THEME =the central idea of the text; it raises a question about human nature or experience. SUBJECT = the sequence of events the characters are involved in . PLOT = the sequence of conflicts that lead to a climax and resolution that makes sense; the plot can be chronological – when the events are presented in chronological order disrupted –when the events are presented as they come to the mind of the narrator frame story – a story within a story …(ex. ”The Canterbury Tales”) *The parts of the plot are: - The exposition (the information telling us how and why the characters became involved in the conflict) - The initiating action (the event that brings the opposing forces into conflict) - The rising action (the gradual advancement of the conflict; the problems faced by the characters) - The CLIMAX (The point of highest interest, in which the protagonist takes – consciously or not- the action that will determine the future course of events) - The dénouement or resolution = the incidents by which the conflict caused by the initiating action is resolved. CHARACTERS can be: round (complex) or flat (simple , dominated by one feature ) static (doesn’t change from the beginning to the end ) or dynamic ( it undergoes changes for the better / worse ) A character can be governed by public values (courage, modesty, faith….) or by private values ( intelligence ,beauty) A character can be one of these: - a god (he/she is divine , superior to other beings )=> a myth - a godlike (he/she is a superior human being whose actions are marvellous) => a legend, a fairy-tale or a folk-tale - a hero (he/she is a leader whose actions , either good or bad , are courageous) =>an epic or a tragedy - a non-hero (one of us , not superior to other people )=> a realistic novel or a comedy

not the general public or another character. postmodernist and absurd literature SETTING = the background (time. cultural elements) against which the conflict and actions occur. or an eye-witness. It is strictly connected with the plot.+3rd pers.(ex. Mark Twain “Huckleberry Finn”) Objective narration = ( 3rd pers.- an anti-hero ( he/she is of inferior intelligence to us .he assumes several roles : he may be a confident of the main character. or he may find out things from other characters . the story is one of bondage . physical props. atmosphere. absurdity ) => modernist .”)(-third person) Detached autobiography = the story is told by one of the characters tells the story long after the events occurred . space. the tone and even the message of the work. weather elements. Ch.Bronte’s” Wuthering Heights ”) . the way a camera does . dealing with the surface of things . He is addressing us. POINT OF VIEW = the approach from which the story is told .) the story is told by one of the characters shortly after the conclusion of the events. Hardy “Tess.( ex Ernest Hemingway) Observer narration = (1st pers. in a subjective manner. characters.even due to the lesson learned from the experience . • A first person narrative ( the story is told by one of the characters from a ‘first person’s approach’ ) • *a third person narrative ( the story is told by the author or an observer . Lockwood in E . the reader has to take his/her information for granted .) the narrator reduces his role to that of an eyewitness .of a subordinate one . (Ex. in a frame of mind greatly changed since the time of the story . Th. frustration .(ex.It determines what information the reader receives and how it is presented. season.chooses not to present inner life .) it is a single character-point of view . Fitzgerald’s ”Great Gatsby” or Mr. indirectly involved in the action . still under their influence. clothing.(ex. Dickens “Great Expectations”)(-1st person) Subjective narration = (1st pers.from a ’third person’s perspective ) Omniscient point of view = the narrator ( the author ) pretends to know everything about the characters and the action . Nick Carraway in “S..

in addition to this . people involved. no sooner…than . then . to begin with . moreover . furthermore . in conclusion . while . thirdly . not only…but also • to conclude :finally . In narratives we use a wide range of past tenses as well as both direct and reported speech. before . feelings etc. the moment that . immediately . strange or funny in order to stir the interest of the reader and be successful. as soon as . all things considered . STRUCTURE: Introduction *paragraph 1 – You set the scene (describe the time. on the whole . finally • to add more points : what is more . during .Keep in mind that a boring or even too predictable ending can spoil a good story. place weather. link words. possible feelings) Body *paragraph 2 – before the main events >incidents leading to the main event *paragraph 3 – the main event(s): describe the events. Descriptions of people and places can also be included in narrative essays. as long as • to order or list events /points: firstly . meanwhile . in the first place . hardly…when. since. now that. to sum up .ESSAY WRITING 1. until . moods. Both beginnings and ends are important parts as the former stimulate the interest of the reader and the latter satisfy his curiosity and expectations . taking everything into account . consequences. the people involved in . as . people’s reactions. besides . by the time . atmosphere. secondly . after . register Narrative essays may describe real or fictional events and can be rendered in the first person (I / we) or in the third person (he/she/they). It must be exciting. all in all . Narrative Essay Structure. first of all . give details Conclusion * final paragraph – end the story referring to the resolution of the conflict. apart from this . Link words: • to show time :when. to start with .

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