited as the inspiration for the demonstrations.[5][223](p65) The protests were largely peaceful until a pre-dawn raid by police on 17 February to clear protestors from Pearl Roundabout in Manama, in which police killed four protesters.[223](pp73-4) Following the raid, some protesters began to expand their aims to a call for the end of the monarchy.[224] On 18 February army forces opened fire on protesters when they tried to reenter the roundabout, fatally wounding one.[223](pp77-8) The

following day protesters reoccupied Pearl Roundabout after the government ordered troops and police to withdraw.[225][223](p81) Subsequent days saw large demonstrations; on 21 February a progovernment Gathering of National Unity drew tens of thousands,[223](p86)[226] whilst on 22 February the number of protestors at the Pearl Roundabout peaked at over 150,000 after more than 100,000 protesters marched there.[223](p88) On 14 March, Saudi-led GCC forces were requested by the government and entered the country,[223](p132) which the opposition called an "occupation".[227] King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa declared a three-month state of emergency on 15 March and asked the military to reassert its control as clashes spread across the country.[228][223](p139) On 16 March, armed soldiers and riot police cleared the protesters' camp in the Pearl Roundabout, in which 3 policemen and 3 protesters were reportedly killed.[223](pp133-4)[229] Later, on 18 March, the government tore down Pearl Roundabout monument.[230][223](pp150) After the lifting of emergency law on 1 June,[231] several large rallies were staged by the opposition parties.[232] Smaller-scale protests and clashes outside of the capital have continued to occur almost daily.[233][234] On 9 March 2012 over 100,000 protested in what the opposition called "the biggest march in our history".[235][236] The police response has been described as a "brutal" crackdown on peaceful and unarmed protestors, including doctors and bloggers.[237][238][239] The police carried out midnight house raids in Shia neighbourhoods, beatings at checkpoints, and denial of medical care in a "campaign of intimidation".[240][241][242][243] More than 2,929 people have been arrested,[145][244] and at least five people died due to torture while in police custody.[223](p287,288) On 23 November 2011 the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry released its report on its investigation of the events, finding that the government had systematically tortured prisoners and committed other human rights violations.[223](pp415-422) It also rejected the government's claims that the protests were instigated by Iran.[245] Although the report found that systematic torture had stopped,[223](pp417) the Bahraini government has refused entry to several international human rights groups and news organizations, and delayed a visit by a UN inspector.[246][247]

[edit] Lebanon
[edit] Protests

"The Laique pride" rally in Beirut Central District, Lebanon In 2011, in Lebanon, hundreds of protesters rallied in Beirut on 27 February in a march referred to as "The Laique pride", calling for reform of the country's confessional political system. At the same time, a peaceful sit-in took place in Saida.[248] On 13 March, tens of thousands of supporters of the 14 March Alliance called for the disarmament of Hezbollah in

Beirut, rejecting the supremacy of Hezbollah's weapons over political life. They also showed support for the U.N.-backed Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) after the fall of the Hariri government and the creation of the Mikati government.[249]

[edit] Sectarian clashes

Main article: 2012 conflict in Lebanon The Syrian Uprising also has leaked over the border into Lebanon.[250] The 2012 conflict in Lebanon relates to violent sectarian clashes between pro-Asad, mostly Alawite militants, and anti-Asad, largely Sunni Lebanese armed militias, throughout Lebanon. In May of 2012, the conflict expanded across most of Lebanon, linked to the revolt in neighbouring Syria, escalating from previous sectarian clashes in Tripoli, Northern Lebanon in June 2011 and February 2012. Since May 2012, dozens died in the clashes and hundreds were wounded.

[edit] Concurrent incidents

Concurrent with the events in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Syria and Bahrain, protests flared up in other parts of the region, some becoming violent, some facing strong suppression efforts, and some resulting in political changes.

[edit] Algeria
Main article: 20102012 Algerian protests

8 January 2011 protests in Algeria. On 29 December, protests began in Algiers over the lack of housing, quickly escalating to violent confrontations with the police. At least 53 people were reported injured and another 29 arrested.[251] From 1219 January, a wave of self-immolation attempts swept the country, beginning with Mohamed Aouichia, who set himself on fire in Bordj Menaiel in protest at his family's housing. On 13 January, Mohsen Bouterfif set himself on fire after a meeting with the mayor of Boukhadra in Tebessa, who had been unable to offer Bouterfif a job and a house. Bouterfif reportedly died a few days later, and about 100 youths protested his death, resulting in the mayor's dismissal by the provincial governor. At least ten other self-immolation attempts were reported that week.[252] On 22 January, the RCD party organised a demonstration for democracy in Algiers, and though illegal under the State of Emergency enacted in 1992, it was attended by about 300 people. The demonstration was suppressed by police, with 42 reported injuries. On 29 January, at least ten thousand people marched in the northeastern city of Bjaa.

In an apparent bid to stave off unrest, President Abdelaziz Bouteflika announced on 3 February that the 19-year state of emergency would be lifted,[254] a promise fulfilled on 22 February, when Algeria's cabinet adopted an order to lift the state of emergency.[255][256] Bouteflika said on 15 April that he would seek revisions to the country's constitution as part of a broad push for democratic reforms.[257] In January 2012, protests flared up again in the southern city of Laghouat, over housing and treatment of the elderly by police. The police used tear gas to disperse the protesters.[258][259] Algeria's major Islamist parties announced a coalition ahead of parliamentary elections. A leader of the Movement of Society for Peace called for more opposition parties to join the alliance "to give the best possible chance for the Arab Spring to happen in Algeria as well".[260]

[edit] Djibouti
Main article: 2011 Djiboutian protests On 3 February, demonstrations began when about three hundred people protested peacefully against President Ismail Omar Guelleh in Djibouti City, urging him to not run for another term; the protesters further asked for more liberty as well as for political and social reform.[261] Protests soon increased, however, as thousands rallied against the president, many vowing to remain at the site until their demands were met. On 18 February, an estimated 30,000 Dijiboutians protested in central Djibouti City against the president, maintaining that the constitutional change of the previous year, which allowed him a third term, was illegal. The demonstration escalated into clashes with the police, and at least two persons were killed and many injured when police used live ammunition and teargas against the protesters.[262] On 19 and 24 February, protest leaders were arrested and after they failed to turn up on the 24th, opposition leader Bourhan Mohammed Ali stated he feared the protests had lost momentum.[262] The last protest was planned for 11 March, but security forces stopped the protest and detained 4 opposition leaders. No protests or planned protests have occurred since.

[edit] Iraq
Main article: 2011 Iraqi protests In an effort to prevent unrest, Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki announced that he would not run for a third term in 2014.[263] Nevertheless, hundreds of protesters gathered in several major urban areas (notably Baghdad and Karbala) on 20 February, demanding a more effective approach to national security, to the investigation of federal corruption cases, as well as increased government involvement in making public services fair and inaccessible.[264][265][266] In response, the government promised to subsidize electricity costs.[267] Israel's Haaretz reported that a 31-year-old man in Mosul died from self-immolation, while protesting high unemployment. Haaretz also reported a planned 'Revolution of Iraqi Rage' to be held on 25 February near the Green Zone.[268] On 16 February, up to 2,000 protesters took over a provincial council building in the city of Kut. The protesters demanded that the provincial governor resign because of the lack of basic services such as electricity and water. As many as three people were killed and 30 injured.[citation needed] On 24 February, Hawijah, Mosul, and Baghdad featured violent protests.[citation needed]

[edit] Israeli border areas

Main article: 2011 Israeli border demonstrations See also: ArabIsraeli conflict

Free Palestine rally in Cairo Palestinians used Facebook to call for mass protests throughout the region on 15 May 2011, the 63rd annual commemoration of the Palestinian exodus, locally known as Nakba Day.[269][270] A page calling for a "Third Palestinian Intifada" to begin on 15 May garnered more than 350,000 "likes" before being taken down by Facebook managers at the end of March after complaints from the Israeli government that the page encouraged violence.[271] The page called for mass marches to Palestine from Egypt, Lebanon, Syria and Jordan to commemorate the Nakba and demand the right of return for all Palestinian refugees.[272] Palestinians from Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the Gaza Strip and the West Bank attempted to reach and cross the Israeli border. However, they were all stopped and 12 were killed in clashes with Israeli security forces. Lebanese security forces also made efforts, including the use of live fire according to some reports, to stop protesters from approaching the Israeli border. Almost 300 people were injured, including 13 Israeli soldiers. There were also clashes across East Jerusalem.[273] On 5 June, 23 Syrian demonstrators were killed and over a hundred injured by Israeli troops after attempting to enter the Israeli-held part of the Golan Heights.[274][275][276] "Anyone who tries to cross the border will be killed," Israeli soldiers warned through megaphones as people waving Palestinian flags streamed towards the frontier. When protesters tried to cut the razor wire several meters short of the frontier fence, Israeli troops opened fire. Several people were seen being carried away on stretchers.[277] In the aftermath, thousands began a sit-in near the frontier,[278] resulting in Syrian security forces creating a security buffer zone to prevent more demonstrators from approaching the border.[274] Lebanese President Michel Sleiman accused Israel of genocide over the incident,[279] UN High Commissioner on Human Rights Navanethem Pillay condemned the Israel Defense Forces' use of force against unarmed, civilian protesters, [280] and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party called for an international response to the incident, calling it a "massacre".[281] An Israeli military spokeswoman called the violence "an attempt to divert international attention from the bloodbath going on in Syria."[275] Michael Weiss, a spokesperson for Just Journalism, claimed that he had received leaked Syrian state documents showing that the Syrian government organized the Nakba Day protests to draw attention away from the uprising in Syria proper.[282] US State Department spokesman Mark Toner said the U.S. believes President Bashar Assad's government was actively supporting the Palestinian protests near the Israeli border.[283]

[edit] Jordan

Main article: 20112012 Jordanian protests On 14 January, protests commenced in the capital Amman, as well as at Ma'an, Al Karak, Salt, Irbid, and others. The protests, led by trade unionists and leftist parties, occurred after Friday prayers, and called for the government of Prime Minister Samir Rifai to step down.[284] The Muslim Brotherhood and 14 trade unions said that they would hold a sit-down protest outside parliament the next day to "denounce government economic policies".[285] Following the protest, the government reversed a rise in fuel prices,[286] but 5,000 protested on 21 January in Amman despite this effort to alleviate Jordan's economic misery.[287] On 1 February, the Royal Palace announced that King Abdullah had dismissed the government on account of the street protests, and had asked Marouf al-Bakhit, a former army general, to form a new Cabinet.[288] King Abdullah charged Bakhit to "take quick, concrete and practical steps to launch a genuine political reform process". The monarch added that the reforms should put Jordan on the path "to strengthen democracy", and provide Jordanians with the "dignified life they deserve".[289] This move did not end protests, however, which peaked with a rally of between 6,000 and 10,000 Jordanians on 25 February.[290] A protest camp led by students calling for democratic reforms was established on 24 March in Gamal Abdel Nasser Circle in downtown Amman,[291] but at least one person was killed and over 100 injured the next day after pro-government vigilantes clashed with the protesters in the camp, forcing police to intervene. [292] These clashes and belated police interventions have become a hallmark of the Jordanian protests, with a major rally in central Amman planned for 15 July being derailed by belligerent regime supporters.[293] As of November 2011, protests are ongoing. Under pressure from street demonstrations, Parliament called for the ouster of the Bakhit government. King Abdullah duly sacked Bakhit and his cabinet and named Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh to head the new government on 17 October.[49]

[edit] Kuwait
Main article: 2011 Kuwaiti protests Protests by stateless Bedouins began in January and February, concurrent with many protests in the region.[294][295] By June, protests grew in size from dozens to hundreds.[296] Thousands protested in September,[297] and in October, oil workers went on strike.[298] Protests continued into October, with the largest demonstrations since the start of the unrest early in the year.[299][300] In response, Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah said the protests were "going too far" and threatened a security crackdown.[301] Late on 16 November, protesters occupied the National Assembly of Kuwait for several minutes and rallied in nearby Al-Erada Square.[302] Emir Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah called the brief occupation "an unprecedented step on the path to anarchy and lawlessness".[303]

The largest political protest in Kuwaiti history was scheduled for 28 November to pressure the prime minister to resign, but he and his cabinet submitted their resignation to the emir hours ahead of it. Late November, the emir selected Defense Minister Sheik Jaber Al Hamad Al Sabah as the new prime minister, replacing the long-serving Sheik Nasser Al Mohammad Al

Sabah, who had survived several no-confidence votes in parliament and was the target of opposition groups calling for his dismissal.[305]

[edit] Morocco
Main article: 2011 Moroccan protests In early February 2011, protests were held in Rabat, Fez and Tangier in solidarity with the Egyptian revolution. Subsequently, a day of protest in favour of Moroccan constitutional reform and social justice was planned for 20 February and advertised on social networking sites.[306][307] Among the demands of the organisers was that the constitutional role of the king should be "reduced to its natural size".[308] The interior minister Taib Cherkaoui affirmed the right of the protests to take place. On 20 February, around 37,000 people participated in demonstrations across Morocco, according to government sources. Some protests were marred by violence and damage to property. In Al Hoceima, five people died after protesters set fire to a bank.[309] On 26 February, a further protest was held in Casablanca.[310] On 9 March, in a live televised address, King Mohammed announced that he would begin a comprehensive constitutional reform aimed at improving democracy and the rule of law. He promised to form a commission to work on constitutional revisions, which would make proposals to him by June, after which a referendum would be held on the draft constitution.[311] On 20 March, a further protest was held in Casablanca to mark the end of the first month since the original 20 February demonstrations and to maintain pressure for reform. Protesters, numbering 20,000, demanded the resignation of a number of senior politicians, including the prime minister, Abbas El Fassi, who they regarded as corrupt.[312] On the same day, around 6,000 people demonstrated in Rabat.[313] In June, a referendum was held on changes to the constitution, which became law on 13 September. Some protesters felt that the reforms did not go far enough. On 18 September, 3,000 people demonstrated in Casablanca and 2,000 in Tangier, demanding an end to the king's roles as head of the army and of religious affairs.[314] In October, around 50 imams protested in Rabat against state control of their activities.[315] Elections were held on the basis of the new constitution in November 2011, with electoral lists reserved for young and female candidates and with the post of prime minister, previously an appointment of the king, being decided by the outcome of the vote.[316]

[edit] Oman
Main article: 2011 Omani protests

Protesters set ablaze Lulu Hypermarket in Sohar, Oman on 28 February 2011 In the Gulf country of Oman, 200 protesters marched on 17 January 2011, demanding salary increases and a lower cost of living. The protest shocked some journalists, who generally view Oman as a 'politically stable and sleepy country'.[317] Renewed protests occurred on 18 February, with 350 protesters demanding an end to corruption and better distribution of oil revenue.[318] Some protesters also carried signs with slogans of support for the Sultan.[319] On 26 February, protesters in Sohar called for more jobs.[320] On the following day, tensions escalated with protesters burning shops and cars.[321] The police responded using tear gas to contain and disperse the crowds of protesters.[322] Demonstrations also spread to the region of Salalah, where protesters had reportedly been camping outside the provincial governor's house since 25 February.[322][323] In Sohar, witnesses claimed that two protesters were killed when police fired rubber bullets to disperse the crowds.[75][76][77][324] Witnesses further reported that protesters burnt a police station as well as the Wali's house (where the representative of the Sultan to Sohar stays).[325] The Omani protesters insisted that they were not challenging the rule of Sultan Qaboos, who has been in power since 1970, but were merely calling for jobs and reform.[326] The protesters even apologized to the Sultan for allowing violence rattle the city of Sohar on 28 February 2011.[327] The Sultan continued with his reform campaign by dissolving the Ministry of National Economy, setting up a state audit committee, granting student and unemployment benefits, dismissing scores of ministers, and reshuffling his cabinet three times.[328] In addition, nearly 50,000 jobs are being created in the public sector, including 10,000 new jobs in the Royal Oman Police.[329]) The Omani Ministry of Manpower has furthermore directed various companies (both private and public) to formulate their own employment plans. The Royal Army of Oman has also initiated employment drives by publishing recruitment advertisements in newspapers, etc.[330] The government's efforts largely placated protesters, and Oman has not seen significant demonstrations since May 2011, when increasingly violent protests in Salalah were subdued.[331]

[edit] Saudi Arabia

Main article: 20112012 Saudi Arabian protests

Poster for the Saudi Arabia's women to drive movement, artwork by Carlos Latuff.

Protests started with a 65-year-old man's self-immolation in Samtah, Jizan on 21 January[83] and protests of a few hundred people in late January in Jeddah[332][333] and several times throughout February and early March in the cities of Qatif, al-Awamiyah, Riyadh, and Hofuf.[334][335] One of the main online organisers of a planned 11 March "Day of Rage",[336][337][338] Faisal Ahmed Abdul-Ahad[339] (or Abdul-Ahadwas[84]), was alleged to have been killed by Saudi security forces on 2 March,[84][340] by which time one of the Facebook groups discussing the plans had over 26,000 members.[341] Small protests over labor rights took place in April 2011 in front of government ministry buildings in Riyadh, Taif and Tabuk.[342][343][344] Protests, made up mainly of Shia protestors,[345] [346][347] occurred in Qatif and smaller cities in the Eastern Province such as al-Awamiyah, and Hofuf grew stronger in April and May,[335][348][349][350] continuing through 2011. The protestors called for the release of prisoners, for the Peninsula Shield Force to be withdrawn from Bahrain, [351][352] for equal representation in key offices and for reforms in political positions, as they feel marginalised.[353] Four protestors were killed by Saudi authorities in late November protests and funerals.[85] The protests continued into early 2012[354][355] and Issam Mohamed Abu Abdallah was shot dead by security forces in al-Awamiyah on 12[86] or 13[356] January, leading to a 70,000 strong funeral[357] and several days of protests with slogans chanted against the House of Saud and Minister of Interior, Nayef, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia.[358][359][360] Montazar Sa'eed alAbdel was shot dead on 26 January.[87] Women organised a Facebook women's suffrage campaign called "Baladi", stating that Saudi Arabian law gives women electoral rights.[361] In April 2011, women in Jeddah, Riyadh and Dammam tried to register as electors for the 29 September municipal elections despite officials stating that women could not participate.[361][362] In May and June, Manal al-Sharif and other women organised a women's right-to-drive campaign, with the main action to take place on 17 June. Al-Sharif drove a car in May and was detained on 22 May and from 2330 May.[363][364] [365] From 17 June to late June, about seventy cases of women driving were documented.[366][367] [368] In late September, Shaima Jastania was sentenced to 10 lashes for driving in Jeddah, shortly after King Abdullah announced women's participation in the 2015 municipal elections and eligibility as Consultative Assembly members; King Abdullah overturned the sentence.[369][370]

[edit] Sudan
Main article: 2011 Sudanese protests On 30 January 2011, protests took place in Khartoum and Al-Ubayyid.[371] In Khartoum, police clashed with demonstrators in the town centre and at least two universities. Demonstrators had organized on online social networking sites since the Tunisian protests the month before. Hussein Khogali, editor in chief of the Al-Watan newspaper stated that his daughter had been arrested for organizing the protest via Facebook and opposition leader Mubarak al-Fadil's two sons were arrested while on their way to the main protest. Pro-government newspapers had warned that protests would cause chaos.[372] Some protesters called for President Omar al-Bashir to step down. Activists said that dozens of people had been arrested. The protests came on the same day the preliminary results for the referendum indicated some 99% of South Sudanese voted to secede.[373] One student died in hospital the same night from injuries received in the clashes.[374] Students threw rocks at police officers while chanting "No to high prices, no to corruption" and "Tunisia, Egypt, Sudan together as one." Police officers arrested five and put down the protest.[375]

In the Al-Ubayyid (el-Obeid) 30 January demonstration, about 500 people protested "against the government and demanding change" in the market. Police broke up the demonstration using tear gas.[371] On 1 February 2011, about 200 students demonstrated[376] in front of Al-Neelain University in Khartoum. Police stopped the demonstration.[377]Further protests, scheduled for 21 March, were violently suppressed as they were beginning. On 1 November, hundreds of protesters took to the streets in the eastern town of Kassala.

[edit] Others
In Iranian Khuzestan - according to Saudi Al Arabiya,[378] Lebanese Yalibnan,[379] the Guardian,[380] there were large scale protests, declared as "Day of Rage" by Ahvaz Arab minority,[379][381] in the city of Ahvaz - capital of the Khuzestan province, and the nearby town of Hamidieh. The protests marked six years since the violent 2005 Ahvaz unrest.[381] The protesters were "demanding more rights and humanitarian benefits", as well as independence.[378] The Revolutionary Guard Corps used tear gas to disperse the demonstrations, while using live bullets in some neighborhoods.[379] Al-Arabiya reported that when the protests began, the city was blockaded by Iranian security forces, who "broke up demonstrations by force" and that "15 people from Ahwaz have been killed and dozens have been wounded".[378] The Guardian puts the casualty rate at 12 dead Arabic-speaking Sunnis, based on Shirin Ebadi's letter to the UN.

In Mali, after the end of the Libyan civil war, an influx of weaponry led to the arming of the Tuaregs of Mali in their demand for independence for the Azawad.[382] Many of the returnees from Libya were said to have come back for financial reasons such as losing their savings, as well as due to the alleged racism of the NTC's fighters and militias.[383] The strength of this uprising and the use of heavy weapons, which were not present in the previous conflicts, were said to have "surprised" Malian officials and observers.[384] Though dominated by Tuaregs, the MNLA claims to represent other ethnic groups as well,[385] and has reportedly been joined by some Arab leaders.[386] In response to the MLNA declaration of independence in Azawad, the FLNA announced its formation on 8 April 2012. It claims to constitute about 500 fighters. The FLNA reportedly is dominated by Arabs from the Timbuktu Region. The group is led by Secretary-General Mohamed Lamine Ould Sidatt, an elected representative of the TimbuktuNord constituency in the Malian parliament and its military chief Housseine Khoulam, a defected lieutenant-colonel from the Malian army. In Mauritania, Yacoub Ould Dahoud, a protester, burned himself near the Presidential Palace on 17 January, in opposition to the policies of Mauritanian president Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz[387] The following week, hundreds of people took to the streets of the capital Nouakchott. The mayor of the city of Aoujeft, Mohamed El Moctar Ould Ehmeyen Amar, resigned from the ruling party to politically support what he called "the just cause of youngsters".[388] In addition to the capital Noukchott, cities such as Atar, Zouerate, and Aleg also organised sporadic protests.[389] Despite minor economic concessions by the authorities, on 25 April protesters again took to the streets to call for the resignation of the prime-minister, Moulaye Ould Mohamed Laghdaf.[390] In the United Arab Emirates, a group of intellectuals petitioned their ruler for comprehensive reform of the Federal National Council, including demands for universal suffrage. About 160 people signed the petition, many of whom were academics and former

members of the FNC.[391] On 12 April, Ahmed Mansoor, a prominent blogger and prodemocracy activist, was charged with possession of alcohol. According to his lawyer, two other men, a blogger and a political commentator, were detained a few days earlier, a charge denied by the police.[392] In May, the government started expanding its network of surveillance cameras, as a preventive measure against revolts.[393] In June, Mansoor and four other reform activists, including an economics professor, Nasser bin Gaith,[394] pleaded not guilty to insulting the ruling family, endangering national security and inciting people to protest, after being charged.[395] On 13 November they began a hunger strike,[396] while on 27 November they were sentenced, Ahmed Mansoor receiving three years in prison, while the others being sentenced to two-year jail terms, only to be pardoned the following day.[394] In the Palestinian National Authority, the Palestinian government prevented demonstrations in support of protesters in Tunisia and Egypt. On 3 February, Palestinian police dispersed an anti-Mubarak demonstration in downtown Ramallah, detaining four people, confiscating a cameraman's footage, and reportedly beating protesters. A smaller pro-Mubarak demonstration was permitted to take place in the same area and was guarded by police.[397] On 15 October, an anti-Assad protest expressing solidarity with Palestinian refugees in Syria affected by the unrest there took place in the Gaza Strip, and was attended by 150 people. Hamas police forces dispersed the demonstration, claiming that it was held without a permit.[398] On 1 February, the Palestinian Authority announced that it would hold municipal elections in July. The Israeli newspaper Haaretz reported that this announcement was a reaction to the antigovernment protests in Egypt. The elections were postponed to 22 October, then suspended indefinitely due to an internal division within the Palestinian Authority over candidates for many of the municipalities and councils, and fears that Hamas supporters would back Palestinian Authority opponents.[399] On 14 February, amid pan-Arab calls for reform, Palestinian Authority Prime Minister Salam Fayyad submitted his resignation along with that of his cabinet to President Mahmoud Abbas.[400] After consultations with other factions, institutions, and civil society groups, Abbas asked him to form a new government.[401] The reshuffle had long been demanded by Fayyad as well as members of Abbas's Fatah faction.[401] In Western Sahara, young Sahrawis held a series of minor demonstrations to protest labour discrimination, lack of jobs, looting of resources, and human rights abuses.[152] Although protests from February 2011 onward were related to a series of Sahrawi demonstrations outside El Aaiun that originated in October 2010 and died down the following month, protesters cited inspiration from the events in other parts of the region. Noam Chomsky viewed the October protests as the starting point from which 'the current wave of protests actually began'.[402]

[edit] Analysis
[edit] Ethnic scope
Many analysts, journalists, and involved parties have focused on the protests as being a uniquely Arab phenomenon, and indeed, protests and uprisings have been strongest and most wide-reaching in majority-Arabic-speaking countries, giving rise to the popular moniker of Arab Springa play on the so-called 1968 Prague Spring, a democratic awakening in what was then communist Czechoslovakiato refer to protests, uprisings, and revolutions in those states. [403][404][405] However, the international media has also noted the role of minority groups in many of these majority-Arab countries in the revolts.

In Tunisia, the country's small Jewish minority was initially divided by protests against Ben Ali and the government, but eventually came to identify with the protesters in opposition to the regime, according to the group's president, who described Jewish Tunisians as "part of the revolution".[406][407] While many in the Coptic minority in Egypt had criticized the Mubarak government for its failure to suppress Islamic extremists who attack the Coptic community, the prospect of these extremist groups taking over after its fall caused most Copts to avoid the protests, with then-Pope Shenouda III of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria calling for them to end.[408] The international media pointed to a few Copts who joined the protests.[409][410] Owing to the fact that the uprisings and revolutions erupted first in North Africa before spreading to Asian Arab countries, and that the Berbers of Libya[411] participated massively in the protests and fightings under Berber identity banners, some Berbers in Libya often see the revolutions of North Africa, west of Egypt, as a reincarnated Berber Spring.[412][413][414] In Morocco, through a constitutional reform, passed in a national referendum on 1 July, among other things, Amazigha standardized version of the three Berber languages of Moroccowas made official alongside Arabic.[415] During the civil war in Libya, one major theater of combat was the western Nafusa Mountains, where the indigenous Berbers took up arms against the regime while supporting the revolutionary National Transitional Council, which was based in the majority-Arab eastern half of the country.[416][417] In northern Sudan, hundreds of non-Arab Darfuris joined anti-government protests,[418] while in Iraq and Syria, the ethnic Kurdish minority has been involved in protests against the government,[419][420] including the Kurdistan Regional Government in the former's Kurdishmajority north, where at least one attempted self-immolation was reported.[421][422][423]

[edit] Impact of the Arab Spring

Main article: Impact of the Arab Spring The regional unrest has not been limited to countries of the Arab world. The early uprisings in North Africa were inspired by the 20092010 uprisings in the neighboring state of Iran;[424][425] these are considered by many commentators to be part of a wave of protest that began in Iran, moved to North Africa, and has since gripped the broader Middle Eastern and North African regions, including additional protests in Iran in 20112012.[426] In the countries of the neighboring South Caucasusnamely Armenia,[427] Azerbaijan,[428] and Georgia[429]as well as some countries in Europe, including Albania,[430] Croatia,[431] and Spain; [432] countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Burkina Faso,[433] Djibouti,[434] and Uganda;[435][436] and countries in other parts of Asia, including the Maldives[437] and the People's Republic of China,[438] demonstrators and opposition figures claiming inspiration from the examples of Tunisia and Egypt have staged their own popular protests. The bid for statehood by Palestine at the UN on 23 September 2011 is also regarded as drawing inspiration from the Arab Spring after years of failed peace negotiations with Israel. In the West Bank, schools and government offices were shut to allow demonstrations backing the UN membership bid in Ramallah, Bethlehem, Nablus and Hebron; echoing similar peaceful protests from other Arab countries.[439] The 15 October 2011 global protests and the Occupy Wall Street movement, which started in the United States and has since spread to Asia and Europe, drew direct inspiration from the

Arab Spring, with organizers asking U.S. citizens "Are you ready for a Tahrir moment?"[440] The protesters have committed to using the "revolutionary Arab Spring tactic" to achieve their goals of curbing corporate power and control in Western governments.[441] Also, the Occupy Nigeria protests beginning the day after Goodluck Jonathan announced the scrap of the fuel subsidy in oil-rich Nigeria on 1 January 2012, were motivated by the Arab people.[442]

[edit] International reactions

Main article: International reactions to the Arab Spring Protests in many countries affected by the Arab Spring have attracted widespread support from the international community, while harsh government responses have generally met condemnation.[443][444][445][446] In the case of the Bahraini, Moroccan, and Syrian protests, the international response has been considerably more nuanced.[447][448][449][450] Some critics have accused Western governments, including those of France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, of hypocrisy in the way they have reacted to the Arab Spring. [451] Noam Chomsky accused the Obama administration of endeavoring to muffle the revolutionary wave and stifle popular democratization efforts in the Middle East.[452] The International Monetary Fund said oil prices were likely to be higher than originally forecast due to unrest in the Middle East and North Africa, major regions of oil production.[453] Kenan Engin, a German-Turkish political scientist, identified the new uprising in Arab and Islamic countries as the "fifth wave of democracy" because of evident features qualitatively similar to the "third wave of democracy" in Latin America that took place in the 1970s and 1980s.[454][455]

[edit] Effect of Social Media on the Arab Spring

The importance of the role of social media on the Arab uprisings has been largely debated[456] . Some say that social media was the main instigator of the uprisings, while others claim that it was merely a tool. Either way, the perception of social media has changed; its role in the uprisings has demonstrated to the world its power[457] . Such information allowed the world to stay updated with the protests and facilitated organizing protests. Nine out of ten Egyptians and Tunisians responded to a poll that they used Facebook to organize protests and spread awareness[458] . Furthermore, 28% of Egyptians and 29% of Tunisians from the same poll said that blocking Facebook greatly hindered and/or disrupted communication. Further evidence that suggests an important role of social media on the uprisings is that social media use more than doubled in Arab countries during the protests. The graph depicting the data collected by the Dubai School of Government illustrates this sharp increase in Internet usage. The only discrepancy in the trend is with the growth rate in Libya[459]. The report proposes a reasonable argument that explains such discrepancy: many Libyans fled the violence, and therefore moved their social media usage elsewhere.

This influx of social media usage indicates the kind of people that were essentially powering the Arab Spring. Young people fueled the revolts of the various Arab countries by using the new generations abilities of social networking to release the word of uprising to not only other Arab nations, but nations all over the world. As of April 5th, 2011 the amount of Facebook users in the Arabian nations surpassed 27.7 million people[460], indicating that the constant growth of people connected via social media acted as an asset where communication was concerned. Different sorts of media such as image and video were also used to portray the information. Images surfaced that showed current events, which illustrated what was going on within the Arabian nations. The visual media that spread throughout the Internet depicted not only singular moments, but showed the Arabian nations history, and the change that was to come.[461] Through social media, the ideals of rebel groups, as well as the current situations in each country received international attention. It is still debated whether or not social media acted as a primary catalyst for the Arab Spring to gain momentum and become an internationally recognized situation, but either way, it still played a role in the movement.

[edit] See also

Middle East portal Africa portal Politics portal Social movements portal 2010s portal

Arab Revolt: uprising by Arabs against the Ottoman Empire during World War I (1916 18) Freedom in the World List of freedom indices List of modern conflicts in the Middle East List of modern conflicts in North Africa List of ongoing military conflicts 2011 Israeli social justice protests Spring (political terminology) Revolutions of 1989: began with changes in Poland and eventually led to the dissolution of the Soviet Union Revolutions of 1848: Series of popular rebellions beginning with the French Revolution of 1848, then spreading throughout Europe. Also known as the Spring of Nations. People Power Revolution: became the inspiration of the Revolutions of 1989

[edit] References
1. ^ "Tunisia's Ben Ali flees amid unrest". Al Jazeera. 15 January 2011.

2. ^ Peterson, Scott (11 February 2011). "Egypt's revolution redefines what's possible in the Arab world". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 3. ^ Spencer, Richard (23 February 2011). "Libya: civil war breaks out as Gaddafi mounts rearguard fight". The Daily Telegraph (London). -civil-war-breaks-out-as-Gaddafi-mounts-rearguard-fight.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 4. ^ Bakri, Nada; Goodman, J. David (28 January 2011). "Thousands in Yemen Protest Against the Government". The New York Times. 5. ^ a b c "Protester killed in Bahrain "Day of Rage"". Reuters. 14 February 2011. 6. ^ "'It Will Not Stop': Syrian Uprising Continues Despite Crackdown". Der Spiegel. 28 March 2011.,1518,753517,00.html. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 7. ^ "Algeria protest draws thousands". CBC News. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 8. ^ McCrummen, Stephanie (25 February 2011). "13 killed in Iraq's 'Day of Rage' protests". The Washington Post (Baghdad). Retrieved 12 June 2011. 9. ^ "Thousands protest in Jordan". Al Jazeera. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 10. ^ "Kuwaiti stateless protest for third day". Middle East Online. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 11. ^ "Morocco King on holiday as people consider revolt". Afrol. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 12. ^ "Lebanon: Protests against Sectarian Political System". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 13. ^ Vaidya, Sunil (27 February 2011). "One dead, dozen injured as Oman protest turns ugly". Gulf News. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 14. ^ "Man dies after setting himself on fire in Saudi Arabia". BBC News. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2011. 15. ^ "Sudan opposition leader arrested". Press TV. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2011. 16. ^ "New clashes in occupied Western Sahara". Afrol. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 17. ^ Donnison, Jon (16 May 2011). "Palestinians emboldened by Arab Spring". BBC News (Ramallah). Retrieved 2012-02-27. 18. ^ [1]

19. ^ "Mali coup: Arab Spring spreads to Africa". 26 March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012. 20. ^ "Deadly Clashes in Lebanon Linked to Syria". Wall Street Journal. 2 June 2012. ?mod=googlenews_wsj. Retrieved 2 June 2012. 21. ^ "The Arab Uprising's Cascading Effects". 23 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 22. ^ a b Dainotti et al. (2011). "Analysis of Country-wide Internet Outages Caused by Censorship". ACM. pdf. 23. ^ "Many wounded as Moroccan police beat protestors". Reuters UK. Reuters. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 24. ^ "Syria's crackdown". The Irish Times. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 25. ^ "Bahrain troops lay siege to protesters' camp". CBS News. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 26. ^ "Syria clampdown on protests mirrors Egypt's as thugs join attcks". Ahram Online. 19 April 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 27. ^ Almasmari, Hakim (16 March 2011). "Yemeni government supporters attack protesters, injuring hundreds". The Washington Post (Sanaa). Retrieved 12 June 2011. 28. ^ Parks, Cara (24 February 2011). "Libya Protests: Gaddafi Militia Opens Fire On Demonstrators". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 29. ^ Abulof, Uriel (10 March 2011). "What Is the Arab Third Estate?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 30. ^ Hardy, Roger (2 February 2011). "Egypt protests: an Arab spring as old order crumbles". BBC. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 31. ^ Ashley, Jackie (8 March 2011). "The Arab spring requires a defiantly European reply". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 9 March 2011. 32. ^ "Arab Spring Who lost Egypt?". The Economist. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 33. ^ Miller, Aaron. "What Is Palestines Next Move In The New Middle East?". Moment Magazine. Moment Magazine. Retrieved 5/6/2011. 34. ^. 35. ^ . 36. ^ "The Arab awakening reaches Syria". The Economist. 37. ^ . 38. ^ "Democracy's hard spring". The Economist. 10 March 2011. 39. ^ Fahim, Kareem (22 January 2011). "Slap to a Man's Pride Set Off Tumult in Tunisia". The New York Times. pagewanted=1&_r=1&src=twrhp. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 40. ^ Noueihed, Lin (19 January 2011). "Peddler's martyrdom launched Tunisia's revolution". Reuters UK. Reuters. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 41. ^ Raghavan, Sudarsan (27 January 2011). "Inspired by Tunisia and Egypt, Yemenis join in anti-government protests". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 42. ^ "Yemenis square off in rival 'Day of Rage' protests work=Arab News". 3 February 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011. 43. ^ "Police in south Yemen disperse 'day of rage' protests". Google News. Agence France-Presse (Aden, Yemen). 11 February 2011. 5eg. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 44. ^ "Bahrain moves to foil anti-government rallies". Washington Post. 13 February 2011. 45. ^ "Party: Bashir is not standing for re-election". Gulf Times. 22 February 2011. cu_no=2&item_no=417637&version=1&template_id=37&parent_id=17. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 46. ^ "Iraq PM plans no re-election". Voice of Russia. 5 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 47. ^ "Iraq angered protesters call for Maliki resignation". Al Sumaria. 26 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 48. ^ "Jordanians stage anti-gov't sit-in in Amman". Xinhua. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 49. ^ a b "Jordan's king 'appoints new prime minister'". Al Jazeera. 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 50. ^ "Jordan king appoints new PM, government quits". Reuters. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.

51. ^ Mounassar, Hammoud (27 January 2011). "Thousands of Yemenis call on president to quit". ABS-CBN News. Agence France-Presse (Sanaa). Retrieved 14 January 2012. 52. ^ "Arab protests attract Nobel interest". News24. Oslo. 31 January 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 53. ^ "TIME's Person of the Year 2011". Time. Retrieved 2012-01-20. 54. ^ 55. ^ "Tunisia forms national unity government amid unrest". BBC News. 17 January 2011. 56. ^ "Tunisia dissolves Ben Ali party". Al Jazeera. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 57. ^ Beaumont, Peter (19 January 2011). "Tunisia set to release political prisoners". The Guardian (London). 58. ^ "Tunisia election delayed until 23 October". Reuters. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 59. ^ "Report: 338 killed during Tunisia revolution". The Associated Press. 5 May 2012. 60. ^ "Algeria's state of emergency is officially lifted". Bloomberg. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2011. 61. ^ "Algeria repeals emergency law". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 62. ^ Krause, Flavia (27 January 2011). "Obama Poised to Step Up Criticism of Mubarak If Crackdown Is Intensified". Bloomberg. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 63. ^ Blomfield, Adrian (1 February 2011). "King Abdullah II of Jordan sacks government amid street protests". The Telegraph (London). 64. ^ Derhally, Massoud A. (17 October 2011). "Jordans King Appoints PM After Cabinet Resigns". Bloomberg. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 65. ^ " ." :| : 12 Retrieved 28 October 2011. 66. ^ "Jordan protest turns violent". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 67. ^ "Mauritania's Bouazizi died today". 23 January 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.

68. ^ "Sudan's Bashir will not stand in next election: party official". BBC News. Agence France-Press. 21 February 2011. 69. ^ McDoom, Opheera (31 January 2011). "Sudanese student dies after protestsactivists". Reuters UK. Reuters. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 70. ^ "Oman takes measures to address public grievances". Khaleej Times. 27 February 2011. xfile=data/middleeast/2011/February/middleeast_February780.xml&section=middleeast . Retrieved 6 March 2011. 71. ^ "Oman boosts student benefits". Google News. Agence France-Presse. l0paLw?docId=CNG.29a2ebdaf178435a5e82e857cf4725de.ac1. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 72. ^ "Oman shuffles cabinet amid protests". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 73. ^ "Oman's ruler dismisses ministers". Al Jazeera. 5 March 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011. 74. ^ "Oman's Sultan Granting Lawmaking Powers to Councils". Voice of America. 13 March 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 75. ^ a b Surk, Barbara. "Police in Oman fire tear gas, rubber bullets at protesters seeking political reform; 1 killed". Google News. Canadian Press. D6gzNoIxvkoqFMg?docId=6083540. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 76. ^ a b "Deaths in Oman protests". Al Jazeera. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 77. ^ a b "Oman clashes: Two killed during protests in Gulf state". BBC News. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 78. ^ "Saudi King Boosts Spending, Returns to Country". Voice of America. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 79. ^ "King's order to benefit 180,000 temporary employees". Arab News. 28 February 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011. 80. ^ al-Suhaimy, Abeed (23 March 2011). "Saudi Arabia announces municipal elections". Asharq al-Awsat. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 81. ^ Abu-Nasr, Donna (28 March 2011). "Saudi Women Inspired by Fall of Mubarak Step Up Equality Demand". Bloomberg L.P.. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 82. ^ "Saudis vote in municipal elections, results on Sunday". Oman Observer. Agence France-Presse. 30 September 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-12-14. Retrieved 14 December 2011.

83. ^ a b "Man dies after setting himself on fire in Saudi Arabia". BBC News. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 84. ^ a b c "Report: Saudi Facebook activist planning protest shot dead". Monsters and Critics. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 2 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2 March 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 85. ^ a b "Saudi Arabia: Renewed Protests Defy Ban". Human Rights Watch. 30 December 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-01-06. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 86. ^ a b "Saudi forces clash with protesters in Qatif". Al Jazeera. 13 January 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 87. ^ a b "Saudi forces kill another protester". Press TV. 27 January 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2012-01-27. 88. ^ "Egypt's Mubarak sentenced to life in prison". Newsday. 2 June 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012. 89. ^ "Egypt's prime minister quits, new govt soon-army". Retrieved 5 March 2011. 90. ^ Egypt's Mubarak Steps Down; Military Takes Over, The Wall Street Journal, 11 February 2011. 91. ^ "Egypt's military moves to dissolve parliament, suspend constitution". Haaretz. Reuters. 13 February 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 92. ^ "Egyptian state security disbanded". Al Jazeera. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 93. ^ Egypt dissolves former ruling party 94. ^ "Al-Ahram Weekly | Egypt | How the mighty have fallen". Ahram. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 95. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D.; Stack, Liam (13 March 2011). "Prosecutors Order Mubarak and Sons Held". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 April 2011. 96. ^ "Mubarak to be tried for murder of protesters". Reuters. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 97. ^ ts-state-of-emergency-ends-after-31-years.html

98. ^ "Egypt group documents 841 deaths in 2011 uprising". CBS News. Associated Press. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 99. ^ Yemen MPs resign over violence, Al Jazeera, 23 February 2011. 100. ^ Kasinof, Laura (2012-1-21). "Yemen Legislators Approve Immunity for the President". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-1-21. 101. ^ Yemen says more than 2,000 killed in uprising 102. ^ "Iraqi prime minister won't run for third term". MSNBC. 5 February 2001. 103. ^ "Governor of third Iraqi province quits over protests". The Gulf Today. 27 February 2011. 104. ^ McCrummen, Stephanie (26 February 2011). "Iraq 'Day of Rage' protests followed by detentions, beatings". The Washington Post. 105. ^ "Bahrain's king gives out cash ahead of protests". Reuters. 11 February 2011. 106. ^ Bahrain's king to free political prisoners as protests continue, Monsters and Critics, 22 February 2011. 107. ^ Bahrain sacks ministers amid protests, Press TV, 26 February 2011. 108. ^ "Still rich but no longer so calm". The Economist. 3 December 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 109. ^ "Bahrain creates panel to study unrest report". Al Jazeera. 27 November 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 110. ^ Check Casualties of the 20112012 Bahraini uprising for comprehensive list 111. ^ "NATO Withdrawal from Libya". New Europe. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011. 112. ^ "Fighters clash again near Tripoli, several dead". Reuters. 12 November 2011. 113. ^ "Residents flee Gaddafi hometown". Sydney Morning Herald. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 114. ^ Laub, Karin (8 September 2011). "Libyan estimate: At least 30,000 died in the war". San Francisco Chronicle. Associated Press. Retrieved 9 September 2011. 115. ^ "Kuwait Government resigns". Business Week. 28 November 2011. 116. ^ "Kuwait to hold early general election on 2 February". Google News. Agence France-Presse. 18 December 2011. XTHg?docId=CNG.fad80dffc69b5105a37f43fbbaedadfd.261l.

117. ^ "30 wounded in Kuwait protests on Friday". MSN. 118. ^ Moroccan king to make reforms with constitutional body, Middle East Online, 22 February 2011; 119. ^ Karam, Souhail (20 March 2011). "Thousands in Morocco march for rights". The Independent (London). 120. ^ Miller, David (7 June 2011). "Demonstrator's death energizes Moroccan protesters". The Jerusalem Post. id=224033. Retrieved 11 June 2011. 121. ^ "Syrian activist Haitham al-Maleh freed under amnesty". BBC News. 8 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 122. ^ "Syria frees 80-year-old former judge in amnesty". Reuters. 8 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011. 123. ^ "Unrest continues in Syria". Al Bawaba. 23 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 124. ^ "Assad attempts to appease minority Kurds". Al Jazeera. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 125. ^ "Syrian army 'attacks protest city of Deraa'". BBC. 25 April 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 126. ^ "2011 Syrian protests: Security forces shoot at mourners". BBC News. 23 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 127. ^ "Syrian cabinet resigns amid unrest". 29 March 2011. 128. ^ "Syrian army units 'clash over crackdown'". Al Jazeera. 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2011. 129. ^ Yezdani, Ipek (23 August 2011). "Syrian dissidents form national council". Miami Herald. Retrieved 24 August 2011. 130. ^ Syria: Bodies of 23 'extreme torture' victims found in Idlib as thousands rally for Assad 131. ^ "One year later, Syria still boiling". 15 March 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2012. 132. ^ "Syria says 23 dead as Israel opens fire on Golan". France 24. Agence FrancePresse. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 133. ^ "UN's Pillay condemns Israeli 'Naksa' killings". Al Jazeera. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 134. ^ Cockburn, Alexander (1820 February 2011). "The Tweet and Revolution".

135. ^ Korotayev A, Zinkina J (2011). "Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis". Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinar 13: 139165. 136. ^ "Demographics of the Arab League, computed by Wolfram Alpha". 137. ^ "Ahmadinejad row with Khamenei intensifies". Al Jazeera. 6 May 2011. 138. ^ a b c d Reverchon, Antoine; de Tricornot (13 April 2011). "La rente ptrolire ne garantit plus la paix sociale".[dead link] 139. ^ Clemens Breisinger, Olivier Ecker and Perrihan Al-Riffai. 2011. Economics of the Arab awakening Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) 140. ^ The Other Arab Spring 7 April 2012 Thomas L. Friedman New York Times Op Ed 141. ^ Javid, Salman Ansari (27 January 2011). "Arab dictatorships inundated by food price protests". Tehran Times. code=234768. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 142. ^ Peter Walker Amnesty International hails WikiLeaks and Guardian as Arab spring 'catalysts', in The Guardian, Friday 13 May 2011 143. ^ Maleki, Ammar (9 February 2011). "Uprisings in the Region and Ignored Indicators". 144. ^ franchon, Alain (18 February 2011). "Rvolte de la place Tahrir et "consensus de Pkin"". 145. ^ a b Is Turkey the best model for Arab democracy?| by Mark LeVine|| 19 September 2011 146. ^ a b c 147. ^ "Tunisian government faces growing dissent in mining region". 4 August 2008. p_product=NewsLibrary&p_multi=BBAB&d_place=BBAB&p_theme=newslibrary2& p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct0=122601958BA022A0&p_field_direct0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 148. ^ a b c "Labor movement drives Egypt, Tunisia protests". The Detroit News. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 149. ^ Ford, Robert (19 December 2007). An ailing and fragile Algerian regime drifts into 2008. WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable:07ALGIERS1806. Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011. 150. ^ Chikhi, Lamine (21 January 2011). "Algeria army should quit politics: opposition". Reuters Africa. Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 January 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2011. 151. ^ Belhimer, Mahmoud (17 March 2010). "Political Crises but Few Alternatives in Algeria". Arab Reform Bulletin (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace). Retrieved 13 February 2011.

152. ^ a b "Mass exodus" from Western Sahara cities. Afrol News, 21 October 2010. 153. ^ "Saharawi protests, violence and blackmail Moroccan". On the News. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 154. ^ "Tunisia suicide protester Mohammed Bouazizi dies". BBC News. 5 January 2011. 155. ^ Spencer, Richard (13 January 2011). "Tunisia riots: Reform or be overthrown, US tells Arab states amid fresh riots". Telegraph (London). isia-riots-US-warns-Middle-East-to-reform-or-be-overthrown.html. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 156. ^ Ryan, Yasmine. "Tunisia's bitter cyberwar". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 157. ^ "Tunisia's Protest Wave: Where It Comes From and What It Means for Ben Ali". Foreign Policy. 3 January 2011. mes_from_and_what_it_means_for_ben_ali. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 158. ^ Borger, Julian (29 December 2010). "Tunisian president vows to punish rioters after worst unrest in a decade". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 29 December 2010. 159. ^ Davies, Wyre (15 December 2010). "Tunisia: President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali forced out". BBC News. Retrieved 14 January 2011. 160. ^ "Uprising in Tunisia: People Power topples Ben Ali regime". Indybay. 16 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 161. ^ "Tunisia announces withdrawal of 3 ministers from unity gov't: TV". People's Daily. 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 162. ^ "Protests hit Tunisia amid mourning". Al Jazeera. 21 January 2011. Archived from the original on 21 January 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2011. 163. ^ "Tunisian minister suspends ex-ruling party". MSNBC. Associated Press. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 164. ^ "Tunisia disbands party of ousted president". USA Today. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011. 165. ^ Cunningham, Erin. "Tunisia elections seen as litmus test for Arab Spring". Global Post. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 166. ^ Deeter, Jessie. "Post-Revolution Tunisia attempts painful transition to democracy.". Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Retrieved 16 February 2012.

167. ^ Shenker, Jack (20 January 2011). "Warning Egypt could follow Tunisia". The Age (Australia). 168. ^ "Egypt: AP Confirms Government has Disrupted Internet Service". Retrieved 28 January 2011. 169. ^ "Egypt's Mubarak refuses to quit, hands VP powers". MyWay. Associated Press. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 170. ^ Bly, Laura (11 February 2011). "Sharm el-Sheikh resort in world spotlight as Egypt's Mubarak flees Cairo". USA Today. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 171. ^ Wan, William; Walker, Portia (4 March 2011). "In Egypt, crowd cheers newly appointed prime minister Essam Sharaf". The Washington Post (Cairo). Retrieved 20 July 2011. 172. ^ "EGYPT: Protests continue but activists divided over goals". The Los Angeles Times. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 173. ^ ElBaradei, Mohamed; Weaver, Matthew (16 January 2011). "Muammar Gaddafi condemns Tunisia uprising". The Guardian (UK). 174. ^ "HIGHLIGHTS Libyan TV address by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi". Reuters India. Reuters (Rabat). 21 February 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 175. ^ "Ex Libyan minister forms interim govt-report". LSE. 26 February 2011. ArticleCode=77c8l0riig2uluz&ArticleHeadline=Ex_Libyan_minister_forms_interim_go vtreport. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 176. ^ Hazelton, Liz (24 February 2011). "Exodus Tripoli: Libyan rebels seize control of third major city as thousands of foreigners battle to flee 'hell'". The Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 177. ^ Blomfield, Adrian (6 July 2011). "Rebels wage a secret night-time war on the streets of Tripoli". The Vancouver Sun. id=5061000&sponsor=. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 178. ^ Levinson, Charles (20 July 2011). "Rebels Move Toward Gadhafi Stronghold". Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved 12 August 2011. 179. ^ "From voice said to be Gadhafi, a defiant message to his foes". CNN. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.

180. ^ "Gaddafi loyalists flee Sebha to Niger". News24. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011. 181. ^ "Rebels to seek return of Gaddafi family from Algeria". Reuters. 29 August 2011. 182. ^ "NTC captured Sabha as loyalists flee to Niger". Hurriyet Daily News. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 183. ^ "Libya conflict: NTC forces claim Bani Walid victory". BBC News. 17 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 184. ^ "Qaddafi dead after Sirte battle, PM confirms". CBS News. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011. 185. ^ "Protests erupt in Yemen, president offers reform". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 11 January 2011. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 186. ^ a b "Yemen protests: 'People are fed up with corruption'". BBC News. 27 January 2011. 187. ^ Bakri, Nada (27 January 2011). "Thousands in Yemen Protest Against the Government". The New York Times. 188. ^ Bryan, Angie (28 December 2009). Yemeni tribal leader: for Saleh, Saudi involvement in Sa'ada comes not a moment too soon. WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable:09SANAA2279. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 189. ^ "Yemenis urge leader's exit". Al Jazeera. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 190. ^ "Yemenis in anti-president protest". The Irish Times. 27 January 2011. 191. ^ a b "New protests erupt in Yemen". Al Jazeera. 29 January 2011. Archived from the original on 30 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011. 192. ^ "Yemen reinforces forces around capital amid fear of protest escalation". Xinhua News. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 193. ^ Sudam, Mohamed (2 February 2011). "Yemeni president signals he won't stay beyond 2013". Reuters. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 194. ^ Daragahi, Borzou (3 February 2011). "Yemen, Middle East: Tens of thousands stage rival rallies in Yemen". Los Angeles Times.,0,7940190.story. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 195. ^ Sinjab, Lina (29 January 2011). "Yemen protests: 20,000 call for President Saleh to go". BBC News. Retrieved 4 February 2011.

196. ^ "Opposing protesters rally in Yemen". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 197. ^ "Saleh partisans take over Yemen protest site". Oneindia News. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 198. ^ Lubin, Gus (11 February 2011). "YEMEN: Protests revived in 'Friday of Rage'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 199. ^ Lubin, Gus (15 February 2011). "Protests rage in Yemen, Bahrain; Iran hardliners want foes executed". Los Angeles Times.,0,1700622.story. Retrieved 16 February 2011. 200. ^ Johnston, Cynthia (26 May 2011). "Analysis: Yemen civil war likely without swift Saleh exit". Reuters. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 201. ^ Hatem, Mohammed (23 April 2011). "Yemen's Saleh Agrees to Step Down in Exchange for Immunity, Official Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 202. ^ "Yemeni Peace Process Collapses". The Australian. 2 May 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011. 203. ^ a b "Several Arrested in Yemen for Alleged Role in an Assassination Attempt on Saleh". Fox News. 13 June 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 204. ^ Leyne, Jon (5 June 2011). "Yemen crisis: One-way ticket for Saleh?". BBC News. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 205. ^ Al Qadhi, Mohammed (8 July 2011). "Saleh appears on Yemen TV, bandaged and burnt". The National. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 206. ^ "Yemen president authorizes deputy to negotiate power transfer". CNN World. 12 September 2011. _s=PM:WORLD. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 207. ^ "Yemen President Ali Abdullah Saleh returns to Sanaa". BBC News. 23 September 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 208. ^ "Yemeni President Saleh signs deal on ceding power". BBC News. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011. 209. ^ 210. ^ hAA?docId=d81c7ba86a754e5892ed53ccc049bd4b 211. ^ CcyVA?docId=CNG.12cc0199ecc6457c2d2a25874218f73d.691

212. ^ "'Day of rage' protest urged in Syria". MSNBC. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 213. ^ ""Day of Rage" planned for Syria; protests scheduled for Feb 45". Retrieved 3 February 2011. 214. ^ Daraa: The spark that lit the Syrian flame 215. ^ "Fresh Protests Erupt in Syria". Epoch Times. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 216. ^ " ." Al Arabiya. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 217. ^ " ." Sawt Beirut. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 218. ^ " ." BBC. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 219. ^ " ." Sawt Beirut. Retrieved 16 March 2011. 220. ^ Amos, Deborah (15 July 2011). "In Syria, Opposition Stages Massive Protests". National Public Radio. Retrieved 18 July 2011. 221. ^ Wemple, Erik (2 August 2011). "Syria's Ramadan massacre". The Washington Post. 222. ^ "General Tables". Bahraini Census 2010. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 223. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Report of the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry". BICI. 224. ^ "Bahrain mourners call for end to monarchy". The Guardian. 18 February 2011. 225. ^ "Day of transformation in Bahrain's 'sacred square'". BBC News. 19 February 2011. 226. ^ "Bangladeshis complain of Bahrain rally 'coercion'". BBC News. 17 March 2011. 227. ^ "Gulf States Send Force to Bahrain Following Protests". BBC News. 14 March 2011. Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 228. ^ "Bahrain declares state of emergency after unrest". Reuters. 15 March 2011. 229. ^ "Curfew Follows Deadly Bahrain Crackdown Curfew Enforced, Several Dead and Hundreds Injured as Security Forces Use Tanks and Helicopters To Quash Protest". Al Jazeera English. 16 March 2011. Archived from the original on 14 April 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2011. 230. ^ "Bahrain authorities destroy Pearl Roundabout". The Daily Telegraph. 18 March 2011. 231. ^ "Bahrain sees new clashes as martial law lifted". The Guardian. 1 June 2011. 232. ^ "Thousands rally for reform in Bahrain". Reuters. 11 June 2011. 233. ^ "Bahrain live blog 25 Jan 2012". Al Jazeera. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 234. ^ "Heavy police presence blocks Bahrain protests". Al Jazeera. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012. 235. ^ "Bahrain protesters join anti-government march in Manama". BBC. 9 March 2012. 236. ^ "Mass pro-democracy protest rocks Bahrain". Reuters. 9 March 2012. 237. ^ Law, Bill (6 April 2011). "Police Brutality Turns Bahrain Into 'Island of Fear'. Crossing Continents (via BBC News). Retrieved 15 April 2011. 238. ^ Press release (30 March 2011). "USA Emphatic Support to Saudi Arabia". Zayd Alisa (via Scoop). Retrieved 15 April 2011. 239. ^ Cockburn, Patrick (18 March 2011). "The Footage That Reveals the Brutal Truth About Bahrain's Crackdown Seven Protest Leaders Arrested as Video Clip Highlights Regime's Ruthless Grip on Power". The Independent. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 240. ^ Wahab, Siraj (18 March 2011). "Bahrain Arrests Key Opposition Leaders". Arab News. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 241. ^ Law, Bill (22 March 2011). "Bahrain Rulers Unleash 'Campaign of Intimidation'". Crossing Continents (via BBC News). Retrieved 15 April 2011. 242. ^ (registration required) "UK Bahrain Union Suspends General Strike". Financial Times. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2011. 243. ^ Chick, Kristen (1 April 2011). "Bahrain's Calculated Campaign of Intimidation Bahraini Activists and Locals Describe Midnight Arrests, Disappearances, Beatings at Checkpoints, and Denial of Medical Care All Aimed at Deflating the Country's Pro-Democracy Protest Movement". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 244. ^ Applying pressure on Bahrain, 9 May 2011, Retrieved 9 May 2011 245. ^ "Bahrain protesters join anti-government march in Manama". BBC. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 246. ^ "Report: Doctors targeted in Bahrain". Al Jazeera. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011. 247. ^ "Bahrain delays U.N. investigator, limits rights group visits". Reuters. 1 March 2012. 248. ^ "Lebanese protest against sectarian political system". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011.

249. ^ Dakroub, Hussein (14 March 2011). "The second Cedar Revolution". The Daily Star (Lebanon). edition_ID=1&article_ID=125963&categ_id=2. Retrieved 15 March 2011. 250. ^ "Middle East | Huge Beirut protest backs Syria". BBC News. 8 March 2005. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 251. ^ "Scores hurt in Algeria protests". Al Jazeera. 30 December 2010. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 252. ^ Hges, Clemens; Zand, Bernhard; Zuber, Helene (25 January 2011). "Arab Rulers Fear Spread of Democracy Fever". Der Spiegel.,1518,741545-2,00.html. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 253. ^ "Thousands in Algeria protest march: organisers". Google News. Agence France-Presse. YWhzQ?docId=CNG.4f79fd54def547db7a5c9f08426c8b87.d51. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 254. ^ "Algeria to lift emergency powers". Al Jazeera. 3 February 2011. 255. ^ Ersan, Inal (22 February 2011). "Algeria Government Approves Lifting of State of Emergency". Bloomberg L.P.. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 256. ^ "Algeria repeals emergency law". Al Jazeera. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 257. ^ Faucon, Benot (16 April 2011). "Algeria Leader Vows to 'Reinforce' Democracy". The Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved 15 April 2011. 258. ^ "10 injured, several arrested in Algeria protests". Google News. Retrieved 13 January 2012. 259. ^ "Anger at squalid housing unleashes Algeria protest". Reuters. 12 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012. 260. ^ Ouali, Aomar (26 February 2012). "Algerian Islamists agree on alliance ahead of vote". The Huffington Post/The Associated Press. Retrieved 26 February 2012. 261. ^ "People in Djibouti protest against President Gelleh". Somaliland Press. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 262. ^ a b "Mass arrests stopped further Djibouti protests". 27 February 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 263. ^ "Eye on unrest, Iraq PM says he won't seek 3rd term". MyWay. Associated Press. Retrieved 8 February 2011.

264. ^ Sly, Liz (13 February 2011). "Egyptian revolution sparks protest movement in democratic Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 265. ^ "Protesters In Iraqi Cities Demand Better Social Services, Corruption Probes". Retrieved 12 February 2011. 266. ^ "Iraqis anger spelled out in street protests". Retrieved 12 February 2011. 267. ^ "Iraq subsidises power after protests over services". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 12 February 2011. 268. ^ "Iraq man dies of self-immolation to protest rising unemployment". Retrieved 13 February 2011. 269. ^ "Persistence will pay off for Palestinians". A Times. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 270. ^ "Syrian infiltrator recounts journey to TA". 18 May 2011.,7340,L-4069686,00.html. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 271. ^ "Facebook page supporting Palestinian intifada pulled down". CNN. 29 March 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 272. ^ "Egyptians to mark Nakba with a march to the Palestinian territories". Ahram. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 273. ^ Guez, Jack (14 May 2011). "Bloodshed along Israel borders kills 12 on Nakba Day". Google News. Agence France-Presse (Majdal Shams). Retrieved 14 January 2012. 274. ^ a b "Syria blocks new protest at Israeli border". Boston Herald. 6 June 2011. ks_new_border_protest_toll_rises_to_23/srvc=home&position=recent. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 275. ^ a b "'Israeli Forces Kill 23 Protesters' On Border". Sky News. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 276. ^ "Golan Heights death toll disputed". RT News. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 277. ^ Stewart, Catrina (6 June 2011). "Israeli troops kill 14, including 12-year-old boy, as protesters bid for border". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 278. ^ "Press Digest". Lebanon Daily Star. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 279. ^ "Israel committed genocide: Sleiman". Saudi Telegraph. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011.

280. ^ "Condemning killing of Golan Heights protesters, UN rights chief calls for inquiries". United Nations News Centre. 7 June 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 281. ^ "SSNP condemns Israeli 'massacre' in Golan". NOW Lebanon. 5 June 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 282. ^ Weiss, Michael (13 June 2011). "Breaking: Syrian state documents 'show Assad orchestrated Nakba Day raids on Golan Heights'". The Telegraph (London). Retrieved 27 January 2012. 283. ^ [full citation needed]Huffington Post. 284. ^ "Jordanians march against inflation". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 15 January 2011. 285. ^ McDevitt, Johnny (15 January 2011). "Jordanians protest against soaring food prices". The Guardian (London). 286. ^ Andoni, Lamis (16 January 2011). "To the tyrants of the Arab world ...". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 18 January 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 287. ^ al-Khalidi, Suleiman (21 January 2011). "Thousands of Jordanians protest economic conditions". Reuters. Retrieved 21 January 2011. 288. ^ "Jordan's Royal Palace says king sacks government in wake of street protests". Associated Press. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011. 289. ^ Derhally, Massoud A (1 February 2011). "Jordan's King Abdullah Replaces Prime Minister". Bloomberg. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 290. ^ "Middle East protests: Jordan sees biggest reform rally". BBC News. 25 February 2011. 291. ^ "Protest camp set up in Jordan capital". Al Jazeera. 24 March 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 292. ^ "Clashes break out at Jordan anti-government protest". BBC News. 25 March 2011. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 293. ^ "Pro-Reform Protesters Attacked in Jordan's Capital". ABC News. Associated Press (Amman). 15 July 2011. id=14079315#.TxIOx3HWScs. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 294. ^ "Video Stateless Arabs stage demonstration in Kuwait to demand citizenship". Wall Street Journal.

demonstrate-in-kuwait/CAE0DC2D-AFEA-4036-BD8E-FCE980F21B9B.html? mod=WSJ_Article_Videocarousel_1. Retrieved 2012-01-20. 295. ^ "Clashes in Bahrain before planned protest rally". Fox News. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 296. ^ "Kuwaitis protest, demand prime minister resign". Reuters Africa. Reuters. 3 June 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 297. ^ "Kuwait Protesters in Porsches Say Gulf Cant Spend Way Out of Arab Spring- Bloomberg". Bloomberg. 6 October 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 298. ^ "Kuwait warns strikers; vows disruption-free oil exports". Arab News. Associated Press (Kuwait City). 11 October 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 299. ^ "Kuwait Holds Biggest Protest Demanding Premiers Ouster". Businessweek. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 300. ^ "Opposition calls for ouster of PM, dissolution of parliament". The Times. UK. 7 April 2007. ab/73/t/Opposition-calls-for-ouster-of-PM-dissolution-of-parliament/Default.aspx. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 301. ^ "From Kuwait Times: Protests, strikes cannot be tolerated, warns PM". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 302. ^ Baker, Aryn (17 November 2011). "Storming Kuwait's Parliament: What's Behind the Latest Arab Revolt?". Time. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 303. ^ Gladstone, Rick (17 November 2011). "Kuwait Tightens Security After Protest in Parliament". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 304. ^ "Kuwait slams parliament protests as 'unprecedented' step to 'anarchy'". CNN. 17 November 2011. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 305. ^ "Kuwait's prime minister resigns after protests". BBC News. 28 November 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 306. ^ Karam, Souhail (3 February 2011). "Morocco government plays down call for protests". Reuters. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 307. ^ "Moroccan government fears outbreak of mass protests". 3 February 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2011. 308. ^ Tremlett, Giles (19 February 2011). "Morocco: King's Power in Spotlight as Desperate Youth Prepare to Test Morocco's Claims to Liberalism: Mohammed VI is

Outwardly Revered but Rage Against his Cronies' Greed is Growing". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 11 May 2011. 309. ^ "Le bilan des manifestations au Maroc s'lve cinq morts et 128 blesss". 9 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011. 310. ^ "Casablanca catches protest fever". Herald Sun. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2011. 311. ^ "Moroccan monarch pledges reform". Al Jazeera. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 312. ^ "Au Maroc, des milliers de manifestants rclament dmocratie et justice sociale" (in French). RFI. 20 March 2011. 313. ^ "Thousands rally in call for Morocco reforms". Google. Agence FrancePresse. 20 March 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 314. ^ "Thousands Revive Protests in Morocco". The New York Times. 18 September 2011. 315. ^ Schemm, Paul (10 October 2011). "Moroccan imams protest government control". The Denver Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 316. ^ "Q&A on Morocco's reform". BBC News. 29 June 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011. 317. ^ "Oman protestors call for fight against corruption Culture & Society". Retrieved 29 January 2011. 318. ^ Spinner, Jackie (18 February 2011). "Middle East protests: Oman's peaceful anti-corruption march". Slate Magazine. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 319. ^ "Oman protests peaceful so far". United Press International. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 320. ^ "Oman reshuffles cabinet as protesters block mall | Middle East". Retrieved 27 February 2011. 321. ^ "2 dead as protesters, police clash in Oman, witnesses say". CNN. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 322. ^ a b "Oman police clash with stone-throwing protesters". Reuters. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 323. ^ "Oman: Tear Gas For Stone-Throwing Protestors". Agenzia Giornalistica Italia. 27 February 2011.

notizie/201102271122-cro-ren1031-oman_tear_gas_for_stone_throwing_protestors. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 324. ^ "Witnesses claim 2 killed during Oman police clash with protesters". 27 February 2011.,7340,L4034914,00.html. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 325. ^ "Police station, state office burning in Oman town". Reuters. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 326. ^ "Oman forces disperse protesters peacefully". 1 March 2011. %2BNews/World/Story/A1Story20110301-265967.html. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 327. ^ "Oman protesters apologise to ruler". Gulfnews. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 328. ^ "Oman: Sultan Qaboos Restructures Cabinet Ministers". Global Arab Network. 7 March 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 329. ^ "Royal Oman Police to recruit 10,000 Omanis". Gulfnews. 4 March 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 330. ^ "Thousands apply for jobs in Oman". 8 March 2011. xfile=data/middleeast/2011/March/middleeast_March136.xml&section=middleeast. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 331. ^ "Operation Salalah: Omani Army arrests Salalah protesters". Muscat Daily. Accessed on 17 May 2011. 332. ^ "Flood sparks rare action". Montreal Gazette. 29 January 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2011. 333. ^ "Dozens detained in Saudi over flood protests". The Peninsula. Reuters. 29 January 2011. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 334. ^ "Anti-govt. protests hit S Arabia cities". Press TV. 5 March 2011. Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011. 335. ^ a b Laessing, Ulf; Jones, Matthew (2011-03-xx). "Saudi Arabia says won't tolerate protests". Reuters. Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011. 336. ^ Spencer, Richard; Kirkup, James; Ramdani, Nabila (21 February 2011). "Libya: Muammar Gaddafi's regime on the brink of collapse". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. -Muammar-Gaddafis-regime-on-the-brink-of-collapse.html. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 337. ^ Awad, Ammar (23 February 2011). "Protests continue across the Arab world". Toronto Star. Reuters and Associated Press. Archived from the original on 24 February

2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 338. ^ "Middle East unrest: Saudi and Bahraini kings offer concessions". The Guardian (London). 23 February 2011. Archived from the original on 2 March 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 339. ^ "Saudi-Arabiens Mchtige werden nervs" (in German). Handelsblatt. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 2 March 2011. Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. Retrieved 3 March 2011. 340. ^ Bustamante, Tom (2 March 2011). "Iraq Oil Refinery Attack Shows Need for EarthSearch (ECDC) Systems". Wall Street Newscast. Archived from the original on 2 March 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 341. ^ E, Sara (6 March 2011). "Saudi Facebook Administrator Faisal Ahmed AbdulAhadwas reportedly shot as Saudi Arabia bans protests ahead of its Day of Rage". EUdigest. Archived from the original on 9 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011. 342. ^ "Saudis stage protest rally in Riyadh". Press TV. 5 April 2011. Archived from the original on 6 April 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 343. ^ Alsharif, Asma; Benham, Jason (10 April 2011). "Saudi unemployed graduates protest to demand jobs". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 April 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 344. ^ "Scuffles break out as teachers protest for job stability, higher wages". Arab News. 11 April 2011. Archived from the original on 12 April 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 345. ^ "Several injured in Saudi Arabia protest". Press TV. 17 March 2011. Archived from the original on 18 March 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2011. 346. ^ "Kuwait Navy set for Bahrain Saudi Shias Rally". Arab Times. 18 March 2011. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. uwait-Navy-set-for-Bahrain/Default.aspx. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 347. ^ 348. ^ "Saudis stage protest in Qatif". Press TV. 9 May 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-05-09. Retrieved 2011-0509. 349. ^ "Saudis denounce Bahrain occupation". Press TV. 13 May 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-05-14. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 350. ^ "Saudis show solidarity with Bahrainis". Press TV. 20 May 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-05-22. Retrieved 2011-05-22. 351. ^ "Saudi Shi'ites protest, support Bahrain brethren". Reuters. 16 March 2011. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 352. ^ Benham, Jason (17 March 2011). "Saudi Shi'ites call for Bahrain troop withdrawal". Reuters. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 353. ^ "Shia Muslims protest in eastern Saudi Arabia". International Business Times. 16 April 2011. Archived from the original on 17 April 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 354. ^ "Protests in Qatif, HR Warns of KSA's Brutality". Moqawama/al-Intiqad. 7 January 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-01-07. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 355. ^ "Saudi forces attack Qatif protesters". Press TV. 11 January 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 356. ^ "Shia protester 'shot dead' in Saudi Arabia". BBC News. 13 January 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-14. 357. ^ "Thousands people escorted the Shi'a martyr Issam Abu Abdullah". Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in the Arabian Peninsula. 17 January 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-01-15. sec=V1d4a1IySm5QVDA9&sub=V1cweFYwMHlUak5RVkRBOQ==&id=2859&act=s how&Sectyp=146. Retrieved 2012-01-15. 358. ^ "Saudi protesters hold demo in Qatif". Press TV. 17 January 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-01-17. Retrieved 2012-01-18. 359. ^ "Shi'a citizens held two peaceful protests in Tarout and Sihat". Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in the Arabian Peninsula. 19 January 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-01-19. sec=V1d4a1IySm5QVDA9&sub=V1cweFYwMHlUak5RVkRBOQ==&id=2861&act=s how&Sectyp=146. Retrieved 2012-01-20. 360. ^ "Saudis hold anti-regime demo in Qatif". Press TV. 19 January 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-01-19. Retrieved 2012-01-19. 361. ^ a b Shaheen, Abdul Nabi (26 April 2011). "Saudi women defy ban to register for polls". Gulf News. Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 362. ^ "Voters register for Saudi municipal elections". Al Jazeera. 23 April 2011. Archived from the original on 25 April 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 363. ^ al-Huwaider, Wajeha (23 May 2011). "The Saudi woman who took to the driver's seat". France 24. Archived from the original on 2011-05-23. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 364. ^ Al-Shihri, Abdullah (21 May 2011). "Manal al-Sherif, Saudi Woman, Detained For Defying Driving Ban". Huffington Post. Associated Press. Archived from

the original on 2011-05-23. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 365. ^ Stewart, Catrina (23 May 2011). "Saudi woman arrested after defying driving ban". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on 2011-05-23. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 366. ^ Burke, Jason (17 June 2011). "Saudi Arabia women test driving ban". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 2011-06-19. Retrieved 2011-06-19. 367. ^ al-Nafjan, Eman (29 June 2011). "Saudi women driving movement". Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-13. 368. ^ Khan, Muna (20 June 2011). "Highway to Nowhere. Why is it so hard to give the wheel to women?". Al Arabiya. Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-13. 369. ^ al-Omran, Ahmed (29 September 2011). "Reports: Saudi King Cancels Lashing Sentence Against Woman Who Drove". NPR. Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-13. 370. ^ Dolan, Kerry A. (28 September 2011). "Saudi King Revokes Lashing Punishment For Woman Driver". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-13. 371. ^ a b "Sudan police clash with protesters". Al Jazeera. 30 January 2011. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011. 372. ^ Khaled Abdelaziz (30 January 2011). "Sudanese police clash with students in Khartoum". Reuters UK. Reuters. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011. 373. ^ "Sudan protests 'echo Egypt unrest'". BBC News. 30 January 2011. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011. 374. ^ "Sudanese student dies after protests". Reuters. 31 January 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 375. ^ "Sudanese police, students clash in the capital". CNN. 17 December 1998. 376. ^ Sudan: Violent Response to Peaceful Protests | Human Rights Watch 377. ^ Abdelaziz, Khaled (2 February 2011). "Sudan protesters defiant despite police crackdown". Reuters Africa. Reuters. Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011. 378. ^ a b c 379. ^ a b c

380. ^ a b "Iranian Sunni protesters killed in clashes with security forces". The Guardian (London). 18 April 2011. 381. ^ a b 382. ^ "Mali: 47 Die in Clashes Between Troops, Rebels Ministry". 19 January 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 383. ^ Ibrahim, Jibrin (26 March 2012). "West Africa: Mali and the Azawad Question". Retrieved 2 April 2012. 384. ^ Adam Nossiter (5 February 2012). "Qaddafis Weapons, Taken by Old Allies, Reinvigorate an Insurgent Army in Mali". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 385. ^ "Dans le nord du Mali, les Touaregs du MNLA lancent un nouveau dfi arm l'Etat" (in French). Le Monde. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 386. ^ Andy Morgan (6 February 2012). "The Causes of the Uprising in Northern Mali". Think Africa Press. Retrieved 7 March 2012. 387. ^ "Mauritanie: mcontent du rgime, un homme s'immole par le feu Nouakchott" (in French). Le Parisien. France. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 388. ^ "Mauritania police crush protest doctors announce strike". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 389. ^ "Mauritania protesters want better salaries, lower food prices". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 12 March 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011. 390. ^ "Protests stun Mauritania". Al Arabiya. 25 April 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 391. ^ "Thousands stage rally in Bahrain". Al Jazeera. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 10 March 2011. 392. ^ Solomon, Erika (12 April 2011). "Arrested UAE blogger accused of possessing alcohol". Reuters. Retrieved 15 April 2011. 393. ^ "Autocrats Gain Ground in Middle East Part 3: Preventative Measures". Spiegel. 18 May 2011.,1518,7628613,00.html. 394. ^ a b "UAE pardons jailed activists". Al Jazeera. 28 November 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 395. ^ "UAE tries five regime critics", Kuwait Times. 15 June 2011. Accessed 15 June 2011

396. ^ "Jailed UAE activists begin hunger strike". Al Jazeera. 13 November 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011. 397. ^ "PA bans anti-Mubarak protest". 2 Jebruary 2011.,7340,L-4023635,00.html. Retrieved 2012-01-20. 398. ^ Issacharoff, Avi. "Hamas disperses anti-Assad protest in Gaza". Haaretz Daily Newspaper. Retrieved 2012-01-20. 399. ^ "Palestinian local elections postponed". 10 June 2010.,7340,L-3903431,00.html. Retrieved 2012-01-20. 400. ^ "Unrest in the Middle East and North Africa country by country". CNN. 18 February 2011. 401. ^ a b "Palestinian cabinet resigns". Al Jazeera. 14 February 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2011. 402. ^ Chomsky, Noam; Bishara, Marwan (21 February 2011). "The genie is out of the bottle". Al Jazeera. 403. ^ Derakhshi, Reza (11 April 2011). "Hardship blunts Iranian interest in Arab protests". Reuters. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 404. ^ Bryant, Lisa (8 February 2011). "Europe Watches Arab Protests for Lessons". Voice of America. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 405. ^ Kessler, Oren (11 March 2011). "Surge in Arab protests expected in Gulf states". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 406. ^ Dahmani, Frida (19 January 2011). "La justice tunisienne en marche contre Ben Ali, Trabelsi and Co.". Jeune Afrique. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 407. ^ Shefler, Gil (8 March 2011). "Tunisian Jews feel safe under new government". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 408. ^ Sanders, Edmund (3 February 2011). "Egypt's Coptic Christians fear life without Mubarak". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 409. ^ Vu, Michelle (11 February 2011). "Expert: Egypt's Mubarak Resignation Good for Coptic Christians". Christian Post. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 410. ^ Dehghanpisheh, Babak (6 February 2011). "Christians' Painful Split Over Egypt Protests". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 411. ^ Abdul-Ahad, Ghaith (28 February 2011). "Libya's Berbers join the revolution in fight to reclaim ancient identity". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 23 August 2011. 412. ^ "Amazigh culture reborn in Libya revolution". Retrieved 23 August 2011. 413. ^ "Springtime for them too?". The Economist. 13 August 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011. 414. ^ "North Africa: Berber Renaissance Gains Momentum". Retrieved 23 August 2011. 415. ^ "Moroccan Constitutional Reform: Berbers Say the Battles Just Begun". 6 July 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 416. ^ "Berbers in the Western Mountains battle Gaddafi's forces". Euronews. 26 April 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 417. ^ "Libya: Gaddafi Rails Against 'No Fly' Attacks and Berbers". 20 March 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 418. ^ McDoom, Opheera (20 April 2011). "Darfuris hold anti-government protests in Sudan's north". Reuters. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 419. ^ Therolf, Garrett; Sandels, Alexandra (8 April 2011). "Minority Syria Kurds join protest, get concessions". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 420. ^ "Syrian Kurds to protest despite granting of citizenship". Monsters & Critics. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 421. ^ "Iraq Kurds protest against government in Nawroz celebrations". Alsumaria Iraqi Satellite TV Network. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 422. ^ Mawloud, Saman Mahmoud (11 March 2011). "Iraq Kurds protest, man tries to set himself ablaze". Reuters. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 423. ^ Tawfeeq, Mohammed (18 April 2011). "99 injured in protests in Iraq's Kurdish region". CNN. Retrieved 27 April 2011. 424. ^ Karon, Tony (15 February 2011). "Iran, Egypt Caught in the Churning of a Mideast Democracy Wave". Time. TIME.,8599,2049323,00.html. 425. ^ Khorrami Assl, Nima (8 April 2011). "Arab Spring: Syrian Episode". Foreign Policy Journal. Retrieved 28 April 2011. 426. ^ Black, Ian (14 February 2011). "Arrests and deaths as Egypt protest spreads across Middle East". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 27 April 2011.

427. ^ "Opposition protest against Armenia's government draws 12,000 people in capital". Winnipeg Free Press. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2011. 428. ^ "AZERBAIJAN: More than 200 anti-government protesters arrested". The Los Angeles Times. 2 April 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 429. ^ "Georgia opposition protests enter third day". Al Jazeera. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 430. ^ "Albania opposition vows protests". Al Jazeera. 22 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011. 431. ^ "Internetom krui poziv na prosvjed za ruenje Vlade: U utorak u 13 sati na Markovom trgu" (in Croatian). Jutarnji List. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011. (English translation) 432. ^ "BBC News Spanish youth rally in Madrid echoes Egypt protests". BBC. 18 May 2011. Retrieved 22 May 2011. 433. ^ "Capitals residents remain fearful after soldiers' mutiny". France24. 20 April 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2011. 434. ^ Manson, Katrina (20 February 2011). "Pro-democracy protests reach Djibouti". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 June 2011. 435. ^ "Why Uganda's Besigye failed to deliver Egypt-style protests after election defeat". Retrieved 24 February 2011. 436. ^ Smith, David (29 April 2011). "Uganda riots reach capital as anger against President Museveni grows". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 29 April 2011. 437. ^ "Maldives rocked by protests against President Nasheed". BBC News. 1 May 2011. 438. ^ Tremlett, Giles (20 February 2011). "Anger on the streets: unrest in Iran, Algeria, Yemen, Morocco and China". The Guardian (London). 439. ^ Bowen, Jeremy (22 September 2011). "Barack Obama 'will veto' Palestinian UN bid". BBC. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 440. ^ "#OCCUPYWALLSTREET". 13 July 2011. Retrieved 16 Octgober 2011. 441. ^ "About Us". "".

442. ^ "Nigerians protest at removal of fuel subsidy". BBC. 3 January 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 443. ^ "Poland rallies E Europe's support for 'Arab Spring'". Kuwait Times. 28 May 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 444. ^ "Syria protests: US and UN condemn armed crackdown". BBC News. 26 March 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 445. ^ "Botswana condemns Libya". Mmegi Online. 22 February 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 446. ^ "Iran backs anti-Mubarak protests in Egypt foreign minister". Ria Novosti. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 447. ^ "Iran and Bahrain exchange threats of embassy closure while Kuwait confirms expulsion of Iranian diplomats". Payvand Iran News. 21 April 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 448. ^ "The View From Iran Of Syria's Protests". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 29 March 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 449. ^ "Qatar, other Gulf states deploy troops to Bahrain". World Tribune. 21 March 2011. . Retrieved 5 June 2011. 450. ^ "Sec. Clinton Calls Morocco "Well-Positioned to Lead" on Democratic Reforms; Affirms U.S. Support for Moroccan Autonomy Plan as "Serious, Realistic, and Credible" Approach to Resolve Western Sahara Crisis". Reuters. 24 March 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 451. ^ Cockburn, Patrick (17 April 2011). "So the Arab landscape shifts and confusion reigns". The Independent (London). Retrieved 4 June 2011. 452. ^ Chomsky, Noam (11 May 2011). "The U.S. and Its Allies Will Do Anything to Prevent Democracy in the Arab World". Democracy Now. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 453. ^ "Oil price rising to dangerous levels for economy". 18 February 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2011. 454. ^ Engin, Kenan. "The Arab Spring: The 5.0 Democracy Wave". Hurriyet Daily News. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 455. ^ "Die fnfte Welle der Demokratisierung im islamisch-arabischen Raum? [The fifth wave of democratization in the Muslim-Arab world?]" (in German). Migrapolis. 27 April 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.

456. ^ Himelfarb, Sheldon. "Social Media in the Middle East". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 457. ^ Schillinger, Raymond. "Social Media and the Arab Spring: What Have We Learned?". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 458. ^ Salem, Fadi, Mourtada. "Civil Movements: The Impact of Facebook and Twitter". Dubai School of Government. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 459. ^ Salem, Fadi, Mourtada. "Civil Movements: The Impact of Facebook and Twitter". Dubai School of Government. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 460. ^ Salem, Fadi, Mourtada. "Civil Movements: The Impact of Facebook and Twitter". Dubai School of Government. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 461. ^ McCann, Colum. "YEAR IN PICTURES: Arab Spring". New York Times. Retrieved 16 May 2012.

[edit] Further reading

Browers, Michaelle (2009). Political Ideology in the Arab World: Accommodation and Transformation. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-76532-9. Gardner, David (2009). Last Chance: The Middle East in the Balance. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84885-041-5. Goldstone, Jack A.; Hazel, John T., Jr. (14 April 2011). "Understanding the Revolutions of 2011: Weakness and Resilience in Middle Eastern Autocracies". Foreign Affairs. Kaye, Dalia Dassa (2008). More Freedom, Less Terror? Liberalization and Political Violence in the Arab World. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-83304508-9. Ottaway, Marina; Choucair-Vizoso, Julia, eds. (2008). Beyond the Faade: Political Reform in the Arab World. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. ISBN 978-0-87003-239-4. Pelletreau, Robert H. (24 February 2011). "Transformation in the Middle East: Comparing the Uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Bahrain". Foreign Affairs. Phares, Walid (2010). Coming Revolution: Struggle for Freedom in the Middle East. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-7837-9. Posusney, Marsha Pripstein; Angrist, Michele Penner, eds. (2005). Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Regimes and Resistance. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. ISBN 1-58826-3177. Struble, Jr., Robert (22 August 2011). "Libya and the Doctrine of Justifiable Rebellion". Catholic Lane. Tomita, Hiroshi (1 April 2007). "An Arab Spring". San-shoku-ki (Tricolore Flag) (Keio University Press). AA. VV. (2011), Il grande tsunami. Guerra di Libia, rivoluzione dEgitto. Tremano I sauditi e lItalia resta sola, Limes. Rivista di geopolitica, 1. Aa. Vv. (2011), The New Arab Revolt: What Happened, What It Means, and What Comes Next, Council on Foreign Relations, Foreign Affairs, Maggio-Giugno.

Abaza, M. (2011), Revolutionary Moments in Tahrir Square, American University of Cairo, 7 maggio, Abdih, Y. (2011), Arab Spring: Closing the Jobs Gap. High youth unemloyment contributes to widespread unrest in the Middle East Finance & Development, in Finance & Development (International Monetary Fund), Giugno. Anderson, L. (2011), Demystifying the Arab Spring: Parsing the Differences between Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya, in Foreign Affairs, Vol. 90, No. 3, May/June. Beinin, J. Vairel, F. (2011), (a cura di), Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa, Stanford, CA, Stanford University press. Cohen, R. (2011), A Republic Called Tahrir, in New York Times, 6 febbraio. Gause, F. G. (2011), Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring: The Myth of Authoritarian Stability, in Foreign Affairs, July/August Goldstone, J. A. (2011), Understanding the Revolutions of 2011. Weakness and Reilience in Middle Eastern Autocracies, in Foreign Affairs, 1 May. Pelletreau, R. H. (2011), Transformation in the Middle East: Comparing the Uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Bahrain, in Foreign Affairs, 24 February. Phares, W. (2010), Coming Revolution: Struggle for Freedom in the Middle East, New York, Simon & Schuster. Sbail, C. (2011), L'Egitto, tra mutamento di regime e transizione costituzionale, in DPCE Diritto pubblico comparato ed europeo, pp. 341372. Sbail, C. (2011), Nord Africa: la drammatica conclusione di un doppio ciclio politicoistituzionale, in Quaderni Costituzionali Il Mulino, Vol. 3. Struble, R. JR. (2011), Libya and the Doctrine of Justifiable Rebellion, Catholic Lane, August. 22.

[edit] External links

United States Institute of Peace Civil Movements: The Impact of Facebook and Twitter Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 20102011 Arab world protests Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arab Spring Live blogs

Middle East at Al Jazeera Middle East protests at BBC News Arab and Middle East protests live blog at The Guardian Middle East Protests at The Lede blog at The New York Times Middle East protests live at Reuters

Ongoing coverage

Unrest in the Arab World collected news and commentary at Carnegie Endowment for International Peace Issue Guide: Arab World Protests, Council on Foreign Relations

Middle East protests collected news and commentary at The Financial Times Unrest in the Arab World collected map, news and commentary at CNN Arab and Middle East unrest collected news and commentary at The Guardian Arab and Middle East unrest interactive timeline collected news and commentary at The Guardian Rage on the Streets collected news and commentary at Hurriyet Daily News and Economic Review Middle East Unrest collected news and commentary at The National Middle East Uprisings collected news and commentary at Showdown in the Middle East website The Arab Revolution collected news and commentary at The Middle East in Revolt collected news and commentary at Time


The Shoe Thrower's index, An index of unrest in the Arab world, The Economist, 9 February 2011 Interface journal special issue on the Arab Spring, Interface:_a_journal_for_and_about_social_movements, May 2012 Interview with Tariq Ramadan: "We Need to Get a Better Sense of the Trends within Islamism",, 2 February 2011 Sadek J. Al Azm, "The Arab Spring: Why Exactly at this Time?" Reason Papers 33 (Fall 2011) Tracking the wave of protests with statistics, [show]

v t e

Arab Spring


v t e

Anti-government protests in the 21st century

Arab Spring


uprising (2011 2012) Egyptian revolution (2011) Libyan civil war (2011) Syrian uprising (2011 2012) Tunisian Revolution (2010 2011) Yemeni uprising (2011 2012) Georgian Rose Revolution (2003) Kyrgyzstan Tulip Revolution (2005) Ukrainian Orange Revolution (2004 2005) Second Intifada (2000-2005) Kyrgyzstani revolution (2010) Lebanese Cedar Revolution (2005) "Occupy" protests

Colour revolutions


Arab Spring

Algerian protests (20102011) Djiboutian protests (2011) Palestinian protests (2011) Iraqi protests (2011) Jordanian protests (2011) Lebanese protests (2011) Mauritanian protests (20112012) Moroccan protests (2011) Omani protests (2011) Saudi Arabian protests (2011) Sudanese protests (2011) Western Saharan protests (2011) Azerbaijani protests (2011) Belarusian protests (2011) Chinese protests (2011) Georgian

Democracy protests

protests (2011) Hong Kong democracy demonstratio n (2005) Hong Kong universal suffrage demonstratio n (2010) Indian anticorruption movement (2011) Malawi protests (2011) Malaysian Bersih rally (2007) Malaysian Bersih 2.0 rally (2011) Malaysian Bersih 3.0 rally (2012) Malaysian HINDRAF rally (2007) Nepalese democracy movement (2006) Tamil diaspora protests (2009) Tamil diaspora protests in Canada (2009) Ukraine without Kuchma (2000-2001) Armenian

Election protests

presidential election protests (2008) Iranian election protests (20092010) Moldova civil unrest (2009) Russian protests (20112012) Armenian parliamentary election protests (2012) Bolivian protests (2011) Ecuador protests (2012) Austrian protests (2009) Quebec (Canada) protests (2005) Quebec (Canada) protests (2012) Chilean protests (2006) Chilean protests (2008) Chilean protests (2011-2012) Colombian

Environmental protests

Student protests

protests (2011) Croatian protests (2009) Dutch strikes (2007) Irish protests (2010) Puerto Rican strikes (20102011) UK protests (2010-2011) California protests (2009) Albanian opposition demonstratio ns (2011) Argentinian riots (2001) Armenian protests (2011) Burkinab protests (2011) Cameroonian antigovernment protests (2008) Canadian antiprorogation protests (2010) Chilean Magellanic protests (2011) Croatian protests (2011) French civil unrest (2005)


French pension reform strikes (2010) Georgian demonstratio ns (2007) Greek riots (2008) Greek protests (20102012) Hungarian protests (2006) Hong Kong 1 July marches Hong Kong Anti-budget demonstratio n (2011) Icelandic financial crisis protests (2009) Iranian protests (2011) Irish protests (2010-2012) Israeli reserve soldiers' protest (2006) Israeli housing protests (2011) Kurdish protests in Iraq (2011) Kurdish protests in Turkey (2011) Mangystau riots in Kazakhstan (2011)

Mexican protests (2011) Portuguese protests (2011) Romanian protests (2012) Russian Dissenters March (20052008) Sahrawi protest camp at Gdeim Izik (2010) Catalan autonomy protest in Spain (2010) Spanish protests (20112012) Turkish Republic Protests (2007) UK antiausterity protests (2011) US Tea Party protests (20092010)

US public employee protests (2011) Retrieved from ""

Help improve this page

What's this? Did you find what you were looking for? Yes, I found what I was looking for. Yes

No, I did not find what I was looking for. No Post your feedback Categories:

Arab Spring Arabic culture Internet censorship History of North Africa History of the Middle East Protest marches 21st-century revolutions 2010s 2010 in Africa 2011 in Africa 2012 in Africa 2010 in Asia 2011 in Asia 2012 in Asia 2010 protests 2011 protests 2012 protests

Hidden categories:

All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from March 2012 Use dmy dates from March 2012 Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May 2012 Articles containing Arabic language text Articles containing potentially dated statements from February 2012 All articles containing potentially dated statements Articles with unsourced statements from February 2011 Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012 Article Feedback 5 Additional Articles

Personal tools

Log in Create account


Article Talk

Variants Views

Actions Search

Read Edit View history


Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate to Wikipedia

Interaction Toolbox

Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia

What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Cite this page Improve this page


Create a book Download as PDF Printable version



Boarisch Bosanski Catal esky Cymraeg Dansk Deutsch Espaol Euskara Franais Gaeilge Hrvatski Bahasa Indonesia slenska Italiano Lietuvi Limburgs Magyar Nederlands Norsk (bokml) O zbek Polski Portugus Romn Simple English Slovenina / Srpski Srpskohrvatski / Suomi Svenska Trke Ting Vit Walon

This page was last modified on 7 June 2012 at 20:44. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of use for details. Wikipedia is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Contact us Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers Mobile view