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THEME =the central idea of the text; it raises a question about human nature or experience. SUBJECT = the sequence of events the characters are involved in . PLOT = the sequence of conflicts that lead to a climax and resolution that makes sense; the plot can be chronological – when the events are presented in chronological order disrupted –when the events are presented as they come to the mind of the narrator frame story – a story within a story …(ex. ”The Canterbury Tales”) *The parts of the plot are: - The exposition (the information telling us how and why the characters became involved in the conflict) - The initiating action (the event that brings the opposing forces into conflict) - The rising action (the gradual advancement of the conflict; the problems faced by the characters) - The CLIMAX (The point of highest interest, in which the protagonist takes – consciously or not- the action that will determine the future course of events) - The dénouement or resolution = the incidents by which the conflict caused by the initiating action is resolved. CHARACTERS can be: round (complex) or flat (simple , dominated by one feature ) static (doesn’t change from the beginning to the end ) or dynamic ( it undergoes changes for the better / worse ) A character can be governed by public values (courage, modesty, faith….) or by private values ( intelligence ,beauty) A character can be one of these: - a god (he/she is divine , superior to other beings )=> a myth - a godlike (he/she is a superior human being whose actions are marvellous) => a legend, a fairy-tale or a folk-tale - a hero (he/she is a leader whose actions , either good or bad , are courageous) =>an epic or a tragedy - a non-hero (one of us , not superior to other people )=> a realistic novel or a comedy

It is strictly connected with the plot.It determines what information the reader receives and how it is presented. Lockwood in E . Ch. not the general public or another character.(ex.even due to the lesson learned from the experience . dealing with the surface of things . cultural elements) against which the conflict and actions occur. frustration .from a ’third person’s perspective ) Omniscient point of view = the narrator ( the author ) pretends to know everything about the characters and the action . clothing. the story is one of bondage .”)(-third person) Detached autobiography = the story is told by one of the characters tells the story long after the events occurred . Mark Twain “Huckleberry Finn”) Objective narration = ( 3rd pers.of a subordinate one . characters. season. Fitzgerald’s ”Great Gatsby” or Mr. in a subjective manner.he assumes several roles : he may be a confident of the main character.( ex Ernest Hemingway) Observer narration = (1st pers. postmodernist and absurd literature SETTING = the background (time.. or he may find out things from other characters . absurdity ) => modernist .(ex. (Ex. the reader has to take his/her information for granted .(ex. the way a camera does .- an anti-hero ( he/she is of inferior intelligence to us . or an eye-witness. Hardy “Tess. indirectly involved in the action . Dickens “Great Expectations”)(-1st person) Subjective narration = (1st pers. Nick Carraway in “S. in a frame of mind greatly changed since the time of the story . He is addressing us. the tone and even the message of the work. weather elements.+3rd pers. atmosphere. physical props. Th. • A first person narrative ( the story is told by one of the characters from a ‘first person’s approach’ ) • *a third person narrative ( the story is told by the author or an observer .) the story is told by one of the characters shortly after the conclusion of the events.) the narrator reduces his role to that of an eyewitness .) it is a single character-point of view . still under their influence. POINT OF VIEW = the approach from which the story is told .chooses not to present inner life .Bronte’s” Wuthering Heights ”) . space.

the people involved in . It must be exciting. register Narrative essays may describe real or fictional events and can be rendered in the first person (I / we) or in the third person (he/she/they). on the whole . link words. the moment that . in conclusion . place weather. Descriptions of people and places can also be included in narrative essays. possible feelings) Body *paragraph 2 – before the main events >incidents leading to the main event *paragraph 3 – the main event(s): describe the events. while . since. strange or funny in order to stir the interest of the reader and be successful.ESSAY WRITING 1. to begin with . not only…but also • to conclude :finally . STRUCTURE: Introduction *paragraph 1 – You set the scene (describe the time. people involved. all things considered .Keep in mind that a boring or even too predictable ending can spoil a good story. Narrative Essay Structure. now that. in addition to this . people’s reactions. in the first place . consequences. Both beginnings and ends are important parts as the former stimulate the interest of the reader and the latter satisfy his curiosity and expectations . atmosphere. all in all . until . meanwhile . taking everything into account . immediately . besides . finally • to add more points : what is more . secondly . In narratives we use a wide range of past tenses as well as both direct and reported speech. first of all . furthermore . moods. before . no sooner…than . by the time . as long as • to order or list events /points: firstly . to sum up . during . after . moreover . then . hardly…when. as soon as . feelings etc. to start with . as . apart from this . give details Conclusion * final paragraph – end the story referring to the resolution of the conflict. Link words: • to show time :when. thirdly .