maintain longterm archival significancein electromagneticwaves and applications.
Donald G. Dudley Editor University of Arizona
Dyadic Green Functions in Electromagnetic Theory
Second Edition
Advisory Board
Robert E. Collin Case Western University Akira Ishimaru University of Washington
Associate Editors
ElectromagneticTheory, Scattering, and Diffraction Ehud Heyrnan TelAviv University Differential Equation Methods Andreas C. Cangellaris University of Arizona Integral Equation Methods Donald R. Wilton University of Houston Antennas, Propagation, and Microwaves David R. Jackson University of Houston
ChenTo Tai
Professor Emeritus Radiation Laboratory Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science University of Michigan
Series Books Published
Collin, R. E., Field Theory of Guided Waves, 2d. rev. ed., 1991 Tai, C. T., Generalized kctor and Dyadic Analysis: Applied Mathematics in FieM Theory, 1991 Elliott, R. S., Electromagnetics: History, Theory, and Applications, 1993 Harrington, R.F., Field Computation by Moment Methoh, 1993 Tai, C. T, Dyadic Green Functions in Electromagnetic Theory, 2nd ed., 1993
IEEE PRESS Series on Electromagnetic Waves G. Dudley, Series Editor
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Dudley, D. G., Mathematical Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society and IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society, Cosponsors The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., New York
1993 Editorial Board William Perkins, Editor in Chief R. S. Blicq M. Eden D. M. Etter J. J. Farrell I11 L. E. Frenzel
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P Laplante .
M. Lightner E. K.Miller
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1. Peden L. Shaw M. Simaan D. J. Wells
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0 1 9 9 4 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 100172394 0 1 9 7 1 International Textbook Company All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form, nor may it be stored in a rem'eval system or transmitted in any form, without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 0780304497 IEEE Order Number: PC03483
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Tai ChenTo (date) Dyadic green functions in electromagnetic theory by Chento Tai.2nd ed. p. cm. Sponsors : IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society and IEEE Microwave The0 and Techniques Society. ~ n c l u z Biblio aphical references and index. s ISBN 07803&7 1. Electroma etic theoryMathematics. 2. Green's functions. 3. Boundary v a E problems. I. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society. 11. IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society. Ill. Title 9324201 CIP
Contents
PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
1 GENERAL THEOREMS AND FORMULAS
xi xiii
1
1 11 Vector Notations and the Coordinate Systems 12 Vector Analysis 4 13 Dyadic Analysis 6 14 Fourier Transform and Hankel Transform 12 15 SaddlePoint Method of Integration and Semiinfinite 16 Integrals of the Product of Bessel Functions 2 SCALAR GREEN FUNCTIONS
21 Scalar Green Functions of a OneDimensional Wave 21 EquationTheory of Transmission Lines 22 Derivation of go(x,x') by the Conventional Method and the OhmRayleigh Method 25 33 23 Symmetrical Properties of Green Functions 24 FreeSpace Green Function of the ThreeDimensional 35 Scalar Wave Equation
3
ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY
38
31 The Independent and Dependent Equations and the Indefinite and Definite Forms of Maxwell's Equations 38 32 Integral Forms of Maxwell's Equations 41 33 Boundary Conditions 42 34 Monochromatically Oscillating Fields in Free Space 47 35 Method of Potentials 49
vii
51 52 53 54 55 56 10 SPHERES AND PERFECTLY CONDUCTING CONES 128 101 Eigenfunction Expansion of FreeSpace Dyadic Green Functions 198 102 An Algebraic Method of Finding E.3 Vertical ~lectric Dopole 178 55 74 94 Radiation from Magnetic Dipoles in the Presence 179 of a Half Sheet 95 Slots Cut in a Half Sheet 182 95.2 Horizontal Slot 184 96 Diffraction of a Plane Wave by a Half Sheet 97 Circular Cylinder and Half Sheet 196 187 96 Rectangular Vector Wave Functions 103 The Method of Em 110 The Method of ??. 114 The Method of EA Parallel Plate Waveguide 115 Rectangular Waveguide Filled 118 with Two Dielectrics 57 Rectangular Cavity 124 58 The Origin of the Isolated Singular Term in F. and Coated 154 Cylinder 74 Asymptotic Expression 159 8 111 Flat Earth 225 112 Radition from Electric Dipoles in the Presence of a Flat Earth and Sommerfeld's Theory 228 113 Dielectric Layer on a Conducting Plane 233 114 Reciprocity Theorems for Stratified Media 237 115 Eigenfunction Expansions 244 116 A Dielectric Slab in Air 249 117 TwoDimensional Fourier Transform of the Dyadic 251 Green Functions 12 INHOMOGENEOUS MEDIA AND MOVING MEDIUM 255 PERFECTLY CONDUCTING ELLIPTICAL CYLINDER 81 Vector Wave Functions in an Elliptical Cylinder Coordinate System 161 82 The Electric Dyadic Green Function of the First Kind 166 9 PERFECTLY CONDUCTING WEDGE AND THE HALF SHEET 169 91 Dyadic Green Functions for a Perfectly Conducting Wedge 169 92 The Half Sheet 173 121 Vector Wave Functions for Plane Stratified Media 255 122 Vector Wave Functions for Spherically Stratified Media 259 123 Inhomogeneous Spherical Lenses 260 124 Monochromatically Oscillating Fields in a Moving 270 Isotropic Medium 125 TimeDependent Field in a Moving Medium 277 126 Rectangular Waveguide with a Moving Medium 286 127 Cylindrical Waveguide with a Moving Medium 291 128 Infinite Conducting Cylinder in a Moving Medium 293 .1 Longitudinal Electrical Dipole 174 93. Dielectric Cylinder.2 Horizontal Electrical Dipole 176 93..1 Longititudinal Slot 183 95.viii Contents Contents 4 DYADIC GREEN FUNCTIONS 41 Maxwell's Equations in Dyadic Form and Dyadic Green Functions of the Electric and Magnetic Trpe 59 42 FreeSpace Dyadic Green Functions 62 43 Classification of Dyadic Green Functions 44 Symmetrical Properties of Dyadic Green Functions 45 Reciprocity Theorems 85 46 Transmission Line Model of the Complementary Reciprocity Theorems 90 47 Dyadic Green Functions for a Half Space Bounded 92 by a Plane Conducting Surface 5 RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDES 55 93 Radiation from Electric Dipoles in the Presence of a Half Sheet 174 93. without the Singular Term 204 103 Perfectly Conducting and Dielectric Spheres 210 104 Spherical Cavity 218 105 Perfectly Conducting Conical Structures 220 106 Cone with a Spherical Sector 223 11 PLANAR STRATIFIED MEDIA 6 CYLINDRICAL WAVEGUIDES 61 Cylindrical Wave Functions with Discrete Eigenvalues 133 62 Cylindrical Waveguide 140 63 Cylindrical Cavity 142 64 Coaxial Line 143 7 CIRCULAR CYLINDER IN FREE SPACE 71 Cylindrical Vector Wave Functions with Continuous Eigenvalues 149 72 Eigenfunction Expansion of the FreeSpace Dyadic 152 Green Functions 73 Conducting Cylinder.
several topics in the book have been found to have been improperly treated.1 Gradient. This method is used extensively in the present edition. in particular. Being a solenoidal function. an oversight that was later amended [Tai. bearing the same title. In the present edition. The magnetic dyadic Green function was not introduced in the first edition. was published by Intext Education Publishers in 1971. Since then. Several other new features are found in this edition. two complementary reciprocity theorems have been formulated . some major revisions have been made.Contents APPENDIX A MATHEMATICAL FORMULAS A . Carson. Reciprocity theorems in electromagnetic theory are discussed in detail. a singular term in the eigenfunction expansion of the electrical dyadic Green function was inadvertently omitted. First. With the aid of MaxwellAmpkre equation in dyadic form. and Curl 296 in Orthogonal Systems 296 A2 Vector Identities 298 A3 Dyadic Identities 298 A4 Integral Theorems 299 APPENDIX B VECTOR WAVE FUNCTIONS A N D THEIR MUTUAL RELATIONS B1 Rectangular Vector Wave Functions 302 B2 Cylindrical Vector Wave Functions with Discrete Eigenvalues 304 B3 Spherical Vector Wave Functions 305 B4 Conical Vector Wave Functions 306 APPENDIX C REFERENCES NAME INDEX SUBJECT INDEX EXERCISES Preface The first edition of this book. including the previously missing singular term. the integral solutions of Maxwell's equations are now derived with the aid of the vectordyadic Green's theorem instead of by the vector Green's theorem as in the old treatment. 19411. Maxwell's equations have been cast in a dyadic form to facilitate the introduction of the electric and the magnetic dyadic Green functions. In reviewing Maxwell's theory we have emphasized the necessity of adopting one of two alternative postulates in stating the boundary conditions. For example. and Helmholtz. Divergence. its eigenfunction expansion does not require the use of nonsolenoidal vector wave functions or Hansen's Lfunctions [Stratton. 19731. By doing so. many intermediate steps can be omitted. The implication is that the boundary conditions cannot be derived from Maxwell's differential equations without a postulate. In addition to the classical theorems due to Rayleigh. but it was found to be a very important entity in the entire theory of dyadic Green functions. one can find the eigenfunction expansion of the electrical dyadic Green function.
including a twodimensional Fourierintegral representation of these functions. The assistance of Dr. Ulaby. Section 58 of Chapter 5 was written as a result of their thoughtful comments. the problem of transient radiation is formulated with the aid of an affine transformation which enables us to solve the MaxwellMinkowski equation in a relatively simple manner. Johnson for their very careful review of my original manuscript. Van Blade1 [1991]. My discussion with Dr. Olov Einarsson. During the preparation of this manuscript I received the most valuable help from Ms. His many communications with me on this subject were very valuable prior to the publication of a book in this field by Prof. on the dependence of the integral of the electric dyadic Green function on the shape of the cell in the source region was very valuable. Dudley and Dr. Donald G. Her expertise in typing this manuscript was invaluable.xii Preface to uncover the symmetrical relations of the magnetic dyadic Green functions not derivable from the RayleighCarson theorem. ChenTo Tai Ann Arbor. on the aspect ratio of a cylindrical cell. in 1972. Answers for some exercises are given. particularly. Director of Book Publishing. William A. Patricia Wolfe are also very much appreciated. for his constant encouragement by providing me with the technical support necessary to complete this manuscript. J. Sweden. Many new exercises have been added to this edition to help the reader better understand the materials covered in the book. Mr. In the area of moving media. Dudley Kay. Michigan xiii . called my attention to the incompleteness of the eigenfunction expansion of the electric dyadic Green function in the original edition of this book. and Ms. I would also like to express my sincere thanks to Prof. Bonnie Kidd. Acknowledgments I am very grateful to Professor PerOlof Brundell of the University of Lund. Fawwaz T. who. and sufficient hints are provided for many others so that the book may be used not only as a reference but also as a text for a graduate course in electromagnetic theory. Production Editor of IEEE Press. Karen Miller. The works of Prof. Robert E. Collin consolidate our understanding of the singularity behavior of the dyadic Green functions. have proved to be most efficient and helpful during all stages of the production of this book. Director of the Radiation Laboratory at the University of Michigan. I am also very grateful to Prof. Leland Pierce and Ms. Various dyadic Green functions for problems involving plain layered media have been derived. then a faculty member of the same institution.
Dyadic Green Functions in Electromagnetic Theory .
these letters correspond to the variables in a coordinate system. 0.The three commonly used systems in this book are 1. adequate references1 will be given to strengthen any plausible statement or to remove possible ambiguity. Our review will contain sufficient material so that references to other books will be kept to a minimum. x. We sacrifice to some extent the mathematic rigor that may be required in a more thorough treatment. R. For example. Rectangular. In most cases. Circular cylindrical or simply cylindrical. 4 '1n the citations in the text. including vector analysis.General Theorems and Formulas In this chapter we review some of the important theorems and formulas needed in the subsequent chapters. Whenever necessary. we use quite freely the integral representation of the delta function. z 3. A letter with a hat. y. 11 VECTOR NOTATIONS AND THE COORDINATE SSE S YTM A vector quantity or a vector function will be denoted by F. z 2. . if necessary. B and the vector product by A x B. is used to denote a unit vector in the direction of the covered letter. If it is a book. or Cartesian. and the theory of complex variables. . assuming that an exponential function with imaginary argument is Fourier transformable. r. Fourier series and integrals.The scalar product of two vectors is denoted by A . Spherical. 4. It is assumed that the reader has had an adequate course in advanced calculus. the author's name is used as the identification. either the section number or the pages will be cited. such as P.
y) and (u. (1. 11 Three wmmonly used coordinate systems Z The reader can verify for himself or herself that these tables apply equally well to the transform of the components of a vector. to a family of confocal ellipses and a family of confocal hyperbolas.sine 0 Likewise.sin 83. 11 'VectorNotations and the Coordinate Systems TABLE 11 The spatial variables associated with these systems are shown in Fig. The unit vectors belonging to these systems are displayed in Fig. 13. The relation between these unit vectors is summarized in Tables 11and 12. A crosssectional view of a plane perpendicular to the zaxis is shown in Fig. for example.2n 2 v 2 0. 11. The constant u contours and the constant v contours correspond.. respectively. I Sec.2 General Theoremsand Formulas Chap. < . + cos 8 sin +A. (1. where oo > u 2 0.sin 46. It should be pointed out that the same +variable is used for both the cylindrical and the spherical systems. 12 The unit vectors in three wmmonly used coordinate systems t = cosh u q' = cosv. . 12 in two crosssectional views.sin 8A. One set of variables that can be used in this system is designated by (u. which gives * = sin 1 cos 4~ 9 + cos 0 cos 48 .ii 6 i TABLE 12 Relations Between the Unit Vectors in the Rectangular and the Spherical Coordinate Systems ii R sinOcos+ C O S ~ C O ~ + 6 sinesin+ cosesin+ cos i e 4 sin+ + cose . the second row gives = cos 8 cos +P 2 + cos 8 sin +Q . Table 13 contains the transformation coefficients between the unit vectors of the rectangular system and the elliptical cylinder system. Relations Between the Unit Vectors in the Rectangular and the Cylindrical Coordinate Systems . To express unit vector P in terms of the unit vectors in the spherical system. Ae = cos 8 cos +A.3) Another coordinate system used in this book deals with an elliptical cylinder. one uses the coefficients in the first column of Table 12. V)are x = CCOS~UCOSV y = csinhusinv. (1. v. Two alternate variables which are used sometimes in place of (u.1) where oo > 2 0 .2) Fig. The relations between (x. v) are defined by Fig. l 2 q' 2 1. 2 ) .
v .12) F = @V+ . then according to the vector identity (A. where V2+ and V2@denote. F=PxVxQ. where fdenotes the outward unit normal to the surface S. a number of identities. namely. 12 VectorAnalysis 5 Stokes theorem states that for any continuous vector function of position with continuous first derivatives on an open surface S bounded by a contour c: fls (V x F ) .F d v = F . 13 A crosssectional view of the elliptical coordinate system TABLE 13 Relations Between the Unit Vectors in the Rectangular System and the Elliptical Cylinder System where A denotes an outward unit normal to the surface S enclosing the volume V . then in view of identities (A.13) v . V X V X Q . and the curl. It follows from Gauss theorem that + G . the Laplacian of $ and @. (1.11) Fig.P . rather. (1. Gauss theorem states that for any vector function of position F with continuous first derivatives throughout a volume V and over the enclosing surface S.13) of Appendix A. we obtain the vector Green theorem of the first kind /l V . (1.15) where P and Q are two vector functions.16) of Appendix A. The same notation will be applied to a closed line integral. respectively.$V@. will outline the two theorems and a number of useful lemmas that can be derived from these theorems. coshusinv 0 & coshusinv & sinhucosv 0 0 0 2 1 12 VECTOR ANALYSIS which is designated as the scalar Green theorem of the second kind.General Theorems and Formulas Chap.ll) and (A. where @ and are two scalar functions of position. i The ring around a surface integral is to emphasize the fact that the surface is a closed one. If we let (1. F =( v x P ) . For convenient reference some of the identities and formulas are listed in Appendix A. I Sec. and two theorems named after Gauss and Stokes. d 3 (Gauss theorem).16) Upon substituting it into Gauss theorem. the gradient.. i sinhucosv f.+ v 2 @ . namely. (1. dS = iF. We will not review here the elementary aspects of vector analysis but. d (Stokes theorem). the divergence. ( v x Q ) . 1v 4 4 /Kv fi f m/ = f dS (gradient theorem) x Fdv = A x F d s (curl theorem). F = @V2+. In addition to these two important theorems. there are several more theorems in vector analysis. . If we let The entire subject of vector analysis consists of three definitions. Z It is understood that the direction of the line integral and the direction of d z follows the righthand screw rule.
In (1."  This section will introduce some essential formulas in dyadic analysis. 19921. which is an extension of vector analysis to a higher level. From now on. denoted by F . can be formed and is defined by where Fj with j = (1.22) we see that the positions of Fj and Pj in E has been interchanged. hence the nomenclature "transpose. We use xi in this section to denote the Cartesian variables (x. The transpose of a dyadic defined by r expressed by (1. denoted by F a .3) are designated as the three vector components of F. hence where Fi with i = (1. y. is characterized by Fij = Fji. 13 DYADIC ANALYSIS Comparing (1.3 and An antisymmetric dyadic. Now we consider three distinct vector functions denoted by A symmetrical dyadic therefore has only six distinct scalar components. has only three distinct scalar components if we do not consider the negative sign as being distinct. I See.6 General Theorems and Formulas Chap. and it has six nonvanishing dyadic components. This dyadic is denoted by 7. One special case of a symmetric dyadic is described by then a dyadic function or a dyadic. Avector function or a vector F expressed in a Cartesian system is defined by A symmetrical dyadic.2.21) will be denoted by () P T and is The derivation of these theorems and the relations between them are treated in detail in this author's book on vector and dyadic analysis [Tai.17) and taking the difference of the two resultant equations we obtain the vector Green theorem of the second kind where Fij are designated as the nine scalar components of F and the doublet Pi2j as the nine unit dyadics or dyads. so the summation sign can be applied to F as in (1.21) the positioning of Fj and Pj must be kept in that order. denoted by F. that is. it is understood that the summation index always runs from 1 to 3 unless specified otherwise.3) denotes the three scalar components of F and Pi denotes the three unit vectors in the direction of Ti. is characterized by Fji = Fij. By substituting (1. An antisymmetric dyadic. or the scalar component Fijin F has been replaced by Fji in (F)T.24) with (1.2.21) we can write F in the form  where 6ij denotes the Kronecker delta function. z). although it still has nine terms or nine dyadic components. Its explicit expression is . hence Fii = 0 for i = 1.21) and (1. which are not commutative. and it is called an idem factor. 13 Dyadic Analysis 7 By interchanging the roles of P and Q in (1.20) into (1.2. each being formed by a pair of unit vectors in that order.. therefore.19).
is defined by r.a=(~)T. one finds with j = 1.8 General Theorems and Formulas Chap. denoted by F . denoted by x a. The anterior scalarproduct. is defined by In vector analysis we have the following identities involving three vectors: These identities can be generalized to involve dyadics. For any dyadic we have the relation thus we have elevated the vector triple products to a higher level involving one dyadic and two vectors while each term in (1. 13 Dyadic Analysis 9 A dyadic by itself.3).25) and (1. We can elevate the vector function E in the last two terms of (1. denoted by V .is These vector products are both dyadics.39) are vectors. I Sec. which is a vector. has no algebraic property.39) to a dyadic by considering three distinct equations of the form This is an important identity in dyadic analysis. We consider three distinct sets of triple products with three different vector functions E. F . the idem factor.2. denoted by x F .2. By juxtaposing a unit vector 2 j at the posterior position of the two terms in (1.3. In particular. The divergence of a dyadicfunction. The previous material deals mainly with dyadic algebra. The posterior scalarproduct.(ZXi).38) and sum the resultant equations with respect to j to obtain which is also a vector. denoted by a . (1. Now we juxtapose a unit vector ij at the posterior position of each term in (1. and there is no relation similar to (1. We have also two vector products between a vector z and a dyadic anterior vectorproduct. As a result of (1.F .. then Each term is the scalar product of two dyadics. The curl of a dyadicfunction. We purposely place the function zj at the posterior position in order to derive the desired dyadic identities. is defined by with j = (1. and the result gives an identity of two dyadics. In general.41) If F. the two scalar products are not equal unless F is a symmetrical dyadic. like a matrix. that is.. where we have used the vector identity .26). we can define two scalar products between a vector and a dyadic F .31) for these two products. It plays the role of an operator when certain products are formed. we obtain (Zx~T. is defined by This is the reason why 7 is designated as the idem factor. denoted by V x defined by r. In the following we introduce some definitions and formulas involving the differentiation and the integration of dyadic functions. = 7.The theposterior vectorproduct.38) is a scalar and the corresponding terms in (1. a.40) and summing the resultant equations with respect to j. is defined by which is a vector function.
1 Sec. JJJv [ ( v x q .43). namely. which is a dyadic function.49) in the form which is a dyadic. ( v x z )  ~ .17) By elevating F to a dyadic level. we obtain the dyadicdyadic Green theorem of the first kind in the form By juxtaposing a unit vector P j to the posterior position of (1.49) and (1. and The vector function P in (1. namely.51) can now be elevated to a dyadic. v x v x ~ ] m These theorems are needed later to integrate Maxwell's equations using dyadic Green functions and to prove thesymmetrical properties of dyadic Green functions. which is defined by which is a dyadic. The concept of the dyadic Green functions and their precise forms are the main topics of this book which will be discussed shortly. then JJJv [ F ~ V ~ V ~ ~ ~  ~ V ~ V ~ F ~ . By juxtaposing a unit vector P j at the posterior position of (1. we obtain the vector dyadic Green theorem of the first kind By following the same procedure for (1. We consider three distinct sets of the vector Green theorem of the first kind stated by (1.48) and summing the three resultant equations.50) and summing the resultant three equations. denoted by vF. we can elevate several vector Green theorems reviewed in Sec. To elevate the vector Green theorem of the second kind to the vectordyadic form. In addition to these two functions. 12 to the dyadic form. When a dyadic function is constructed with an idem factor function f in the form f and a scalar It is observed that we purposely put the function Qj at the posterior position in order to do the elevating.10 General Theoremsand Formulas Chap. we will encounter the gradient of a vectorfinction.51) we can obtain the dyadicdyadic Green theorem of the second kind. Having introduced the divergence and the curl of a dyadic. 13 Dyadic Analysis to derive (1. we obtain the vectordyadic Green theorem of the second kind. Thus we write (1. we consider three sets of that theorem written in the form .
66) .55) Dividing the entire equation by ein4 and rearranging the terms in the exponential functions. which yields Jn ( A T ) =  . the integral The Hankel transform or FourierBessel transform can be considered as a special case of the twodimensional Fourier transform.60) becomes The existence of g(h) requires that Jym I f (t)( & be bounded. To derive the Hankel transform pair from this point of view. We change the variable of integration to w = a .57) can then be written in the form The remaining integration with respect to a is now evaluated in a similar manner. The Fourier transform of a piecewise continuous function f ( t ) defined by is Now let f ( r .i[Ar cos w+n(w q )I du.ioo to ? + im. with the anticipation that the integrals with respect to a and P have the appearance of the integral representations of Bessel functions. In particular. one can write the resultant equation in the form The Fourier transform can be extended to functions of many variables. (1.4 and choose the path of + f integration from . this becomes =rsin4 t2= p sin P h2 = X sin a . we have the following twodimensional Fourier transform pair Let us now consider the integral with respect to P first or. It deals with a class of functions whereby f ( X I . I Sec.12 General Theoremsand Formulas Chap. we obtain In this section we will review the basic formulas in the theory of the Fourier transform and in the theory of the Hankel transform or FourierBessel transform. (1. The meaning of a weighted delta function will be explained later. for functions of two variables. x2) is a function of r and 4 when expressed in the radial cylindrical variables. At the end of this section we will derive the integral representation of the delta functions weighted according to the dimension in which these functions are used. Equation (1.4) be a function in the form F ( r )ein4. more specifically. where n is assumed to be a positive real constant not necessarily integer. + Equations (1.56) and (1.59). The inverse of (1. 00 g (h)eihxdh.54) is given by f ( x )= 2n /. 14 Fourier Transformand Hankel Transform 14 FOURIER TRANSFORM A N D HANKEL TRANSFORM Upon combining (1. then the integral becomes the integral representation of the Bessel function of order n which is assumed to be positive and real but not confined to integers. we make the following changes of variables: 22 By changing the variable of integration to w defined by w = P .58) and (1. that is.a . If we judiciously choose the limit of integration such that the contour follows the path from % i m to 5 + im.
we introduce two new functions f ( R )and g ( A ) defined by G(A)= A i g ( A ) Similarly.14 General Theorems and Formulas Chap. The present derivation appears to be less formal.69) and (1. he applied these formulas to nonintegral values of n without further elaboration [p..69) I I I Equations (1.R') = 2 R~ = 1 0 00 j (AR)jn (AR')A2 dA. 4114121 using a different technique. pp.r') / r or F ( p ) = 6 ( p . the spherical Bessel functions. It should be remarked that the derivation which we have presented here follows very closely the one described by Sommerfeld [1949. 0 G 00 2AR 5 Upon substituting f ( x )= 6( x .69) constitute the pair of Hankel transforms which are valid for Bessel functions of any order. we obtain and F ( R )= R f ( R ) ' The pair of Hankel transforms for f ( R )and g ( A ) in terms of the spherical Bessel function then has the form Finally.72) in a symmetrical form.71) and (1.68) and (1. (1.68) and (1. . . 2111. for the threedimensional case. the spherical Bessel function is defined by f ( x )6 ( x .68) and (1. 1091111. the Bessel functions involved are of halfinteger order or. when the Hankel transform is applied to spherical problems. 1 Sec.54) and (I. but perhaps simpler. for the weighted delta function in the twodimensional case.69) can then be written in the form f ( R ) [ ( R . The integral property of a delta function implies that one dimensional: 00 This can be separated in a pair of identities by letting (1. by applying (1.R')] R~dR = f (R') 6 Lm Lrn f (I)[6 1 r dr = f (r'). However.68) and (1. Equations (1. For this reason it is more convenient to modify (1. pp. 14 Fourier Transformand Hankel Transform 15 The final form for (1. To recast (1. To obtain these desired expressions. by letting F ( r ) = 6 (r .75) to derive the integral representation of the delta function weighted according to the dimension in which the function is used.55) and the Hankel transform pairs (1.75) to the weighted delta function in the threedimensional case. we let n = m + and change the notation r to R in order to conform to spherical nomenclature.62) after this reduction of the angular integrals becomes These two expressions have previously been derived by Stratton [1941. We will now apply the Fourier transform pair (1.74) and (1.69) so that they would contain these functions directly. he derived these expressions under the condition that n is an integer.x') into (1.68) then F ( r )= Lm G ( A ) Jn ( A T ) A dA. Now.r') two dimensional: r 6( R .%).xl)dx = f (2') .68) and (1. Later.R') three dimensional: R2 . Hence. In fact.r') / p in (1.x') 6(r .69).x') or f one finds (5) = 6 ( J .74) and (1.54) and (1. more precisely. we obtain ( R. These weighted delta functions are defined as follows: 6 ( x . likewise. R~ F i ~= )J (y)( A )jm ( A R )A dA.
94) . 2051. 77) and the family of curves corresponding to u (<. When certain conditions are met. %).82)(1. 7 ) shows that in the neighborhood of the point h = ho or = Jo and 77 = qo.84) will be used later very often in solving the vector wave equation by the method of continuous eigenfunction expansion. can be approximated by for different values of c has the appearance shown in Fig. as a result of the CauchyReimann relations [Courant. 14 in the neighborhood of the saddle point. We consider q5 ( h )to be an analytic function of the complex variable h = + i~ so that < Fig. The family of curves described by For the slowly varying function f ( h )it can be replaced by f (ho). The function f ( h )is assumed to be a slowly varying function S in the neighborhood of ho.16 General Theoremsand Formulas Chap.The original integral. 11.h ~= ) ~ jl' (h0))l 2 ei(aa+P+$). where V O = v (So.ho = seza 4" (ho)= 14" (ho)1 eiP. 5~ ld s 2 (1. 14 by the dotted line. 14 The family of curves described by v(E. that is. 15 SADDLEPOINT METHOD O INTEGRATION F AND SEMIINFINITE INTEGRALS OF THE PRODUCT OF BESSEL FUNCTIONS Complex integrals of the type I will occur frequently in our work. q) = constant are orthogonal to those shown in Fig. then. The above description also applies to the function u (<.p v has a significant value only along a small segment of the path near the saddle point. Vol. A section of this path is shown in Fig. have an extreme value at a certain point ho. p. Under that condition the original integral can be written in the form A threedimensional plot of the surface z = v ( J . so that q (ho)= 0.whose magnitude is of the order of unity. The key conditions are that p be a large number compared to unity and q5 ( h ) . the integral can be evaluated approximatelyby the method of saddlepoint integration. then 1 1 ipf' (ho)( h . 15 SaddlePointMethod of Integration Expressions (1. 14. the surface has the shape of a saddle because < The function e . 7)= c then u and v satisfy the CauchyRiemann relations in the neighborhood of the saddle point. 1 Sec. Thus we may approximate the function 4 ( h ) by a series expansion in the neighborhood of ho by retaining only the first three terms. We now change the path of integration such that the contour would pass through ho and follow a path corresponding to This can be simplified if we let h .
we have where A=Jlc2hz and r and z denote two of the variables in the cylindrical coordinate system. 15 SaddlePoint Method of Integration 19 In order to confine the path of integration along the contour u = UO.103) in the form and in the limit as becomes very large we obtain By changing the variable of integration from A to Aecik. k being a constant. Thus we have p+ (h) = hz Since g (A) = g (A). I Sec. When kR is very large. angle the a must be so chosen that where R and 0 denote two of the variables defined in the corresponding spherical coordinate system.85) under the conditions we have stated. 1949. 3141. let us consider an integral of the form According to the circulation relations of the Bessel functions [Sommerfeld. we obtain + Jk2 . The evaluation of this type of integral has been described by Sommerfeld [1949. As an example.The last integral can be evaluated by a change of variable from s to t where J. 1971for the case where the product is made of two spherical Bessel functions. we have This is the asymptotic formula for (1. (1. not necessarily integers. therefore. Another integral which will be encountered often in our work is of the form Under this condition. we can write (1. (AT') denote two Bessel functions of order v.h2r The original integral. the original integral is well approximated by $). Using the wellknown relation between a Bessel function and the two Hankel functions. but put no restriction on the values of v. 8) = G (k case) e i ( k ~ R This approximation will be used later in finding the asymptotic expressions for various dyadic Green functions. p. F (R. p.93) reduces to where r = [Ah]. and g (A) is an odd function of A with no poles in the complex Aplane.18 General Reorems and Formulas Chap. can be written in the form . We shall adopt Sommerfeld's method. (AT) and J.
system is used in this work. R') = (kR) J. is already familiar to most of the readers. presumably. (XR') and j. J. The Green functions pertaining to the twodimensional and threedimensional scalar wave equations will also be introduced. 21 S A A G E N FUNCTIONS OF A ONEDIMENSIONAL CLR RE W V EQUATIONTHEORY OF TRANSMISSION AE LINES (1. and the method of deriving various types of the dyadic Green function. . Applying the general result described by (1. This is of the same form as (1. eiwt Equation (1.111) can be written in the form F (R.109) These two integrals can be evaluated in a closed form by completing the contour of integration along a semiinfinite circular path in the upper Aplane. (Xr') denote two spherical Bessel functions and G (A) is an even function of A. . not necessarily for v equal to integers. (kR'). and it may be terminated at either end with an impedance or by another line.114) holds true for functions of any order. as sketched in Fig. K(x).20 General Theorems and Formulas Chap. (1. R > R'. that is hp) (x) = (&) ' H ) : (x) . (Xr') dX. (kR1). the voltage and the current on the line satisfy the following pair of equations: where hi1) (kR) denotes the spherical Hankel function of the first kind. we will encounter integrals of the w e Scalar Green Functions where j. I By a similar reasoning.. Using the relation that As an introduction to the terminology. (1. we shall first review the transmission line theory from the point of view of the Green function technique since the subject matter.. In fact for conical problems v is in general fractional.+. 21. R') = IT 2 (RR+ Jd " G(X) X(A2 . R > R' jv(kR) hll) (kR')  . we find ir.113) Jv++ (AR) J. r > r'. Much of the material covered here finds its analogy later when we deal with the vector wave equation. 2k { .103) can alternatively be expressed in the form (Xr) J. (1.114) We consider a transmission line excited by a distributed current source. R < R' hll) (kR) j. but no detailed treatment will be given. provided G (A) /A has no poles in the Aplane.103).110). The line may be finite or infinite. (kr') . (kr) HL1) (kr') (1.k2) (XR') dX. the concept. R < R' F (R. For a harmonically oscillating current source K(x). (1. we obtain (kR)H(:). r < r' HL1) (kr) J. As a result of the residue theorem.110) In the case of spherical and conical problems. (kR').
22. conditions which the function must satisfy at the extremities of the spatial domain in which the function is defined. Because of (2. With such an understanding.1). By eliminating I(%)between (2. XI). 14. 22 should be denoted by gol.7) through the entire domain of x yields then and (2.3) reduces to (2. namely. For transient field problems. 22. the subscript 0 designates infinite domain so that we have outgoing waves at x foo. Our problem is to find V(x) and I(%)for certain terminations of the line. indicating that one radiation condition and one Dirichlet condition are involved. which . case (b) of Fig. the Green function pertaining to a onediminsional scalar wave equation of the form (2. go. The physical interpretation of (2.4) can represent any of the three types. The same nomenclature will be used later in our classification of the dyadic Green functions. (2.iwL J1:' go (x.is a solution of the following equation. For this reason. Subscript 3 is reserved for the mixed type. In case (d) a superscript becomes necessary because we have two sets of line voltage and current (Vl. the distributed inductance and capacitance of the line. The boundary conditions which must be satisfied by g(x. we obtain where k = w m denotes the propagation constant of the line.3) has been designated as an inhomogeneous onedimensional scalar wave equation. To distinguish various types of functions satisfying different boundary conditions.7) An integration of (2.1) and (2.4). The method has an analogy in circuit theory whereby the response of a network to any input function can be determined by an integration based on the impulse response of the network. (2. Actually. we use a subscript to identify them. XI)K (x). The Green function method has been developed particularly to solve this type of equation in a rather elegant way. The first superscript denotes the region where this function is defined. we obtain where 6(x . Equations (2. x') in (2. it is sufficient for us to find V(x) only. By multiplying (2.XI). XI)K(x) dx.22 Scalar Green Functions Chap. and it will be formulated later. The treatment of case (d) is slightly different. V(x) in the present case. illustrated in Fig.3) by g(x. The function g(x. the main formula showing the application of the Green function should be derived. we should have used a double subscript for two distinct boundary conditions. respectively.4) is not completely determined unless we specify the two boundary = l:' V(x)6(x .XI)represents a delta function already introduced in Sec.x2). Equation (2. 2 Sec.12) in this problem. By definition. we use subscript 2. When one of the boundary conditions satisfies the socalled Neumann condition.1) and (2. Some of the typical ones (for the transmission line) are illustrated in Fig. It is known from the theory of differential equations that the solution for go (x. denoted by g(x.4) is that if we let . and the term at the lefthand side can be simplified by integration by parts.V(x)G(x . 21 Tkansmission line excited by a distributed current source. x') are the same as those dictated by the original function which we intend to determine.8) The first term at the righthand side of the above equation is simply V(xl). the Green function may be constructed to include the impulsive time characteristics as well. XI)and (2.6) imply that the line is excited by a localized current source of amplitude i/wL placed at x = XI. and the second superscript denotes the region where the source is located. and the Green function also has different forms in the two regions. K ( x ) In (2.iwLgo (x.3).2).xl)dx . In general. Subscript 1 means that one of the boundary conditions satisfiesthe socalled Dirichlet condition while the other satisfies the radiation condition. For example. gl and g2. XI) satisfying (2. often called the radiation condition. The Green function for a spatial problem plays the same role as the impulse response function in a timedomain problem.4) by V(x) and taking the difference of the two resultant equations.5) and (2. Let us consider a single line first and let the domain of x correspond to (XI.2) L and C denote. the simplified notation should be acceptable. 21 Theory of Transmbswn Lines 23 Fig. Before we give the derivation of the explicit expressions for various types of the Green functions. I l ) and (V2. the Green functions are classified according to the boundary conditions which they must obey.
x' > x. "'+€ d2go (x. we will derive the various g's by the conventional method first and then apply the OhmRayleigh method to rederive the freespace Green function as a demonstration of the techniques involved in that method. 22 Derivation of go (x. This method is not needed for the problems involving a transmission line.12) (2. after identifying g(x. 1791. we obtain. by definition. a terminology introduced by Sommerfeld [1949. (2. In the following. The shifting of the primed and unprimed variables is often practiced in our work. if we integrate (2. Algebraically. Lt. satisfies the equation " dxI2 + kag (x'. x') dx = 1.14) In the limit as E + 0.4) and (2.x).4) in a small interval around x'. and its derivative is discontinuous. However. x') BY THE CONVENTIONAL METHOD AND THE OHMRAYLEICH METHOD The expressions for various g's can be derived by the conventional method described in the theory of differential equations. For this reason we introduce it here as a preparation for the future work. as usually is the case. x').xl). x') as 90 (x. Fig. = ~ e ' ~ " . assuming go (x.13) Classification of Green functions according to the boundary conditions gives If we use the unprimed variable x to denote the position of a field point. x') = ~ e ? ~ " .x). An alternative approach is to apply the method of OhmRayleigh. x) = 6(x1 .24 Scalar Green Functions Chap. 22 DERIVATION OF go(=. x'+c go (x.4) in the two regions (see Fig. 2 Sec. it is important to point out that g(xl. x'). but the difference of the line currents at x' must be equal to the source current. the function must be continuous.9) can be changed to The choice of the exponential function with the proper sign assures us the satisfaction of boundary conditions at infinity. At x = x'. A comparison of (2. For this reason. 22 x > x' (2. Case 1. the second term approaches zero. go (x. x') dx dx2 + k2 1!. p. x') is . 22 for the layout) are go (x. x') and go (x. FreeSpace Green Function. The physical interpretation of these two conditions is that the voltage at x' is continuous. The general solutions for (2. or the method of eigenfunction expansion.11) would help us to realize the importance of not arbitrarily altering the positions of x and x' in go (x. (2. it is a necessary tool in our forthcoming treatment of the dyadic Green function.' by the ConventionalMethod x) 25 The last identity is due to the symmetrical property of the Green function that will be shown in the next section.
so that the desired boundary condition is satisfied.. we may interpret (2. we require Case 2.x'). (2. we have two differential equations to start with: In view of (2.14) then becomes The continuity of go ( x .12) and (2. hence The choice of the sine function assures us that a Dirichlet condition is satisfied at x = 0. one finds and it does not have any discontinuous characteristics as does go ( x . it is just a matter of finding g.x') and . Green Function of the Second Kind.2') = B sin k x .26 Scalar Green Function Chap. Green Function of the Third Kind. but mathematically it offers a shortcut to finding a composite Green function. denoted by g ( l l ) ( x . we have 91 ( 5 .x'). Green Function of the First Kind. g. We introduce two Green functions of the third kind. x' 2 x 2 0. we let ~ ~ i k a : X>X' . (l x >0 It is assumed that the current source is located in region 1 (see Fig. = 0.x'). 22). 91 ( x .x') by this shortcut method or the method of scattering superposition. ( x . In this case. that is d22!x) + k f ~ x ) = iwLIKl( x ) .27) Case 4. For this case.x') is a solution of the homogeneous differential equation ] .x') is therefore given by i sin kx'eikx. x > x' i sin kxeikx'.2') = The complete expression for g2 ( x .17) is 92 ( x .15) and (2.x') changed to g1 ( x ..  Equation (2.x') at x' means go ( x . g ( i j ) ( x . Applying these two conditions to (2. ( x .x') or g.X I ) Such a notion is not only physically useful.x') = go ( x . 22 Derivation of go (x. ( x .x').' by the ConventionalMethod x) 27 finite at x = x'.21) as consisting of an incident wave and a scattered wave. The method of scattering superposition suggests that we can start with A more compact expression for (2. It is observed that gl.x'). (2.17)..16).13). x1 2 x 2 0. Applying (2. ( x .x'). x1 > x > 0. with the notation go ( x .x') + AeikX. g.24) To satisfy the Neumann condition at x = 0. 2 Sec.20) may be written in the form i{ k cos kxle"* . (2. x 2 x' cos kxeikx'. Case 3. An illustration is given below in determining g2 ( x . Because once we know go ( x .
we have Because of the radiation condition at x = oo.xl). thus the expression . ) x 2 0.30).with the unknown coefficients R and T to make the final solutions more attractive. x') dx2 + k ? g ( l l ) ( ~ . Likewise the second term at the righthand side of (2. respectively. g(ll) and condition that These are just the reflection and the transmission coefficient of a wave propaXI).28) through (2. we find identity (2.45) by putting x = 0.we write representing. Knowing g(ll)(x. Thus we have Vl (XI)= iwL1 I" g(ll)(x. the characteristic impedance of the lines.43) is indeed satisfied.45) where we have already made use of the symmetrical property of the Green function. we obtain or Vl(x) = iwLl where I" g ( l l ) ( x .42) vanishes for the similar reason.XI) 1 .x') = g(ll)(x'. Upon applying the boundary conditions (2. We have also added an extra term.2.34) . eiklx'.ikl(xxl) . and the fact that + g!ll)(x. 2') 1 dg(ll)(x.A Scalar Green Function Chap.xl)Kl(x)dx. x).36) and (2. 2 2 0.28) and (2. the proof of which will be found in the next section. = 6(x x') . x20 (2. we obtain Vl (XI)= iwLl + g(21) satisfy the boundary I" g(ll)(x. 2 Sec.1 / From (2.38).31).dg(21) x') (x. x ' ) ~ l ( x 'dx'. k2g(21)(x. Again.33) Li dx x=o L2 dx x=o' The last condition corresponds to the physical requirement that the current at the junction must be continuous. The value of Vl (0) can be found from (2. (2. by means of the method of scattering superposition. g(ll)(x. that is. 2') dx2 At the junction corresponding to x = 0.xl)Kl(x) dx .29) and (2. . gating from line 1 toward line. x') = go (x.28 g(21)(x. we can 2 determine Vl and V by applying the onedimensional Green theorem to (2.33) to these two functions. then d2g(11)(x. X>X1 +~~ikl(x+x'). The first number of the superscript corresponds to the region where the function is defined. 22 Derivation of go (x.32) and (2.XI) and g(21)(x.' by the ConventionalMethod x) 29 Green function with double superscript like g(21) signifies that it is a function of the third kind. (2.9).30) and d2g(21) x') (x. XI). By solving for R and T from (2. we find which is a solution of (2. from (2.29) that fulfills the radiation condition at x = oo. 2') + fleik1(x+x1) e i k l (xx') . To determine V2(x). Thus.31) as we did in deriving (2.44) By interchanging the variables x and x'. (2. = 0. The second number corresponds to the region where the source is located. we write g(ll)(x. (2.
the same result is obtained by deforming the contour so . For real values of k . the differential equation for go (x. The eigenfunction in this case is eih". x') = 1 ' / m 03 go (x. (2.x'). m > x > m. As an introduction to the OhmRayleigh method. and it corresponds to a line with a loss. we can restore the lossless condition by allowing Im(k) + 0. Before we apply these methods to (2. the method of OhmRayleigh in this case is equivalent to the method of Fourier transform in solving (2.xl) then go (x. Physically. the locations of the poles of the integrand in the hplane are shown in Fig. for x XI 5 0. f (h)eih" dh.x' 2 0.56) in a relatively simple manner.50) by the method of Fourier transform. the function eih" represents a wave that can exist on an infinite line with propagation constant equal to h. (x. where h is an arbitrary constant. the contour can be closed at the lower halfplane.x) by the ConventionalMethod ' 31 for V (x) is given by 2 (2. + The assumption concerning the behavior of go and dgo/dx at infinity can be justified if we let k be complex with Im(k) > 0. Thus we define f (h) = Fig. Applying Cauchy's residue theorem to the closed contour integrals. After the final expression for go (x. x') = S(X .47) In view of (2. x') is obtained.XI) is replaced by g(21) x') as the domains of the x variables in these two equations are different. which is a solution of the equation Applying the Fourier transform to (2. x') by this alternative approach. 19641. 23 where the contour of integration is assumed to be along the real axis. dx. Since eih" is the spectral function used in the Fourier transform.48) thus (2. A rigorous treatment of this subject would be based on the theory of generalized functions [Gelfand and Shilov.45).49) which has the same appearance as (2.50). except that g(ll)(x.50). we can solve (2. XI) = dh. we obtain Hence go (x. The procedure also helps us to evaluate the integral representation of go (x. 22 Derivation of go (x.32) through (2.47) can be written in the form (2. we obtain Po0 2lr . With such an interpretation.x') in terms of the eigenfunction of a homogeneous equation of the same type as (2. we have (2. x') e""l. we will now rederive the expression for go (x.50) dx2 The key step in the OhmRayleigh method is to expand 6(x . In the present book we merely use the formulas derivable from that theory such as the integral representation of the weighted delta function discussed in the previous chapter. x') as expressed by (2.35).50). This completes our discussion of the derivation and the usage of various kinds of Green function based on the conventional method. 23 Locations of the poles of the integral representation of go(x. d2go (2.50). x') is repeated here. With this understanding in mind.52) For x . 2') k2go (x. and assuming that both go and dgo/dx approach zero at x = fm. Such an artifice is commonly used. 2 Sec. (2. a few words must be said about the question of rigor concerning the existence of the Fourier transform of a delta function.30 Scalar Green Function Chap. For convenience. the contour can be closed by an infinite path in the upper halfplane without changing its value.
) "' Upon multiplying (2. IW .63) as the eigenfunction expansions of these two functions. g2. hence (2.62) and (2.67). 24. hence If g (x.63) into (2.45) without a proof.xb). there are four functions of the third . we let 6(x . by x. First. respectively. ~ ( h ) e ~ ~ ( " dh. hence the term at the righthand side of (2. and xb lie inside the domain where the function is denied.h2) = 1.m to m. Thus. 2 Sec. In the OhmRayleigh method. we find that B(h) (k2 . x. x') can be represented by a similar integral in terms of the eigenfunction eihx. of course.62) and (2. gl. x. go. we have Now we assume that go (x. xb) represent any of the four kinds. 23 Symmehical Properties of Green Functions that it is properly indented at the poles as shown in Fig. and xb and the domain of x by (xl. The symmetrical property of g(21) exhibits a slightly different form. that is. gl.g2.66) and (2. More precisely. we obtain Upon substituting (2. xb) dx2 + k2g(x.. x2). respectively.) and g (2. x') = 2n d2g (5.57).h'). It is implied that x.10) and (2. We consider two Green functions corresponding to two different source positions.60) The symmetrical properties of the Green functions have already been used in deriving (2.17).h') dh = 2aA(hr).) and taking the difference of two resultant equations and integrating it through the entire domain of x. by g (x. zb) = 6 (X. the integration with respect to x yields 2 7 4 h . we emphasize the notion that eihx is an eigenfunction of the differential equation under consideration.58) by ePih'" and integrating the resultant equation from . In the first place. the procedures are slightly different. we let go (x. which is the mathematical statement of the symmetrical property of the Green functions go.' = 2 n L w A(h)6(h . We will now supply the details.68) vanishes. and g(ll). and the domain in which these two functions are defined is the same. Thus w eihh'. Equation (2. we have Fig. where eihx is treated as an eigenfunction pertaining to the onedimensional scalar wave equation for an infinite domain.x') = [ w ~(h)e"" dh. 24 Indentation of contour for real k 23 SYMMETRICAL PROPERTIES OF GREEN FUNCTIONS where h' denotes an arbitrary constant. The same procedure will be followed later in finding the eigenfunction expansion for the dyadic Green function.32 Scalar Green Function Chap. Multiplying (2. the concepts behind these two methods are quite different. If we had followed precisely the steps involved in the OhmRayleigh method. In view of (1.82). xb) and g (x. denoting the source positions. so we treat (2. they would satisfy the same boundary conditions at the extremities. and g(ll). We therefore conclude that Although the direct Fourier transform method and the OhmRayleigh method are equivalent.50). is identical to (2.
the boundary conditions are This relationship can be derived directly from the differential equations for gl and 92 without resorting to their explicit expressions. x. x. However. g(22). From (2.) kfg(ll) (x.g(21).R' = Rl as shown in Fig.) .) (2. 2 Sec. 25. Another relationship that has a vector analog later deals with gl and 92. be located in region 1 (x > 0) and xb be located in region 2.kl with k2.71) and (2.both 9(22) and g(21) satisfy the identical radiation condition as required for region 2.and at x = a.72) At x = +oo. we have The weighting factor 1/47rRf attached to 6 (R1 .) dg'12' (x' dx x=o. and Z1 with Z2. g(11). x. xb) = 6 (x .0) is due to the fact that where V encloses 0'.72) in the negative x domain. + (2. it can be shown readily that + x20 (2. henceforth denoted by GO(R1.g(ll) (x. x. the various g's satisfy the following equations: d2g(11)(x.x. of course be obtained from (2. we obtain If we make a change of the variable R . for a threedimensional scalar wave R') equation satisfies the equation The function must satisfy the radiation condition that Upon multiplying (2. In terms of the new spherical coordinate system with origin at 01. hence the function Go would be a function of R1 only. (2.27) it is obvious that (2.) . the freespace Green function.and g(12). o).20) and (2. 24 FreeSpace Green Function 35 kind. The appropriate solution for .73) by g(ll) and integrating the difference of the two resultant equations from x = 0 to x = +m. At x = 0. the present proof does not require the explicit solutions for g(12)or g(21). the problem would have a spherical symmetry with respect to the new origin 0'.) = 0. If we let x. dx2 In view of (2. 24 FREESPACE GREEN FUNCTION OF THE THREEDIMENSIONAL S A A W V EQUATION CLR AE The freespace Green function G ~ ( R . x. both g(ll) and g(12)satisfy the same radiation condition specified for region 1. For R1 # 0. Repeating a similar calculation for (2.70) + 0 >x The same result can.34 Scalar Green Functions Chap.xb) .35) by interchanging x with XI. dx2 d2g(22) xb) (5.76) The two terms within the brackets cancel each other at x = +oo because of the same radiation condition.70) by g(12)and (2. namely. satisfies the equation dg(ll) (x. kzg(22)(x.74). the homogeneous equation is the same as the spherical Bessel equation of zeroth order.) = 6 (x . dx2 d2g(21) x.
which satisfies the radiation condition at infinity. x') = . p. we obtain A = ik/4n. given by Transforming back into the original coordinate system with center at 0.Scalar Green Functions Chap. The complete expression for Go ( E l l0) is.86) and letting a + 0. 25 The position vectors in G~(R. 24 FreeSpace Green Function 37 For a twodimensional scalar wave equation independent of z in the cylindrical coordinate system. we obtain G~ ( 3 . must therefore be . the corresponding freespace Green function is given by where F and F' denote the position vector in a cylindrical coordinate system and H.F') will not be encountered in the main body of this book. we make use of the Gauss theorem that thus a volume of integration of (2. 1941.82) through a small spherical region with center at 0' gives Upon substituting (2.84) into (2. Fig. proportional to the spherical Hankel function of the first kind of zeroth order [Stratton. therefore.  (2. 4041 or To determine the constant of proportionality A.$') denotes the Hankel function of zeroth order and of the first kind. 2 Sec.41""'l/4T I3 dI .88) .R') Go ( Z 1 o). The function Go (F.
Sec. 31
The Independent and Dependent Equations
where


D = electric flux density (coulomb/meter2) H = magnetic field (amperelmeter) B = magnetic flux density (weber/meter2) J = electric current density (ampere/meter2)
p = electric charge density (coulomb/meter3).

E = electric field (voltlmeter)
Electromagnetic Theory
It is understood that all the field quantities, including the current density and the charge density, are functions of position and time. By taking the divergence of (3.1) and setting the constant of integration with respect to time equal to zero, we obtain V . B = 0 (Gauss lawmagnetic). (3.4) In a similar manner, upon taking the divergence of (3.2) and eliminating 7 between the resultant equation and (3.3), we have
Historically, Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism was founded on the basic laws available at his time. His main contribution was to supplement Ampkre's law by a now famous term called the displacement current to make it compatible with the equation of continuity and with Gauss law. Nowadays it is more practical to present the theory in its entire form without following the historical course. However, it is important to distinguish the dependent equations from the independent ones of the entire set of equations and also to understand the significance of the definite form in contrast to the indefinite form. The meaning of these technical terms will be explained shortly. We also discuss very thoroughly the boundary conditions which have to be postulated in the electromagnetic theory if we consider Maxwell's differential equations as the foundation of his theory.
31 THE INDEPENDENT AND DEPENDENT EQUATIONS AND THE INDEFINITE AND DEFINITE FORMS OF MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
V .D = p
(Gauss law).
(3.5)
There are three independent equations in Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism:
Since (3.4) and (3.5) are considered to be derivable from (3.1) through (3.3), these two equations should be treated as auxiliary or dependent equations in the entire system of equations (3.1) through (3.5). An alternative view is to take (3.1), (3.2), and (3.3) as independent equations while treating (3.3) and (3.4) as dependent equations. Such an alternative choice does not change the basic point of view. The three independent equations described by (3.1) through (3.3) actually consist of seven scalar differential equations inasmuch as one vector equation is equivalent to three scalar equations. Now each vector function has three components. We have, therefore, 16 unknown scalar functions altogether. It is obvious that the three independent equations are not sufficient to form a complete system of equations to solve for the unknown functions. For clarity, we shall designate (3.1) through (3.3) as Maxwell's equations in the indefiniteform as long as the constitutive relations between the field quantities are unknown or unspecified. Under such a condition, many alternative forms can be used to describe Maxwell's theory. One common form is to introduce two material field vectors, P and a , which are defined by
V x E =   (Faraday's law) at
V x TT = 7 +  (MaxwellAmpere law)
aB
aD
at
(3.2) (3.3)
where

V.
 = ap J
at
(equation of continuity),
P = polarization (coulomb/meter2) M = magnetization (amperelmeter)

Electromagnetic Theoiy
Chap. 3
Sec. 32
Integral Forms of Maxwell's Equations
41
eo = the electric constant = 8.854 x l ~  ~ ~ ( f a r a d / m e t e r )
32 INTEGRAL FORMS O F MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
po = the magnetic constant = IT x 107(henry/meter). When E, H, P, and are used, the number of unknowns and the number of equations remain the same, and the essential characteristics of Maxwell's equations are not altered. This is the invariant property of Maxwell's equations. We shall not elaborate here this aspect of the electromagnetic theory since it is irrelevant to the present work. In any event, to make the Maxwell's equation definite we need more information. This additional information is provided by the constitutive relations between the field quantities. For example, in a simple isotropic medium, the field quantities are related as follows:

Although the integral forms of Maxwell's equations are not needed in the present work, we will give a brief review here mainly because certain features of these forms are not discussed in standard books on electromagnetic theory, and they are useful in deriving the boundary conditions for the field quantities. In order to give a complete description of the boundary conditions, we start with the indefinite form of Maxwell's equations. Upon integrating (3.1) through (3.5) through a volume V with an enclosing surface S, we obtain
JlIv
xBdv =
//I
JJJ
g d v
JJJ v . 7 d v =  JJJ g d v
J J J v ~ =vo
JJJ v . ~
where E, p, and o denote, respectively, the permittivity, permeability, and conductivity of the medium. Equations (3.8) through (3.10) provide nine more scalar relations that make the number of unknowns and the number of equations compatible. When the constitutive relations between the field quantities are known, Maxwell's equations become   In many boundaryvalue probdefinite. lems, the constitutive relations between D, B, E, and H are usually known while the current density function 7 is treated as a source term. In that case, we are interested in finding the solutions for F and H in terms of 7 that satisfy certain boundary conditions. Much of the work discussed in this book falls into this case. Thus if the medium under consideration is air, which is practically a vacuum, the definite form of Maxwell's equations becomes
d=v
dv.
Now if the fields and their first derivatives are continuous throughout the region of integration, we can apply the curl theorem and the divergence theorem to obtain
#
Similar equations for more complex media will be introduced later.
(fi~)ds=JJJ~dv.
If we apply an open surface integration to (3.1) and (3.2), we obtain
42
Electromagnetic Theory
Chap. 3
Sec. 33
Boundary Conditions
entire region, therefore, is given by Now if the fields and their first derivatives are continuous, we can apply Stokes's theorem to convert (3.26) and (3.27) to the form and it is denoted by
SSJv J ~ v . sum of (3.30) and (3.31) yields The
It should be emphasized here that (3.21) to (3.25) and (3.28), (3.29) are valid only if the fields and their first derivatives are continuous, a necessary condition to apply the curl theorem, the divergence theorem, and Stokes's theorem to the original integrals.
33 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
We now postulate the boundary condition that at SI2
then (3.33) reduces to
I
Two approaches of presenting the boundary conditions for the electric and the magnetic fields will be discussed. In the first approach, the boundary conditions are postulated that lead to some integral forms of Maxwell's theory which are applicable to discontinuous as well as continuous fields. In the second approach, the process is reversed where the integral forms are postulated first and then the boundary conditions are derived. These two approaches will show clearly that the boundary conditions in electromagnetic theory cannot be derived from the differential equations formulated by Maxwell. A postulate is needed to arrive at these conditions, and the validity of these conditions can be verified only experimentally. In the first approach, let us consider the application of  to two adjacent (3.22) the fields H1,Dl and their first regions shown in Fig. 31. It is assumed that  derivatives are continuous in Vl, and the fields H 2 ,D2 and their first derivatives are continuous in Vz. Under these conditions the curl theorem can be applied to (3.16) to yield (3.22). In Vl we obtain
Equation (3.35) has the same form as (3.22) except that it is now valid for a discontinuous field, provided that the discontinuity satisfies the boundary condition stated by (3.34). The current moment contained in (3.35) involves both the volume and surface distribution of current inside V. The integral form of the MaxwellAmpbre's law thus derived has, therefore, a broader meaning than its differential form. Most important of all, a boundary condition has been postulated. By applying the same procedure to Faraday's law we can derive the general integral form of that law
a
under a postulated boundary condition at Slz; namely,
and in V2,we obtain
For the Gauss law, we apply (3.25) to the two different regions to obtain
On S12,the boundary surface between 6/1 and V2, we assume the existence of a surface current with surface current density The total current moment in the
r.
namely. is then given by 0 On S12. p. g d v (3. 33 Boundary Conditions 45 By applying the same procedure to (3. 871 states that ** then Equation (3. denoted by J J dp/atdV. D) d s  = /LIZ 1....24) to the two regions we can derive the general integral form of the magnetic Gauss law.we assume the existence of a layer of surface charge with surface charge density p.The total rate of change of the J charge inside the volume..we assume the existence of a surface current with density ff and a surface charge with density p. Now we postulate the boundary condition ..23) for the two regions in . # (fi.41) We now postulate the boundary condition that at S12 The surface Gauss theorem in vector analysis [Tai. On S12. 31 l k o adjacent regions with a boundary surface S12 71ds  A.42). then J2 IS..39) yields # ( a . where Vs E denotes the surface divergence of K.B)dS=~ (3. 3 Sec. IS.43) includes both the volume and the surface distribution of charges inside V. /LIZ I 2 fil T1dS =  . The total charge represented by the volume integral in (3. Fig. 1 pdv  AI . T2dS  I.47) can then be written in the form (3.. and their first derivatives are continuous.46) (3. is given by The sum of (3. (Dl .38) and (3. we start with (3. IS.25) except it is now valid for a discontinuous field provided that the discontinuity satisfies the condition stated by (3.50) therefore can be replaced by a surface integral. denoted by f i .46) and (3. The total charge inside the entire region is then given by where L denotes the contour enclosing S12.47) gdv. 1992..72dS =  I/L1 /I.Electromagnetic Theory Chap. commonly denoted by Q.. The total current flowing out the entire surface.which we assume J1.44) in a region with a discontinuous Bfield provided that the following boundary condition is satisfied For the law of conservation of charge..43) has the same form as (3.The line integral in (3..D2) dS The sum of (3.. 7dS.
27) to accomplish the same result.23) except it is now applicable to a region containing discontinuousvolume current density functions and a surface distribution of charge and a surface current.23) to (3.36). (3. General boundary condition Case 2. 34 MONOCHROMATICALLY OSCILLATING FIELDS I N FREE SPACE which is the boundary condition that we have postulated in the first approach.1) and (3. When the field quantities in Maxwell's equations are harmonically oscillating functions with a single angular frequency of oscillation. 3 Sec. and the two special cases which are frequently encountered in boundary value problems. originally due to Schelkunoff [1972]. Medium 2 being a perfect conductor and assume D to be finite in the region of integration.34)' (3.35) and (3.53). When this approach is applied to (3. (3. In conclusion.36).35).2) when E and H are discontinuous. the boundary conditions for F and H as stated by (3.36) and (3. indeed. By postulating these two equations to be valid for any field including discontinuousfields. (3. Neither of the two adjacent media being a perfect conductor Case 3. is more convenient.52).54) and (3. The other conditions can be derived in a similar manner.54) and (3.53) has the same form as (3. ' h e same is true for (3. For convenience of reference we tabulate in Table 31 the boundary conditions associated with the corresponding differential equations. w. (3.35) yields The unit vector Al is pointed from the interface to medium 1. then (3. Like our (3. we can derive the general integral forms of Maxwell's theory as expressed by (3.42)' (3.55) represent another integral form of Faraday's law and ArnpkreMaxwell's law in contrast to our (3. 34 Monochromatically Oscillating Fields in Free Space 47 then (3. The model based on a volume integral. one can start with (3. The second approach. is to assume that the integral form of Maxwell's equations are stated by As far as the boundary conditions for E and H are concerned. In order to avoid a possible confusion of notation due to the two possible choices of the complex time function. TABLE 31 Boundary Conditions Differential Equations Boundary Conditions and the three equations described by (3. be derived from these two integral forms.25) if they are assumed to be valid for discontinuous as well as continuous fields. we will . and (3. Equations (3.26) and (3.35). and (3.34) and (3.25).37) can.43). We emphasize once more that the boundary conditions of the electromagnetic field cannot be deduced from Maxwell's original differential equations.46 Electromagnetic Theory Chap. we consider a layer of current confined to a thin region in the form of a thin slab with thickness h and area AS.44). We let Case 1. by postulating the boundary conditions stated by (3. (3. the system of equations can be simplified considerably. because the same model is applicable to all the equations.50) reduces to Equation (3. however.55) cannot be derived from (3.23) to (3.39. The characteristic of an ideal perfect conductor is that it cannot sustain a field inside.37).45).
z .58) (3. where .) y + Ezo cos (wt . t ) = R e p ( x . Thus the electric field is represented by I I Sec.65) and (3. (3.a. z ) defined by  Substituting both (3.67) and (3. y. we will commence our discussion on dyadic Green function technique based on this classical solution.61).@. 3 give an example. we shall use the cosine function to describe the timevarying part.@ 2 ). v2Z+ k 2 Z = poJ. V2Z + VV . therefore.70) We use. The classical method of potentials is reviewed in the following section. we can introduce a scalar potential function $ such that  E = i w Z . in general.72) and making use of (3. When the domain under consideration is infinite. we can change (3.60) and (3.66). we can define a vector E ( x .66) will be designated as inhomogeneous vector wave equations.) 2.69) then Using identity (A. and +(ti) = co JJJ P(RI)G.18) of Appendix A.72) where the spatial functional dependence ( x . we will designate (3.( f i .72) as the inhomogeneousvector Helmholtz equation. In the first place. 35 Method of Potentiah 49 35 METHOD OF POTENTIALS In view of (3.72) and (3.65). (3.48 Electromagnetic Theory Chup. The entire subject of dyadic Green's technique is developed mainly to find the solutionsfor this type of equation under the constraint of various boundary conditions. in which one obtains the inhomogeneous scalar wave equation and Solutionsfor (3. By eliminating H or E between (3. we obtain In contrast to the vector wave equation defined by (3. Maxwell's equations in free space with a source function 7 can be described by Now we impose the gauge condition that Equation (3. + EYocos(wt. ~ e ~+ E Y O2ei'v ' ~ +~ ~ ~ e ' ' ~ 2 .60). the time function eciWt in our work. (3. y. The differential equation for $ can be obtained by taking the divergence of (3.' ~ ~ ] . that is. ~ ) e . y.. w = 27rf = angular frequency. In terms of the complex functions. one finds that E ( x . For where k = Widentification purposes. y. there are several distinct methods of finding the solution for (3. We introduce the complex vector function E ( x .69) into  E ( z . where Upon substituting it into (3.59) V x V x 2 = poJ + k 2 x + iwpoc0V$.v$.64) and the vector identity. In Chapter 4. equations of the type described by (3. (3.71). (3.65) or (3. V x potential function 71 such that  2 = 0.68) The amplitude functions and the phase functions are. functions of position.68) into (3. and recognizing the identity that V x V $ = 0. z ) = ~ . z ) has been omitted for simplicity.62) and (3. z .70) then is reduced to a vector differential equation containing the vector potential function Z only. x = p0J + k 2 Z + iwpOeOV$. f i r ) d v l .y. V .73) that correspond to outgoingwaves from the source are given by = 2 r l A and A denotes the freespace wavelength.61). t ) =EZo cos (wt . V .y. Z = iwpoco$.
let the direction of E be pointed in the zdirection so then we find and ik2ceikR i Ee = 47rwroR ( l + = . The terms which have been neglected are of the order of l / k R 2 or higher as compared to 1/R. they are the fields of a small electric dipole and that of a small current loop of arbitrary shape.78). the electromagnetic field vector E and H can be found. If we let the origin of the coordinate system to be located inside a current source. of the radiation vector. then k / 1 and I R1 I/< R.67).77) and (3.81) into (3.77) and (3.68).92) (3. where I . 4 )only and is not a function of R. we assume I Under these conditions the function G ~ ( R .space Green function for a threedimensional scalar wave equation. Once we know the solution for A(R).50 Electromagnetic Theory Chap.78) and neglecting higherorder terms. (3. is a function of the spherical angular The function N. Two conditions are imposed on to derive the expressions for the farzone field. variables ( 8 .93) .H+ = ikceikR 47rR where Nt denotes the transverse part. with respect to R. Thus the farzone electromagnetic field due to any current distribution satisfies the condition that  51 and Before we conclude this section a brief review will be given to the characteristics of the farzone field. they are and I I I This is referred to as the radiation condition for an electromagnetic field in free space. ' > sin 8 (3. For simplicity.4') +cos8cos9']. A more detailed description of this function is given in Chapter 2. and the largest linear dimension of the current source is small compared to a wavelength and also small compared to R. and it will be denoted by E then . is given approximately by XI) The volume integral of J ( R ) in (3. ltvo special cases corresponding to antennas of small size should be mentioned. that is. where denotes the position vector of a source point and denotes the position vector of a field point or that of an observer. (3.71). being equal to ( p o / r ~ ) ~1207r ohms.I R . and (3. we have z1 The constant 20 denotes the freespace wave impedance. R1)is called the free. one finds that The corresponding electromagnetic fields and H can be calculated by means of (3. 35 Method of Potentials I The function Go@.86) is designated as the current moment. R = R' [sin8sin8'cos(4.80) with E= Hence JJJ J(RI)~ V I called the radiation vector. Upon substitution of (3. As a result of (3. Under this condition the approximate expression for the vector potential is given by iT' I< Of course. 3 Sec. where the origin of this function is shown.
99) reduces to ' If a current distribution has a vanishing current moment. if the current is described by a triangular distribution as shown in Fig. like that of a small loop carrying a circulating current with constant amplitude I . we can still define the dipole moment by writing Hence Under this approximation we have For example. and by neglecting the term ik tain /Rin (3. R. one finds Since we are dealing with an electrically small loop. 32(a). In this case. 3 Sec. We assume that the largest linear dimension of the loop. 35 Method of Potentiak 53 When the current element is confined to a filament of length e and of constant amplitude I and pointed in the zdirection. R. equal to one half that a Hertzian dipole of the same length with a constant current I. we ob Thus the function R .then  when p = qe. If the current distribution is not uniform.38) of Appendix A. 32(b).R=. Fig.if' .i R .98).97) can be approximated by 1 .2 is designated as the dipole moment.. we need a more refined formula for A(R) find the corresponding to electromagnetic field.52 Electromagnetic Theory Chap. Thus In this case. then . is small compared to R. such a model corresponds to a short Hertzian dipole as shown in Fig. which may be of arbitrary shape.which yields k'  JJJJ(RI) . which is a good approximation of a sinusoidal current distribution when e is small compared to a wavelength. therefore. (b) Abraham dipole with f = R . the model is designated as the Abraham dipole.98) The effective dipole moment of an Abraham dipole is.96). R can be converted to ' I R R . 32 (a) Hertzian dipole. (1 ki A(R)= 4r 7R poe'kR (3. The relationship between the current I and the positive charge q of the dipole is related by I = iwq. R ) ( 1+ Rha)dV'. In view of (3.(3. R R  1  x ' + y' + zz' x y R and Applying the crossgradient theorem (A. the exponential function in (3.
We now change the notation (x. with m as the source. 41 MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN DYADIC FORM AND DYADIC GREEN FUNCTIONS OF THE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC TYPE In order to introduce the concept of dyadic Green functions in electromagnetic theory in a coherent manner. If we let m be pointed in the zdirection so  then we obtain Dyadic Green Functions k2meikR He = i 4r 7R sin 6 (3. z) to (xl. 2 .3). then H . we would like to elevate Maxwell's equations into a dyadic form first.105) demonstrate the socalled duality principle in electromagnetic theory. y. namely. and it will be denoted by m. By juxtaposing a unit vector ?i'j x at the posterior position of (4.by Fe and He with p (= ii?/w) as theH .UOHj)= 0. Maxwell's equations for these fields can then be written in the form V x E~ = i w p o H j (4. If we denote the first set source and the second set by Em and .  .104) The two sets of fields given by (3.5) and summing the three sets of equations with respect to j. J j = iwpj (4.4) v .1)(4.hence Knowing A(R).93) and (3. The quantity 13is designated as the magnetic dipole moment. We consider three sets of harmonically oscillating fields with the same frequency and in the same environment which are produced by three distinct current distributions J j with j = (1.2.3) V . (4.5) The medium under consideration is assumed to be air.91)(3. x 3 ) .78).103)(3.iweoEj (44 V .77) and (3.54 Ekctromagnetic lkeory Chap. ( € 0 ~ = p )j ~ (4. = Ee and Em= H e with p in the first set replaced by porn for the second set. (. we can find the corresponding E and H by means of (3. we obtain Maxwell's equations in dyadic form. 3 where 3 denotes the vectorial area of the small loop which may be of arbitrary shape.1) V x H j = J j . For other isotropic homogeneous media we simply replace the constants p~ and eo by p and E .
R') Em = Em (R. that is. p does not have the normal physical meaning of a vector quantity.46). if one knows the electromagnetic fields of three orthogonal . a dyadic the function like E has threevector components. 2 or PI.nomenclature of dyadic analysis introduced in Sec. The function of Eeso defined is designated as the dyadic Green function of the electric type or the electric dyadic Green function. (4.29) (4. respectively. 41 Maxwell's Equations in Dyadic Form where where 1 c = (poco) = velocity of light in air. and (4. y. the vector Green function of the electric type and the vector Green function of the magnetic type. They are Ee = F. 4 Sec. (4. then The relation between 7 and p is described by (4. g3. and thevector charge density function p contains three distinct scalar charge distributions.2.7). Ee?represents the electric field due to an infinitesimal electric dipole oriented in the direction of Pj and located at R = R'. the magnitude of p does not have any physical significance. Intuitively.8). (4. and the function Ernis designated as the dyadic Green function of the magnetic type or the magnetic dyadic Green function. that is. With this change of notation.9).3).RI) 2j = then Gej and Emjdenote. For example. Under this condition. 13. s (R R1)Pj.6).Dyadic Green Funciions Chap. The expression for p in the form of the gradient of a delta function is a consequence of (1. 22. & with j = (1.30) where R denotes the position vector of the field point and P that of the point source. We now normalize the current moment such that then iwPoJj = iwpocjS (R . Let us now consider the three current distributions which correspond to that of three infinitesimal electric dipoles located at R = R' and oriented in the direction of 2. (4. we introduce a set of new notations for the various dyadic functions.10) can be written in the form j /I According to . If we write these two functions in the form I where cj denotes the current moment of the dipoles. (R. Physically. R') .
32) corresponds to two tangential infinitesimal electric dipoles. andz The dyadic Green function of the electric and the magnetic type satisfy (4.37) (4. One of the methods is to take advantage of the solutions of Maxwell's equations in free space by the method of potentials. can now be constructed by juxtaposing a unit vector 5% at the posterior position of (4. Equation (4. cej JJ f (r)6 (T ). 41 The electric field due to three infinitesimal electric dipoles located at R' in the directions ofz. By eliminating one of them from these two equations. where the region of integration3ncludes the point T' on the surface. y. denoted by EeO. the boundary conditions stated by (3. we obtain In addition to Maxwell's equations. iwpoB+ and iwPOH. d~ = f ( T I ). for sources pointed in the $2. the boundary conditions for the tangential electric and magnetic fields will be written in the form Ee . respectively.33) and (4.P C DYADIC G E N FUNCTIONS R ES A E RE  c. denotes the twodimensional idem factor defined by RI) E03(R) = Ge03(R.38) where A denotes the unit normal vector pointed from an interface to the positive side of that surface and 7. it is conceivable that the field due to any current distribution can be found by a quadrature.42) . in (4. 35. In particular. or.32) can then be elevated into a dyadic form. The two dyadic boundary conditions stated by (4. There are several methods to find the solutions for these equations in free space. By considering three sets of electric fields due to three orthogonal infinitesimal electric dipoles we can elevate (4.36) are two key relations which will be used frequently in subsequent chapters.58 Dyadic Green Functions Chap. we find where ?. denotes the surface current density. According to the formulation in Sec. we obtain then When the surface current density function J . R') = (4.40) where Geol denotes the freespace vector Green function of the electric type due to a source pointed in the xldirection. in the form Eel (R) = Geol(R.24). [ 6 ~ R ] VxVx (4.56) can also be cast into dyadic form. The physical meaning of the three vector Green functions is illustrated in Fig.R') V X V X E ~ . 41. 42 F E . where G& and represent. respectively. The technique of dyadic Green function is based on this premise.31) into a dyadic form.R')& that corresponds to the current distribution of an infinitesimal electric dipole pointed in the xl direction.~ ~ E 1~ (= V )X. = and 6 (T . 42 FreeSpace Dyadic Green Functions infinitesimal electric dipoles.and in the x3direction.k2Ee = j6(R . that is.37) and (3. we can define a dyadic surface current density ?.    Fig. that is.TI) denotes the twodimensional delta function such that The freespace dyadic Green function of the electric type. 4 Sec. when iwpoJ(R) = 6(R . in general. Similarly.23) and (4.
3 and summing the three equations. (4. which yields By taking the divergence of (4. ?.47) can be written in the form (v2+ k2) Fee = Since To find Fee. is given by $(R.44). (4. with Ee replaced by Eeo. (4.VV ) [(V2 + k2) $(R. we would like to review that method. R') and b = ?. It can be verified that (4. Ern. R') = c 0 ( R .(R. a moving medium. R') is a scalar function to be determined.(R.43) can be written in the form where $(R.44) and (4.40) to (4.54) (4. ~ . Substituting (4. The difstated by (4.37).45) In free space. Since their method will be used later to find the dyadic Green functions ir. 24.26).. 2 .50) and rearranging the terms.stated by (4. = V G (R.56) because of the identity (A.53) = [ v G ~ ( RR1)] x . we have The subscript "0" attached to Zeo and Go represents the freespace condition that means the environment does not have any scattering object. namely.fi'). d (4.38). we let and according to (1.(R. according to the discussion in Sec.R'). In view of (4. Another method in deriving the expression for Z e o is due to Levine and Schwinger [1950]. fi')] (4. By applying the same technique to the equation for Zmo. the solution for $(R. R') = 6(R = 6(R . R').42) with i = 1 . R') : (v2+ k2) $(R.51) into (4.60 Dyadic Green Functions Chap. The ingenuity of this method is evident although one has to accept the concept of the generalized functions such as v6(R .37) with Fe therein replaced by Eeo can ferential equation for be converted into the form Fee which is the same as (4. with Ernreplaced by Grnowe can obtain the expression G. .46) (=I + VV ) 6(R 2 .23).El)] .52) The above equation can be satisfied if $(R.R') in addition to 6(R . R') is a solution of the scalar wave equation R). R')] E') x ?.(R.R'). 42 FreeSpace Dyadic Green Functions (4.45) indeed satisfy (4.26) of Appendix A. the freespace magnetic dyadic Green function is given by (=I + . and Thus (4. we obtain It is understood that the summation is from i = 1 to 3. 4 See. R') = v x [IG.55) hence with a = G.23)(4. (4. R') = V x where we have made use of the identity pG0(R.
the two sets of wave equations are Two of the terms in the volume integral of (4. and JJJv E(R) . For example.67) cancel each other. namely.R)] )d v The fields must satisfy the boundary conditions required by these problems. the waveguide can be excited by a transversal electric dipole or a longitudinal dipole or a magnetic dipole. (c) shows a rectangular waveguide with a current source placed inside the guide. inside a rectangular waveguide the tangential components of the electric field must be vanishing at the walls of the guide. 42(a).57) we can apply the second vectordyadic Green's theorem introduced in Sec.63). = . (4. The electromagnetic fields in these cases are solutions of the wave equations The dyadic Green functions to integrate (4. To find the integral solutions for (4. For problems involving two isotropic media such as the configuration shown in Fig.E ( R ) .ktH1 ( R ) = V x 71( R ) and (4. they are solutions of the dyadic differential equations + [V x E ( R ) ] x a. a current source and ~ located in region 1 only. Unless specified otherwise.68) R V x v x E 1 ( R ). (b) shows a conducting cylinder with an aperture which is excited by some source inside the cylinder. and (d) shows two semiinfinite isotropic media in contact.69) For a Maxwellian field V x E ( R ) = iwpoH(R). We denote the wave number in these two regions by k1 = w ( p 1 q ) 1 / 2 k2 = w ( p 2 ~ ) l /For.kqEl(R) = iwpl J l ( R ) V x v x H 1( R ) .62) will be introduced later.57) and (4.R t ) ) dS. If the current source in these problems has some specific distributions. { E ( R ) x v x ~ e ( ~ . we assume that for problems involving only one medium such as (a).k2E(R) = iwpoJ(R) V x v x H ( R ) . 43 Classificationof Dyadic Green Functions 63 43 CLASSIFICATION OF DYADIC GREEN FUNCTIONS The technique of dyadic Green function is introduced mainly to formulate various canonical electromagnetic problems in a systematic manner to avoid treatments of many special cases which can be treated as one general problem.k 2 H ( R )= v x J R . .62 Dyadic Green Functions Chap.f i t ) d v = IJL E ( R ) ~ ( .kzH2(R)= 0.# ~s. (4.58) in a very compact form.61) (4.59)(4. 42(d). In Fig.58) .ir)d v = E ( R ) . there are two sets of fields. Some typical problems are illustrated in Fig. (4. the electric and the magnetic dyadic Green functions. (b).k.( R . For example.59) (4. In general.and because of the dyadic identity .we obtain In view of (4.60) (4.57) and (4.(R. and Em to denote.( v x v x ~ ) ~ ] d ~ By letting P = E ( R ) and i$ = E. [ k 2 G e ( f iR ) + %(R . 42 where (a) shows a current source in the presence of a conducting sphere located in air. and (c) the medium is air. ~ ) By means of the dyadic Green functions we can find the integral solutions of (4. the above equation can be converted to v x v x E ( R ) . we will use the notations E.62) V x V x E2 ( R ) .E2 ( R ) = O V x V x H z ( R ) . we need only the freespace dyadic Green function to study the field produced by different distributions of the current source in free space. respectively. 13.57) (4. if the sphere is not there. R'). we have to consider these distributions as special cases. such as air and "flat" earth with a current source placed in one of the regions. iqli . 4 Sec. then the wave number k is equal to w (poco)? = 2rlX. . JJJv ~ ~ v x v x i $ .
64
Dyadic Green Functions
Chap. 4
Sec. 43
Classification of Dyadic Green Functions
the surface integral in (4.69) can be changed to an alternative form, namely,
we can split the volume integral in (4.74) to two terms; namely,
=kt{
[iwwH(R)] [h x F,(R, R')] The volume integral of the divergence of a dyadic function can be changed to a surface integral by means of the dyadic divergence theorem; that is,
It should be pointed out that in (4.71) R is now the position vector of the field point and R that of a source point. Once E(R') is known, one can readily find H ( R ) using one of the Maxwell's equations. However, in order to discuss the classification of the electric dyadic Green functions which satisfy different  boundary conditions, we need an integral expression for H(R1), which can be obtained by putting F = H(R) and = E,(R, R') in (4.65), which yields
8
Using these relations, we can write (4.74) in the form
=
#a.
S
{ ~ ( l ix )
vx
I, ?
(R, R')
+ [v x B(R)] x E, (B, R') } ds.
(4.72)
In view of (4.58), (4.63), and the identity (4.70), the above equation can be written in the form For a Maxwellian field hence H(R1) 
//L
J ( R ) . V x E,(R, R ) ~ V
Applying the dyadic identity
Equation (4.79) is a companion equation to (4.71); their relationship will be revealed later. In both (4.71) and (4.79) we have not yet specified the surface(s) enclosing the volume V. Let us consider the case that the region is bounded interiorly  by a surface Sdand exteriorly by a surface S at infinity. At S,, E(R) and H(R) , satisfy the radiation condition; namely,
66
Dyadic Green Functions
Chap. 4
Sec. 43
Classificationof Llyadic Green Functions
and
Rroo
lim R [V x
B(fi) i
k x~R(R)]= 0.
(4.81)
The electric vector Green function Eej( R ,R') with j = 1 , 2 , 3 satisfy the same condition as (4.80). By combining the three equations for Gej( R ,R') to a dyadic form, we obtain the radiation condition for E,(R, R'); namely,
The function E,(R, R') satisfies the same condition at infinity. As a result of the radiation condition, the surface integrals in (4.71) and (4.79) evaluated at S are equal to zero; only the contribution from Sd needs to be considered. , Thus we replace S therein with Sd. The classification of the electric dyadic Green function is based on the boundary condition placed on this function at Sd. Electric dyadic Green function of R'), is required to satisfy the dyadic Dirichlet the first kind, denoted by Eel condition on Sd, namely,
(z,
Under this condition (4.71) reduces to
, source Current
Eel
B(R')  iwpo
//L
J(R)
( R ,I?') d~
If the surface Sdcorresponds to that of a perfectly conducting body like the one shown in Fig. 42(a), then fi x E(R) = 0 and the surface integral on Sdvanishes completely, we obtain simply
E ( P ) = iwpO
//L
Fig. 42
Some typical boundary value problems
J ( R ) . Eel ( R ,B )dv.
(4.85)
Knowing (R,R'), we can find E(R1).Much of the work in this book deals with the finding of this kind of dyadic Green function for bodies of simple geometrical shapes. For a scattering body which is partly conducting, such as the conducting cylinder with an aperture shown in Fig. 42(b) where there is no current source outside of the cylinder, then (4.71) reduces to
Eel
where SAdenotes the area occupied by the aperture. Given an aperture field distribution, one can calculate the field outside of the cylinder with the aid of E e l or more precisely v x Eel@, P ) . When the electric dyadic Green function is required to satisfy the dyadic Neumann boundary condition on Sd, namely,
such a function is designated as the electric dyadic Green function of the secR'). When F e z is used in (4.79) with Sd ond kind, and it is denoted by Fe2(R,
68
Dyadic Green Functions
Chap. 4
Sec. 43
Classijication of Dyadic Green Functions
69
replacing S, it becomes
= iws
fi
[Ix E(R)]  ?, (R, R') dS. ?z
Equations (4.94) and (4.96) are important relationships. For example, (4.96) will be used later to find the expression for Eel from the expression for cm2. It happens that it is simpler to determine first and then to calculate Eel through (4.96), mainly becausez,z is a solenoidal dyadic function, that is,
zm2
(4.88)
For a perfectly conducting body, the surface integral vanishes; we obtain but Eea is nonsolenoidal. For a problem with two media, normally isotropic, such as the one shown in Fig. 42(d), the dyadic Green functions involved are of the third kind, and we need a more elaborate notation for these functions by using a superscript with two numerals. There are four functions for the dyadic Green function of the electric type and another four functions for the magnetic type, denoted, respectively, by Fill), EL=), p , ) and EL211 and ,zgl), E p , Eg21, and Eg1). For more than two media, the functions will be denoted by and G, ,where i and j run from one to the number of the media. Because of the presence of the superscript it is not necessary to attach a subscript "3" to indicate that the function is of the third kind. These functions are used to integrate the field equations in the two regions. If a current source is placed in region 1, the relevant wave equations for the electromagnetic fields are
For a partly conducting body with an aperture and without a current source outside of the body, (4.88) reduces to
Ep)
=(ij)
I
We will demonstrate later that in general (4.88) is compatible with (4.84). The classification of the magnetic dyadic Green function Erncan be inferred from the relationship between ??, and ? , namely, ? ;

Vxc,=crn
(4.91) (4.92)
Vx
Ern= ?6(R  R') + k2??,.
v x v x El (R)  kfEl (R) = iwPl J1(R)
V x V x E2(R)  kiE2(R) = O
The magnetic dyadic Green function of the first kind, denoted by ??,I, is required to satisfy the boundary condition
v x v x H1(R)  kfill(R) = v x J l ( R ) v x v x H2(R)  I C , ~ H ~ =R0. ( )
(4.98) (4.99) (4.100) (4.101)
on Sd.  In view of (4.91) this condition corresponds to the Neumann condition for ce2; therefore,
When a current source is placed in region 2, the corresponding wave equations are
The magnetic dyadic Green function of the second kind, denoted by Em2,is required to satisfy the boundary condition
The wave equations for the electric dyadic Green function to be used to integrate (4.98) and (4.99) are
on Sd. In view of (4.92) this condition corresponds to the Dirichlet condition for Gel; therefore,
and
The presence of the magnetic constants .121) (4. .99) and (4..99) and (4.I for i = 1 . Equation (4. therefore.113) v x Ek)(R.119) is due to the fact that v x E1(R)= iwplH1(R) v x E2(R)= iwP2H2(R).u1 and p2 in (4. we need E L I 2 ) and Eg2). To prove this where ?Z' now denotes the position vector of a field point and R that of a point inside the current source.112) (4. 1{ 1 [hl x v x E2 (R)]. p v E y )(R. For region 1and the source point is located in region 2.122) (4. we obtain (4.109) and making use of (4.R ) satisfies (4. the electromagnetic field and the corresponding dyadic Green function satisfy the following boundary conditions: (4. the surface integral in (4.which satisfy.102) and (4.102)(4. After deleting R 1 the surface integral at infinity and making use of the differential equations for these two functions.123) but by definition.) .112). The others are interpreted in a similar way. Epl)( R . 2 and v x EP)(R.98)(4.98) and G. after deleting the surface integral at infinity. p) = k:Ep)(a.Rt ) v Ep)(R. hl being the unit normal vector to the interface pointed away from region 1.114) vanishes.65).p). The wave equations for b?) can be obtained by taking the curl of (4.114) is identical to the one in (4.115) except a difference in sign.110) At the interface.R ) As a result of these boundary conditions.2with i # j.{ [hl x v x El (R)]. With the aid of the electric dyadic Green functions of the third kind. 8 ) v x E?)(R. R')  tt 11 I for i .R') = 7 6 ( . it also vanishes.8 ) ~ I. j = 1.118) is a dyadicversion of (4.111) (4.which satisfy identity we need an integral expression involving E2(R)and EL2').8 )= ck)( R . reduces to where Vl denotes the volume in region 1 and S the interface of the two media.119) that of (4. . to region 1with Equation (4.120) (4.110) and (4.106)(4. By applying (4.p ) = EZ1)(R.65) to region 2 with means that both the field point and the source The superscript notation in it means that the field point is located in point are located in region 1.1 ) ( . hence.103). (1 where E l ( @ satisfies (4.103). =IS. 43 Classificationof madic Green Functions 71 For (4.117).106).70 Dyadic Green Functions Chap. (4. (4.R') + k T 2 p )( R .jj')= F k j ) ( R . We apply now the secondvectordyadic Green theorem. The magnetic dyadic Green functions of the third kind are related to the electric dyadic Green functions of the third kind by Epl) Ep2). 4 Sec. We are now going to show that the surface integral in (4. we can find the integral solutions for (4. v @ l ) ( ~ R') = E k l ) ( ~ .114).116) for point sources and (4. E p l ) ( R .p) and (4. respectively.  we obtain.107).
125) + [a1x E2(R)] . In order to use functions defined in the original unprimed system we need the (22) .133). (4. by interchanging "1" with "2" in (4.convert (4. The formulation discussed here R. respectively. = EL2')(~. v n E l i 2 ) ( ~ . I . (4. (4. (4. The subject is discussed in the following two sections.130).130).124).1 By applying (4.R).133) to a form involving Ge (R. the second.131).99) and (4. Although we have derived the integral solutions of various types of problems using the dyadic Green function of the first. . we obtain (12) . (R. and (4. (4. (4.130). (4. but it involves a deeper implication. the order of the two position vectors in F L 2 2 ) ( ~ t .131). In addition to are (4. where these two functions satisfy. the only inconvenience is that in (4.65) R to region 2 with F = (R).116) and (4.108). ~ . and the third kind. the ratio of these two equations yields and ELI2)is The significance of the two electric dyadic Green functions now very clear by looking at (4.128) All four electric dyadic Green functions of the third kind have now been used in the formulation. fit)) d ~ .129) are identical.124) and (4.124) while p2 appears in (4.65) to region 1 with P = El(@ and = Ge (R.102) and (4.109).134) In . respectively. 8p2) R1) (R.129) V' x V' x E ~ ( R R) . The result yields z2 5 E2(R1) = Jl{ v [a1 x x E2(R)] .132) Rt is being used to denote the position vector of the field point and for a typical point inside the source in the final form of these solutions.I C . For example. R'). SO that we can R) (22) . if we interchange R' with R in (4. E ~ ) ( .128) and (4. 4 Sec. v x Ep2)(ii. The symmetrical relationships of the dyadic Green function are not merely mathematical conversions. This is very desirable. v x Ep2)(R. implies that the funcR) tion satisfies the differential equation [a. This inconvenience is not only a matter of notation. 1 Since the designation of regions 1and 2 is quite arbitrary. R') and E P 2 ) ( ~ . They are where we have already deleted the surface integral at infinity.a ) } d is analogous to the one for a composite transmission line made of two sections of semiinfinite lines with different line constants.other words it is defined in a primed coordinate system with a source located at The two surface integrals in (4. R now becomes the position vector of a field point while R' becomes that of a source point. we obtain In (4. It should be observed that the magnetic constant p1 is involved in (4. 43 Classificationof Dyadic Green Functions 73 To determine &(R) for a current source placed in region 1we apply (4. hence.117) the boundary conditions for &22) and V x EL22) and Hence. they are intimately connected with the reciprocity theorems in electromagnetic theory.symmetrical relationship between G.R) = 1 6 ( R . x El (R)] . d R')} ~ .98) and (4. R~ (4.125) is equivalent to + [al x El (R)] .103) for a current source placed in region 2.130). we can obtain the solutions for (4. (4. it is a conventional notation. However. ) . R ) where these two functions satisfy.72 Dyadic Green Functions Chap. When the media under consideration are nonmagnetic p1 = 1 2 = 110.124) and (4.
71) and (4. 4 Sec. l. This is the symmetrical relationship between E e o ( ~R) and E. then V'GO= VGo and VIV'Go= VVGo.where R is now the position vector commonly adopted for a field point and R' is that of a source point. we find = = (l+ G ~ ( R . 42 which are repeated here. we have cmO.~(R. R) = Erno(R. the surface integrals in (4. (R'. = thus (4. In the absence of a scattering body. T Vx and E(R) = i w p o H ( R ) . hence Eeo( R 1 R).142) (4.137) If we denote the gradient operator in the primed variables (XI.138) Similarly.136). In the case of by interchanging R and R' in (4.R)] Now Emo(R1. [ E m o ( ~R)] '. we have e o ( R R') = e""lR" . ~. = E e o ( R .R) = V' x pG0 (E'.R). [EeO R)] (R1.74 Dyadic Green Functions Chap. By interchanging R and R in (4. E').146) and (4.R). is an antisymmetrical dyadic. Emo (R'. . so R) T Equations (4.  R').# )= v where R')] . 2 )by V'.140) pe0(fit.139) (4.143). y'. I /47r 1R RI'  . This is the symmetrical relationship between Gmo(R'.140) and (4. It is also evident that (4.o(R.148) are the "standard" expressions which can be used to calculate the electromagnetic field in free space for a current distribution J(Rt).79) are absent and the functions Ee and Em therein correspond to E e o ( ~R) and '. and E.136) i (4. (4. Em.143) [ m o ( ' .o(l~. By interchanging R and R1 in the above two expressions and making use of (4.hence cmo E. R ' ) hvv) E e o ( R') ~.) ] hence = Zmo(E'. . R'). R)] ~) l. (4. Since E e O (R') or E e o ( ~R) is a symmetrical dyadic. 44 Symmetrical Properties of Dyadic Green Functions 75 I 44 SYMMETRICAL PROPERTIES OF DYADIC GREEN FUNCTIONS The symmetrical relationships of the freespace dyadic Green functions Eeo and can be derived by using the explicit expressions for these two functions derived in Sec.135).
we have This is the symmetrical relationship for the electric dyadic Green function of the first kind. Since Eel and Em2 satisfy the relation.148). respectively. 44 Symmetrical Properlies of Dyadic Green Functions 77 The surface integral in the above equation vanishes because of the radiation condition at S. Substituting (4. the two functions are solutions of the wave equations Equation (4.152) and (4. equivalently. ZP) By changing R. However. R. Following a similar procedure it can be shown that T or. equivalently. (4. namely. There are. therefore. do satisfy Maxwell's equations. fib)] T . R)] = v x Em2(R1 W).154) . For that purpose.151) into (4. 13. and Rb to R and R. if the are not expressions for the other kinds of functions such as Eel. respectively. By definition. The tool to be used is the dyadicdyadic Green theorem of the second kind introduced in Sec.146) and (4.more relationships involving V x and which need to be derived.Dyadic Green Functions Chap. and the volume integral yields The expressions for E(R) and H(R) given by (4.150) and (4.149) and making use of (4. 4l(a) or (b).ze2. and Let us apply this theorem to two dyadic functions with and . where R. we obtain two and V x or.156) implies [VI x Em2(R'. the position vectors of two point sources at different locations and Eel represents the electric dyadic Green function of the first kind for a certain problem such as the one shown in Fig. it is still possible to derive their symmetrical relationships based on a general method. and & denote. 4 Sec. we let cm2 cml eel  ce2  These two functions are required to satisfy the boundary conditions  [Ox Eel(fi. and yet known. and the Dirichlet boundary condition on Sd. and they both satisfy the radiation condition at infinity and the Dirichlet boundary condition A x Gel = 0 on Sd.)] } ds. The symmetrical property of the freespace dyadic Green functions has been shown using the known expressions for these functions.153). [A x Eel(fi.
167) v Ra) T = [vx h ( R .163) into (4.). i i Then (4. R)] T = v x eel(^. [k2Ee2(R.16) of Appendix A.174) is identical to the integral of (4.176) implies that The above two relations are equivalent to This theorem can also be written in the form and [bl f i ) ] (iit. 2 .166) can be changed to The surface integral in (4.152) and (4.178) .168).x Ee2(fi. (4. G ~ ~ (I?. thus we obtain the symmetrical relationship By letting Ra = R .173) and summing the resultant three equations.149). R (4. that is.172) vanishes as the position vector Rb is located in a region exterior to the surface S . 4 Sec. 44 Symmetrical Properties of Dyadic Green Functions 79 on the surface of a diffracting body. [L X Eel ( f i . Rb). corresponding to the vector components of the function Eel ( f i .f i b ) therein replaced by Ee2(fi.176) The volume integral in (4. (4.Rb)] .dv. (A.153) with Eel (R.. (4. ) ] } ds.Rb).f i b ) ] . T = Fm2(fi. fia)] T .172) therefore yields By juxtaposing a unit vector ki at the posterior position of (4.162) and (4. Rb = R. Since the transpose of a transposed dyadic function is equal to the original dyadic function. denoted by Sd. By substituting (4. we obtain Vb X Eel (fib.168) [v' x Ee2(w. R ) . we obtain We now identify 8 to be ?6(R . (4.78 Dyadic Green Functions Chap. (4. f i .168) can be evaluated with the aid of the vectordyadic divergence theorem. R. 3 .i t ) f (4.b ) fi T = f ?6(fi . (4.170) becomes Since both Eel and Ee2 are solutions of the dyadic wave equation (4.and we consider three distinct vector functions & ( f i ) with i = 1 . (4.175) can be written in form = [v.) .174) Because of the radiation condition at infinity and the boundary conditions on S d the surface integral vanishes and (4.167) reduces to The volume integral in (4.
85). they are Once the symmetrical relationships of the functions of the first and second kinds have been found. the surface integral in (4. (4. 4 Sec. For example. and (4. Let us consider first the function a problem with the configuration shown in Fig.149) to that region with EL1') where Ra and obtain Ra denote the locations of two point sources in that region.177) the above equation can be written in the form When the surface of an otherwise conducting scattering body has an aperture.86). by interchanging R and R' in (4. the integral expressions for the electromagnetic field derived in Sec. Applying the dyadicdyadic Green theorem (4. By the same technique other integral solutions represented by (4. 43 can be casted into standard form using R as the position vector for a field point and R1 as that for a point inside a source. 44 Symmetrical Properties of Dyadic Green Functions 81 The symmetrical relationships which we have derived so far are tabulated in Table 41 for frequent references.88)(4. we can convert that equation to The derivation of the symmetrical relationships of the dyadic Green functions of of the third kind is more involved.So Dyadic Green Functions Chap.180) does not vanish.84). The interface of the two regions is denoted by S. we . 42(d) where both regions are unbounded at the extreme side of each region. The function satisfies (4.90) can be converted to the standard form with R as the position vector for the field and R' that of a source point. TABLE 41 Symmetrical Relationships of FreeSpace Dyadic Green Functions and Functions of the First and the Second Kinds i In view of (4.155) and (4.106) in region 1.
we obtain As a result of (4.194) and (4.190) is equal to the surface integral in (4. We have already omitted the surface integral on the semiinfinite surface at the extreme side of that region as a result of the radiation condition.195) represents either fia or fib. where fil denotes the unit normal vector at S pointed away from region 1. The presence of the magnetic constants pl and p2 in (4. ( where EL2') satisfies (4. fia)  (4. the boundary conditions for the electromagnetic field are a1 x [ E l ( @ .R. Substituting (4.Dyadic Green Functions Chap.H2(fi)]= 0. Formula (4. (4. To prove this identity let us apply the formula (4.[V x Epl)(fi.192) The remaining symmetrical relationship to be discussed is the one dealing with 2c2) ELz1). after generalized to the dyadic Green functions. 44 Symmetrical Properties of Dyadic Green Functions 83 where fit in (4.191) and (4.a ) ] } dS. We put into evidence that fi2 denotes the position vector of a point source placed in region 2 and f i 1 the position vector of a point source in region 1.f i b ) ]  T .)] . f Since the designation of regions 1 and 2 is quite arbitrary. (4. } dS.149) is applied now to region 2 with (4. [a. x G p 2 ) ( i iR. but   v x E = iwpR.192) into (4. it is obvious that (4. W ) . After simplifying the volume integral in (4.198) and (4. hence . jjl)] = 0 .106).195) is due to the fact that we define Ern as v X Ge = E m .108) and (4.E2(fi)]= O al x [H1(R).199) into (4.191) (4.194) s1 [ E y ( f i . we obtain On S.)]T .f i b ) .149) to region 2 with F  = L7L2l)(R.We first apply formula (4. fi)] = Ey)(fi.189). Q = GY1) R . yield  [o E!l1) (R.Ei21)( f i .190) [ E y ( f i l . Substituting (4. after deleting the surface integral at the semiinfinite surface in region 1. respectively.149).149) and deleting the surface integral at the semiinfinite surface in region 2 as a result of the radiation condition. These conditions.189) is equal to zero. The superscript notation attached to these two functions already implies the location of the source.149) to region 1 with and and These two functions satisfy.193) which is equal to zero.194) and (4.105) and fia and fib are the same position vectors used in & l l ) . we obtain. [ill x E p l ) ( ~i .195) we see that the surface integral in (4. 4 Sec.197) We are now going to show that the surface integral in (4.
El). corresponding to the problem of a dielectric body placed in air for example. there is no radiation condition involved inside the dielectric body and the proof is practically the same.216) v x V x &(R) and 1  . 41. R)] k . 4 Sec. (4. The environment of the problem is assumed to be the same for the two sets.130)(4. the following expression: where i can be equal to or different from j .205) ~ ~ ~ F y ( p . we have the relationship expressed in the standard notation. we should observe the different magnetic constants in these expressions. the above system of equations apply to either region with k = kl or kz. T = v x Zpi)(E. These relationships can be extended to more than two isotropic media. In summary. We will discuss these theorems based on a general approach with the aid of the vector Green theorem.195) and two and ELI2). namely. like the one shown in Fig.215) (4. They are As a result of the boundary conditions stated in (4.4 .namely.213) (4.214) (4.203) is equal to p1/p2.132) can be converted to a standard firm with R as the position vector for the field and as that of a source point. The result is * 1 (4. With these relationships at our disposal. .124).194) and (4. in general. they are still valid if one of the regions is bounded. such as a dielectric cylinder coated by another layer of material with different permittivity.200) and (4. we obtain the symmetrical relationship In problems dealing with dielectric media p1 = p2 = PO.but. for the functions of the third kind.k2Eb(R) = iwpJb(R) V x V x Hb(R) k2pb(E) = V x Jb(R). ]  The symmetrical relationships derived in the previous section are intimately related to the reciprocity theorems in electromagnetic theory. R'). 45 RECIPROCITY THEOREMS By replacing R2 by R' and R1 by R in the above equation. after deleting the surface integral at infinity. where two complementary models are needed. similar conditions for Eg2) one finds that the ratio of the two surface integrals in (4. namely. (4.%kdwith i + j (or The derivation of the symmetrical relationship of V x G. 45 Reciprocily Theorems 85 which yields.204) and (4.84 Dyadic Green Functions Chap. To be more specificwe consider the problem like . 'cj" It should be emphasized that (4. However. hence. k P 1 (z.k2Ea(R) = iwp Ja(R) V x V x Ha(R) .205) have been derived under the condition that the two regions are unbounded at the extremities.k2Ha(R) = V x Ja(R) and (4. f i) V x GPi)(R. In that case. is discussed in Chapter 11. (4. The wave equations for these fields are V x V x Ea(R) .207) For a problem with two isotropic media. the symmetrical relationships are We consider two sets of electromagnetic fields with two different current sources.
two surfaces enclosing 7. Eb (R)] d v =fi { [fi x Ha(R)] .219) //l V . there is only a surface at infinity to be considered. If the volume of integration in (4. 45 Reciprocity Theorems 87 the one shown in Fig.Ja (R) . (4.217) excludes the volumes occupied by J. 4 Sec.223) Eb(R)= Gelj(R.217) where the quantity with subscript "ij" denotes the scalar component of the elecAccording to the theory of dyadic analtric dyadic Green function Eel(R. (R) . then the surface of the surface integral would consist of S and .(R) The integral evaluated at S goes to zero as a result of the radiation condition.86 Dyadic Green Functions Chap. Celi(Rb. At infinity the surface integral vanishes because of the radiation condition and at the surface of the conducting body A x Ea = 0. thus.Rb) = ctj6(R .219) if we identify the current density functions as that of two infinitesimal electrical dipoles with the same magnitude of current moment but different directions. its physical significance is manifested by the RayleighCarson reciprocity theorem. of course. is valid when the scattering body is absent.128) vanishes.219) represents the wellknown reciprocity theorem of RayleighCarson. Hb (R) dS where we have used the relationship V x E = iwpH to change (4. Q = Eb(R). the corresponding electric fields produced by these sources with iwpoc = 1would be equal to the electric vector Green functions. one lies at infinity and another corresponds to the surface of the conducting body. Eb (R) + [fi x Xa (R)] . Case 1 . Case 2.212). //la J.222) Ea (R) = Feli (R. Q = H b ( R ) By using these two functions in (4. then The functions are of the first kind because the problem under consideration has a conducting scattering body. that is. (R)] . ysis. =4 { [fi x V x E. Ja(Q = zi6(R . 42(a).Ra) Jb(R) = zj@ . It is now clear that such a relationship is not merely a mathematical transformation. Substituting (4.J ~ ( R ).Rb). Xa Hence (4. and Jb. A x Eb = 0. and S b ..217) to (4.. the entire surface integral of (4. (4. There are two possible choices for the functions and Q in (4. and we require the vector Green functions to satisfy the Dirichlet boundary condition. (4.220) (4. assuming it to be perfectly conducting. [Ebb(@ x Ha(R) . and the result is This is the symmetrical relationship of the electric dyadic Green function which we have derived before.218).219). Consequently. (4. In (4.221) where V is the volume exterior to Sa and S b .220)(4. In that case. It can also be written in the form dK (4.221) to (4. P = E. then there are two surfaces enclosing this volume.212).217) reduces to m .V x Eb (R)) dS.) = &6(R .224) means //L [Jb(E!) Ea(R) . Equation (4. E ~ ( Rd v = ) JJJ.227) Equation (4. E. . (4. The theorem. we obtain *i . P = Ea(R). Ra) or + [h (R)] . Let the volume of integration correspond to the unbounded region exterior to the scattering body.(R). we obtain Hb(R) .Ea(R) x Hb(R)] d v = 0. Celj(Ra7Rb) = 3j . [k2Ea(R) + iwpoJa(R)]) dV By definition.R. and J b .226) represents the Lorentz reciprocity theorem in electromagnetic theory. denoted by S.Rb). that is.Ra) (4. 5). Hb(R) .
then the first term in the surface integral vanishes but the second term does not. In order to eliminate the entire surface integral we need two complementary models or two complementary surfaces.177). By definition. To show their connection.230). theorem for short. there is only one simple environment. we obtain is Equation (4. pointed in the ijdirection in an environment with a magnetically perfect conducting surface.The magnetic field ifa(&. we obtain from (4. Substituting them into (4. The relationship stated by (4.. in contrast to the (El H) reciprocity theorem due to Lorentz. containing the volume density of current Jb null. [Jb(R).). Ha(Rb) is equal to crn2i(Rb. Rb) due to a current source in the +direction placed at lib.228) and (4. The word "complementary" is used here to emphasize the fact that there are two complementary surfaces invoked in the formulation.. located in two complementary environments. The J . d (4. [Jb(R) x Ea(R)] dS + S JJJv Is(@ .232).rem or (El H).such that The magnetic field Hb(Ra) is produced by a current element located at Rb.E reciprocity theorem of RayleighCarson. due to a current element in the iidirection placed at Ra with the current moment properly normalized. that is. theorem for short. a medium containing an electrically perfect conducting body placed in an otherwise unbounded space. By definition it is equal to (R.234) leads to cmlj The first model with Se represents the original environment of the problem.Ra). no boundary condition is involved. The model with Smis electromagnetically nonphysical but is quite acceptable as a means to formulate the new reciprocity theorems which we are seeking. They are. [iw~oRa(R)] v . The 7H reciprocity theorem thus derived is closely related to the symmetrical relationship of the magnetic dyadic Green functions. (4.221). &).235) can be changed to Equation (4. we let J. R. By combining (4. For a volume excluding the regions occupied by & and Jb. pointed in the &direction in an environment with an electrically perfect conducting surface. If we consider the environment of the two sets of field to be the same. ifb)individually. The second model has the same geometry. in the common volume exterior to S. the vector component of Em2(&. Thus. which was derived previously with the aid of the dyadicdyadic Green theorem without introducing the concept of complementary models as required by the application of the complementary J if e . In the full dyadic notation.233) is designated as the complementary (E... that is. but Smnow represents the surface of a magnetically perfect conducting body. Hb(R) + [fi x Ea(X)] . (4.) is produced by a current element located at Ra.we have In terms of the electric dyadic Green functions. because A x Ra or fi x ifbis nonvanishing on the surface of an electrically conducting body. 4 Sec. The radiation condition at infinity is satisfied by (E. In that case.the wave impedance.230) the relationship = # fi . and J b be the same as the ones defined by (4.H) reciprocity theo. if theorem is of course valid in free space.236) is identical to (4. where Zo = (p0/c0)112. assuming the medium to be air.228) The first term in the volume integral of the above equation can be split into two terms. and Sm. the vector component of Gml(fi.232) is designated as the . denoted by Se and Sm. Ha) and (Eb.228) and in (4. There are now two reciprocity theorems which can be derived from (4.Dyadic Green l%AnctiOm Chap.iwcoEb(R)]) d S .220) and (4.229).if complementary reciprocity theorem or simply J .230) vanishes. The geometry of the surface and the medium are the same. (4.229).229) The term of surface integral in (4. we obtain . 45 Reciprociry Theorems 89 {iwpo [fi x ifa(R)] . Under these conditions the entire surface integral in (4. however. in contrast to the J .
R theorem in a more descriptive.239) by ib.248) as the complementary (v.238) and (4. the other is opencircuited at x = 0 and terminated by an impedance Zb at x = d. The two complementary reciprocity theorems introduced here were first presented by this author at a symposium [Tai.90 Dyadic Green Functions Chap." Now if we impose a relationship between the terminal impedances such that The boundary conditions for the line voltage and current are then The model already spells out the complementary nature of the problem at x = 0 by multiplying (4. perhaps. The two lines are excited by two distributed current sources as shown in Fig. The differential equations governing the voltage and the current on these two lines are > Fig. and making use of (4. In order to digest the J . which are identical except the different terminal conditions. a transmission line version of this theorem will be presented.. we obtain If an integration is applied to (4. Equation (4. (4.a1 denotes the interval covered by K. more physical manner. The application of the complementary J .244) can be written in the form We consider two sections of transmission lines (d 2 x 0) of the same line constants: one is shortcircuited at x = 0 and terminated by an impedance Za at x = d.bl that of Kb(x). = (LIC)'" denotes the characteristic impedance of the lines. R theorem to derive the symmetrical relationships of dyadic Green functions with two isotropic media in contact with a conducting body in one of the media will be discussed in Chapter 11. then we obtain where 2. and.240). 46 TransmissionLine Model reciprocity theorem.247) is designated as the complementary K i reciprocity theorem and (4. 19871 without much elaboration. The problem is a threedimensional model of the complementary transmission line theory which is discussed in the next section.243) where a2 . 43 nYo sections of line with the complementary boundary condition zaz. = 2. 4 Sec. 46 TRANSMISSION LINE MODEL OF THE COMPLEMENTARY RECIPROCITY THEOREMS with respect to x from zero to d yields In view of the boundary conditions at x = 0 and x = d. An integration of (4.243) in the regions outside of both Ka(x) and Kb(x). i) reciprocity theorem for the transmission .237) by iband (4.adding the two resultant equations.(x) and b2 . 43.
Fig. and ( E . .250). It is observed that the direction of the horizontal dipoles of the images is opposite to that of the original current sources. Za = Zb = Zc.249) based on the solutions for i . It is. 47 Dyadic Green Functions for a Half Space Case 1. The solutions for i a ( x ) and i b ( x ) are available in Chapter 3. ( x ) and i b ( x )for a semiinfinite line with a short circuit at x = 0 and its complementary line with an open circuit at x = 0.92 line. 44 (a) Half space with an infinite conducting plane This condition shows very clearly the physical significance of this model. therefore. 44(a) is given by where Go (R. we have used V ( x ) to denote the line voltage. 47 DYADIC G E N FUNCTIONS FOR A HALF S A E RE PC BOUNDED BY A P A E CONDUCTING S R A E LN U F C Fig. theorems derived previously. H ) .E l ) = with eik/%x'l The electric dyadic Green functions of the first kind for a half space bounded by a plane conducting surface can be found by superposing the electric freespace dyadic Green functions due to the original dyadic current source in the upper half space and their images in the lower half space as a result of the theory of images. In this case. Case 2. but a separate derivation is more tutorial.x112 + ( y . If the distributed currents K a ( x ) and K b ( x ) are localized so that then the K i theorem yields This is a network relationship similar to which can be obtained by applying the RayleighCarson theorem to a single line of any terminations. In fact. Two special cases of this condition should be pointed out. The transmission line model shows clearly the significance of the complementary reciprocal theorems. Za = 0 and Zb + 00 or Za + 0 and 0 Zb = 0. Dyadic Green Functions . For convenience. theorems from the . The freespace electric dyadic Green function due to a dyadic source in the upper halfspace of Fig. the terminal impedances would correspond to that of a semiinfinite line or the same as letting d go to infinity. the condition which has been imposed on the terminal impedances will be designated as the complementary impedance condition. Chap. They are analogous to the complementary 3 .7 . 4 Sec.H ) . theorems. g and ( E . An exercise is being assigned to verify (4.yl)'+ (Z Z ) 21* . we can derive the K i and (v. In (4. 44(a) and 4nIREll' I R R I = [ ( x . The currents I ( x . The original problem and its equivalent are shown in Fig. 44 (b) Free space with the original current sources and their images (b). ) and I ( x b )are the driving currents applied to the same line at two different locations. i ) . quite appropriate to treat the two lines as complementary lines.
991021.252) This is the expression for the magnetic dyadic Green function of the second kind. &x (4. with 1 I R .253) and (4.R') = 0.R') = E. the electric dyadic Green function of the first kind can be found accordingly. His remarks at the end of Sec. His discussion would be better apprehended after the eigenfunction expansions of various dyadic Green functions are found in the subsequent chapters.Xi).256) I I (4. pp.+ i ayG o ( Ra. +v k2 where a )a 82 (.R:)] + 2 i i G 0 ( ~$)} . Singular Electromagnetic Fielh and Sources [1991].252) are due to the fact that the x. Starting in the next chapter. 47 Dyadic Green Functions for a Half Space The freespace electric dyadic Green function at source in the lower half space is given by R due to the image dyadic v x Eel@.GO(R R:)] + 2i2Go(R. For n = 1.252) can be changed to (4. R') =V x {f [Go(& 8). 212 of his book are particularly illuminating.94 Dyadic Green Functions Chap. this subject will be discussed using the eigenfunction expansion of the electric dyadic Green function for a rectangular waveguide as a model. 4 Sec. A very penetrating and useful analysis is given by Collin [1991. Before we conclude this chapter a few words must be said of the singularity property of the electric dyadic Green function. I = [(x  + (y .R.R. R . This problem is assigned as an exercise for a 60" angular wedge. This subject was first investigated by Van Blade1 in 1961 and was later expanded to a monograph.Y ' ) + ( I + ~ z1)2]i .2 ax. we will derive the eigenfunction expansion of the dyadic Green functions for many canonical problems.R1)+ Ceoi(R. When n is an integer greater than unity the number of images is finite. At the end of Chapter 5. The method of images can be extended to a conducting wedge with an angle equal to n/n where n is an integer. Equation (4. It can be verified that at z = 0. If we introduce the complementary unit dyadic defined by . R1) = Ee0@. So far we have only derived the expressions for the freespace dyadic Green functions and the functions for the half space. The negative signs in (4.and ydirected dipoles of the image sources have opposite directions. which is the boundary condition required for Eel. Then we can write 1 I I Eel(R.251) can be written in the form hence [Go(R. it becomes a plane conducting surface just considered.2(R.).257) Eel(x. 8 ] (4. the site of the conducting plane.R') . ) .GO(R.
1) if $l is a solution for (5.. There are two independent sets of vector wave functions which can be constructed using the characteristic function pertaining to a scalar wave equation as the generating function. It will be shown later that once the expressions for Em are found. or 2. for example. called the Cartesian or rectilinear vector wave function. l 1 1 I 1 I I The vector wave functions are the building blocks of the eigenfunction expansions of various kinds of dyadic Green functions.The complexity of this approach will be evident. To derive the eigenfunction expansion of the magnetic dyadic Green functions that are solenoidal and satisfy with the vector wave equation. Another set of vector wave functions.3). it is relatively simple to find E.. 51 Rectangular Wctor Wave Functions 97 A vector wave function. These functions were first introduced by Hansen [1935. Except for spherical problems. hence (5. we obtain e. The method and the general procedure would apply equally well to all other bodies treated in the remaining chapter. By substituting (5. such as 2 . we obtain v x v x [C ( ~ ~ $ 2 tC2$2)] = 0. reformulated Mie's theory of the diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave by a sphere using the spherical vector wave function. In his original work Hansen introduced three kinds of vector wave functions.2) is a solution for (5. and N. In this chapter the expressions for the dyadic Green functions of the first and second kinds of a rectangular waveguide will be derived.1). is formed if we let Rectangular Waveguides where $1 denotes a characteristic function which satisfies the scalar wave equation and 3 denotes a constant vector. The set of functions so obtained will be denoted by the letter M.functions are also needed.5) into (5. which are solutions of the homogeneous vector Helmholtz equation. Such a presentation was followed by Stratton [I9411 and by Morse and Feshbach [1953]. If we try to find eigenfunction expansion of the electric dyadic Green functions then the Z.3) but may be different from the function used to define M1. The readers should therefore grasp the concept and follow the key steps in a firm manner to assure a smooth passage to the rest of the book. 19371 in formulating certain electromagnetic problems. is obtained by letting where $2 denotes a characteristic function which also satisfies (5. will be introduced later. if $2 satisfies (5. we are always dealing with the Cartesian vector wave functions. Another kind.18) of Appendix A.Sec. denoted by .3). designated as the spherical vector wavefunction. by definition. M.2) is substituted into (5.1). is an eigenfunction or a characteristic function which is a solution of the homogeneous vector wave equation where is so far arbitrary. 1936.1). For convenience we shall designate E as the piloting vector and $ as the generatingfunction. When (5. that is. In the case in which an identical generating function is used for both and N. + hence N2 is a solution for (5. One kind of vector wave function. whereby the piloting vector is identified as the spherical radial vector R.L. this is equivalent to vx [E ( ~ ~ $ 1 n2$1)] + = 0. The effectiveness of these functionswas recognized by Stratton [I9411 who. denoted by R . 51 RECTANGULAR VECTOR W V FUNCTIONS AE In view of identity (A. we have the following symmetrical relations between these two types of functions: . the functions are not needed. A detailed analysis will be given to show the direct method of finding I??.
y mr k2 . 51 for the orientation of the guide with respect to the rectangular coordinate system.9) and iixN=0.2. the set of N functions satisfying the vector Dirichlet condition are given by Fig. is introduced in the definition for the N functions.8) where k. ' and the constant K. In view of (5. .1." and we can still set m = 0.7) we have . it is not difficult to show that the only allowed functions in this case are the cosine functions or the even functions and the constants Ic. not only on the specific expression for the scalar wave function which is being used but also on the choice of the piloting vector E. k..7) is obtained if we take the curl of (5. The complete expression and the notation for the set of isfy the vector Dirichlet condition are functions which sat where nr k a ' b S = sin kxx. For the rectangular waveguide problems to be discussed in this chapter.x + B sin k.. The exact expressions for the two sets of vector wave functions depend. and k. h by with The constant kc denotes the cutoff wave number of a rectangular waveguide.y + D sin kyy)eihz.. . n = 0. and (5. . It is obvious that Memn(h)represents the electric field of the TEmn mode while R. yields dJ = ( Acos k. with the modes m = 0 or n = 0 treated as null modes. y.9) or (5. we will use the configuration shown in Fig.izxM=o (5.2. = cos k.. when solved by the method of separation of variables.6) and (5. . The subscript "e" attached to Me. = sin k.7) show why the constant K. should have the following characteristic values.10) + + The subscript "o" is an abbreviation for the word "odd. and Icy must take on certain characteristic values or eigenvalues.(h) represents that of the TMmn mode.. otherwise the relations between the two sets will not be perfectly symmetrical. In a similar manner. C. The boundary condition specified by (5. k . with E replaced by i .4). 51 A rectangular waveguide The scalar wave equation (5. and we will choose the unit vector i to represent the piloting vector E By doing so. in (5.98 Rectangular Waveguides Chap. both erated would satisfy the vector Dirichlet boundary condition that on the walls of the guide . The above abbreviated notations will be used from now on to save some writing. . then the constants k. so genNow if we demand that the vector wave functions. is an abbreviation for the word "even".5).10) corresponds to the one satisfied by the electric field on a perfectly conducting surface..1) is related to k. and N. h2 = n2. C.6) and (5.6) follows directly from (5. S.. the two sets of vector wave functions thus constructed would provide us the TE and TM modes described in the theory of rectangular waveguides. Using (5.x) ( C cos k. of course.6). (5. cos kxx . 51 Rectangular Ector Wave Functions 99 Equation (5.1. which yields Equations (5. (5.3). 5 Sec.4) and (5.
. it can be shown that Thus all the rectangular vector wave functions are orthogonal to each other. y = 0 to b. Actually. but it does not represent a pure T E or T M mode with respect to the zaxis. For example. and z = m to +m. 5 Sec.4) and (5. then we would generate a hybrid rectangular vector wave function.S..C. functions. we 1ist. thus the function represents a superposition of the TEmn mode and the TMmn mode. If we had chosen another piloting vector for E such as 2.5). N:.S. 51 Rectangular Vector Wave Functions 101 = (k. and they satisfy the vector Neumann condition on the boundary. n .2 .. these orthogonal relationships require only the integration with respect to x and y.k.+) eihz (5. n'.100 Rectangular Waveguides Chap. h' denote two sets of eigenvalues which may be distinct or the same and the volume of integration extends from x = 0 to a.N. h and m'.20) (Crcg) eihz where ) eihr = as. Memn(h) Memr.Memn(h)]. and with It is understood that the odd functions with m or n = 0 are null modes.i (h') d V = O . the vector wave functions which can be used to represent the electromagnetic field inside a rectangular waveguide are of the form for any combination of even and odd functions and 1 Rzmn(h)= V x K vx [$~~.(h)i]. + and 1 1 Nemn(h)= V x Memn(h) V x V x [$. namely. For convenience.(h)i] = n n The vector functions a o m n ( h ) Nemn(h) the proper functions to repreand are sent the H field in a rectangular waveguide. Nz . In Appendix B.a number of these hybrid rectangular vector wave functions together with their relations to the Bern. we can now discuss their orthogonal properties.16) 1 ( h ) = ..C.. The and complete expressions for various vector wave fuictions are also tabulated there for convenient reference.2 ( h ) ihlc..(h) . (5.1 l n (h') d V = 0 \ In summary. ( h ).[KL.i(V = 0 h') d 1 I also satisfies the vector Dirichlet condition at x = 0 and a. However. Having defined the rectangular vector wave functions. It is relatively simple to show that JJJ az . It should be pointed out that the above functions have been formed as a result of our proper choice of the piloting vector ?i in (5. What remains is the determination of the normalization factor for the case that m = m' and n = n'. the function defined by where the m . we include the integration with respect to z for completeness because in the eigenfunction expansion for the dyadic Green function we would encounter the volume integral instead of the surface integral. We will still let h and h' be different for good reason. we will call these functions the rectangular vector wavefunctions. aomf. and y = 0 and b.. When m # n' or n # n'. it is also quite simple to show that JJJ JJJ a. In fact.. k...
According to the OhmRayleigh method. n # 0.27). it is not necessary to distinguish h' and rc' from h and rc in the coefficient in front of the 6 ( h . 52 T E METHOD O G. Re. The propagation constant k in (5.. ( h ) since they satisfy the boundary condition specified by (5. n ~ .25) so the normalization factor for the Mom.27). and its normalization factor is equal to zero. we designate this E.. aemn . we have where the null modes of function are included in (5. which could be complex.2 + hh') 6 ( h . we found that the and RE. Equation (5.h') Because of the presence of the delta function 6 ( h .24). 52 The Method of Em After performing the integration with respect to x and y.82) and b0 denotes the Kronecker delta function defined as follows: 60 = = (1 . At the open ends of the waveguide.26). Similarly.. where the delta function 6 ( h . therefore.25) It is recalled that when m or n is equal to zero. the function satisfies a radiation condition which is different from the radiation condition in open space.31). ( h ) .. and we assume the medium to be air so k = u (pore) *. Thus we let P(R . we first seek an eigenfunction ex.30) is considered to be given. In summary.h') results from (1.. Its specific form will be discussed later. is equivalent to at x = 0 and a . (5. and (5. By carrying out the integration.28).z (R.El) satisfies the equation = ( l + 6 0 )6 ( h ..29).29).. ( h ) and Mom. The proper functions to be used are Re.h') . we obtain Similarly. (4')dy dz dx nabkz =(1+60)= (k. functions have the same normalization factor as expressed by ({. the function Mom. we obtain /' /b /0•‹ Re. We shall now apply the OhmRayleighmethod to first derive the magnetic dyadic Green function of the second kind for a rectangular waveguide. 5 Sec. (5. it corresponds to an outgoing guided wave in both directions from a source placed inside the waveguide.h') function. we simply replace €0 by E . thus we can include the null modes in (5. 6( { i: m and n morn=O # 0. m 2 # 0. (5. and No. H F mom.. (5.26) The normalization factors for the Re.h') .h') .ii')] using the solenoidal vector pansion for the source function V x wave functions introduced in the previous section. y = 0 and b. For conveas the method of cm. functions can be found in the same way.. The function nience. that is.rrabkz + 60) 7h .rrabkz 6 ( h .h') in (5. For a dielectric medium.rrabkz # 0 and m # 0. function can also be written in the same form as that of Me.102 Rectangular Waveguides Chap. is a null function.
x % ( f i (h') . 105 where where Aemn(h) Born.. given by ~ [ { V x Ivemlnl (h') . In a similar manner. (5.32) with MOmtnI (h') and doing the same routine.Rectangular Waveguides [ a e m n(h)Aemn h ) ( Chap. 52 The Method of z. we find The integral at the lefthand side of (5.. z' associated with the position vector R. we obtain a' .39)  # s i. j 6 ( ~ R') o .18) in Appendix A..(h) which we are seeking.I..R')] is. (5..27).34) vanishes because E' is located inside V. The functions V' x are defined in the primed variables x'. The surface integral in (5. and h' and integrating the resultant equation through the entire volume of the waveguide. y'.33) can be split into two terms with the aid of (A. we obtain or By deleting the prime for the eigenvalues. 22 for the infinitely long transmission line. which yields ///' = (ht)  v [ 1 6 ( ~ a)]v t The eigenfunction expansion of V x 7 6 ( . (h)N. . but not the prime in the we can change (5.. [a. except that we are dealing with a threedimensional problem with a dyadic singular function and the eigenfunctions to be used are the solenoidal vector wave functions.I(h') with certain fixed eigenvalues m'.23) and (5. therefore. 5 Sec.R)] dS.. by taking the anterior scalar product of (5.R')]) dV [aemn (h) (h)Mkmn where n = (k?+h2)i +Mom.36) to the form a' function. (h') x I6(R . we let R') where we have already made use of the dyadic Gauss theorem to convert one volume integral into a surface integral. n'. This is the expression for the unknown coefficient Aem. [aemtn. These two unknown functions are found by the same method as the one described in Sec.mn(h)] . By taking the anterior scalar product of (5.32) with a function N. As a result of the orthogonal relationships between the two sets of vector wave functions.( h )are two unknown functions or vector coefficients to and be determined. To find Em2@.
2 .42) can be evaluated in a closed form by applying the method of contour integration.L ) ) R ) = [V + vu ( z .Z ) x Em2(R.. (E:2 Ek2)  = p (5.39) and (5.R'). it becomes 2x  In view of (5.z ) + vu (2' .(R. 5 Sec. at R'. 52 The Method of Em where the coefficient a ( h ) and b(h) can be determined by substituting (5. the above equation can be written in the form 22) 6 ( x . w)]u ( Z .~(R. ( z .k 2 = kz + h2 .Z )  is for z < z'. and at infinity it fulfills the requirement of the Jordan lemma in the theory of complex variables.k:) with Real kg > 0 . R1) ~.z') .45) Vx where G. we can write Em2(R. At z = z'.El). Z < z' 0 .(R. For a discontinuous magnetic dyadic Green function. The result gives { 1. is given by u (z' . The eigenfunction expansion of Em2(R1 therefore.z') + E L ~ ( R .106 Rectangular Waveguides Chap.24) in Appendix A. The integrand has two poles at h = i ( k 2 .22) 6 (x I 2') 6 ( y . vu ( 2 .43) the top line applies to z > z' and the bottom line for z < z'. The point source is located + (= . R')] u (z' . z > z'.R ) = [V x TA2(R. U ( z . E+.z') vu (2' .z ) = Thus The Fourier integral in (5.x f ) 6 ( y .y ' ) .45). R')]u (z' . (z' . R')u R')u where the two unit step functions are defined by R'). v x Em2(R. the function is discontinuous. we have derived the equation (4. Since Gm2is discontinuous at = z'. Imag kg > 0.2 ) + [V E..z') = 26 ( 2 . ' v b2@.48) . = ! 6 ( ~ R ) + k 2 E e 1 ( R).9') 6 ( z .k z ) because r.z ) .(R.z') R')]  For the present problem.36).z ) = 26 ( z .R')] u ( z . where kg = ( k 2 . is for z > z' and G.30) that yields To find Eel (R.k2.z') x E:.(R. where we have made use of the dyadic identity (A..40) into (5.. where we have made use of the identity R') = Gk2(R.2') . R') = [V x GC2(R. hence In (5. E. (5.we use the relationship v x Gm2(R. According to the theory of generalized functions. 8') + [V x E.
46) we obtain By definition V x Gez = Gml. For the other end. R ) which is responsible for the excitation of this mode will be denoted by Me. R ) with differenteigenvalues and those belonging to the T M modes do not interact with Me. The procedure and the result are the same. y. we can apply the formula derived in Chapter 4.nnMemn (kg). f When the integral of the scalar product between J ( R ) and a certain excitation function is zero. because of the orthogonal properties of these vector wave functions. with I?. has the form Z Knowing the expression of Eel(R. hence the name TMmn mode. Substituting these two terms into (5.. The terms in Eel(R. then there is no coupling between J(Rt) and M'. does not have a zcomponent and the magnetic field is proportional to V x E(R) so the z component of V x No. the top line applies to z > z'. .(.XI)6 (y . We have now verified the socalled radiation condition for the field at one end of the waveguide.49) result from the relationships Finally.. we find I Based..R').z') is the same as 6(R . The Me... by substituting (5.71)..y') 6 (z . Since 6 (x . replaced by Gel and A = i for that portion of the surface. the electric field in the waveguide can be calculated by using the formula where S. The former corresponds to a TEmn mode and the latter a TMmnmode because Me. functions in (5.kg) and Nomn (kg). 109 which is applicable to all values of x. and No. ( kg) = kMomn( f kg) is absent. z < z'.I 108 Rectangular Waveguides Chap. The electric field of a typical TEmn mode of the total field E(R) will be denoted by a. denotes the crosssectional area of the waveguide. as the field functions. the two scalar products cancel each other. For the TMmn modes. 52 The Method of E.48) into (5.. (4. (kg)A'. z.. we start with Nomn(kg). The surface integral in (4. 5 Sec.the structure of Eel. namely.183). so only the T M modes are excited. and No.then. the same conclusion can be obtained by using the functions Me.55).... and the term in Eel(R. to calculate the field inside the waveguide. R ) . the bottom line to z < z'.. When a waveguide is excited by an aperture or slot field along the wall... For example. (kg). and Nbmn as the excitation functions and the anterior functions Me.. it is convenient to designate the posterior funcon tions M'.. it implies that the corresponding mode is not excited. we shall discuss the radiation condition and demonstrate the vanishing of the surface integral evaluated at the infinite ends of a waveguide for z z'. thus. if J(R1)has only a longitudinal component like that of a Hertzian dipole pointed in the zdirection. we can apply the same method used in deriving to find  cm2 I I In the double series.
They are 2SoL'omn (h) Aomn(h) = 2 . 51. and are the three sets originally introduced by Hansen [I9351 in formulating electromagnetic problems. n = 1 . m in the spatial and h domain we can readily determine the coefficients A.59) (h)Aomn(h) . and Cy are the same as the ones appearing in Sec.. Eel (R.n=n' k. B. .S o . .is not a solenoidal dyadic function because 1 v . we need another nonsolenoidal set.m=m'..R1)] R k2 = vS(R It is observed that i o m n ( h and Romn ) (h') are formally not orthogonal in the spatial domain.namely.65).Lo.h') 6 ( h . As had been mentioned before. . C in (5. M.. and k. The eigenfunction expansion for I ~ R R ) . which is not equal to zero except for R # R'.R1)= v . unlike Em2. They are solutions of the homogeneous vector Helmholtz equation The factor 2 So in A.62) We now let S(hhl).h') for m = m'. therefore. C. The complication is partly due to the fact that E e l . n # n' (5. S.R'). 0.110 Rectangular Waveguides Chap. at the expense of a much more complicated formulation. is given by The constants k. 2 . The additional set of vector wave functions will be denoted by . the solenoidal vector wave functions &fern.2 = k : + ICE. 5 Sec. but when the h domain is included.. For this reason. L. mn As a result of the orthogonal property of the three sets of vector wave . The orthogonal relationships of this set of functions themselves and with the two other sets are listed below: J where JJL iomn(h). and Co is always equal to 2 because for m = 0 and/or n = 0.. the functions Lo and No are null. . ( h .. and the functions S.. n # n' (5. (5. The function i o m n ( h is defined by ) + B e m n (h)Bemn( h )+ ~ o m n ( h ) ~ o(h)]. 52 The Method of z.m # n'. n = n'.64) The expression for Eel which was obtained by the method of Em can be obtained directly by applying the OhmRayleigh method to the differential equation for Eel. ~ s ( .m 111 53 THE METHOD O F Ee # m'. and are not sufficient. Bemn ( h )= Memn (h) a for m. According to the OhmRayleigh method we let 1 k2 Lo. i o m l n l (hi) d v = 0.functions mom. .
k. Substituting (5. can be evaluated in a closed form by the method of contour integration as the integrand decays to zero at infinity in the upper and the lower hplane. namely.112 Rectangular Waveguides Chap.Nb. ~ .67) into (5. and No.68) which does not satisfy the Jordan lemma. we have Thus the complete expression for Eel(R. their zcomponents. for the primed functions. (5. 1 . R') is given by Thus (5..68) can be written in the form In view of (5. By definition Lo. 5 Sec.66)..SxCyjj) eihz n In terms of these functions. = i h ~ .74).75) is equal to and the second integral.69) (5.E') + zel( a . e ~ ~ " i  Lot = (kxCxSyf+ kySxCyc) eih" 1. El).i%(E k2 which is the same as (5.54).78) . The final result is given by where we have expressed Lot and Lo. From (5. we write where Lot and mot_denotethe transversal vector components of these two functions and Lo.70) (5. Lbz =  ihn k" Gel (R. we find The singular term in (5. denoted by Zel(R.. 52 The Method of 2. (5. R') = . in terms of Not and No.2  . the first integral in (5.73) can be split into In order to apply the residue theorem to (5.68) we must first extract the part in (5. and similarly.58). 113 The subscript "mn" attached to the functions has been deleted to simplify the writing. = No. To do so. R1).73) is contained in the component No. (5.66) and (5.71) The splitting can be verified because we have the algebraic relations Not = zh (kxCxSyP+ k. Thus  and ihnLo.
Putting (5. and E A are much more complicated.68). was improperly formulated. Its eigenfunction expansion can be found by a similar procedure as had been done for Gel. 55 P R L E P A E WAVEGUIDE A ALL L T In view of (5. 55 Parallel Plate Waveguide It should be pointed out that in the first edition of this book [Tai. The correction is essentially based on the method of Ernbut is not carried out in the same manner as described here. 19731. it is of interest to mention briefly the method of GA which is based on the dyadic version of the method of potentials. 5 Sec.90) which is the wave equation for EA. denoted by E A 1 .88). we find that the difference between and F solenoidal dyadic that enables us to define a vector function q such that z. Consequently. it is quite clear that the method of ? is the simplest. denoted by EA.. (5. The functions of the parallel plate waveguide itself have their own applications in practical problems. the method of G. while the methods of I?. its forI .~=VX P(RH)]. To find Gm2we use the vector wave functions  . which could be an empty space. the magnetic dyadic Green function of the second kind satisfies the following equation:  VXVX~. the singular term iiG(R .87) into (5. The rest is identical to the treatment following that equation.84) into (5. mulation does not involve the nonsolenoidal vector wave function Lo. 19711. In conclusion. their formulations require the use of Zomn. we obtain ka In addition .although the final result does not contain that set of functions explicitly. 19881. For a parallel plate waveguide bounded at y = 0 and y = b by two conducting plates. 54 THE METHOD OF GA1(R.the two methods discussed so far in finding the eigenfunction exto pansion of Gel.114 Rectangular Waveguides Chap.26) are which is the same as (5. R')  = 1 J__ dh C Cmn.n Now Substituting (5. it is convenient to start with the dyadic Green functions for a parallel plate waveguide and then apply the method of scattering superposition to construct the functions for the composite waveguide [Tai. This mistake was later corrected [Tai. such that Substituting it into (5.For the waveguide problem under consideration the function should be of the first kind.2 . The system of equations for I?.79). and Ernaccording to (4. From now on the method of Ernwill be used exclusively to derive the eigenfunction expansions of other canonical problems.k2 K m m.R')/k2 was missing in that work.82) we can define a dyadic Green function of the potential type.23)(4. The function Em2 satisfies the boundary condition yxvxGm2=0 at y = 0 and y = b.~~$.81) and (5. A is a  @ is then the vector form of the dynamic scalar potential function.80) and introducing the gauge condition To prepare for the formulation of a waveguide filled with two dielectrics. The result gives The wave number in the region under consideration is denoted by kl.
For m = 0 the function No. z'). (5.94) The relations between these functions are v xBi. is to put it in similar form to (5. 1 xemh l . 1 .h i )6 ( h .2.91)(5.91) (5.101).hi. 5 Sec. h ) V = K. h').100) and (5.m The four vector wave functions defined by (5.h') .vanishes. + h2)6 (hi . hence Aoo.h) = V x [COS mry e i ( h ~ z + h z ) . the site of R'.101) the primed functions are defined with respect to (x'.h l ...92) e.~F=O. m = m' = 1. as implied by the factor ( 2 .h) = . (5.h') . hl). The results are The orthogonal property of these functions are In (5. .98) (T) .101) into (5.rn=tsxi.h) and (m'.93) 1 N o m ( h l ..h) . hl) and Nern(hi. j j (h (5. we obtain for any combination of even and odd functions and for any two sets of eigenvalues ( m . 55 Parallel Plate Waveguide mry Born h) = V x [sin (T) (hl.cihlx+hi)? JJL Morn (hi.. cm2 = J00ndhl r lI 5 dh + + ( 2 .98).99) with Morn(hi.The reason that we include m = 0. respectively..99).hi) 6 ( h . %o additional vector wave functions to be used later to construct the electric dyadic Green functions are defined by Bern l . y'.. and m = integer.V x v x ( [cos 1 (y) 1 ei(hlx+hz)z (5.. By taking the anterior scalar product of (5.6 0 ) in (5.. Substituting (5. The normalization constants of these functions are stated by the following relations: 0. m # m' ( 1 60) 2n2 (h$ h2)6 (hl .116 Rectangular Waveguides Chap. The volume of integration corresponds to the entire space inside the parallel plate waveguide. m = m 1 = 0 . and integrating through V we can determine the vector coefficients Aornand Bernas a result of the orthogonal property of these vector wave functions. including m = 0 for Re. a o r n l (hi 7 hl) d v where ts = [h: + hg + h2] ' mr 7 h2 = b h E hi and h are two continuous eigenvalues. 2.100) and (5.94) are solutions of the homogeneous vector wave equation VXVXFK. m=o4n2b(hi h2) + where .6 0 ) K.x V x [sin (mT) 1 To find E r n 2 we first let ei(h~x+h~)~ I.
98).110) where . It is understood that the current source J 1 is located in region 1 and both media are nonmagnetic.h 2 ) and h2 = mn/b. in contrast to the method of using vector wave functions for an empty waveguide with the piloting vector pointed in the longitudinal direction. 56 RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE FILLED WITH TWO DIELECTRICS where Vl denotes the volume occupied by 71.62 = (kg .90). we have the relations V x Noem =k~aoem The guided waves or the modes in such a waveguide filled with two homogeneous media were previously investigated by Pincherle [1944]. Furthermore. 56 Rectangular WaveguideFilled with Two Dielecm'cs 119 Substituting (5.102) and (5. One residue series resulting from the Fourier integral representation of the dyadic Green functions yields the guided wave previously studied by Pincherle.hi . Our task is to derive the dyadic Green function of this structure by using two sets of solenoidal vector wave functions with a piloting vector pointed in the direction normal to the interface. 52.') we need some new vector wave functions defined as The waveguide under consideration is shown in Fig. 5 Sec. Following the method described in Sec.h 2 )!. placed inside the waveguide. region 2 (0 I x < d ) is filled with another dielectric with wave number k2. The present formulation furnishes the excitation coefficients for these waves for any current source.J1 (R')d ~ ' This function will be used to build the dyadic Green functions for a waveguide filled with two dielectrics in the following section. one finds The integration with respect to hl can be carried out in a closed form by applying the residue theorem that yields where . In Fig. 52 relating the electric dyadic Green function and the magnetic dyadic Green function.103) into (5. including aperture source. 3851. by kl and kz zs ' defined in region 2. To construct EL:') and EL. Similar work .h ) = V x (cos p2x cos h2 yeihz?) (5. respectively. These functions are solutions of the homogeneous vector wave equation Fig. and making use of relation (5.118 Rectangular Waveguides Chap. The top line applies to x > x' and the bottom line to x < x'. 52 A rectangular waveguide filled with two dielectrics with wave number denoted.& = (k: .R') =(11 R  . Knowing these functions the electric field in the two regions can be determined by using the formulas: G ( E ) = ZWPO /Ill Gel ) ( . If a current source is placed in region 1the functions which we want to find are the electric dyadic Green functions of the third kind as well as the first kind EL:') and E Z 1 ) . region 1 (a > x > d ) is filled with a dielectric with wave number kl which could be air. one finds also appeared in the book by Marcuvitz [1951. p.. 52. Meom(P2.hf .
The six unknown vector coeffi: . ( P1. h ) were defined in the expression f f =(21) for Eel of the parallel plate waveguide. 53 Scattered waves for the TE modes zr. The six linear equations resulting from applying these boundary conditions are Eel is given by (5. at x = 0. The scattered part. The function Gel must be of the form The solutions for the six vector coefficients from these equations are in order to satisfy the boundary condition at the walls of the waveguide in region 2. By means of the method of scattering superposition we let   Fig. The physical meaning of (5. B2 are determined by invoking the remaining boundary conditions . and Y = b. A x Moem= 0 A X Neom= 0 AxvxXoem=O A x V x Meom= 0. The functions Me.114) can be written in the at the interface.105). where A denotes the normal to the walls in region 2. The formulation is straightforward. 53 for the TE modes with respect to the xaxis.  Ge1 where form (Ill = Ee l + E(11) es 7 (5. although quite tedious. A similar one applies to the TM modes. and A2.120 Rectangular Waveguides Chap. 5 Sec. Ed:'). h) and Xom( P1. y = 0. corresponding to x = d.115) and (5. 56 Rectangular Waveguide Filled with Two Dielectrics 121 The boundary conditions satisfied by these functions are. cients A B t .116) is illustrated graphically in Fig.
121) the expressions for Gel can be written in the form =(11) mom A1 = sin D2 .120) and (5. The symmetrical property of Gel is also evident from (5. can be The remaining Fourier integration with respect to h in EL:) and evaluated in a closed form by means of a contour integration. h)] (PI.115) with the coefficients A: and B: thus determined can be written in a more compact form.h) T2eiDFom ( (PI.Rectangular Waveguides Chap.105). ltvo sets of poles of the integrand are governed by the transcendental equations for the TE modes ( a ' s ) and for the TM modes (N's). =(11) In view of (5.120) and (5.X I ) ' iD + (a.121).123) satisfy the Dirichlet boundary condition at x = a. h)]poem 2') (a h) Neom(a. The residue terms related to the poles of the integrand can be found. (PI . h)] (Pi. i [e. 5 Sec. that is.2 ) = V x V x [cospl (a .+ + + KO.MLm ( D l . (PI.z ) [epiDNbm p l . They are equivalent to where rl and r2have been defined previously and Qoem tan &d =  (E) tan.. @em (*PI h) ( P h) r 1 + B e r n (PI h ) + a e m (PI.121). In view of the composition of the two expressions given by (5.& (a . h ) (5.x ) = V x [sin pl (a . one finds.128) (a .x ) sin h2heihz2]. it is quite obvious that we could use Moem(a. for x I1 I x'. h) + TleiD%bm (PI.h)]poem 2') (a iD =(21 The expression for Gel ) can be obtained by substituting A2 and B2 into (5. h ) ] (a .122) (5.116). h ) + Tiei D Me.5 ) [e[eiD em M MLm (Pi. (5. oem (a . h)] [e"morn h ) T2eiDNOm (PI.122) and (5.123) for the TE modes and 1 Reoma . and (5.125) For x i x'. 56 Rectangular WaveguideFilled with Two Dielectrics 123 where The two vector wave functions defined by (5. ( .x ) and Neom(ax ) at the =(11) very beginning to derive Gel instead of using Me. h ) and ( Dl. h ) . (5. ( f P I . f but the work would be much more tedious because the discontinuity condition at Ti = R' must be invoked to determine the unknown excitation coefficients.x ) cos h2yeihz8] kl (5.d ) (5.114).120) and (5.120) = i'" 3 rl . h) T1eiDa'.i (k) cos D2 +E [ =(11) The expressions for Gel given by (5.
for the TM modes one finds that the boundary condition at z = 0 can be satisfied if Bo = 1. can be written in the form  In terms of these functions  ~ . where vl and v2 denote.h2] and ' 2 P2 = [kg . kl = w.135) (5.in the form M e o ( z ) = V x ( C x C ysin kgz2) 1 Roe 2 ) = V x V x ( S x S ycos k g z i ) . 57 RECTANGULAR CAVITY The simplest approach to derive the dyadic Green functions for a rectangular cavity is to start with the functions available for a rectangular waveguide with the same crosssectional dimension and apply the method of scattering superposition to find the desired function.h2 . To find the electric dyadic Green function of the first kind for the semiinfinitewaveguide. ( . The cutoff frequencies calculated by Pincherle correspond to solutions for w. At z = 0. respectively. in our formulation by putting h = 0 . Now let us consider the couplets representing the TE modes.R') = . the velocity of light in the two media. given by . the waveguide. 5 Sec. To simplify the writing. the subscript "mn" attached to the vector wave functions has been deleted.128) and (5. and k2 = wC/v2into (5.(kg) are chosen because the scattered waves are originated by the primary waves propagating to the negative direction.136) where the scattered term Ce. ( (5.GE1(R. one can determine the guided wave number for these normal modes. denoted by M e o ( z )and Roe( z ) .E f e ( k g )= . and the bottom line is for z < z'. Similarly. denoted by ? ? E l ./vl. 57 Rectangular Cavity 125 for the TM modes.k . We consider first the functions for a semiinfinite waveguide defined in a region oo > z 2 0. Its expression is Equation (5.138) . the function Eel is given by (5.134) thus can be written in the form (5. The procedure to accomplish it can be carried out in two steps.h2 ] 4 The field functions M e ( k g )and N o ( k g )represent waves propagating in the positive zdirection. The excitation functions ML(kg) and #.49). assuming to be purely dielectric without loss. their excitation functions are of these two kinds.137) (5.133) can be satisfied if A. By substituting P1 = [k: . we let We now define two standing wave vector wave functions. therefore. In order to satisfy the Dirichlet boundary condition at z = 0.2 i M e o ( z ) ~ ) RO(kg) + Xo(kg) = 2Roe(z)l (5.1 i i 6 ( R .129). into these equations and solving for h.R') Z  k The upper line in the series is for z > z'. The expression for GEI is.hi .124 Rectangular Waveguides Chap. = 1.
54 (b) A rectangular cavity (5. where the function Noe(c.149) We can do the same reduction for z < z'.z)MLO(_z1) Roe (c . The final result of zE'1 is given by By substituting (5. 54(b).143) and 1 i N o ( k g ) B s N o e ( ~= NOe(c ) sin kgc + + . 5 Sec.RI) This is the expression for the electric dyadic Green function of the first kind for the semiinfinite waveguide. For the cavity shown in Fig.1226(R (R. z' .144) and (5. k sin kgc ' (5.141). CEfl R') = .z)Z] .60) 2.147) Meo(c . The symmetrical property of this function is evident.n ICZIC.iiS(R R') IC2  . 57 Rectangular Cavity 1 cE1(R. sin (5.142) yields AS and (5.z') (2 .z ) = V x V x [S.l.142) (5. the boundary conditions are 2 x [Me(kg)+ A s M e ~ ( z ) ] = 0 L=C and 2 x [ i E o ( k g ) B S N e o ( z )Z=c= 0. = .z') Eoe( z )NLe (c .C Meo(z)MLo(. 2  1 IC .z ) = V x [CZCy kg( c .126 Rectangular Waveguides Chap.R') + where the function Meo(c. its electric dyadic Green function of the first kind will be denoted by GE. ( c . and the excitation functions must be the same as those of the EEl for z > Z' because they are responsible for the excitation of the scattered waves. sin IC. then combining we find that for z > z' with E E l .145) into (5. .z ) is defined by Me.Z ) NLe ( 2 ' ) 3 m.Sy cos kg(c.which can be written in the form The scattered term EEs can be cast in the form Fig. ] Equation (5.z ) is defined by 1 Noe(c.z). 54 (a) A semiinfinite waveguide terminated at e = 0 by a conducting wall The field functions in GEs are so chosen that they have already satisfied the Dirichlet boundary condition at z = 0.z ) 2 ] . At z = c.143) yields eikgc Fig.
  we encounter the phenomenon of resonant catastrophe as described by Sommerfeld [1949.i i S ( R . 51 The Origin of the Isolated Singular Term in c. =   (5.R')/k2is therefore always present in such a representation though the explicit expression for may not be available. this term results from the discontinuous condition of Em across a point source and the ArnpkreMaxwell equation relating Ee and Ern in the dyadic form. by itself. a useful formula for formulating problems dealing with a terminated waveguide. namely.155) Ee The singular term fi+ib(R.  129 This is the expression for the electric dyadic Green function of the first kind for a rectangular cavity. such a phenomenon does not occur when the system has loss.are needed. 19921. In the case of a rectangular waveguide.i i S ( R . n : n'. 19761.154) where U denotes a unit step function.R') = .R ) . In practice. the method of Ern yields first the solution for Gm2in the form The eigenfunction expansion of the electric dyadic Green function as given by (5. This is the consequence of a lossless system similar to the resonance of a lossless series L . the same function was derived by the methods of E A and 2. b ( R .R') + k 2 E e . Substituting it into (5.n') + G .128 Rectangular Waveguides Chap. then according to the theory of generalized functions. if we write ern G.R )  k2 where S ( F . The method ' of scattering superposition was also used in that work without breaking into two steps as have been done now. 5 Sec. is discontinuous across a surface containing a point source with unit normal vector f i defined in a Dupin coordinate system [Tai. em Vx Ern = 7 6 ( R . 1871.78) contains an isolated singular term in the form of .151) In general C.R ) / k 2 .U(n .151). The function for the semiinfinite waveguide derived here is. When the frequency of excitation corresponds to the resonant frequency of the cavity such that Thus.From the point of view of the method of Em. In a previous work [Tai and Rozenfeld. u ( ~ ' . we obtain (5. (5.F') denotes a twodimensional delta function defined at the surface of discontinuity and ft the twodimensional idem factor defined by For completeness an exercise is assigned in this chapter to verify . p.n ) . The discontinuity is stated by Hence 1 Gel(R. 58 THE ORIGIN O THE ISOLATED SINGULAR TERM IN F =V x G $ + I .C circuit where the current goes to infinity. which were very laborious mainly because the nonsolenoidal vector wave functions t.
2 v: + vtv. separately.78). As far as the end result is concerned.77) or (5. The result is Ees= gel(B.166) 2 . and Dudley [1979].159). the entire function is used. I??.. that is.159) are due to the linear relations between Lo.157) and (5. (5.161) can be written in the form  + Loz. appeared as a result of splitting the function Eel into two parts.Zb. and No.68) can be written as ZeI (B.n . There is however no isolated singular term. B'). 51 The Origin of the Isolated Singular Term i n ze 131 ASexpected. Denoting the residue series resulting from these poles by we can convert (5.166) and (5. the result is From the point of view of the method of Ee. shown after (5. resulting from the static poles. B') = m. which is the same as (5.73).130 Rectangular Waveguides Chap. ..R')/k2 can also be viewed from another point of view as demonstrated by Johnson..R')/k2 + S e I ( ~R').I = iiG(R where The last two lines in (5.R')/k2 as shown in (5.v. h = fik. The role played by iib(R . Lo = Lot then (5. R) as consisting of two parts. The fact that such a series occurs as a result of eel .158).75) results from the longitudinal terms of ZoZb and NOR.162) can be evaluated in a similar manner. It should be pointed out that the "static" ii') residue series g e ~ ( f i . (5.74) and (5. According to these authors one can treat Eel(R.168) where is the residue series given by (5.165) to E. The first integral represents iiS(R . If there is a need to use c e r and Ee. that is. which can be sorted with cm2 Eel given by (5. 8')  ZeI(R.49) or (5.166) now also appears in (5.> The solenoidal part.168) yields Now we decompose Lo into two parts. In the applications of the electric dyadic Green function to calculate the electromagnetic field. one solenoidal and another irrotational..168) but with a negative sign.158).So (Vt abk2k. The second integral has poles at h = fik. there is a singular term associated with Zo. corresponding to K = 0. the singular term iib(R R')/k2 as shown by (5. It is observed that the series Zel contained in (5. and  out.v: + v. represented by (5. the two series fSeIcancel each other anyway. + v. so (5. The sum of (5. this series is not involved in Eel. Howard. 5 Sec.
The roots of the equation . The only difference is that cylindrical vector wave functions are used in the eigenfunction expansion. Boersma. Physically. Thus p23 represents the third root of the Bessel function of second order. the geometry of which is shown in Fig.132 Rectangular Waveguides Chap.(x). such as in solving the integral equation. Tables 61 and 62 list a number of these roots in . Once the orthogonal relations between these vector wave functions are known.shows that the irrotational term VVGo/k2 is highly singular as compared to the rotational par... 61. J. and Deschamps [1980]. there is no known problem involving these "static" modes. splitting of C into the irrotational and the rotational parts is very useful for numerical calculations. in scattering theory the . and Dudley [I9791 and by Lee. . Before we define these functions. Howard. will be designated by q ascending order. 6 Cylindrical Waveguides The derivation of the dyadic Green function for a cylindrical waveguide follows the same procedures as that for a rectangular waveguide. 61 CYLINDRICAL VECTOR WAVE FUNCTIONS WITH DISCRETE EICENVALUES The cylindrical vector wave functions with discrete eigenvalues can be used to describe the electromagnetic field inside a cylindrical waveguide with circular cross section. the remaining steps are exactly the same as in the rectangular case. GOT. 5 splitting Eel is an interesting mathematical phenomenon. and the roots of their derivatives. Law. The nature of the integrals resulting from such a splitting has been discussed very thoroughly by Johnson. We will designate the roots of the equation by p. For problems using explicitly the freespace electric dyadic function in the formulation. we shall review the roots of the Bessel functions with integer order. The structure of ce.
To describe the magnetic field in the guide. It is obvious that these two sets of functions are generated in the same manner as the rectangular vector wave functions except that the scalar wave equation ri c where rc: = X 2 + h2.(x) (TM. corresponding to the site of the wall of the cylindrical waveguide shown in Fig.. According to our nomenclature. the proper vector wave functions to be used are T E ~ ~ O ~ S I eihzj. ( A T ) sin n4i 'OS with p = qnm/a. and Van Duzer [1965.Cylindrical Waveguides Chap. = X 2 + h2. 6 Sec.(h) ="i. (6. 61 A cylindrical waveguide with circular cross section TABLE 61 Roots of J. p. by the method of separation of variables. cos with X = p. 62 Roots of Bessel functions and their derivatives is now solved. The complete expressions of these two sets are With such a designation. The functions $_ ( h ) can be used to describe the electric field of the TEnmmode in a cylindrical waveguide with radius equal to a and the function x n A ( h ) for the T M n m mode. in cylindrical coordinate system. modes) = 0 : pnm TABLE 62 Roots of (TE. both of which satisfy the vector Dirichlet boundary condition at T = a./a. We now define two types of cylindrical vector wave functions. modes) = 0 : qnm Fig. This view is shared by Ramo.6) . and the eigenvalues X and p are so chosen that the functions would satisfy the vector Dirichlet boundary condition at r = a. and R S n A ( h )= V KA 1 x V x [J. 62.. Whinnery. 61 Cylindrical Kctor Wave Functions with Discrete Eigenvalues 135 Fig. This figure can also be used to interpolate the roots of the Bessel function of fractional order or the roots of their derivatives.. 61. the values of pnm and qnm increase with either n or m in an orderly manner as shown more vividly in Fig.A [ d Jn (AT)cos iha sin n$? i h n J ( A )sin n& cos + X 2 J. Such a nomenclature appears to be more logical than the one used in the current literature.(AT) sin n 4 e i h z i ] . They are  Ngn. 4321. the mode a null mode because pol = 0 and the dominant mode is TEll. It should be noted that both X and p are denumerable numbers depending on n and m as defined previously.
( A T ) c o s n ~ e i h r i ] sin dJn(Xr) cos nJn(Xr) sin = q I n$? . where sin sin Jn ( p r )cos n& because Jn (p. we let p = a + A .d r sin rz4$] eihhi r ms ~n integration of the above equation with respect to r dr from r = 0 to a yields (a2. we obtain To determine the normalization factor when a = p = X or a = p = p.(ar) d 2Jn ( a r ) dadr 8Jn ( a r ) dJn ( a r ) da 1 .( aa )r ) d2 r Multiplying (6. if we let a = p = qnmla and p = p' = qnml /a.lim . Before we prove the orthogonality between the various vector wave functions..r dJn ( P r ) dr :( ) d J n ( a r ) _ _ d J n ( a r )r da a dr ' hence .*(h) =V x [J.T dadr ar 1 o a = [~.rJn [(a and vice versa. . = . ( p r sin n+eihhii] ) If we let a = X = pnm/a and p = A = pnm. The Me ( h )and RE ( h )functions obviously satisfy the vector Neumann boundary condition at r = a.) = 0 and Jn (pnmf) = 0.[rJn(ar) . .. we obtain (a2.11) by Jn ( P r ) and (6. We consider two Bessel functions Jn ( a r )and Jn ( p r )which satisfy. the orthogonal properties of Jn (AT)and Jn ( p r ) should be discussed first. 6 set.p2) [ la 0 Jn (m) ( p r )rdr Jn 1 mEm. Then I.(h) =v x "% = ' vx dr cos [ ~ .r J n ( a r ) A+O A 8Jn [(a+ A) TI dr da + A) T] 1 d 2J n ( a r ) d J n ( a r ) aJn ( a r ) = ./a. ' cOs n4? [ih% "% ihn + p2 J. 61 Cylindrical Vector Wave Functions with Discrete Eigenvalues 137 $. respectively. Similarly.a = a2J n ( a r ) = 2 [ad Jn ( a r ) dadr da d(ar) ]  d Jn ( a r ) d(ar) ( + a r d2J. the differential equations Now and .p2) Jn ( a r )Jn ( P r ) =T and  1 [ Jn ( a r ) . = la 2a 2a a 2a ~ : ( a r ) r d r lim = A+O 1 a J n ( a r )Jn [(a+ A) r ]rdr . for m # m'. ( p r )zEnqE] eihr. then.136 Cylindrical Waveguides Chap.12) by Jn ( a r ) and taking the differences.
61 Cylindrical Vector Wave Functions with Discrete Eigenvalues 139 Thus. . all the cylindrical vector wave functions are orthogonal in the &domain when n # n'. 6 Sec. the integral because Jn(Xa) = 0 .[ J n ( h r ) J n ( p r ) l ie( h .138 Cylindrical Waveguides Chap. we obtain them. We consider.17).14) and (6.19) + 60)2r2p21. as the proofs of the remaining ones are similar.6(h ... Because of the trigonometric functions. I vanishes identically. Using the function as an a. It is.p = p' = { ( 1 +060)2r2X21A6i(Xh' ..(pr)r dr.h').6 ( h .6) we obtain When a = p.17) the final results for the normalization factor is given by 2 ( 1 + 60) r2p21.h') . We shall demonstrate only two of la p2 J. are needed in the discussion of the orthogonal property of the vector wave functions.h l ) z KAT d r = ih'nr KA Jn(Xa)Jn(pa)2r6(h .16) and (6. The normalization factor for functions of the same species can be found as follows. therefore. n = n'. = la a2 ~ . for example.  2 (1 + So) r26 ( h .. ( p r ) r d ~= 2p2 ($ $) pa)  because I I The orthogonal relations (6. X = A'. sufficient to discuss those cases where n = n'.5) and (6.h'). Xa = prim. In view of (6. n # n'.. we have I. since Jn(Xa) = 0 . n = n'. when a = A. P (1 # 11' (6.n#n11~ where 60 denotes the Kronecker delta function defined with respect to n. 0 . The orthogonal relations between the various cylindrical vector wave functions can be stated as follows: ih'nr d = l a ~ d ~ L d ~ . The integral involving the square of the derivative can be simplified by integration by parts that cancels the term involving and yields h') .15) and the normalization factors. (6.h') where the volume integral is extended through the entire volume of an infinitely long guide. In view of (6.
27) zm2.we obtain The function F . the coefficients ..(h) an. Won.SO) /4rp21. ~ ( RR') for the cylindrical waveguide can be found by making .so)/4rx21AkA.R') k2 + (V x FA. Knowing we can find based on the relation 1 Gel (R. for the T E modes and h = f (k2 . Using the wave equation for Gm2.24) can be evaluated by the method of contour integration as in the case of the rectangular waveguide. Ben*(h') and a o n r ( .R') = .. corresponding to the location of R'.i%(R and  1 k2 . zel + . where k. The result is given by .k. variables ( r ' . We adopt the simplified notation that where and similarly for . for the T M modes.i i S ( R . which yields Gel( R .z ) ] (6.[ . The poles of the integrand.. 62 CYLINDRICAL WAVEGUIDE The Fourier integration in (6.R') =. as a consequence of the orthogonal relationships of the cylindrical vector wave functions. They are ae c.qY. ( h ) and ( h ) ..R') The primed functions in (6.(h)$ nA(h). use of the symmetrical relations between Gel and Ge2without going through a lengthy derivation.h ' ) in turn and integrating the resultant equations through the entire volume of cylindrical waveguide. are different for the TE modes and T M modes.25) applies to z > z' and the bottom line is for z < z'. = i (2 . Taking the anterior scalar product of (6. 62 Cylindrical Waveguide 141 The readers can verify other relations listed in (6.140 Cylindrical Waveguides Chap.23) are defined with respect to the primed z').26) 4 The top line in (6.(h'). and k~ represent the guided wave numbers for these two sets.18) through (6.p2) = i k. cx = i (2 . 6 Sec.20) as exercises.22) and (6. however. we can determine. (6.X 2 ) Based on the method of Em we let ' ' = f k. Knowing these orthogonal relations we can find the eigenfunction expansion of the dyadic Green functions by the OhmRayleigh method. The final expression for Gm2is given by The index m is used here to designate the ordinal number associated with pnm (= Xa) and qnm(= pa).21) with Wen.z') (V x GE2)u (z' .) u ( z . they are h = f (k2 .
(c q k sin [ COS I [ I These two functions are analogous to the functions Me.V x V x J (AT) n5 cos kx( c .z ) i sin q 1 COS Nxe .z) and No.dd6(R R')  1 k2 .30).30).qP dr sin eihz (6. they are $. Denoting the electric dyadic Green function of the first kind for this structure by EE1.z) defined by (5.142 Cylindrical Waveguides Chap.(Xr) cos n5 . ( c .143) for the rectangular cavity. they are = V x Jn ( p ~ ) n5 sin k.R') where B p o (C .z)d . 6 Sec. = .(c . We again break the formulation into two steps.I ) where we have used a condensed notation for the functions in (6.(Ar) qP T ihn sin n& cos +A~S.o(z) and Nxe(z)are similar to the functions defined by (5. A semiinfinite cylindrical waveguide (oo > z 2 0) terminated at z = 0 with a conducting wall will be considered first.*( h ) = V x [sn(AT)COS n+eihzi] sin nSn(Ar) sin dS. Applying once more the method of scattering superposition for the cylindrical cavity of length c we obtain the electrical dyadic Green function of the first kind for the cavity given by GEtl (I?. ilhz ( A T ) COsn+i] sin . 64 Coadal Line 143 This function is needed to study the field inside a cylindrical waveguide excited by an aperture field distribution on the wall of the waveguide. we find The functions M. 64 COAXIAL LINE The vector wave functions needed to construct the dyadic Green functions for a coaxial line are We repeat here the coefficients involved in (6.130) for the rectangular waveguide except that two different wave numbers.(c . k.141) and (5. 63 CYLINDRICAL CAVITY The dyadic Green functions for a cylindrical cavity can be obtained by the method of scattering superposition as has been done for the rectangular cavity. and kx. are involved in the present case in contrast to a single wave number kg for the rectangular case.34) i h dr sin n5 r S.z) = .129) and (5.
$. 64 Coaxial Line $m p ( h )= V x = [ ~( p r )sin n4efihri] n eih~ COS [F n T n ( p r ) sin m (PI c0sn44] n n+i . X = A' X I As a result of the orthogonal property of the functions Deoo.J A ( P ~ ) Y ~= 0. or n t . tcp = (p2 + h2)' Sn (Xr) = Yn(Xa)Jn (AT).we let  = {2n2 ( 1 + 60) X2I16(h . and they are solutions for the homogeneous wave equation with n2 equal to h2.(Xb) = Yn(Xa) Jn(Xb) . NI". we use $n A . = I [ihk~ dr i~.38)  and T&b) = Y ' 3 4JL(pb) . 0. we find and _.Jn(Xa)Yn(Xb)= 0 (6. 6 Sec.  These functions satisfy the boundary condition required for Em2. The normalization factors of the vector wave functions defined by (6.Cylindrical Waveguides Chap.h'). where 60 denotes the Kronecker delta function with respect to n and 0.JA ( ~ a ) Y(n ) L W and Jn and Yn denote. The calculation of the value of X and p is discussed in Dwight [I9481 and Abramowitz and Stegun [1964].37) are (6. ) P~ where the primed functions denote the derivative of these functions with respect to their arguments. is not yet available.dr sin r cos (6. Gm2 = 0 : and hence are sufficient to represent Gm2.39) To construct the eigenfunction expansion of 6.36) n # n'. or n. for example. p = p'.h'). The eigenvalues X and p are solutions of the characteristic equations S. COsnmi . Bessel function and Neumann function of integral order.2.32)(6.Jn (Xa)Yn(AT) Tn ( W )= Y ( p a )J n ( W ) .h n( p r ) sin T sin cosn+~ where k* = ( P + h2) ' Functions not of the same type are orthogonal. and/or p # p' n = n f .. however. respectively.*.Following the method of Gm. They are solenoidal functions as V . = {2n2 (1+ 6 0 ) p2 1 p t ( h. pa or pb. n # n' and/or X # n = n'. A complete tabulation of these values. .
X 2 ) 1/2 This completes our derivation for the various dyadic Green functions for a coaxial line.. .41).z ) kx = (k2. (6. where where I.$'. = ln(b/a) and Ix and I.U+ where + G. 6 Sec.43) and (6.40) and (6. (6. are defined in (6. Following the OhmRayleigh method we obtain r Following the same procedure. z') pertaining to R .  and e2 with = k2 [(v x ) u + (V x ) U 6 R ) ]. The symmetrical relations between these functions are quite obvious.z') u.146 Cylindrical Waveguides Chap.u. it can be shown that where By means of a contour integration.53) U+ = U ( z . 64 Coaxial Line 147 According to the method of Em..= U ( z l .46) can be reduced to  Gm2= G.45) are defined with respect to the primed variables (r'. The primed functions in (6.
4). are still valid.3) and (6. and then find the eigenfunction expansion of the freespace dyadic Green function in terms of these functions. only two sets of functions.27r 2 4 2 0. and Most of the material presented here was originally contained in a paper [Tai. the cylindrical vector wave functions to be used have continuous eigenvalues in the Adomain as well as in the hdomain. Once the latter is known. 19831 where the method of Emwas enunciated.148 Cylindrical Waveguides Chop. We will discuss these properties first. Several typographical errors in that paper have now been corrected. the vector wave functions with continuous eigenvalues both in the h and X domains are needed. and co < z < oo. The formulas for M and N as defined by (6. but no constraint is placed on A or p. the functions of the other kinds can be found by the method of scattering superposition. corresponding to oo > r > 0. The orthogonal properties of these functions can be stated as follows: . are left to represent both the electric and magnetic field. 71 CYLINDRICAL VECTOR W V FUNCTIONS AE WITH CONTINUOUS EICENVALUES In dealing with an integral representation of fields in free space. Since X and p merge into one parameter. The orthogonal properties of these functions are not quite the same as the ones with discrete eigenvalues. with p = A. 6 For example. These functions are now defined in the entire space. Circular Cylinder in Free Space When we are dealing with radiation problems in the presence of an infinite cylinder as a diffracting body.
I = 1 1 Re. To prove (7. we obtain. The proofs for the remaining combinations are practically the same. .150 Circular Cylinder in Free Space Chap.1) The integrations with respect to 4 and z yield I= JJJ JJJ ( h ). Renr)(h')dV ["hlBJn ( A T ) aJn (A1r) cos2 dr dr = nnl ' JJJ nm where which is the normalization factor for two cylindrical vector wave functions of the same species. the fine structure of these properties is not spelled out. aenA and with respect to z is not necessary. in general. for example. with p = A. Using (6. (1 60) 2n26 ( h .h') nn' .1). = 0. hl) denote two distinct pairs of eigenvalues. let us consider the integral ('+ " ) . n=nl ~ A . Using the recurrence relations of the Bessel functions.(1 + $) 27r2 (A'hh' KK' + AAr2) 6 ( h .A ' ) 6 ( h .A') = 2(1 + 60)n2A6( A . are orthogonal when n # n'. This is presumably just an oversight. (1. As a result.( h ). we obtain 1 I = . the integration Actually.&plane.4). 7I Cylindrical Vecror Wave Functions (7. dr. However.h') nn' + inh' r . 3981.h ' ) . (A'r)]. a. where the domain of integration encloses the entire space. A ) . all these functions. Our presentation shows that the normalization factor in the spatial domain contains two delta functions in the eigenvalue domain. let us consider. which is partly spatial and partly in the eigenvalue domain.IA. ~ i .3). h ) and (A'. it is clear that and Re are orthogonal in the r . It is this important feature that facilitates greatly the eigenfunction expansion of a dyadic Green function or any other vector function.20). To prove (7. we can change the integral into the form m o d 1(hf)dV7 where ( A .h') . The proofs of these formulas are slightly different from the ones for (6.2n6(h . n # n' .4. pp.inh'  d Jn (A'T) + Jn(A1r) a J n ( A r ) ]ei(hhl)r dr As a result of the integral representation of the weighted delta function given by Jm are orthogonal in the r . 3973991.18) to (6.2) or (7.A') 6 ( h . We include it here for completeness because. In regard to (7. It is therefore sufficient to discuss those cases when n = n'. (h1)dv = { 2 ( 1 + 6 0 ) n 2 A 6 ( A . he used a mixed domain consisting of (r. i .1). $ 0. I= (1 60)2n26 ( h . 7 set.* ( h ). either of the same species or of different species.h') 6 ( A .+plane but not in the 4plane and Roor alone as asserted by Stratton [p. the integral I = JJJ sen* ( h ).3) and (6. a ~ n ( k8Jn (A'r) ) hh' dr dr + Jdm [ ( (hl)dv + +A ) J ( A )J ( A ) I I. we always deal with the volume integral of these functions. ( X T ) J. after an integration with respect to 4.83). It should be mentioned that the orthogonal properties of these functions have previously been investigated by Stratton [1941.h') [ J . Because of the angular function.
we want to eliminate the Aintegration. Thus we write ax where X and h are two continuous eigenvalues. $ I . 0 where F represents a dyadic spatial operator.h2) and means that these functions are The superscript (1) attached to Re) and now defined with respect to the Hankel function of the first kind.9) is treated as the Fourier transform and the FourierBessel transform or the Hankel transform of V x [ 1 6 ( ~ lit)]. Its explicit expression was shown to be Fm0(R. In dealing with a flat ground.16) is equal to where the primed functions and N' are defined with respect to (r'. 7 Sec.R') = v x [IGo(R.14) contains a double integral..3).(h).h ) . Repeating the same procedure with the odd functions and both the even and the odd N functions. (7. that is. by definition. (7. Then where n = (A2 + h2)'. Only positive values of X are included because Jn (AT)and Jn (AT) are not independent functions.17) denotes the Hankel function of the first kind. By taking the anterior scalar product of (7. 1 In view of (1.Mi(h). To perform the integration with respect to X in (7. '(I) NO(h)~O (h). MA = Mzn. r > r' r < r'.7) where For cylindrical problems in space. Its precise form can be written out if necessary. we need the eigenfunction expansion of this function in order to construct the functions of the first kind and the third kind by the method of scattering superposition.14) we can apply the integral relation (1. The reason for doing so will be clear later. we obtain a'  k 2q2 { ( h .fi')] is given by [ The freespace magnetic dyadic Green function introduced previously in Sec. The elimination depends on the nature of the problem. where 7) = (k2 . Equation (7. and where we have now used the condensed notation Bi(h) for the four dyadic pairs contained in the brackets of (7. HL') at) . 72 EigenfirnctionExpansion 153 72 EICENFUNCTION EXPANSION OF THE F E .103). 2') of the position vector R'. one of them can be eliminated.6).R ) ] = VG~(R. we obtain.103) in an operational form.P C DYADIC R ES A E G E N FUNCTIONS RE Hence the continuous eigenfunction expansion of V x j6(ii . satisfies the equation In view of (7. as a result of the orthogonal relationships described by (7. but this is not required.13).9) with Ren. (7. For the construction of dyadic Green functions associated with an infinite cylinder. x R1)  I. for example. or layered media.r (h') and integrating the resultant equation through the entire space. Although (7.152 Circular Cylinder in Free Space Chap. the integration with respect to h will be eliminated. 42. According to the OhmRayleigh method we let (h)Nx(h).1) through (7. the expansion of Cmo can be written in the form and the radiation condition at infinity.
we obtain finally an expression for Gmo. ~ t ) ( h ) = 0.24) (7.25) The function Emo discontinuous at r = r'. we have the expression for Ge2. at r = a. ( ~R') must have the form . To determine the unknown coefficients a. = (k: . the expression for Eeo(fi. and Coated Cylinder 155 Repeating the same procedure for a x ( h ) R i ( . in Gel. and b. To construct the electric dyadic Green functions of the third kind. which has the form The choice of and R(l)as the field functions in El. For a cylinder made of homogeneous isotropic material such as a dielectric cylinder. The expression for Ee2can be obtained most expediently by taking advantage of the symmetrical property between Eel and z e 2 . The net result is that if we interchange the role of a. the relevant functions are G ) and Ei2')for a source placed in region 1 ( r > a) and region 2 to be the interior region of the cylinder (r 5 a).h). a(') ceo i x [ ~ . the function Gel for an infinite conducting cylinder of radius equal to "a" concentric with the zaxis can be found by the method of scattering superposition. is dictated by the radiation condition that the scattered field must consist of outgoing waves. According to the method of is Em. ] + which yields b =. 73 Conducting Dielectric.at)(h)] = 0 + (7. = . Jn (211 ( ~ 2 )' (x)] x = va. where E 1 .R') in this case would be given by and i x [ ~ . respectively. For clarity. ( h ) b. We let (7. and b. where p and E denote. DIELECTRIC CYLINDER. 7 Sec. we let . we require. Eel must satisfy the Dirichlet boundary condition which can be satisfied only if the excitation functions are the same as that of for r < r'.Circular Cylinder in Free Space Chap.h2) i . Thus. and the choice of and Rt(') as the excitation functions is guided by the expression for Eeoand the boundary condition that at r = a. we adopt the following notations for various parameters defined in the two regions. AND COATED CYLINDER  kl = w (poco) T. the permeability and the permittivity of the cylinder which may be complex.28) (kt .involving only a Fourier integration with respect to h.h2) . they are 73 CONDUCTING CYLINDER. ( h ) a. k2 = w (pc) 4 The main reason for us to have an eigenfunction expansion for Ge0 is for the construction of other kinds of electric dyadic Green functions.
K$) n ~ t ) ( .. We choose the functions of the first kind as the field functions for ??ill) in order to satisfy the radiation condition at infinity. The boundary condition at the interface.Mz. The fact that the even functions play similar roles as the odd N functions. (h)} . be. D. and [F2] are matrices [Dl]and [D2]and the column matrices [Cl] [C2] [Fl]. and dE are necessary in order to satisfy the boundary condition at the interface.i ] sin tem of Equations for the Scattering Coefficients where C = ( k i . ( h )+ B:.31) and [%vEii' (1) /(I) ( h )+ Dz. is because they have the same angular functions of the &component. in that manner in order to satisfy the boundary condition at the interface. that is. defined as follows: It is observed that we have restored the notations for the even and odd functions because the functions with coefficients A:. and Coated Cylinder 157 In order to satisfy the radiation condition at infinity and the boundary condition at the interface. . requires {[A:&%. for a dielectric cylinder.E$] n. $ ( h )= V x R:. The square . the expanded version of a typical combination is = [ A ~ ~ M h )) B~. The inclusion of terms with coefficeints B. The field functions for EL2') are so chosen because they are the solutions for the vector wave equation in region 2. (B)C o s n ~ i h z. 7 Sec. r = a. ( h ) ]N that enables us to determine the 16 scattering coefficients.. 73 Conducting Dielechic.i1' (4) s. (7. (Cr) x szn '? n+eihzi] TABLE 71 Sys vx [ J . The results are given in Table 71 in the form of 16 linear equations grouped in four sets.(h) = V k2 1 [J.h2):..156 Circular Cylinderin Free Space Chap.h ) ($+ I + [l0. or vice ceo. the two scattering terms must have the following forms versa.rn$ ( h )+ B. an incident T E mode will excite both a scattered T E mode and a scattered TM mode.E~: ( h ) ] + . and they must be finite in that region. Such a phenomenon does not occur for a conducting cylinder. more specifically. . must combine with functions with coefficients B:.(1) &?. although these terms are absent in In other words.p(h) similarly for the other combinations.
1) must satisfy the Dirichlet boundary condition at r = a.33) and (7. both even and odd. We now change the cylindrical variables i p t o spherical variables by letting hence .38). but Ges or Gel must have the form =(11) =(21) E (i) n + i ($) ($)  .31). the result of which will not be given here.38) =(21) The approximate expression for Gel. is denoted simply by Hn. that is. Let us consider the function of the first kind.23) with the functions and R(')replaced by (7. hence they are electric dyadic Green functions of the first kind as well as of the third kind. The subscript notation "el" for the functions indicate that there is a Dirichlet boundary to be satisfied. For example.i(m+hz) 'OS sin n4f n4 (hi I ' e'(~r+h" 'OS sin +@) . one typical equation of the above system of equations is HA') 74 ASYMPTOTIC EXPRESSION i The same method can be applied to find the functions for a conducting cylinder coated by a layer of dielectric. 11. become M z n v ( h )r?(qn+:q Ni:i(h) then G e s still has the form as (7. In Chap.This expression can be found by the method of saddlepoint integration. These functions will be denoted by Ed1') and for a source in region 1. Assuming the qr is large compared to unity. the Hankel function in and R(1)can b e approximated by its asymptotic expression. ~2') The functions . are involved because the functions of the first kind must also be included in the dielectric layer.using (7. 7 Sec.(1) n~~ nV(h)] Eight terms with coefficients a'. the function EL. 74 Asymptotic Eqression 159 In Table 71. c a n be written in the form a(') { . we let in the presence of a perfectly To find the farzone field of a radiating conducting cylinder or the farzone field of aP aperture antenna on the surface of the cylinder. In addition to the boundary conditions of the form stated by (7.therefore. Region 2 is within the layer ( b 2 r 2 a) for a conducting cylinder of radius a with thickness of the layer equal to b .34).(1) a(') and N ( l ) .i sin ~ cos O B [@inv + (h) . These boundary conditions enable us to determine the 24 scattering coefficients in this formulation. resulting in a quite complicated system of equations. and d'. By the method of scattering superposition.158 Circular Cylinder in Free Space Chap. where terms of the order equal to and higher t l 9 n (l)r)312 ha~ebeenneglected. (7. now applying to r = b.21) and (7. we need only thl: asymptotic expression for Eel or ce2. a similar but simpler problem of plane stratified media resting on a conducting ground plane will be formulated and solved. b'. corresponding to the exterior region of the coated cylinder.37) and (7. the site of the conducting cylinder.a. c'.
The singularity at 8 = 0. 81 VECTOR W V FUNCTIONS IN A ELLIPTICAL AE N CYLINDER COORDINATE S S E YTM to find the field for a current source. we obtain {d[JCns(kc4+agn .40).corresponding to a remote source. 7 Applying the integral formula (1. called the ellip . it is of course necessary to use the formula Perfectly Conducting Elliptical Cylinder Vector wave functions in an elliptical cylinder coordinate system are generated when the elliptical cylinder scalar wave functions are used. does not exist because 8 never goes to zero due to the finite radius of the cylinder. when kR' >> . corresponding to the values of 77 evaluated at . As far as the actual field is concerned. Equation (7. The scalar wave equation in an elliptical cylinder coordinate system can be written in the form where The variables u. Equation (8. cannot be formulated in the same manner as those involving a dielectric circular cylinder.k cos B ) ] } . 11 and are illustrated in Fig. and (A. 13.160 Circular Cylinder in Free Space Chap.1). it is impossible to find an orthogonal expansion for the functions of the third kind. in practice.39).99) to (7. The eigenfunctions associated with (8. We leave this problem as an exercise in Appendix C.1) is derived by using (ASO).i6 MI (1) sns (kcos8)] [R. and z and the parameter c are defined in Sec. Problems involving a dielectric elliptical cylinder.B = 8. Because both the angular functions and the radial functions depend on the wave number. is valid only when kR >> l.ns ( k cos 8 ) + aenNbEi (. The result would provide for us the implicit solution of the field due to a plane wave incident on a conducting cylinder. of course. v.40) where s = k sin 9. The function of the first and second kind can then be constructed by the method of scattering superposition. (ASl). (7. therefore. we 1. Conversely. can find the asymptotic expression for Eel. where the readers are requested to recover some of the classical formulas based on the present technique. or for an aperture field source. where A' denotes the outward normal to the cylindrical surface.55) of Appendix A. we can find the eigenfunction expansion of the freespace dyadic Green function without any difficulty. Once the orthogonal properties of these functions are known.
1) can be written in the form ( h ) = S.* It is hoped that these minor changes of notation will not cause any inconvenienceto readers. " that C ' D z = 1 or Semr(0)= 1 n In Stratton's original work. They are given by the series (8. In order to give a full treatment of the orthogonal property of the vector wave functions in elliptical cylinder coordinate systems. or bornform a denumerable set such that the corresponding angular functions will be periodic functions of v. 8 Sec.17) This brief review is essential for our discussion of the corresponding vector wave functions. We shall follow very closely Stratton's presentation with. that is.mcos~n@Jn(Ar) ' ~ n (8.4) and finite at the origin can be written in the form of the series of Bessel functions. These functions are defined by . n (8.5) and S O m A ( v ) = x 1 F p s i n n v . a brief review of the scalar wave functions is necessary. 3861. (8.162 Perfectly Conducting Elliptical Cylinder Chap. the Mathieu equations 0 with ( v ) ~ : (u)eihZ.4).16) Using (8. respectively. These changes will be obvious to the readers when the two texts are compared... we need the expansion formulas of the elliptical wave functions in terms of the circular wave functions. . These periodic angular functions can be represented by either the cosine series in the case of even functions or the sine series in the case of odd functions.. however. some minor changes of notation in order to conform with our previous notation. (8. these functions are designated by R: .m = 1 . We require the angular functions to be periodic with respect to v so that the field represented by these functions would be a singlevalued function of position. p. They are S e m ~ ( ~ ) = C t ~ r m = 1 ~2n 3~ . ~ ( ~ ) S e m ~ =v ) ( and (87) (i)C l ( i ) n . R o r n A ( ~ ) S o m A=u ) ( ( : ) ' n '(i)""~:sin n @ ~ .m ~ : (cAcosh u ) . They are and the radial functions Re R o m ~ ( u= ) The eigenvalues be.. J.13) We have omitted the superscript 1as used by Stratton in the designation of these functions. . They are given by Stratton [1941. where h2 The angular functions S. 2 . 3753871. The coefficients D. have been discussed very thoroughly by Stratton [1941.3) and (8." and F are so normalized . R e . . 3 . 81 Vecor Wave Functions in an Elliprical QIinder 163 tical cylinder wave functions.2) with + A2 = tC2... ~ 0 ... we can show that Sem and So. the eigenfunctions pertaining to (8. pp. The radial functions which are solutions of (8.. (Ar) (8. W o other radial functions which would represent outgoing waves in the ei"t system involved the Hankel function of the first kind. form a complete orthogonal set.6) where the primed summation is to be extended over even values of n if m is even and odd values of n if m is odd. n (4)' tanhu n ' ( i ) n . satisfy. According to Stratton. For the determination of the normalization constant for the vector wave function.
The orthogonal relations can easily be proved because of (8.1) through (7. It is sufficient for us to prove (8.26) . (Ar) cos nd IF t 2) .cos2 v) . As a result of the trigonometric functions and the integral representation of the weighted twodimensional delta function.. for example. ~ h & relations are analogous to (7. we obtain I I (8. of course.Perfcctb Conducting Elliptical Cylinder Chap. we have where $. R. We have put into evidence that the coefficients D r are functions of A.25) can be written in the form JJJ mgm.25) we first make use of the relations that I (8.(h) .R e m ~ au ei(hh')zdudv dz.10) and (8. as characterized by the two delta functions in the h.11). mn D p (At) Jn(A'r) cos nd r dr dd.25) B where . The complete expressions of these functions are given by a dRem~l + SemxSemx.11).23) for the case m = mt. The proof of (8. We consider.9) through (8. the integral Using (8. = c (eosh2u .hl) Jd" Jd21 A2 [x n t(i)mnDT(A)i. They are. The orthogonal properties of these functions are stated by the following equations: ' and Thus (8. and changing the domain of integration for the elliptical cylinder system to the circular cylinder system with the relation that we obtain I =n2h(h . 8 Sec..24) is given as an exercise. The fine structure. is exactly the same. 81 Vector Wave Functions in an Elliptical Cylinder 165 where the volume of integration is extended through the entire space.~ (hl) d v where IemA is defined by (8. solutions of the vector wave equations in elliptical cylinder coordinate systems. a~ To simplify (8.and Adomain..2) and the differential relation that dV = hl h2h3 du dv dz ='p2du dv dz.2).(h) is defined by (8. Using (8.16).3) except that the normale ization constants are different.
R') and By applying the method of scattering superposition.  The expression for I?.24) are similar. the way to the eigenfunction expansion of the freespace dyadic Green function is straightforward.?iPS(R  k2 . by the formula ' The unknown vector coefficients A and B are determined by taking the anterior scalar product of (8.h ) ( h )( h ) u < u'. As a result of (8. 72 that yields (8. ( z' Chap.. The proofs of the remaining relations in (8.(R. subscribed by ['t?mA(h)aimA(h) +agmx(h)'imA(h)] (8'31) To construct the electric dyadic Green function of the first kind the A integration can be evaluated in a closed form by using the same technique as described in . 8 Sec.24) we obtain which gives 1 Eeo(R. we shall first derive the eigenfunction expansion of the freespace magnetic dyadic Green function.166 Perfectly ConductingElliptical Cylinder I = ( 1 + So) a3AS ( h .h ) M . Once the orthogonal properties of the vector wave functions are known.h') 6 ( A . The function of the first kind with superscript (1) is defined with respect to the radial function of the first kind as defined by (8. The major axis and the minor axis of the cylinder are defined by a = c cosh u0 b = c sinh uo.(h') in turn and integrating the resulting equation &rough the entireipace.10).h2) .h') 6( A ..27) (I) m t ' ( h ) a b ( .22) through (8. we can find Eel for a perfectly conducting elliptical cylinder placed in space as a scattering body. (h)mb(h). where Ienxis defined by (8. therefore. 82 THE ELECTRIC DYADIC GREEN FUNCTION OF THE FIRST KIND + + (8.R') = . Knowing Emo. We let with r) = (k2 . 72 for the perfectly conducting cylinder. Following the procedure described in Sec.14) with X replaced by r).28) with Memlxl(h') and NemI.Y) = a2AIenxS h . 82 The Electric Dyadic Green Function of the First Kind [D:(A)]~ Sec. u > u' ( ) ( .. for example.32) where a condensed notation has been used.A'). we can obtain I?.23) and (8. R') can then be written in the form The equation of the elliptical surface is.
For reasons that will become clear later. This chapter starts with a derivation of the electric dyadic Green function of the first kind for a perfectly conducting wedge of arbitrary wedge angle. 2661. the function of the second kind can be found by making use of the symmetry relation between these two functions. the circular cylinder.35). The examples illustrate quite adequately the versatility of the dyadic Green function technique. it is impossible to find an orthogonal expansion for the function of the third kind associated with a dielectric elliptical cylinder because both the angular functions and the radial functions depend on the wave number.31) and (7. It was this remark that inspired the present author in 1954 to resolve the problem using the then relatively new technique of the dyadic Green functions. we judiciously choose the boundary of a perfectly conducting wedge corresponding to 4 = 0 and 4 = 27r . Radiation from dipoles.h 2 ) i and To find the asymptotic expression for (8. 91. As far as we know.Perfectly Conducting Elliptical Cylinder Chap. The vector wave function which will be used in the eigenfunction expansion of the dyadic Green functions of the first and second kind pertaining to the wedge are defined by . This material now forms the main body of this chapter. As was mentioned at the beginning of the chapter. 91 DYADIC GREEN FUNCTIONS FOR A PERFECTLY CONDUCTING WEDGE with q = (k2 . assuming q eosh u to be large. Sommerfeld remarked that the generalization of the edge diffraction problem to three dimensions is directly possible only for scalar or acoustic problems. and from apertures in the presence of a half sheet.35) the asymptotic values of the radial functions R::. The master did not reveal the reason why this cannot be done for vector or electromagnetic problems. The function for a half sheet is just a limiting case when the wedge angle approaches zero.40as shown in Fig. we substitute in (8. We shall treat the layered media and the dielectric sphere in the subsequent chapters.32) for the dielectric cylinder. Once the function of the first kind is known. the dyadic Green function of the third kind has been found so far only for the layered media. The problem is straightforward and is assigned as an exercise. therefore. p. and the sphere. The mixed boundary condition. The numerical results obtained for the half sheet may also be of interest to engineers designing antennas that are similar to the ones considered here. both electric and magnetic. are treated in detail. where 40denotes the angle of the wedge. which has different values for the two regions interior and exterior to the cylinder. 8 Omitting the details. we find where Perfectly Conducting Wedge and the Half Sheet In his book on optics [1954. cannot be satisfied if we use expressionsanalogous to (7.
9 sec. (AT)sin v4eihzi] .4) Fig.h') . u = u' (9. v = v'. the construction of the functions of the first and the second kind for the wedge will be pursued directly using these functions...(h) = v [ J .$ J ~ . (AT)cos dr sin vO$] efiz ihv sin vqF T J..170 Perfectly Conducting Wedge and the Half Sheet Chap. 71.1) and (9. (9.(h)AeVAh ) d~ dh ( 0 0 Y The complete expressions of these functions are given by J.(h) where rc2 = A2 = v#V ' ( 1 60) ( 2 ~40)A ( A . 91 so that the required vector wave functions The expression for E m 2 can then be written in the form . According to the method of Em. This shows why we have chosen the wedge geometry with respect to the coordinate system as shown in Fig.5) follows the same procedure as described in Sec.=O.5) 1 V x rc vx cos [ J . It would be much more complicated i this case to find the freespace dyadic Green function first and then to apply n the method of scattering superposition to determine the functions of the first and second kind.=O fixVxN. we let v x [%(R. 91 Crosssectional views of a perfectly conducting wedge n.A') 6 ( h .2) have the following orthogonal relations: JJJ a e V A ( h . 6 + (9. 91 Perfectly Conducting Wedge 171 would have a relatively simple form. Unlike the case for a circular cylinder. fixMe=0 AxN.3) to (9.) = ~ ~ ~ (hl) d~ = o 1 .R1)]= Jm Jm C [me. ( ~ rcOsv+eihzi] sin ) g:. corresponding to q5 = 0 and q5 = 2a .40)A6 (A 60) .A') 6 ( h .1) ~$4 + J. The vector functions defined by (9. It will not be repeated here.i. (k) vmi] eihz 'OS sin These functions satisfy the boundary bonditions that on the surface of the wedge. The derivation of (9. { (1 v+# v'a (2n . + h2 where the domain of integration is extended through the space exterior to the wedge. ..3) 0. (AT)sin v#? cos rc dr d J .h') . (Ar) sin r cos As a result of the orthogonal relationships between me and Go.=O fixVxM. find we (9.
the field from current elements with known distributions or apertures with known field distributions can be calculated by evaluating some integrals. n = 0 .11). 2 . (2 .rr) 7) = (k2 . we are unable to evaluate these integrals in closed forms.. 1 .#o/.. by the odd 72 functions and the even f l functions. Once the expressions for Gel and G e 2 are known. 92 THE HALF S E T HE When the angle of a wedge approaches zero. In general.h 2 ) k n By making use of the symmetric relations between the functions of the first and the second kind. '(I) '(I) where (9. Like the case of a dielectric elliptical cylinder. That yields the third kind for a dielectric wedge because of the lack of proper orthogonal sets of vector wave functions. They are (I) Mowq(h) V x [ H P ) ( ~ ) v#eih""i = sin I and from the symmetrical relationship between The primed functions in (9. The func. which is given by R').) r > r' r Meq(h)Mev. the problems to be considered will be divided into four categories: 1.11) where 72% ( h ) = V x H?) 1 N g ( h ) = V x IC [ ( 7 ) ~ cos v$eih"i ) vx [H:') I ( 7 ) ~ sin v+eihzi ) I. The function of the first kind is thus obtained by putting $o = 0 in (9. replacing the even 72 functions and the odd functions in (9. we can find the expression for Ge2(R.. we have Ge2(R. > r'. For convenience. respectively. with v= . 92 The Halfsheet 173 The Aintegration can be evaluated with the aid of the residue theorem in the Aplane. However.(h) + N o v l ) ( h ) ~ o w l ) ( . most of the integrals can be evaluated in a closed form in terms of tabulated functions.172 Perfectly Conducting Wedge and the Half Sheet Chap. because of the Fourier integrals involved in the expressions for the dyadic Green functions. corresponding to the farzone range. for certain restricted ranges of the parameters.P ) =   S'FS(R Rt )  1 k2 + ( h ) ( . which yields The vector wave functions of the first kind are defined with respect to the Hankel function of the first kind with order v . #Iz'). Radiation from magnetic dipoles in the presence of a half sheet .h ) . tion Eel can now be obtained in the usual manner that is given by zeland Ee2. there is no way of constructing the dyadic Green function of It is seen that only Bessel functions and Hankel functions of half order and integer order are involved in these expressions. the wedge degenerates into a half sheet. 9 Sec.10) are defined with respect to (r'.11). Radiation from electric dipoles in the presence of a half sheet 2.
16) into the desirable form.. 13861. The procedure is the same as the one described in Sec. for r > a. 8. 92.16) is transverse to the The TM modes are not excited in this case because longitudinal axis. However. The analysis is found in Morse and Feshbach [1953.174 Pe4ectly Conducting Wedge and the Half Sheet Chap. The series contained in (9.2. and located at (a. 0) in the presence of a 40. Without repeating the details. 74.16) can be transformed into a function involving some Fresnel integrals by applying an expansion theorem due to Hargreaves [1918]. Diffraction of a plane wave by a half sheet 93 RADIATION FROM ELECTRICAL DIPOLES IN THE PRESENCE OF A HALF SHEET 93. To transform (9.18) can be expressed in terms of the Fresnel integral functions defined by . 93 Radiation from Electrical Dipoles 3. Radiation from slots cut in a half sheet 4.17) according to Hargreaves's theorem. the integration can be done by means of the saddlepoint method of integration..(R) = wpoc a&. 92 A longitudinal electric dipole located at (a. The integral contained in (9. half sheet we obtain we obtain. For numerical calculation. O0 t)2eihz n=1. c (?) sin .4) denotes the point of observation in the spherical coordinate system as shown in Fig. $o. (9. we let The integral representation of (9.1 Longitudinal Electric Dipole Let us consider an infinitesimal electric dipole with a current moment c oriented along the direction of the longitudinal axis of the half sheet. we shall mvestigate only the zcomponent of the electric field which is given by E. 4*k 1. where (R. P.12) and (9. when the point of observation is far away from the origin.14) into Fig. 9 sec. 0) as shown in Fig. sin (?)sin (T) (ka sin Jf 8) . The electric current density can be written as The delta functions have a weighting factor l / r l so that Substituting (9. The Fourier integral contained in (9. is given by where we have already converted u into n/2.15) cannot be evaluated in a closed form for arbitrary values of r and z. 92.
m (2 . the farzone electric field has only a +component.z 2 60)(i)' Ji ( p ) cos ( By using (9. 93. 93 A horizontal electric dipole lo$ cated at (a. Its expression is given by .( R )is given by The two series contained in the brackets can be expressed in terms of the Sfunction defined by (9. the complex integral involved in Harrington's work based on the method of the WeinerHopf integral equation can readily be reduced to the Fresnel integral.176 Perfect& Conducting Wedge and the Half Sheet Chap.) (i) n=o n4o 74 2 bi( p ) sin Isin 2 In the principal plane. 7r Fig. In fact.16) into an expression containing two of these functions with different arguments owing to the simple trigonometric identity that 2 sin . It should be mentioned that the pattern function (9.20) is chosen according to the appropriate range of 4: + sign for  24 >0 sign for 27r > 4 2 7r. In the principal plane. The final expression for E.20) instead of (9.4) as a basic function in this work.60)( 4' J? ) p=ka .17).60)( 4' Ji ( p ) sin sin ) 2 2 ( p ) cos cos 2 2 (%) (?) sin = cos 4 4 .cos 4 4 + $0) 2 2 d + p sin 40.22) which we obtained here is equivalent to the one obtained by Harrington [I9531 for a line source in the presence of a half sheet. 93.20) and simplifying the result. p.6.18) or (9. 9 Set. corresponding to 8 = 7r/2 or z = 0.2 Horizontal Electrical Dipole n4o COS  n4 2 d~ n=o By taking the partial derivatives of the Sfunctions as represented by (9. which displays only a crosssectionalview in the plane z = 0. 0 ) I Regarding S(p. 7441. By a change of the variable of integration.17) we can determine very accurately the numerical values of the pattern function.18) can be written in the form where the f sign in (9.40) . 0 .cos $ 0 d m ' 4 n=o n=o n4o n4 C ( 2 . we obtain The orientation and the location of the dipole for this case is shown in Fig. (9. we can transform (9. the pattern of the electric field is described by . Thus we have  z '4 d W d W ( 2 . corresponding to 8 = r/2. 93 Radiation from Electrical Dipoles A short table of these functions is found in Watson [1922.
3 Vertical Electric Dipole The orientation and the location of the dipole for this case are shown in Fig. 95. the electric field for any current distribution in the presence of a conducting body can be obtained by using the formula Fig.178 Perfecttly Conducting Wedge and the Half Sheet Chap. are plotted in Figs. Fig.22). 19711. 95 Radiation pattern of a longitudinal dipole placed in the front of a half sheet 94 RADIATION FROM MAGNETIC DIPOLES I N THE PRESENCE OF A HALF SHEET In principle. after being normalized with respect to the maximum value of each individual pattern.26). 94.40) + S(ka14 + $011 Some sample calculations based on (9. and (9. Senior. and Uslenghi [1969]. It should be mentioned that the problem of the diffraction of a dipole field by a perfectly conducting half sheet has also been investigated by Senior [1953]. Its expression is given by I The pattern function in the principal plane is therefore represented by F3(4) = COS 4 [S(ka. In practice.4 . 94 A vertical electric dipole located at (a. The relationship between the present formulation and the one based on the method of potentials is discussed by Bowman. 9 Sec.+. and 97. 94 Radiation from Magnetic Dipoles The pattern function in this case is therefore described by F2(4) =sin 4 [S(ka. The farzone electric field in the principal plane again has only a 4component. More patterns are found in the original edition of this book [Tai.40) . (9. 0 ) &I. then the equation for B becomes a .S ( k 4 + 4o)l 93. If we introduce an equivalent magnetization vector such that V x 3 = k 2 a .96.24). for currents in the form of small current loops or magnetic dipoles it is more convenient to use an alternative formula.
(R. 9 Sec. R') .176) with some transformations and by letting V x 7 = k 2 G .k~Z=k~fCi.. . 94 Radiation from Magnetic Dipoles Fig. It can be shown that this equation can also be obtained from (4. (9. 97 Radiation pattern of a vertical dipole placed in the front of a half sheet vx~xfI. 96 Radiation pattern of a horizontal dipole placed in the front of a half sheet Fig. d Hence.27) ii'). %T(A')v ' . By integrating this equation with the aid of Fe2(ii. In the case of a half sheet.28) R # R'. in the region outside of a current source. for B(R)= k2 f// G. we obtain (9.180 Perfectly Conducting Wedge and the Half Sheet Chap.
. where the polarization of the aperture electric field is indicated by the arrows. (9. ?ti= P (b) Fig. Pi = y For numerical calculation. R where m = I A is the magnetic dipole moment of a small current loop with area A and current I. we can use the integral expression (4. we shall distinguish two types of excitations. then E(R) = iwpomV x Ee2(R.35) Fig. 9 Sec.. 98. (9. 95 SLOTS CUT IN A HALF SHEET To find the electric field due to radiating slots cut in a half sheet. This simplifies our analysis considerably.29) becomes 95. 4 = dipole moment m pointed in the &direction we have z = 0 with a M = ~ s ( ." In practice. 1. If the opening on the sheet is excited by a twowire transmission line. The two cases are illustrated in Fig.35). we shall consider only apertures in the form of narrow slots. Following the same analysis as the case of an electric dipole. we find that the farzone electric field in the horizontal plane (z = 0) is given by the following expressions for three orientations of the magnetic dipole.36) becomes the same as (9.29) if we assume to be distributed on a surface with a surface magnetization vector a .!?(El) = f (zf)b(r .182 Perfectly Conducting Wedge and the Half Sheet $0.(9. Longitudinal magnetic dipole. the onesided excitation corresponds to an aperture radiation from a waveguide terminated on a half sheet.R'). 99 (a) Longitudinal slot (b) Horizontal slot where fi' = 6 for the problem in consideration. The field distribution for an infinitesimally narrow longitudinal slot can be written in the form . then (9.31) In applying (9. The types of slots to be studied are shown in Fig. 95 Slots Cut in a Halfsheet 183 For an infinitesimal magnetic dipole located at r = a. 98 (a) Onesided excitation (b) Twosided excitation 3. Pi. designated as "one sided" and "two sided.35) to radiating apertures on a half sheet.R') = miti6(R . This expression can also be obtained from (9.174) which is given by E(R)= J. R ) . Chap. Vertical magnetic dipole.R') .a)?. we have a twosided excitation. [ A ' X E ( R ' ) ] ~ S ' . f = 2 Transmission line 2. V X E ~ ~ ( R . 99.1 Longitudinal Slot By letting iwpoMs(R1)= fit x E(R1). Horizontal magnetic dipole. .
we find that (9.5 (9.20).tan x. the radiation pattern is the same as that of a longitudinal magnetic dipole placed at r = a and 4o = 0. In the case of a onesided longitudinal slot.33). and (9.a ) where a denotes the location of the slot from the edge of the half sheet. we let then the farzone electric field in the principal plane for a onesided slot is represented by the expression 2 dr' f (r')Ji (kr')r' Using the explicit expressions for S(ka. The radial integral contained in (9. 95 Slots Cut in a Halfsheet 185 where f ( 2 ' ) is a given function of z'. It is of some practical interest to examine in detail the radiation pattern of a slot when it is located far away from the edge of a half sheet. 914. In this case. pointed in the xdirection.37). If we assume that the slot is infinitesimally short. I and that 41) of IS(ka. 7r)l are independent of ka. Denoting these roots by x. In that case we have The graphical solution for the roots of (9. then f (r') can be replaced by 6(r1. This expression is obtained by substituting (9. we let is. it gives the angular position of a minimum. zka 8 4 4 ) = sin 4S(ka.40) + C ( x ) .42). that .42) Since we are going to discuss the farzone field in the principal plane. 910 to 913. it cannot be evaluated in a closed form. 2 ( IT 4 = eikR  4raR n= 1 C n(i) 7 sin J: n4 2 (ka) When m is odd.38). their ratio is also independent of ka and it is given by The pattern function in this case is the same as that of a horizontal magnetic dipole. .5 0.2 Horizontal Slot In general it is much more difficult to analyze the field pattern due to a horizontal slot of finite length.32) with q50 = 0 the field pattern is given by For a twosided infinitesimal horizontal slot.39) into (9. + S(x)  x = ka(1 + cos 4 ) . According to (9. the pattern function can most conveniently be written in the form 4 + sin . the pattern function would be 95. For a onesided slot. (9.4 ) + ei(ka+r/4) (27rka)i 4 sin .. the exact knowledge off ( 2 ' ) is not needed. (7rka)s 2 Numerical calculations based on (9. 2 (9. A convenient form of the pattern function to be used for numerical calculation is 1 a Fl (4)= S(ka. by putting 40 = 0 in (9. In general. placed at the surface of the half sheet. In the case of a socalled halfwave resonant slot. it is seen from the display that the approximate solutions for these roots are given by E.. A typical pattern for a longitudinal slot placed at a distance corresponding to ka = 30 is shown in Fig.45) is shown in Fig.44) yields 0. Even values of m provide the positions of the maxima. 915.40) depends strongly on the specific form of the function f (r'). 9 Sec.43) for several different values of ka are plotted in Figs.35) with the Fourier integral simplified by the method of saddlepoint integration. The locations of the maxima and minima of such a pattern can be ascertained in a relatively simple manner. we assume that the opening is facing the y direction. R.184 Perfectly Conducting Wedge and the Halfsheet Chap. depending on the actual field distribution along the slot. (9. We merely demand that it is an even function of z'. Since the magnitude of (S(ka. For an infinitesimally narrow slot.4 ) represented by (9. the extreme values are determined by the equation ieika For a twosided excitation.
910 Radiation pattern of a onesided longitudinal slot Fig.186 Perfectly Conducting Wedge and the Half Sheet Chap. 9 Sec. An alternative method. 911 Radiation pattern of a twosided longitudinal slot This number can be used as a measure of the rate of decay of the field intensity from its peak value to the value observed at the grazing direction. and they will be omitted in this edition to restrain the size of this new edition. then by means of the reciprocity theorem the solution for the diffraction . such as a quarterwave electric monopole attached to the edge of a half sheet. 96 Diffraction of a Plane Wave by a Halfsheet Fig. Equation (9. Such a spillover effect must be taken into consideration in the design of a flushmounted antenna over a flat surface of finite dimension. approaches T. 96 DIFFRACTION O F A PLANE WAVE BY A HALF SHEET The conventional method of treating the diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave by a simple geometrical body is to expand the plane wave in terms of the Proper vector wave functions pertaining to the body and then find the appropriate vector wave functions for the diffracted field such that both the radiation condition and the boundary conditions at the surface of the body are satisfied. is to determine the farzone field of an electric dipole placed in the neighborhood of the diffracting body.46) shows that when ka is large. Other problems of the type considered here can be formulated. which is usually more clumsy. and a quarterwave notch antenna cut in a half sheet. These problems were discussed in the first edition of this book.but there is always a sharp decay of the field as the point of observation changes from the lit region to the shadow region.
93 except that we demand a certain orientation of the dipole with respect to its position vector. To identify the plane wave field with the field of a dipole measured at a large distance.Perfectly Conducting Wedge and the HalfSheet Chap. In the second method we must have at our disposal the farzone field of a dipole with an arbitrary orientation with respect to the diffracting body. 912 Radiation pattern of a onesided horizontal slot of a plane electromagnetic wave by the same body can be found. If we let and assume d K Ro. The problem shown in Fig. We consider an electric dipole which is perpendicular to the radial vector Ro as shown in Fig.then . the primary field of the dipole would degenerate into a plane wave. we go back to (3.87). As Ro recedes to infinity from the origin. 916 is similar to those treated in Sec. 96 Diffractionof a Plane Wave by a HalfSheet 189 Fig. Without applying the reciprocity theorem. 913 Radiation pattern of a twosided horizontal slot Fig. let us examine the diffraction problem for a half sheet as an independent problem within the framework of our general formulation. According to that formula the farzone of a field of a dipole with current moment c as observed in a broadside direction can be written as where Rd is the perpendicular distance measured from the dipole. The dyadic Green function technique actually comprises both these formulations. 916. 9 set.
(9.R1)given by (9.12) under the condition that r < r'. 915 Roots of the equation = . (9. The analysis is very similar to the one covered in Sec.RQ. 0 1 2 5 4 3 4 57x6 4 7 l 89l x 4 Fig.21) by putting 0 = ~ / in that equation. and R are shown graphically in Fig. For illustration. In view of (9. 9 Set.Peqectly Conducting Wedge and the Half Sheet Chap. 914 Radiation pattern of a longitudinal slot placed at k a = 30 0. and substituting for R and a.i ) $ x 2rh sin sin J? ( k r ) i . let us treat the case that rn E(R) = iwp0ceikR~( .tan z where We now consider the asymptotic solution of the electric field resulting from For large values of k h . that is. if we invoke the reciprocity theorem.51). 2 2 40 n4 (9.53) can be converted to .49) as the amplitude of an incident plane wave propagating in the direction k. the asymptotic expression for (9.53) n=1 then Of course. 93 except that the roles of R and R are now interchanged.53) can be obtained from 2 (9. we designate the quantity inside the brackets of (9. When & is very large.52) is given by with Eel( R .0 where the relations between Rd. respectively. 917. by h and r . 96 Diffractionof a Plane Wave by a Half Sheet Fig.d.
> + Y i .20) is therefore given by Fig.Perfectly Conducting Wedge and the HalfSheet Chap.54). 1954. ' N ' Direction of incident wave Fig. 918.55) is valid only if p(1 cos 4) >> 1.%=I Fig.(R) = iwPOceikRo n4o n4 x ( .19) have the asymptotic form The asymptotic formula for the function S(p. . To discuss the asymptotic expression for (9. the problem under consideration was also covered very thoroughly by Baker and Copson [1950]. 916 An electric dipole oriented in a direction perpendicular to a radial vector Ro f i.i k r c 0 ~ ( 4Z. In addition to Sommerfeld's original and masterful treatment of this subject. our final expression also . particularly from the point of view of geometrical theory of diffraction. 918 Three distinct zones (1) Reflection Zone. >< 7r . we shall repeat some of these discussions but based on our formulation. For large values of x. It is understood that (9.i ) i sin sin Ji (kr) 2 2 27rRQ .>o In this zone This represents the total electric field resulting from the incidence of a plane wave E z. 6) defined by (9.4 0 ) ^ on the half sheet.~ ~ ~ . 2491. 96 Diffraction of a Plane Wave by a Halfsheet 193 appears different in form although they are equivalent. For completeness. . the Fresnel integrals defined by (9. Because our method of approach is different from Sommerfeld's original formulation [Sommerfeld. we shall divide the region of observation into three distinct zones as shown in Fig. p. 9 Set. Thus it cannot be applied to the region where is near 7r. 917 Relations between various position vectors E.
we can define two parabolic contours such that . The remaining term is the diffracted field attributed to the edge of the half sheet. When the point of observation lies inside the parabolic regions.i(kr+ 2 ) E.56)(9. 919 Contours defining the various regions of the asymptotic solutions .54) we obtain . .+o < 4 < n + q50 [1+cos (4 f 4 0 ) ] = 2 . Substituting these expressions into (9. To be more specific.2 ( cos I 9 cos 9 Fig. 96 Diffractionof a Plane Wave by a Half Sheet 195 provided that kr [1+cos(4 + 40)]> 1. The second is the same as the reflected wave from a perfectly conducting fullsheet. Thus 4 cannot be too close to T .4o)l = K . In this zone S(kr. we obtain + + We have only the direct wave and the diffracted cylindrical wave in this zone. Near the edge of the sheet.i k r cos(cos . The inequality implies that 4 cannot be too close to n .40 or .58) are identical to the ones previously given by Sommerfeld and Baker and Copson.4 ) lies outside of these contours.40. it is sufficient to keep the leading terms of the series expansion of the Fresnel integral given by provided that kr [1+cos (4 f40)]>> 1.rr $0. we have .coso)  The three distinct zones are now more clearly defined in this figure. 8 (Ill) Shadow Zone.( ++J 9)I. It has the form of a cylindrical wave emerging from the edge.q ! ~ ~ or n $0.56) to (9. ( R ) = . As we have emphasized.194 Perfectly Conducting Wedge and the Halfsheet Chap. In this case. Then (9.4 .  Equations (9.58) are good approximations when the point of observation (r. Substituting these two expressions into (9.40) = e. + cos cos kr [l cos (4 40)]= K kr [1+cos ( 4 . T + q50 < 4 In this zone provided that 4 is not near n + 40. these asymptotic expressions are valid approximations only if 4 is not near n . (11) Interference Zone: n . where K is a positive constant equal to or greater than 10. Figure 919 shows two typical contours corresponding to K = 47~ so that X ei(kr+?r4) + + The first term in the above expression is simply the incident wave. 9 Sec.54) to evaluate the field. we must use the exact expressions as described by (9.54).
The socalled "edge condition" that characterizes the behavior of an electromagnetic field in the neighborhood of the sharp edge of a conductor can be investigated by this approach.1% Perfectly Conducting Wedge and the Half Sheet Chap. It is obvious that the same technique can be applied to composite bodies made of a conducting wedge and a cylinder and a cylindrical waveguide partitioned by a conducting wedge. 97 CIRCULAR CYLINDER AND HALF SHEET The dyadic Green functions which we have derived for the half sheet can be generalized to include the effect of a cylinder. conducting or dielectric. then by means of the method of scattering superposition we can find the function of the first or the second kind for the composite body without difficulty. In the next chapter we shall discuss the same for a body made of a sphere and a conducting cone. Fig. The final expression for the function of the first kind is given by where . mounted at the edge of the sheet as shown in Fig. 920 A composite body made of a circular cylinder and a half sheet For illustration. let us assume the cylinder to be perfectly conducting. 920. 97 Circular Cylinderand Half Sheet for the numerical calculation of the field intensity. 9 Sec.
n and m are integers. will be fractional. it is understood that n as well as m represent integers.1) where jn(x) denotes the spherical Bessel function of order n which satisfies the differential equation The spherical Bessel function is related to the halforder cylindrical Bessel function by Spheres and Perfectly Conducting Cones Later on. In that case we shall use a different notation. Once the orthogonal relations of these functions are known. the remaining task is straightforward. we shall also present in this chapter an alternative."(cos 8) in (10. we need the spherical Hankel function of the first kind. algebraic method of deriving the eigenfunction expansion of the freespace dyadic Green function outside the source region. cannot be extracted from this method.": J ' mn ( 6 ) = jn ( K RP r (COS 8) sin nu$. ) COS (10. like the other vector wave functions introduced before. satisfy the symmetrical relations The eigenfunctionswhich are solutions of the scalar wave equation V2$. F which are solutions of the vector equation V x V x F .~ G =~ They are I (10.Until then. two sets of spherical vector wave functions can be defined 0. n. The function P. however." (cos8) d8 ) + 1) . 3994111 and will not be repeated here. except that the spherical and the conical vector wave functions are used. denoted by hil)(x). Later on when we apply these functions t o conical structures.4) These functions.sin28 p ~ ( c o s 8= 0. The singular term. but its execution depends heavily upon our recognition of the intricate recurrence relations between various types of vector wave functions which are all generated from the same scalar wave functions but with different piloting vectors.1) denotes the associated Legendre functions of order (n. That is. For problems involving a sphere. m2 A very thorough description of the general properties of the spherical Bessel functions and the associated Legendre functions is found in Stratton [I9417 PP. 4151. the spherical and the conical ones are akin to the Debye potentials. While the rectangular and the cylindrical vector wave functions are closely related to the Hertzian potentials. perfectly conducting or dielectric. This method avoids the necessity of discussing the orthogonal properties of the vector wave functions. and perfectly conducting cones follows the same procedure used for the cylinder. in general. m ) .which is related to the cylindrical Hankel function of the first kind in the same way. As was first shown by Stratton [p. but rather tedious. It satisfies the differential equation The construction of the dyadic Green functions pertaining to spheres. In order to appreciate the elegance of the OhmRayleigh method which we have used so far in finding various dyadic Green functions.+ts2+ = 0 in spherical coordinate systems and finite at origin can be written in the form . 101 EICENFUNCTION EXPANSION OF THE FREESPACE DYADIC GREEN FUNCTIONS sin 8 dB [sin 8 dP.
either It is known [Stratton.14) n ( n 1) cos )" .84). The two sets of spherical vector wave functions thus defined have the following orthogonal relations: 2 n ( n 1) ( n + m ) ! 2n+l (nm)!' + Thus. we have I= 2 ( l + &)nn(n 1 ) ( n m)! ~ ~ ' ( 21) n ( n .~ ( x. = N g m n ( ~ ) K R jn ( K R P (cos9 ) sin m + ~ 1 8 dP. 403.[xjn)I.and +components of these functions have the radial function.. the integrand in (10.(K) = F a ~ n ( ~ R ) P r 9() cos~ ~ ~ m@ m . for example. The proof of these relations form # m' and n # n' is relatively simple because of the orthogonal properties of the trigonometric functions and those of the associated Legendre functions. 1941.m)! + + + Jm + 1)jn( n R ) j n( k t R ) {n(n From the recurrence for the Bessel functions. " ( c o s 9 ) ] ~ s i n 9=9 2 ( n + m ) ! d2n+1 (nm)! as their constituent. This characteristic has an important bearing on the boundary conditions which must be satisfied by an electromagnetic field at the surface of a sphere.( dx = 2n [(n l > j n . we have . pp. as given by (10.200 Spheres and Peflectly Conducting Cones Chap..15) can be changed to The domain of integration is understood to be through the entire space.14) and zz r.4171 that l'  [ ~ .10) into (10. we can deduce the following formulas for the spherical Bessel functions: d . 10 The complete expressions of these functions are given by $. m e m n ( 6 ' )R~sin 9 d~ d9 d4. after the integration with respect to 9. It should be pointed out that the 9. sin = lm 6' 12' (K) . the integral Inview of the integral representation of the weighted delta function in the threedimensional case as stated by (1. We consider." (cos9 ) cos m+e + IRjn(4I  + substituting the explicit expression for performing the +integration we obtain me. It is sufficient for us to demonstrate the cases where m = m' and n = n'.m9 ~ sin ~ ( c9 ) Sinr n + ~ . (10.njn+l ( x ) ] +1 + ) x (10.16) Using these relations. o s ] cos + d d [R& ( K R ) ] [Rjn( K ' R ) ] @ [(f )'+ (%)'I} sin9dRd9.
101 Eigenfunction Expansion 203 and A condensed notation for the vector wave functions has been used now to gmplify the writing by dropping the subscriptgmn. that is without the singular term .. This expression for will later be used to construct other kinds of electric dyadic Green functions for a spherical body. 1 mi)( k ) = N.According to the method of we have cm. we find as a result of the orthogonal properties of the spherical vector wave functions that Cmn 2 1 A. .. a('). (6')in turn and integrating the resultant equations in o the entire space.namely. that is.. ik where 2n+l (nm)! Cmn = ( 2 .mn(") 1 Zn2 Cmn 2 B Z m n ( 4 p" = v cmn The function is discontinuous at R = R'. Emo(R. 10 Sec.13). coordinates the of the position vector R .The proof for (10.15) reduces to By writing the dyadics such as N(r. and one set of continuous eigenvalues.O f . Knowing the proper vector wave functions to be used and their orthogonal properties. m and n. . we can find the eigenfunction expansion of the freespace dyadic Green function by means of the OhmRayleigh method in the same manner as described in Chapter 7.R R ~ ( E E')k2.19)then becomes + R ( l ) ( k ) N t ( k ) . where R ( l ) ( k ) means that the function is defined with respect to the spherical Hankel function of the first kind. The only difference is that we now have two discrete sets of eigenvalues.R ) Hence (10.6 0 ) n ( n 1 ) ( n+ m ) ! + and the primed functions are defined with respect to (R'. ( k ) = V x V x [h(')( k ~ ) (cos0 )sin m f l ] k PC 'OS where n starts with unity and m starts with zero because for n = 0 and m = 0 the functions M and R are null. The corresponding expression for is then given by ceo " p.R > R' + R ( k ) R 1 ( l( )k ) .p a v x and similarly for By doing the same reduction for M(Ic)~V'(K).. obtain we finally the eigenfunction expansion for Emo. Rmn(4 $mn('c)  S K 3 j 7 . R < R'.(4 = .12)follows the same procedure with some minor variations in detail.19)with $ m f n f (d) and Re.202 Spheres and Perfectly Conducting Cones Chap.Thus we let we have 1 " (1) Ftc bn(nR)jn( K R')] d ~ . Before doing so. Equation (10.. we would like to describe an alternative approach that can be used to find Eeo outside the Source region. and it also shows the intimate relations between various types of spherical vector wave functions c.)M'(lc)in an operational form which is the normalization factor found in (10. $I)... By taking the anterior scalar product of (10.. 6.i"3Kmnc4. but it does not need the Hankel transform. The analysis is rather tedious.
6). 10 sec..Using the sum and difference formulas for the trigonometric functions.204 Spheres and Perfectly Conducting Cones Chap.)] 4) are solutions of the vector wave equation as long as $ is a solution of the scalar wave equation V2$+ k2$ = 0 and the piloting vector 6 is a constant vector.jpln p sin 8 (') + I then we can define six more spherical vector wave functions as follows: OPT) . [(n m  + l ) ( n + m)~:' iP:+'] mcosepnm = (d$e 2 dB ' Thus (10...12) .5) and (10. These identities are the key relations to be used later in our derivation of the freespace dyadic Green's function based on the algebraic method. respectively. we shall first introduce other types of spherical vector wave functions in addition to the two standard ones defined by (10.. 102 An Algebraic Method of Finding ze. 6. + $4.(sin 8 cos +&.29) d4 where p denotes kR. (10." cos8 f mP:= ( n . for example. we can find the explicit expressions for these functions. We shall now demonstrate some interesting relations between these types of functions and the standard or the radial spherical vector wave functions.  (sini s i n 4$.27) P = sin 8 cos q 5 ~ cos 8 cos 40 .m+ l ) ( n + m ) P F . [sin 4 cos m4d (sin 8PT) dB d cos 8P.sin we obtain .)] 84 To prepare for the conversion of various vector functions that will be involved in this method. we can write (10.l ) 4 For further reduction we use the recurrence relations that dP. The additional constant l / k which is included in these functions makes them of the same dimension as that of M or N defined by (10. According to the general discussion of the vector wave functions in the beginning of Sec.28) d8 Let us now study the composition of the radial component of this function first. (10.. We consider.29) in the form = jn  R.27) .1)+ + mc0s8 P:) sin 8 sin(m . and i into the unit vectors in the spherical coordinate system with the aid of Table 12. the function M E n ( k ) = V x ($.6).. We will not prove all these relations in the text. R and many recurrence formulas of the associated Legendre functions not found in existing books.) d + (cos8 cos M. which is given by ( Rcos 8 cos . 102 AN ALGEBRAIC METHOD OF FINDING WITHOUT THE SINGULAR TERM substituting into (10.( m 1) cos OPT sin(m + I)+ + + ( m .l prim+ 1 d8 sin 8 which can be obtained by combining the following two formulas found in Stratton [p. For clarity. that is. It will show quite clearly our approach in the analysis.30) can be written in the form (10. If we identify 6 to be P or y or i and $ to be the eigenfunction of the scalar wave equation in spherical coordinate systems. 1 2~  dP.5) and (10. 51.1)cosBP:  with 6 = 2. By converting the unit vectors 2.. 4011: 1 2 I . y. we shall call these functions the spherical wave functions of the ctype. k with = j n ( k R )P: (cos 8 ) cos m 5 q.msin 8 sin(m + 114 I I s i n ( m ." (cos 4 cos m4) . but will give one example in detail. functions of the type M(") = V x ($6) d . and i ." [(dB cos8 P:) .
+ 1)sin 0 [. Equations (10.we first change (10. To reduce (10. Equation (10.1)* sin 0 .40) can be derived from (10.( n + m ) ( n+ pmI [ n m . 102 An Algebraic Method of Finding z.respectively.34) to The identifications of the composition of the 0component or the Qcomponent of (10.m .16) and (10. M ( X ) ( k ) =2~ P"m emn .l ) .m + 1) and ( n . 1 [p. (10. (10.10).".40). We consider the 0component which is given by d (cosQ COB mQ) dm d + ( p j. the algebra is long and tedious and is outlined below.m + 2)( n .28) is much more intricate.n )P" .pz'll] P = (2n " . it can be written in the form .17). (10.. and (10.)' denotes the derivatives of pj.( n .206 Spheres and Perfectly Conducting Cones Chap. 207 In view of (10.l ) p X 1 ] In view of (10. dp sin Q cos mQ I .39).36).36) 1 +(n + m ) ( n + m . 4011.32). To reduce it further we need the following recurrence relations for the associated Legendre functions and the spherical Bessel functions: P = " . + 1 (pjn)' P We rearrange it in the form This is obviously not equal to the 8component of the two odd functions contained in (10.this is recognized as the radial component of two odd N functions with orders ( n . or where (pj.38).37) and (10.m + 1 )pnrn+yl (10.il (2n 1)sin 0 + . Using (10.39) and (10.36)(10.40) can be derived by a proper combination of the pertinent ones found in his list.35) is one of the relations listed by Stratton [p. 10 Sec.34) to the desired recognizable form.35).33) A reduction of the trigonometric functions yields 0 .  { [ym + l ) j n ]sin(m + 1 ) ~ (  m1 + xh+l] . Equations (10. .
48) The threedimensional freespace scalar Green function defined by (10.46) we obtain for R < R' . 46. we have are all expressible in terms of A mn of different .n D .32). B3 of Appendix B. therefore. 408. R') 21 .44) where It is noted that the two Nfunctions in (10. R') k2 1 (10.208 Spheres and Perfectb Conducting Cones Chap. (10.43) is described more characteristicallyby ik Go(R. the freespace electric dyadic Green function can be written in the form A g . not involved in (10.44). 209 where { 1 m . (COS . p.47) has a series expansion given by Each term in (10."=1' sin 1 3 C ~ ) ( R .l ) ( n + m)Me(ml)(nl) I} This expression is obtained by combining two expressions given by Stratton (Eq. If we do the same study for the @component the result shows that it is of the same form as (10. fit) =4T m. we can proceed to rederive (10.m 2 2n+1 n+l [ + 1) P'.1 (n . (10. 87. deleted. 42. Knowing these relations. p.43) can now be identified with the 8component of a standard spherical vector wave function. . (10. are the same as the ones appearing in (10. including the coefficients. and Eq. 102 An Algebraic Method of Finding ze. 414). : I ! where .(n + m .46) is equivalent to  (n+m)(n+m1) n ~. We can now express the in (10. P" (cos 8)P ( 0 s 8') cos m (4 .44) with 8. In fact.49) into (10. There are six of them. " .32).4') . jn+l I sin e For R # R .26). they are. The result can b e written in the form functions The coefficients cr22. = Dmn h") (kR1) .and orders. P" 8')  COS sin m4' (10.51) 0 and Bi:nis defined by (10. B3 of Appendix B. Substituting (10.m + 2)(n . The relations between all the vector wave functions of the ctype and the standard ones have been found and they are tabulated in Sec. As was shown in Sec.44). Since the standard afunctions do not have a radial component. = V x V x [Go(R. 10 Sec. For example.24) based on the algebraic method.50) in terms of the radial spherical vector wave functions kcording to the formulas given in Sec. Thus we have established a complete relationship between and the six radial vector wave functions that are given by (10.
For generality. no restriction will be placed on these constants. r m (region 2. (2) (2) 1 (1) c28 R1) = Eeo(E. For the functions of the third kind associated with imperfectlyconducting or dielectric spheres.  (E. R1). where r denotes the permittivity of the sphere. are involved. for a perfectly conducting sphere of radius equal to a with its center located at the origin of the coordinate system. the preceding two equations imply that we are dealing with a source located in region 1. hence for R < R'. that the following identities are true: (2) Similarly. The singular but term. + a . it is better to adopt the following notation for the constitutive constant defined in the two regions..24). r ceo 103 PERFECTLY CONDUCTING AND DIELECTRIC SPHERES > a) < a). (10.52) into (10.? + P e mvn) G + &mn2 = CmnNe. 103 Perfect& Conducting and Dielectric Spheres 211 The coefficients A and B are determined by applying the Dirichlet boundary condition to Eel at the surface of the conducting sphere that yields where . a. R1) + (R.. of course.i = CmnMe.45).24). after another long exercise.58) The coefficient Cmn is defined by (10. 44. we can construct the various kinds of dyadic Green functions associated with a sphere by means of the method of scattering superposition. cannot be derived from the algebraic method based on can be found starting with Ern. €2 = r. The . for the function of the second kind we have + %(Y: j + %. the term representing the scattered part must have the form In conformity to the superscript notations introduced in Sec.24) must now be replaced by kl. We let kl = k2 = w (region 1. Based on (10. exterior and interior to the sphere. The constant k which appeared in Ze0as expressed by (10. and b. pl = p2 = po. By a consideration of the symmetrical relationship between obtain Eel and Eezwe which is the same as that part of (10.210 Spheres and Perfectly Conducting Cones Chap.20). In retrospect.mn ( 2 ) 1 (1) I I ( P... but their roles have been interchanged.. ~ ( ' )( k ) ~ ' ( l(k)] ) The same two sets of coefficients.in (ka) an = h?) (ka) Substituting (10. we would deal with either the function of the first kind or the function of the second kind.mn. we let where ceo(R. 10 Sec.. To find the function of the first kind we let  For a dielectric sphere placed in air tl = Q . Thus. In view of the composition of G.24) without the singular term as derived by the OhmRayleigh method. With this change of notation. we find.R1)is given by (10. the preceding exercises demonstrate very convincingly the elegance of the OhmRayleigh method which bypasses all the complicated manipulations involved in the algebraic method.
1941. 1908. (10. 8' = O.0) . In regard to the applications. was not resolved until many decades later by Fock [I9651and Nomura [1951]. remember that the cylindrical vector wave functions are generated with the piloting vector pointed in the zdirection while the piloting vector of the spherical vector wave functions is R.b)6(01 . perhaps. 5. \ . we let 6(Rt .0)6(4' . We must. however. R') . We shall now reformulate this problem using the dyadic Green function technique and show the identity between our result and the original one obtained by Nomura. The presence of the sphere does not introduce the coupling between the TE modes (afunctions) and the TM modes (Nfunctions) as manifested by the dielectric cylinder. b2 sin 8' The electric field produced by this dipole in the presence of a perfectly conducting sphere with radius equal to a is then given by J(R1) = c = iwPoGel (R. we obtain where and the prime denotes the derivative of the function. and (10. treat in some detail only the problem of radiation from a horizontal dipole in the presence of a sphere. 0. By comparing the functions of the third kind for the dielectric cylinder and for the dielectric sphere. and a sphere was a subject studied by many authors after the turn of the century in connection with radiowave propagation over a spherical earth.2. For an infinitesimal horizontal electric dipole with current moment c pointed in the xdirection and located at R' = b. For simplicity. (10.55). however. We shall also recover Mie's solution for the diffraction of a plane wave by a sphere [Mie.4' = 0. the probl& of a vertical dipole. and D must satisfy the following system of equations. Their characteristics are entirely different. It is a relatively simple matter to solve these equations.56). Historically. 5631 from the asymptotic solution of the horizontal dipole problem.212 Spheres and Perfectly Conducting Cones Chap.24). We shall. R' = (b. the treatment of an imperfectly conducting or dielectric sphere is no more difficult. C. the examples which we used for the halfsheet are equally valid for the sphere. Stratton. however.66) Using the expression for Eelgiven by (10. namely. Because of the available formula for the function of the third kind. I I we find that the coefficients A. we see that the spherical case is considerably simpler. The corresponding problem involving a horizontal dipole. electric or magnetic. + where [W(k) + b n f l ( l )(k)]' ) . 10 See. p. Figure 101 shows the geometry of the problem under consideration. 0). with more varieties because of the availability of the functions of the third kind. B. 103 Perfectly Conducting and Dielechic Spheres 213 scattered terms now can be represented by Applying the boundary condition at the surface of the sphere as required by the function of the third kind. we assume the sphere to be perfectly conducting.
In view of our discussion of the relations between the functions of the xtype and the standard type. 10 Sec.68) 47rRb 4T 7 nO = jn ( k ~ ) (kb).Spheres and Petfectb Conducting Cones Chap. This expression is different in form from the one obtained by Nomura. we use the formula [Sommerfeld. He formulated the problem by the method of potential functions.26) with m = 0. As reviewed in Sec. 103 Perfect&Conducting and Dielecrric Spheres 215 eikRb ik * . we can transform Nomura's formula into ours in the following manner. it is seen that the scattered field is derived partly from a Hertzian potential and partly from a Debye potential while the incident field is entirely derivable from a Hertzian potential. p. R < b.(k) 00 n=l The coefficients cn and dn are determined by applying the boundary condition = that R x (Ei Es) 0 at the surface of the sphere which yields + Fig. hi1) Thus the incident field can be expressed in terms of a series of vector wave functions of the xtype defined by (10..x ( 2 n + l)Pn(cose) h i 1n R > b (10. we obtain pa = ka. 101 A horizontal dipole in the presence of a perfectly conducting sphere an = hi1) p a ) ( jn(Pa) From the composition of (10. according to (10.21 of Appendix B and letting m = 0. ( R ) = 4T 7 kwpoc cn~$i)(k) + C d&. pb = kb. E . where denotes a spherical vector wave function of the xtype using hkl)(kR)in the generating function. 35 the primary or the incident field of the dipole can be expressed in the form When m is negative. B. By taking the curl of Eq. 1291 The freespace scalar Green function contained in I..49) for & 8' = 0 and 4' = 0.70). 1949.. Nomura found the solution for the secondary or the scattered field by letting n(xll) . has the series expansion .
19521 without the aid of the dyadic Green functions technique. A Small Circular Aperture Located at the Top of a Conducting Sphere (Fig. however. By substituting this into (10.75) and (10..70) and changing the summation indices so that they all start with n = 1. R < b Case 2.67) for R < b.78) hil)(kb)[neon( k ) + brim$!. ( k ) ] .216 Spheres and Perfect& Conducting Cones Chap. ( k ). 8' = 0 E ( R ) =4nkb .I ) r n( n + m ) Ne mn .67). It seems obvious from this discussion that the use of the 2type of functions for the sphere problem makes the formulation considerably more complicated.56) and (10. (2)"e i k b (kb)] I .kb kb ( n.69) into two series involving both the M.40) with j. so obtained are indeed the same as the ones derived by Nomura.67) from the eigenfunction point of view.0 0 R ' = By substituting the expressions for a . Their derivation is similar to the one that results in (10.71) can be simplified to read and [ k b h ~ ) ' .76). and N::!. 10 Sec.. 103 Perfect& Conducting and Dielechic Spheres 217 to obtain We shall now rederive Mie's series solution for the diffraction of a plane wave by a sphere from (10.74) with the scattered part of (10. the following relations must hold true: +i (k) + 4 ~ : :k)) . It was done by transforming the inci(I) dent field as represented by (10. and applying the recurrence relations of the spherical Bessel functions of the type (10.67) and (10. Before we conclude this section. When kb is large.67) by removing the dipole far away from the sphere.m ) n = & ( . two additional formulas are given below. R >b (10. given by (10. and d.67): Case 1.} . 101) Excited by a Constant Field El = E o f .57) into (10.39) and (10. > kb we obtain I Comparing (10. p. replaced by hi').70) was carried out by this author [Tai. functions. The original verification of the identity between (10. as they should be. ! hence (10. kwpocC [mn(kb) + bn h?) (kb)]N$!. that the direction ofpropagation of the plane wave created here is opposite to the one considered by Stratton. ( ] This is Mie's series as presented by Stratton [1941. 8' 5 O0 . 5631 starting with the eigenfunction expansion of a plane wave using the spherical vector wave functions as the constituents. we can write the resultant series in the form Substituting these values into (10. Vertical Electric Dipole of Current Moment ? = ci Placed at i b. we note.m)! . we find that the coefficients c. The interpretation of the result based on Nomura's formula is also not as simple as the one offered by (10. and identifying the amplitude of the plane wave as being given by Eo = iwpoceikb (kb > I). the spherical Hankel function has the asymptotic form N2 ( . and b.
a) = 0 [ ~ q a j n ( ~ q a= 0 .R')] and Gm2. the radius of a spherical cavity with center at the origin of the spherical coordinate system. n) (6. ~#. with an appropriate change of a constant of proportionality. They are assigned as exercises for the readers which are quite challenging. 104 SPHERICAL CAVITY where 'P I$ R The eigenfunctions to be used in the expansions of the dyadic Green functions of a spherical cavity are the spherical vector wave functions with discrete eigenvalues. are the roots of the characteristic jn(6.89) 1 = .10) with K therein replaced by either rc.79) In deriving (10. but the proofs for the spherical case would take more time.) PC ( o s0 ) 'sin m@] Os *I. For convenience. Jda 2n+ 1 [ ( n l)j.(fig) = V x [ j ... after being multiplied by a. one even and another odd. . and higher have been neglected. M. PC (COS ) sin m e ] . ~ ) + njlt1 (@)I dR where the prime in (10.89) and (10. They are defined by M: .85) where m # m l .K .a.85) denotes the derivatives of the function inside the brackets with respect to K.79). and 6. The expressions for these functions are identical to the functions defined by (10.' + ( 6 .79). The eigenvalues K . terms of the order 9. I m = m 1 n =n 7 K q = K q l 7 ' (10.84) (10. also represents the field produced by a horizontal magnetic dipole placed at the top of the sphere and pointed in the ydirection. Once the orthogonal relations are known we can find the representations for V x p ( R .81) . Functions of different species.9) and (10.218 Spheres and Perfect& Conducting Cones Chap.' o ) n(n 2n+l (nm)! + 1) ( n+ m)! i/ (10. a condensed notation for these functions in the form of The normalization factors in (10. The proofs of these relations are very similar to the ones discussed in Chapter 6 for the vector wave functions encountered in the theory of cylindrical waveguide. are orthogonal.. They are ka hi1)( k a ) [kahil)( k a ) ] (10.90) apply to functions of the same species.They are .80) (10. (K. 104 Spherical Cavity 219 will be used to describe the orthogonal relations and the normlization factors of these functions. 10 sec. and K. n # n ' .. )I' (10. Four sets of solenoidal functions are needed. Equation (10.) 9  = (2 . either both even or both odd. (. = v x [j.
There are four kinds of these functions which are defined by From now on we will not distinguish these two cases. can only be presented in the form 1 Ge. After the elimination of the longitudinal function with the aid of the eigenfunction expansion for 16(R . The first type has the form of a single cone. we are not prevented from formulating this class of problems pending further numerical computations. but also the longitudinal function zp. in general. They are both infinitely long in the radial direction. and IC. The explicit form of Gel. 8'.[V x Grn2(R.(R.. is not available. and the second type is a bicone formed by two single cones. 4') and the ordinal number l represents the numerical number for the discrete eigenvalues IC.98) 105 PERFECTLY CONDUCTING CONICAL STRUCTURES There are two distinct types of perfectly conducting conical structures of which the electric dyadic Green functions of the first kind and the second kind can be found. however. " 02) (10." (cos 80) = 0. The general method of Grn as presented now in this book was not yet fully developed when Rozenfeld wrote his dissertation on this subject. The simplicity of the method of Ernis again demonstrated convincingly in this problem. 102. R') = . .R')] E') ~ k2 cmo Fig.R').220 Spheres and Perfectly Conducting Cones Chap.100) (10. fractional. 105 Perfectly Conducting Conical Structures The primed functions are defined with respect to (R'.93). 10 Sec. 102 (a) A single cone (b) A bicone 1 1 In a work byRozenfeld [1974]. ze up where The eigenvalues p and X are determined from the characteristic equations that for a single cone P (COS = 0 . " 80) dP. The discontinuous behavior of Gm2 in the present case. dB0 and for a bicone they are P (COS = P (COS = 0 . .is recalled that for the function Zmowe had a Hankel transform represenIt at R = R' can tation for that function and the discontinuous behavior of be spelled out in the form of Ez0. as there is no difference in the formulation of the problems for the two types of cones except that the numerical values of p and X are different. " 81) . the method of was used to derive the expression for Gel which requires not only the solenoidal functions and N. We define the conical vector wave functions in exactly the same form as the spherical vector wave functions except that the eigenvalue n is now. Although we do not have a complete knowledge of these values. it is assumed that the axis of the cone is aligned with the zaxis.his expression for Gel is identical to (10. For both cases. therefore.j 6 ( . These two structures are shown in Fig.
222
Spheres and Perfect& Conducting Cones
Chap. 10
Sec. 106
Cone with a Spherical Sector
223
The conical vector wave functions defined by (10.94) to (10.97) satisfy the boundary condition that at the surface(s) of the cone
With the aid of these orthogonal relations, we can determine the orthogonal relations of the conical vector wave functions. They are
The functions which satisfy the Dirichlet boundary condition will be used for the construction of the electric dyadic Green function of the first kind, while the ones satisfying the Neumann boundary condition are involved in the function of the second kind. To determine the normalization factor for these functions, we must first give a brief review of the orthogonal relations of the associated Legendre functions. Let us consider the case of a single cone. The associated Legendre function P p aSid P" satisfy, respectively, the differential equations , i d 8 dB i n 8 % ) + [ x ( ~ + l )  m28 P ~ = O (10.102) sin ( s sin T 1 d dPm m2   0 dBi n ) + [ ( + l )  = ] P T = O . sin ( s (10.103)
I
By multiplying (10.102) by sin 8 P r and (10.103) by sin OPT and integrating the difference of the two resultant equations from 8 = Oo to T,we obtain
[ X ( X + 1)  p ( p
+ l)l
00
P~PT sin
=
Knowing these relations for the conical vector wave functions, we can easily derive the functions of the first and the second kind by the method of ErnOmitting the details, we find
hence
rr
&@. R') =fi C(2 60)
2.rr
m
1
Wh+ l ) I m ~
f l
{
@;:,(k)M;mx(k)
$,, ( k )M
1
(1)
,dk)
}
since p and X are distinct. For two functions of the same species, we have
1; 1;
PT PF sin B
P T sin B ~
= =
{I
{I:,,
A # A' , A = At
P # PI p=pll
1 +'@ (p+l)~~, a
,
( k ) R 1 ( l ) j k ) ,R < R1. (10.105) e,m
}]
, R > R'
In the function of the second kind, we replace Semi,,, and and spectively, by mp.
me,
mz,, in (10.105) re
where Imx and I,, are two normalization constants. It is not difficult to show by integration by parts that
106 CONE WITH A SPHERICAL SECTOR
When a spherical sector is attached to a cone (Fig. 103),the dyadic Green functions pertaining to such a composite body can also be derived. Thus for a perfectly conducting sphere, we obtain, by the method of scattering superposition, for R > R',
Spheres and Peflectb Conducting Cones
Chap. I0
Fig. 103 A composite body made of a cone and a spherical sector
Planar Stratified Media
where
4mP

 [ka&(ka)l1
[ k a h t) (ka)]
The cylindrical vector wave functions introduced previously can also be used in the eigenfunction expansion of the dyadic Green functions associated with plane stratified media. The freespace Green function will be transformed into an integral form suitable for the construction of the function of the third kind. For flat earth the present formulation will be compared with Sommerfeld's classical work, and certain unique features of the dyadic Green function technique will be pointed out. Finally, other stratified problems will also be considered in this chapter.
111 FLAT EARTH
The formulations provided here can be used to investigate many technical problems involving these structures.
When a space is partitioned into two halves, one of which is filled with air and the other half with a homogeneous lossy dielectric as shown in Fig. 111, the geometry corresponds to that of a flat earth. We assume the earth is characterized by the constitutive constants E, s o , and o. For convenience,we will designate the propagation constants in the two media, respectively, by
The very nature of the composition implies that the pertinent dyadic Green functions under consideration are functions of the third kind. To find these functions, we shall first transform the freespace function into an integral form that enables us to construct the functions of the third kind by the method of scattering super225
i
226
Planar Stratified Media
Chap. 11
Sec. 111
Flat Earth
227
position. For this reason, we would like to find a FourierBessel or a Hankel transform representation of first.
c,,
By means of the method of in the form
c,,

the expression for E,, can now be written

+ fl(f h l ) N 1 f ~ h l , ]z: )
€0,
z'.
(11.3)
PO, 0
Fig. 111 Flat earth
According to (7.14), the double integral representation of E, o
is given by
We have deleted the superscript "A" attached to the vector wave functions. The superscript in is to indicate that the function is defined with respect to kl. For a flat earth with its surface located at z = 0 as shown in Fig. 111,we identify region 1 to be above the earth and region 2 inside the earth, and the source is assumed to be located in region 1, then the pertinent functions involved are Edll) and EL2'). By the method of scattering superposition, we let
Ep)(jq p ) = EL?(R, j + Q) q
where the wave number k in (7.14) is now replaced by kl and K~ = h2 + A2. A condensed notation has been used for the vector wave functions as had been explained in the paragraph immediately after (7.14). The Fourier integral in (11.1) can be evaluated with the aid of the residue theorem in the h plane. The poles of the integrand are located at h = fhl, where hl = (kf  A) +. The result yields and
(s,
a
(11.4) (11.5)
zrl)(R, 2 ) .
=
Egl)(E, jq.
As had been done many times before, the scattered terms must have the form
where h2 = (k:  A2) j. The functions a (  h 2 ) and R(h2) are wave functions which are solutions of the wave equation in region 2 with wave number k2. At the interface, z = 0, the boundary conditions are where
The plane of discontinuity for the freespace magnetic dyadic Green function is now located at z = z'. It is recalled that for cylindrical problems we get rid of the Aintegration and have preserved the Fourier integral, but now we have retained the FourierBessel integral.
where we have assumed p1 = p2 = PO.The coefficients a, b, c, and d thus can be determined; they are given by
only a o l x and Eel. a ) . zo) in air. so that E1(R) = For R # 112 RADIATION FROM ELECTRIC DIPOLES IN THE P E E C OF A FIAT EARTH RSNE AND SOMMERFELD'S THEORY + vv . are required.13) and (B. I1 set.10) we obtain In the case of a vertical dipole he showed that a z.0. we choose c to be numerically equal to 47rkf/iwPo. For simplicity. R ) . for z > ao.14) of Appendix B. and . including both the primary and the scattered field. we have In this case.rr.component of ?i alone is sufficient to formulate and to solve the problem. Knowing EL11)and EL2'). % R'. R ) .16) is equivalent to For an infinitesimal vertical electric dipole with current moment c i located at (0. we write 7. (11. where .10) (R.18) into (11.13) and (11.Planar Stratified Media Chap.Jl( R ) dv' (11. We shall show now that the expressions for the electric field as given by (11.. and Rin. In the case of a horizontal dipole. Then according to (11. survive. but in the We have written all his parameters in our notation. 2362611.i primed variables.14) are equivalent to the ones obtained by Sommerfeld in his famous work and treated very completely in Chapter 6 of his book on partial differential equations [1949. pp. and we obtain where b is the same as the one defined previously and where n denotes the complex index of refraction of the earth medium. For z > zo. Substituting (10. defined by (B. is given by Using the expression for G!ll) found in the previous section and the expressions for &(in.13). we can find the electric field in the two regions due to a current distribution in region 1by the formulas RII El (R) = iwpo E2(R) = iwpO JSS IJJEL2') EP1)(R.17) we obtain . they are %.20) In order to compare with Sommerfeld's theory later. he showed that two components of corresponding to T . 112 Radiation porn Elechic Dipoles 229 For an infinitesimal horizontal electric dipole with the same current moment pointed in the xdirection.0) S (z' . we find that only ELoA survives when we let R' = (0.0. Sommerfeld formulated these problems by the method of potentials. The resultant expression for n. He used an electric Hertzian potential alone. (R') = c i 6 (x'  0) S (y' . Jl(R)dV' . let us consider just the case corresponding to z > zo. then which is identical to (11.
Under certain conditions to be specified later. 3151. containing the coefficient a represent the scattered field. when n = 0. from the point of view of potential theory.13) and (11. Whereas Sommerfeld's treatment is very ingenious. To derive this expression we shall first transform the as integral representation of E!L1) given by (11. p. 112 Radiation from Electric Dipoles 231 and It is obvious that T.14).230 Phnar Smn'fied Media Chap. and Owen [I9911 also contain much useful information.22) and making use of the identity that where a and b are the same coefficients defined in (11. respectively. uses both the electric Hertzian potential and the magnetic Hertzian potential. 1949. The books by Wait [I9621 and King. and the latter generates the functions. ours is more or less methodical. The formulation discussed here. we can find the asymptotic expression for the dyadic Green function of the third kind by the method of saddlepoint integration. Some simple asymptotic expressions of the integrals. we would like to mention the fine book written by Baiios [I9661 on dipole radiation in the presence of a flat earth. Undoubtedly the integrals resulting from the present formulation can all be expressed in terms of Baiios basic functions.18) of Appendix B becomes where and HA2) denote. this type of function is related to the functions of the ztype which we have used exclusively in the construction of the dyadic Green function. The integral involving the second kind in (10. is identical to (11. Eq. We consider an integral of the type where by represents a cylindrical vector wave function of the z.25) can be extended to a dyadic function by an operational method.21) into (11. In retrospect.15). however. (B. we see that Sommerfeld's original formulation used only the electric Hertzian potential. If fn(A) satisfies the relation that then the original integral becomes a The transform from (11. Wu. the Hankel functions of the first and the second kind. Finally. and the part of T. will be considered here.24) can be transformed into the first kind with a different path as follows: HA') I Substituting it into (11.type defined which can be written in the form i ! As shown in Appendix B. I 1 Sec. One unique feature of the dyadic Green function formulation is that for any other current distributions the same technique applies. In particular. indeed. It is beyond the scope of this book to discuss the numerical aspect of these problems. Thus. if we let .23) to (11.22).20) and (11. In doing so we have bypassed the need of determining specifically the potential functions for each problem. Substituting (11. He has systematically reduced where we have made use of the halfcircuit relation between the two kinds of Hankel functions [Sommerfeld. we thus find that (11.6) from a semiinfinite path to an infinite path in the Aplane.17) we obtain the various integrals into some basic ones for the convenience of numerical computation as well as for correlating differentproblems.3) and (11. The former generates the A functions.
3) for z > zo. or the socalled ground wave.sin2 e)11 + (n2 .but the dielectric constant of the layer can be complex. Being the firstorder solution.k l cos 0 ) + b(8)R1(kl O ) ] 8) .The wave number in region 1 (air) and that in region 2 (dielectric) will be denoted.G. Consequently. The where operational method avoids the long and tedious task of applying (11. readers are referred to Bafios's book quoted previously and the detailed discussion by Feynberg [I9611 on the field near the ground. repeatedly to each individual term contained in M ( h l ) a t ( . the site of the conducting plane by So.2& ( R ) = iwpJ1 ( R ) E2(R). The highorder solution for this kind of problem has also been discussed very thoroughly by Felsen and Marcuvitz [I9731 and in the recent book by King.. Two cases will be treated in detail depending on the location of the electric current source.sin2 0) 1 1 [cos 9 + (n2 . a scalar relation. (11.32) only represents the contribution due to the socalled space wave.dh.28). (11. (11.232 Planar Stratified Media Chap.P)=( 4rkR sin 9 Q H  i)n+l COS sin n$ The structure under consideration is shown in Fig. 113 A Dielectric Layer on a ConductingPlane where 7.)described by (11. An Electric Current Source in Region 1 In this case. 112.25).sin29 ) $1 8) then b(9) = [n cbs 6 . In view of (11.30) is defined with respect to the Hankel function of the first kind.32) where vx vx VxVx El ( R ) . 74. denotes a dyadic operator which satisfies the relation that a(9) = [cos e . Fol> lowing the same procedure as described in Sec. the differential equations for the electric fields in the two regions are  i [ F ( . (11.h l ) . Wu. If the conducting plane has an aperture. by kl and kg.Gel ) . it does not take into consideration the proximity effect when the saddle point is very close to the poles of the coefficients a and b lying in the Aplane. All these functions are of the third kind as implied by the superscripts. 11 Sec. we can apply the method of saddlepoint integration to (11.k. in view of (11.k. 113 A DIELECTRIC LAYER O N A CONDUCTING PLANE Since M ( h l ) contains J n ( h ) . In practice.2 ) . It is a valid approximation when the point of observation is not near the ground. Case 1.34) . The site of the interface is denoted by S. ) hi (11. The electric dyadic Green functions ~ ( 1 )= ( 2 2 =(1 to be used are Gel 1. respectively.26) and the operator does satisfy the relation described by (11. and Ed:'). G )for z > z1 can be written in the form Having changed the contour of integration into an infinite path. and Owens [1991].33) (11.30) and similar transformations for the other terms. we found that the firstorder solution for the farzone field is given by the following expression: eikR @l)(R.order solution. It is recognized that the coefficients a(6)and b(0)play the same role as the planewave reflection coefficientsfor an incident Efield either perpendicular or parallel to the plane of incidence.29) can be transformed to m = d 1 ) ~ ( ' ) ( h 1 ) a 1 ( .Ez(R) = 0. cos (11.(n2 [n2 cos 6 Now we consider a typical term of I!?!'.29) can be written in operational form as (11. They are also functions of the first kind as indicated by the subscript "el" because of the presence of a conducting plane for the composite structure.31) provided that kR > 1.27).(n2 . For a detailed discussion of the high. that portion of the plane will be denoted by SA. We will first derive the integral expressions for the electric field in the two regions and then find the eigenfunction expansions of the relevant dyadic Green functions.We assume p1 = p2 = pO.
Gel satisfies the dyadic Dirichlet condition stated by (11.33) and (11. the boundary conditions imposed on E:.46) and (11. 112 A dielectric layer on a conducting ground plane with an aperture To find the integral expressions for El and E2. .~)(R.43) and % x &(R) vanishes elsewhere except at SA.2=(21) .40) and two similar vector conditions for El and E2and V x El and V x E2.35) we obtain Region 2: kz .the two surface integrals on S in (11. By applying (11.. thus 3 VxVx #n Y 1: E:.34) and (11. we obtain Now we apply the vectordyadic Green's theorem By interchanging R' with R and making use of the transposed property of the scalar product of a dyadic function with a vector function we can transform .R ) 2=(11) ..G.2=(12) R R = . R') .R') . to region Region 1: kl A Dielectric Layer on a Conducting Plane . I I ~ e c113 ..V x V x Gel ( R .') and 2 2 ) are Because of the boundary conditions stated by (11.R') = 0.45) to region 2 with F = E2 and =(21) = Gel we find that the volume integral vanishes because of (11.(11. By eliminating the two surface integrals from these two equations.39) and (11.1 ) 0 R R .( l l ) E ( 2 2 ) =(12) ?) ' which satisfy the differential equaGreen functions Gel .Planar Stratijed Media Chap.R ) V x V x Gel1 ( .k2Gel ( R .R') = 16(R . In view of 235 (11. therefore. SA .klGel ( R .R') . =(I2)] =O ~ and on So. VxVx The boundary conditions imposed on these functions at S are 2x 1 ) 1 =(11) i x [V x Gel I =o V =(21) On So. . z z l ) (R..Gel .1 with P = El.47). = 6::').48) are equal to each other.2 .  JJ.38).1 ) klGel ( .we need the electric dyadic .{ [ix v x E2(R)]. el .')  I =0 ix [Ez) .R') (2 2=(2 Gel2 )(R .and I$ tions We have already deleted the surface integral at infinity in that region as a result of the radiation condition.R') = 16(R .mr=o Fig.k2Ge12 () R. reduces to x 6:.
57) involve six distinct transposed functions. =(I21 ( R . I 1 Il Before we discuss the symmetrical relationships of the transposed functions in (11. Ji (R1 )dV1   Equations (11. we will make use of the relevant reciprocity theorems for the composite structure under consideration. where S. One current source. with the current source still =(12) in region 1. v 2 . J2 (R')dV' E2 ( R ) = iwpo JJJ v z [Eiy)(fi'.to region 1 with P = E l . J2(R')dV1 Case 3.56)(11. The procedure is very similar to the treatment found in Sec. Two sets of fields due to two distinct electric current sources located both in region 2. 114 Reciprocity Theoremsfor Stratified Media 237 (11.k t E l ( R )= 0 V x V x E2(R). G = Gel and first =(22) then to region 2 with P = E2. .k $ ! 7 2 ( ~ ) = iupOJ2(R). denotes the electric field produced by J l a and Elt. Two sets of fields due to two distinct electric current sources located both in region 1. The two fields.R)] T . 1 1  (21)  (11. is the site of an electrically perfect conducting ground plane and S is the site of the interface of two isotropic media. R)] 1  .JI ( R )d v l 7/////////////////////////////////////////// Fig. R)] . In this case we have The four electric dyadic Green functions introduced in the previous case are again needed. 113.50) is =(21)  The RayleighCarson reciprocity theorem is applicable to the structure shown in Fig. All these quantities are defined in region 1. 45.54) (11.45). (1 1. (21 v x Gel) ( R . 113 A dielectric layer on a perfectly conducting plane Case 2. of course. By applying (11.55) where 81. the electric field produced by Jib. R) = Gm2 ( R .49) into the form El ( R ) = iWpO JJJ v [EL?) (R'. denotes the magnetic dyadic Green function of the second R) kind as well as of the third kind. are the fields produced by the current sources in the presence of the layered medium on an electrically perfect conducting plane. = Gel we can readily derive the following : expression for E2 (R) S Region 1: k1 Region 2: k2 s e &(R) = iwpo JJJ [G.52). Without repeating much of the same procedure we merely give the results as follows: El ( R ) = iupo /// [Ez' R)] (R'. the volume occupied by the two current sources. Va and & denote. they are the RayleighCarsontheorem and the complementary 3 . By definition. There are three distinct cases. 4.53) and (1 1. thus an alternative formula for (11. J l a located in region 1 and another current source. To find the symmetrical relationships of these functions. Case 2. An Electric Current Source in Region 2 The differential equations for the two electric fields in this case are Case 1..R ) .i v x v x E1(R). let us write down the expression for E2(R). I1 Sec. Some simple versions of these two theorems have already been introduced in Chap. respectively. The RayleighCarson theorem in this case states .52)(11.236 Planar Stratified Media Chap. R reciprocity theorem.51) 114 RECIPROCITY THEOREMS FOR STRATIFIED MEDIA where Gm2 (R1. By applying Stratton's vector Green's theorem to the two different regions. several formulas can be derived.
68).206). the medium constants are p1. The ground plane in region 2 is an electrically perfect conducting plane.59) we can derive with i . Equation (11. . To find the symmetrical relations for the magnetic dyadic Green functions based on reciprocity theorems we have to derive a complementary 7. The derivation is much more involved but the result is comparable to the RayleighCarson theorem or the 3 . (11.66). In model A. 2 where i and j can be equal or different. by means of (11. in the two regions with wave number kl and k2. (11. the symmetrical relationship between the two functions is By definition of the electric dyadic Green functions Equations (11. means Similarly. and let (11.58).62) into (11. 6: with wave number k: in region 1and the same constants in region 2 as in model A. be Let the current source jla an infinitesimal electric dipole located in region 1 at Ra and pointed in the &direction. Figure 114 shows two models. and (11. From these formulas. 114 Reciprocity Theoremsfor Stratified Media 239 J2b. if we have where Elbis the electric field in region 1 due to a current source J 2 b placed in region 2. located in region 2. with Ra and Rb replaced by 2 and R. we obtain therefore. pointing in the ?.60) yields In this case. The constants and E{ are so far unspecified.67). Similarly. These constants are assumed to be known. j = 1 . we let 1 I representing a current source located at Rb.238 Planar Stratified Media Chap. the medium constants are pi. They can be condensed into one formula in the form I thus ' In the language of dyadic analysis. The latter does not involve an electrically conducting surface or a conducting body. the reciprocity theorem has the form m e two electric fields in (11. In model B.70) are the three symmetrical relations which we are seeking.60) are produced by currents located in different Thus. In this case. theorem in appearance.direction. €1 and ~ 2€ 2. the symmetrical relationships of the electric dyadic Green functions can be readily derived. By substituting (11. theorem for the problem under consideration. The ground plane in model B is a magnetically perfect conducting plane.61) and (11. they will be determined later. 11 Set.71) is an extension of (4.
2 x E 2 A = 0 and on Sm. €1 S Region 1: k . Equation (11.212) to region 1 with P = E l n and 0 = R I B where satisfies the differential equation zlB which yields The vector Green's theorem is now applied to region 2 with P = E ~ and A = B 2 B . p i . II (11. p i . . Region 2: kz. i x R ~ = 0. namely. Now we apply the vector Green's theorem (4.. S parts.83) and rearranging the terms.p2. the result yields B a NOW impose a condition on ei such that we where we have already deleted the surface integral at infinity due to the radiation condition.83) can be decomposed into two . The volume integral vanishes because both E 2 A and R 2 B satisfy the homogeneous wave equation with the same wave number k 2 . we obtain The differential equations and the boundary conditions for the fields excited by electric current sources are We now impose the relationship such that Since p1 and € 1 are given constants. Under this condition (11. I I set.240 Planar Stratified Media Chap.86) will be referred to as the wave number matching condition. One of the surface integrals in (11. d. 114 Model A: l k o plane stratified media in contact with an electrically perfect conducting wall.84) into (11. € 2 Model A Region 2: k z .85) can be written in the form E x ITzB = 0. €2 Model B sm Fig. (11. model B: two plane stratified media with a magnetically perfect conducting wall I By substituting (11. p2. no currents in region 2: . 114 Reciprociry Theoremsfor Stratified Media Region 1: k l .81) 1 1 Several different cases will be considered. And on S. Case 1 Currents J I A and J I B present in region 1.86) puts a constraint on the product of pi and ei but not individually.
= E and pi = ( E ~ / E ) Unlike in network synthesis the physical PO. J 2=~ in = 0: (21) = 2 . IllB satisfies the vector Dirichlet boundary condition at S. H reciprocal theorem at our disposal the syrnmetrical relationships of the magnetic dyadic Green functions can readily be found.89) one finds plp. . The model is introduced mainly to derive a mathematical theorem to be used to find the symmetrical relations of the magnetic dyadic Green functions. it can be shown readily that where i. which is equivalent to because from (11. . for n = 1. Case 2. . j = 1. . . realizability of model B is not an issue in this theory. By combining (11.) . by definition. designated as the J . iwp.242 Planur Stratified Media Chap. JZA 0. Following a similar procedure the 7 .87) becomes In general. 2 i JZB region 2. H Z A= Gm2 (R. Current JIA region 1and current JzB region 2. R. R theorem. they are valid for similar stratified structures such as a conducting cylinder or a sphere coated with a layer of dielectric material..93) we obtain  (21) . H theorem for the other cases can be derived accordingly. Z P W2 (12) . P2 It should be emphasized that although we have used the plane stratified structure to derive the . For example.N. and €2 = 6 €1 we have E. Current JIB region 1and current in JZA region 2.89). . JIB 0: in in = =  Case 4. = €0.. They are stated below. while in model B. where the uppermost region (n = 1) may extend to infinity or be terminated by an electric wall in model A and a magnetic wall in model B.96)(11. The situation is similar to the use of vector potential function in electromagnetic theory which is not a physically measurable quantity.2. we consider Case 3 with two localized currents then. ./p: = k?/kg. . Thus (11. .With the complementary J . Rb) . the general theorem is This is the complementary reciprocity theorem for the two sets of magnetic field in model A and model B. . no currents in region 1: in Case 3. The theorem can also be extended to multiple layers of isotropic media placed above an electrically perfect conducting plane (model A).86) with (11. derivable under the condition which is the complementary impedance condition for the wave impedances in the three media of the two models. N. When PI = p2 = PO. JIA 0.) j ii .RZA satisfies the vector Neumann boundary condition.2j H1B = Gml (R. R. Currents J 2 A and where the last layer (n = N ) is the one in contact with either an electric wall or a magnetic wall. I 1 Sec. hence the corresponding magnetic dyadic Green function must be of the first kind. the superscript implies that both are of functions of the third kind too.87) is equal to the surface integral in (11.2.88) because of the continuity condition of the tangential components of the and fields on S. E and 3 . It is introduced simply as a mathematical tool.86) and (11. The magnetic dyadic Green function of the second kind is involved in model A because at Sd. By substituting (11. theorems. Gm2 (Rb. 114 Reciprocity Theoremsfor Stratified Media 243 Under this condition the surface integral in (11. Of course.99) into (11.
102)(11. We consider the function EL:'). I I Sec. and (11.52).and downwardgoing wavelets. 115 Eigenfunction Expansions 245 Likewise.X 2 ) a . the expressions for the electric fields in different cases can now be written in the form where A condensed notation for the terms in EL:) has been used. R')] . namely. (11. model B was introduced merely to derive the J . This completes our long and tedious derivations of these formulas. we can derive where the function EL') denotes the free. + (2) // [E::) (R.105) will be derived in this section.244 Planar Stratified Media Chap. The derivation of one of the functions will be treated in detail. [i x E2(R')]d S (1I. The above two transposed functions are the ones that appeared in (11. The single superscript is used for this identification. no physical significance should be attached to the constitutive constants in that model. The eqression for EL" is given by (11. In retrospect. H theorem and to find the function E::).56). that is. By the method of scattering superposition we let where h2 = (kg .104) SA I 1. With these considerations the scattered functions must have the form W:! 3:') The eigenfunction expansions of the dyadic Green functions for a dielectric layer on a conducting plane which appeared in (11.53).3) with k replaced by k l . ) . With the aid these symmetrical relationships for the dyadic Green functions.57). The boundary conditions to be satisfied are 1 . In particular. In Ge. 115 EICENFUNCTION EXPANSIONS The wavelets in the scattered terms are excited by the downwardgoing wavelets of with excitation coefficients a f ( h 1 ) and m f ( h l )and the field functions =(21 in must consist of upwardgoing wavelets @ ( h l ) and m ( h l ) .space electrical dyadic Green function defined in a medium of the same constitutive constants as that of region 1 (air). The formulas for the others will be listed. the field functions must consist of both upward. (11.
Based on these conditions we find I where A1 = hid. A = had 2 . R)] (11. R ) (11. = [a(2:)(R.110). I I Sec. and Dl are the same as the ones defined previously following (11. p'. { W h l ) [A:@(h2) + N ( h l ) [C:37l(h2) where + A.ii') contained in (11. The formulas for the functions EE:) ( f i .Planar Stratified Media Chap.R') Ge. R)] T T = [v'x F ~ ( R I . =(22) Eiy) .105) can be obtained by taking advantage of the symmetrical relations: ~2:) cml( R .ml(h2)]} . (11.102) and (11. =(2) (R.@(h2)] + C.V x [ =(11) E$')] = 0 .115) 1 31 The formulas for 5 2 )and can be derived in a similar fashion. D. and where we have assumed p1 = p2 = po.R 1 ) (22) .116) .R ) + ???)(fi. Gel ( R . The compositions of these two functions and the coefficients attached to various terms are listed below. 115 Eigenfunction &numiom where i x V x Gel . f i l ) and (R.109) and (11.111) I h e coefficients p.
c2 in region 2. and k3 (air). G. Only the final result of various expressions will be given here. By applying the boundary conditions at the interfaces S12and s23. must have the form where the coefficients are defined in the expressions of be proved that at z = 0.R) to obtain Em.Planar Stratified Media Chap. '(22) =(12) and G. That exercise would dernonstrate very clearly the significance of the complementary reciprocity theorems. hence nine electric dyadic Green functions of the third kind are involved. I1 Sec. in region 1 and p2.R') = 0. Under the condition p = p2 = po for model A./ (  (21) Ey) The structure of the problem under consideration is shown in Fig.R').2. 116 A Dielectric Slab in Air 249 '(22 known expressions of G.R) changing the roles of E' and ii and then taking the transpose of V' x ~ ( 2 1 ) . 116 A DIELECTRIC SLAB IN AIR Since we have already found Gel ( R . except that the coefficients attached to the wave functions would have different values. The wave numbers of the three regions are kl (air).R').(22) .. the same notations for these coefficients will be retained. They are which shows that the magnetic dyadic Green function of the first kind indeed satisfies the Dirichlet boundary condition. ) and of model A.. It can (11. k2 (dielectric).R') are defined in model B with constitutive constants pi. and have the same forms as (11..3. We will consider the functions only with i = 1.120) It is understood that kl = k3 and hl = h3. directly without using the Fig.. The results are 2 2 ) .. The formulation is very similar to that of a dielectric layer placed on a conducting plane except that there is an additional region. 115 A dielectric slab in air . it is a matter of inter(E'.R') and Gml ( R .R ) and Gel ( R . It should be emphasized that the (22) . 115. How=(32) ever. namely. by)with i.114) and (11. There are three regions. E . EL?) and G z l ) .~ ( 1 2 ) and V' x Gel (R'.R') and Gml ( R . j = 1.i x Gml ( R . ( R . we have 1 and Region 1: air 1 2=0 Region 2: dielectric Region 3: air An exercise has been assigned to find G. They are listed as follows: ??p2) and In (11.115).121) the freespace electric dyadic Green function is the same as (11.113). the site of Sm in model B 1 (22) .~ ( 1 2 ) functions Gml ( R . 16 unknown coefficients the for Zc2)and V x can be determined.2.3.
r and I" are defined by The physical interpretation of the wave functions contained in the three Green functions has been discussed by Cheng [I9861 based on multiple wave reflections and refractions.we let With the aid of the orthogonal property of we find a and and their normalization. 19821 suggests that an alternative representation of the Green functions for planar stratified media is to cast the eigenfunction expansion in the form of twodimensional Fourier transform. When these formulas are applied to practical problems. and p' are the same parameters defined in the lines following (11. we have to evaluate integrals commonly referred to as Sommerfeld integrals. 117 TwodimenrwnalFourier Transform 251 117 TWODIMENSIONAL FOURIER TRANSFORM OF THE DYADIC G E N FUNCTIONS RE The desirable vector wave functions to be used to represent the freespace dyadic Green functions. that is.Planar Stratified Media Chap. . We will use the freespace dyadic Green functions to illustrate this formulation. The formulas for the other two sets of Green functions corresponding to sources located in region 1 or region 3 are also found in that reference. p.. The normalization factor of the vector wave function is given by where Al. A. The volume of integration in the above integrals covers the entire space. 11 Sec. are defined by where It can be shown that a and N are orthogonal. both electric and magnetic.115). The recent advance in the technique of fast Fourier transform (FIT) [Nussbaumer. By the method of Em. The eigenfunction expansionswhich we have developed so far for the plane stratified media contain the FourierBessel integrals and the associated Fourier series.
we find v x G f o(R.3).P ) ] k2 1 1 = . the coefficients associated with the vector wave functions will have exactly the same forms as in the "CW" formulation.138) where  +N(hi)[ c f N ' ( f hz)]) . we see clearly the onetoone correspondence between these two formulas.139) is used to construct the scattered terms for problems involving planar layered media.135) with respect to n3 with the aid of the residue theorem. I I Sec.i 1 k2 i ~ ( .a) (n2.252 Planar Stratified Media Chap. where "CW" denotes the cylindrical wave formulation and 'PW' the plane wave formulation.)i.(fi. (11. 117 TwodimensionalFourier Transfonn where where Since Gmosatisfies the equation  v x V x Gmo.R')] . dnl dnz dn3 n [(n: nH)(n2 k2)]'  + V X Zimo(R. the expression for Gee would be Ee.R') + [V x G f .136) PW: 1 N ( h ) = V x M(h). According to the method of Em. c have the same expressions as the ones listed after : . )z:] h + 1 N ( f h ) = V x M ( f h ) Ic Now if (11.k 2 ) ] ' By integrating (11. it should have the following integral representation:   Gmo(R. =R') and  ( 2 ~ ) ///I By comparing (11.R') =  ///I dnl dnzd nl n2 [(n: + .R') R and the coefficients a : .(R. R ) ] k2 k2  = . h = ( k 2 nq K.3). the scattering function previously described by (11. then the corresponding terms are listed below. R) =1 [v x cm0 lqfi. For clarity we also use k instead of kl to denote the wave number in (11.139) with (11.n2Cmo= V x [is(ii. For example.115) is now replaced by (11.R1)=   iz J/I dn1dn2 [h( K : + K : ) ] I z'.iia(R . k [a(*) M ' ( ~ h )N ( f h ) R 1 ( ~ h.
Vector wave functions for plane stratified and spherically stratified media are introduced. k2. 121 VECTOR W V FUNCTIONS F R P A E STRATIFIED AE O LN MEDIA When the permittivity and the permeability of a medium are functions of position.hl. Maxwell's equations for a monochromatically oscillating field . Maxwell's equations with the constitutive relations based on Minkowski's relativistic formulation are solved for monochromatically oscillating excitation and for transient current source. For an inhomogeneous isotropic medium. In the latter case.254 PIanar Stratified Media Chap. 11 (11. including particularly the inhomogeneous media and moving isotropic media. as they have not previously been covered in books either on electromagnetic theory or on differential equations. and the dependence is identical in both formulations. the differential equations are first transformed into a spatial and pseudotime domain and then solved by the method of Fourier transform.115) except that the parameters hl and h2 are replaced by That the coefficients a: and c t have the same forms in the two alternative representations is due to the fact that the boundary conditions are only dependent on the parameters kl. This approach avoids the necessity of introducing fourdimensional space and time operator as done by Compton [I9661 and several new mathematical theorems involving this operator. Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium This chapter contains some generalizations of the dyadic Green function technique to more complex media. The chapter concludes with the derivation of the dyadic Green functions for waveguides filled with a moving medium and for a conducting cylinder placed in such a medium. Several spherical lens functions are treated in detail. The remaining part of the chapter deals with the topics on moving isotropic media. we refer to such a medium as inhomogeneous. and h2 and the functions e""lZ and e * " ~ .
the vector wave functions which are solutions of (12. To that end. that is. respectively.(z)E =o (12.5) and N(") solutions for the vector wave equation satisfied by the are and magnetic Hfield: 1 VXvx G(z) a(") a(") {a(.(z)* =0 I . Under that condition. such as z. In this section and that which follows.(R) be equal to unity. For plane stratified media.256 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. we have only two classes of inhomogeneous media for which we know how to find the appropriate vector wave functions. (R) is a function of one of the Cartesian coordinate variables only. Under this condition the wave equations for E and H are given by where the two generating functions Q and @ satisfy. we assume that the stratification occurs along the zdirection so that E. we have so far no general method of finding these vector wave functions. the differential equations v2Q and + k2e. (R) and E. we must first discuss the vector wave functions which are solutions for the inhomogeneous vector wave equations of the form The superscript m attached to the M. except under the condition that the problems under consideration are either rotationally symmetric or when the field is a twodimensional one being independent of the longitudinal axis. In the second class. the relative permeability and permittivity functions of the medium. the medium is stratified in the radial direction in the spherical coordinate system so that the permittivity is a function of R only. For this reason we shall discuss only the vector wave functions for plane and spherically stratified media. We are seeking the dyadic Green functions pertaining to these two equations under various boundary conditions.(R) is a function of all three variables in an orthogonal system. } = 0.(R) is constant. Similarly.5): and where p.(R) = E. The first class consists of plane stratified media in which E. particularly the eigenfunction expansions of these functions for bodies made of such an inhomogeneous medium but of different shapes. In fact.(z).6) can be represented by and These four kinds of vector wave functions satisfy the symmetrical relations that If E. ( R ) denote. In many practical cases of interest the inhomogeneity is normally due to variation of the permittivity only so that p. a(") v x v x Ek2c. we shall restrict ourselves to this case only and let p. while the superscript e represents the electric or transverse magnetic type. respectively. ) . 121 Vector Wave Functions for Plane Stratified Media 257 read ~t can easily be verified that the following two sets of vector wave functions are solutions of (12. Strangely enough. we have I 1 We repeat that and R(") solutions for the vector wave equation satisare fied by the electric Efield.function signifies that it is of the magnetic or transverse electric type with respect to the zaxis. k 2 {g:. we have not been able to find the general vector wave functions for a cylindrically stratified medium. 12 Sec.
13) and (12.258 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. we must specify not only the functional representation for ~ . spherical vector wave functions [Tai.10) must be solved in the rectangular coordinate system. if we have a rectangular waveguide filled with a medium stratified in the zdirection. ( ~ ) Eo= V x H k2H=0. of course. They are 1' cos = Jn (A.4) become v x v x g . 122 Vector Wave Functions for Spherically Stratified Media 259 We cannot find a better notation for these functions without causing some kind of confusion.) sin n4F2 (2) By applying the method of separation of variables to (12. Only a limited number of stratified profiles have so far been investigated whereby the solutions can be expressed in terms of wellknown functions.20) are solutions to (12.17) and (12.3) and (12. 31.5) are solutions to (12.1) and (12.2). R sin 1 COS l where F and F2are again solutions for (12. They are 1 (12.This concludes our brief discussion for the general and method of finding the dyadic Green functions for plane stratified media. For a plane stratified flat earth the appropriate solutions for 9 and @ would be 9.we can follow the same procedure as in the homogeneous case for the construction of the dyadic Green functions.21) and (12. A few of them are found in Wait [1962. ( z but ) also the geometrical shape of the structure to be considered.22) in spherical coodinate systems.9) and (12. then (12. = Jn (AT) sin nW1 (a) COS The four sets of vector wave functions have certain symmetrical relations. 1958al which are generalizations of the functions defined for homogeneous media. vx[& We now define four inhomogeneous.27) (12. provided that 9 and @ satisfy the following scalar equations: The two complementary solutions of Fl or F2play the same role as the experimental functions ehihz for a homogeneous medium. We.14). (12. The above remark also applies to problems involving a cylindrical waveguide with a longitudinal stratification or for an inhomogeneous flat earth. For example. we find that the eigenfunctions can be written in the form *znA=Sn(kR)P."(~~~O) mq5 R sin 1 cos = Tn(kR)Pr(c~sO) mq5. The appropriate solutions for 9 and @ are mrx nry 9 = Qemn= cos cos F1(z) a b and mrx nry @ = aomn sin sin . 12 Sec. It suffices to point out that once we have at our disposal the available solutions for Fl(z) and F2(z).28) . To find the eigenfunctions to be used in the dyadic Green function expansion.(z). the equations l 122 VECTOR WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR SPHERICALLY STRATIFIED MEDIA When the permittivity is a function of the spherical variable R only.4) and (12. the wave equations for E and B according to (12.15) It can be verified that (12. respectively. = F2 a b where F (z) and F 2 (z) satisfy. No attempt is made here to cover this large class of problems in this book.k 2 ~ . use the ones which would satisfy the radiation condition at z = cm in the construction of ELz2) Ec2). Ch. corresponding to the longitudinal axis of the guide.
101. 123 Inhomogeneous Spherical Lenses where Sn(kR)and Tn(kR)satisfy.29). was used in a wave propagation study. By using (12.35) into (12. A complete theory would also remove some of the uncertain characteristics obtained from the geometrical theory of diffraction.cos dPF a9 sin m+i. this lens will focus the rays. 189818991 in their presentation of the spherical vector wave functions. where a denotes the radius of the inhomogeneous lens. These vector wave functions will now be used to construct the eigenfunction expansion of the dyadic Green function for the inhomogeneous spherical lenses. BYletting . the differential equations TABLE 121 Profiles of Some Permittivity Functions Maxwell fisheyes (1860) Luneburg lens (1944) Conical lens of Luneburg (1944) Eaton lens (1952) NomuraTakaku distribution (1955) (:)2q The functions Sn and Tn play the same role as Rjn(kR) in the homogeneous case. 1958al contains some analyses which are not found in most books on the theory of differential equations or on electromagnetic theory. and making the following changes of variables we find that the function Un(p) must satisfy the following differential equation The various spherical lenses to be discussed are characterized by certain profiles of the permittivity function. except that our normalization constants are different from theirs. The work [Tai. and Bfunctions used by Morse and Feshbach [1953.28) as the generating functions the complete expressions for the four vector wave functions can be found. The case to be considered is the spherical Luneburg lens with the permittivity profile given by where cos & m n = n ( n + l ) P ~ ( m ssin m+d @ m ~ m n ?=&&os = m P 2 sin m+9 .(R) is equal to unity both (12. The wave theory of these distributions will be discussed in this section. Table 121 lists some of the profiles. The NomuraTakaku distribution.260 InhomogeneousMedia and Moving Medium Chap. They are given by We shall treat one profile in great detail showing how to find the solutions for Sn and Tn associated with a specific profile. originated from a point source placed at the rim. however. it is an important factor to be considered. respectively.27) and (12. pp.  I These vector zonal harmonic functions are analogous to the p. According to Luneburg's original theory [1944]. From the electromagnetic theory point of view. By substituting (12. It is obvious that when e. Most of these profiles were originally discovered by the investigators whose names are associated with them and are based on Fermat's principle in the geometrical theory of optics.30) reduce to the equation satisfied by Rjn(kR)as discussed in Sec.29) and (12. the polarization status of the source does not enter into the formulation. to form a collimated beam when passing through the lens. 123 INHOMOGENEOUS SPHERICAL L N E ESS c. 12 Sec. Since the original theory is based on a scalar formulation.
Their exponents are A.262 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. 1935.41) is similar to the confluent hypergeometric equation defined by (12.30) with f r ( R )given by (12.112. . 101. Thus we identify the Sn(p)function to be I For the Tn(kR)function the analysis is much more complicated. It is therefore anticipated that the new equation defined by (12..42) then the function Vn(p)satisfies the following equation where a l .41). 123 Inhomogeneous Spherical Lenses 263 the above equation can be transformed into the standard form of the confluent hypergeometric equation [Copson. The constants A. 1948. B. It can be shown that unless the constants a l . From the theory of differential equations. as. 2 . If we let Equation (12. (12. Ch. 2 . p. 5391. 1948. It is observed that because we have put (12. In order to appreciate more fully the nature of the solution to (12.42) is most conveniently presented by using the Reimann scheme . 2031 and can be written in the form u = 0. s # r . The constants B and C are arbitrary so far.. The equation which fulfills this requirement is given by Whittaker and Watson [1943..42) in a different form. The constants A and the Cr's are given by A further transformation of the independent variable z = p2/pa converts it into cr= where the various constants are defined by Hs (a. and a4 denote the four regular singularities. except that it has another regular singularity at z = a2. Equation (12. Like the hypergeometric equation.v .: nents designated by p and p'. (12. p. the indicia1equation for p and p' is also changed in appearance. 12 Sec. The confluence is more easily seen by starting with the Papperitz equation of the Reimann Pequation [Morse and Feshbach. it has a regular singularity at z = 0 with exponents 0 and 1. a2. it is known that the confluent hypergeometric equation can be obtained by the confluence of two regular singularitiesof the hypergeometric equation.35) cannot be reduced to a differential equation of the standard type. it is profitable to digress to a discussion of the general characteristics of this equation. The exponents of the regular singularity at z = a2 are equal to 312 and . Ch.as) s = 1 . in general we need a secondorder 3 differential equation with five regular singularities to start with. The other independent solution represented by zlv 1 F l ( a .v + 1 .41) perhaps can be obtained by the suitable confluence of a number of regular singularities of a secondorder differential equation with at least four or more regular singularities.. az.v [Copson. that is For the analysis of the Luneburg lens with the source placed at the rim we need the function which is regular at R = 0 that is represented by Kummer's functions. The constants in the equation have purposely been so arranged in order to simplify the series solution discussed later. In the first place.37). 101 and an irregular singularity at oo. and A The point z = oo is the remaining regular singularity with expo. and a are related in a certain special way. ~ ) is not needed. and C are not the same as those in the Whittaker and Watson equation.
0). . (12. in the Luneburg lens problem the values of p never exceed Pa. For example.. Recall that the two exponents at z = 0 are 0 and 1. Without restricting ourselves to the exact procedure of the limiting process.41). The series solution of interest is of the form then (12. the leading term of A. we can write (12.41). If one uses the notation of Ince [1944. the exponent 1 .which can be derived. By rearranging the terms in the last brackets and introducing two new arbitrary constants a1 and a2. one finds that where p and 6 are two arbitrary constants.43) in the form which is identical in form to (12. The foregoing discussion demonstrates the fact that analytically the differential equation for Tn is basically different from the differential equation for Sn and no simple connection exists between them. The same result can thus be achieved.41). hence T.38). when pa is large. For the Luneburg lens problem it is necessary to obtain a series expansion for V. An alternative procedure is to start with an equation of five regular singularities and with the point at infinity considered to be an ordinary point.42). by confluence of singularities.0. 12 Sec. pp. 4975041. the coefficient can be obtained from the following fourterm recurrence relationship > The foregoing discussion on the analytical nature of the function Vn is simply to show that while the confluent hypergeometric equation is obtained by the confluence of two regular singularities of the Papperitz equation./Ao is practically the same as the corresponding coefficient of the series expansion of the Kummer function.order linear differential equation. The series solution which remains finite at the origin is therefore associated with the exponent equal to zero. 12).41). It also shows that the "generalized" confluent hypergeometric function is an entirely new function which is not related to other known functions. the "generalized" confluent hypergeometric equation as defined by (12. if we assume then when a3 and a4 approach infinity equations of the type (8. The desirable solution plays the same role as the Kummer function (12.41) can be obtained by the confluence of three regular singularities (12. 123 Inhomogeneous Spherical Lenses 265 In order to reduce (12.41) can be classified as of the type (0'2.y leads to a solution which is singular at the origin. It may be remarked that the above procedure is not the only way to deduce (12. On the other hand.y. where y is greater than one for this problem. It is observed that for larger values of pa.45) into (12. It is therefore concluded that at least five regular singularities are needed to execute the proper confluence in obtaining (12.42) into (12. which is finite at z = 0.41) from a more general second.42) reduces to the form mO = By substituting (12. observing that For m 3.41) we first let which correspond to the two regular points and their exponents of (12.264 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. Actually. from the The series solution for Vn converges uniformly and absolutely for z < a2 or P < 2pa.
48) [ ~ . which can then be used to find the dyadic Green functions pertaining to the spherical Luneburg lens. The same is true for the derivative of Tn with respect to r when pa is sufficiently large. considerable difference in the two approaches.: MA:!. Following the same procedure as described in Sec. 103 for the dielectric sphere. implies that the source is located outside of the lens.N(') (k)~'(')(k)] '(l + n The farzone expression for E(@. valid for large values of kR.$1 47rn=l m=O ik CC ik m m n 2 n + l (nm)! + 1) + m)! (12. then the total electrical field outside of the lens is given by where Eeo is represented by (10. There is. we find that G!:"  =(2 .31) to (12. we can derive the same result. therefore.0) 6(y' .m)! where the coefficients A. As far as the wave theory of the spherical Luneburg lens is concerned. and D n are determined from the following system of equations resulting from the matching of boundary conditions for the function of the third kind: where d = Pa [pah(L)(pa)] Qa = pah?) (pa) 1 Qh These are the basic formulas which are needed for the evaluation of the radiation pattern of a spherical Luneburg lens when excited by an infinitesimal electric dipole. 2 n + 1 (n . 12 Sec. much smaller than the first term.266 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. B. or course. The electromagnetic thoery of a spherical Luneburg lens was examined independently by Wilcox [1956]. It is obvious that a similar expression can be derived if the exciting source is a magnetic dipole and the result will be slightly different. The Tn function. By expanding the dipole field in terms of the spherical vector wave functions and then applying the scattering superposition theorem.49). in view of (6).0) 6 (2' + a) 2 as shown in Fig. we can construct the vector wave functions according to (12. The composition. it is not necessary to arrive at this result by way of a dyadic Green formulation. According to the excitation requirement of a Luneburg lens based on the geometrical theory of optics. Cn. Knowing the two radial functions Sn and Tn.. If we let it be represented by an electric dipole pointed in the xdirection with current moment equal to c so that J(E') = c (x' .24). In fact. is obtained by using the asymptotic expressions for and Nk:). 121. . however. the source should be located at the rim of the spherical lens. this was the approach taken in the author's original paper quoted previously. n ~ i ( l ) ( k ) ~(k) ) B. we let We have deleted the subscript 'kmnn for the wave functions in (12. According to the method of scattering superposition. Wilcox found a series solution for Tn directly without examining in detail the analytical behavior of this function from the point of view of the theory of differentialequations.48) and (12. is then practically equal to the Snfunction at p = pa.34). 123 Inhomogeneous Spherical Lenses The second term of A2/Ao is..
<) which is regular at = 0. we only need the function F ( a . For the analysis of the Maxwell fisheyes. For the conical lens of Luneburg. p. hence. 1948.dimensional one. c. 19561. it can be shown that the Snfunctioncan be expressed in terms of the confluent hypergeometric function while the Tnfunction is of the generalized confluent hypergeometric type. the permittivity function is described by According to Maxwell's original theory. b. P. the electromagnetic theory for these lenses can be formulated if the field is a two. Most important of all. was founded by Jasik [I9541using a cylindrically stratified lens with an electric line current as the source of excitation. b. A few calculations are found in Jasik's original work showing the radiation pattern of a moderately sized cylindrical Luneburg lens. The ideal characteristics of such a lens as deduced from the geometrical theory of optics are. the lens would emit a cylindrical wave in the far zone with a pattern function depending on size of the lens instead of a collimated beam as predicted from the geometrical theory of optics." If we let [Tai. 121 Horizontal dipole placed at the surface of a spherical Luneberg lens then the functions Un (<) and Vn(5)satisfy. 2471 It is relatively easy to determine the constants a. the differential equations for Sn and Tn are special cases of Malmsten's < . where Equations (12. and r for the two cases.53) and (12. A cylindrical Luneburg lens excited by a magnetic line source can be analyzed in a similar manner [Tai. the following two equations I I I I Although it is not yet feasible to construct the general dyadic Green functions for cylindrically stratified lenses. of course. not preserved. The radial functions encountered in his work are expressed in terms of the confluent hypergeometric functions.54) are identical in form to the hypergeometric equation normally written in the form [Copson. The first electromagnetic theory of a Luneburg lens. 123 Inhomogeneous Spherical Lenses 269 For the Maxwell fisheyes. and c in terms of a. as shown by these two authors. in fact. 1958bl and Fig. It is probably a coincidence that the same type of function is involved in Luneburg's two distinct lenses. independent of the longitudinal variable or if it is a rotationally symmetrical field. respectively. 12 Sec. It is interesting to observe that the generalized confluent hypergeometric function is not encountered in the electromagnetic theory of Maxwell's fisheyes. the lens will focus the rays emitted from a point source located at the surface of the lens to another focus at the opposite side of the lens. In regard to the NomuraTakaku distribution. In that case we encountered again a radial function which is of the generalized confluent hypergeometric type.Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. the name "fisheyes.
the Snand Tnfunctions are expressible in terms of elementary functions.60) where 7 denotes the idem factor. since the geometrical theory of optics fails to offer a valid description of the energy distribution at or in the neighborhood of such a point. the profile reduces to that of Eaton's lens. the constitutive relations between the field vectors in a moving isotropic medium can be described in a rather compact form [Tai. p.65) into (12.61) reduce to the constitutive relations for a stationary medium or that of the vacuum (air) as it should be. The explicit relations are and and Tn(p) = pq+ i J..63).n2P2)c2 a = vi = velocity of the moving medium assuming to be constant and directed in the zdirection c = ( ~ ~ e = velocity of light o ) ~ n = ( p o ~ )= index of refraction p = v C 6=a(21i. 19761. 1908. They are B = p ~ . we find that E(b)and n(b) . which is physically unrealizable if we allow R to be approaching zero. Although we have not done any numerical work based on these formulas except for the Luneburg lens [Rozenfeld. g . 124 Monochromatically Oscillating Field 271 equation [Watson.P2) (1 .a x E (12. 1965a. Sommerfeld. 12 Sec.60) and (12.(2? yjj) a which is reciprocal to 6 in the sense that + +E i . the function of Tn has a singularity at p = 0.64) and (12. E = permeability and permittivity of the medium at rest (n2 . (12.n2P2) ' The dyadic coefficient 6 is a characteristic parameter of this theory. For q = 1. When v = 0 or n = 1. the theoretical foundation provided here for various types of lenses should be useful to investigate not only the radiation pattern of these lenses but also the exact nature of a focal point.62) satisfy the following pair of equations and (12. 1922. the definite form of Maxwell's equations are Because of that particular profile.1) Q= (1 . By substituting (12. Based on Minkowski's relativistic theory of electrodynamics [Minkowski. where p. These functions can be expressed in terms of the fractional order Bessel functions provided that q # 1 (see Table 121 for the permittivity function).+yy)+~i For q = 1. For a monochromatically oscillating field with angular frequency w. Two typical solutions are a = (1 . 19521.270 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. 19671. 124 MONOCHROMATICALLY OSCILLATING FIELD I N A MOVING ISOTROPIC MEDIUM We now introduce two auxiliary field vectors E(b)and H(b)defined by where 1 b = . 991.
R)]. ~ x [ b . ~ ) For a region void of current source (12. and (12. F) .R1). J(R')dvl .iw"~'e. (b"1). [ ~ ~ x b . which now applies to E!!). then it can easily be x (b.72). L V ~ 6 .b (R. I2 Sec. we introduce a dyadic function defined by b .H)ds. x~ ( b . (12. p ) =b  (12.jidv= # (ii.77) + ( f i x [ b . where 0 is a vector function and verified that V. For that purpose. 124 Monochromatically Oscillating Field 273 For an infinitely extended moving medium we let Q = E(b)(R) 3 = and (b) .75) is valid as long as b is a symmetric dyadic with constant coefficients like the one in this formulation.P) (12.a pv + iwpb . y ) ] )d v ( B Q ) ].81) (".G e .69) with the aid of these two dyadic Green functions we need avectordyadic Green theorem more general than (1.71) By interchanging R and R' in (12.jil) (12.V x [ b V x ( b . E ~ t ) ( i i .81) becomes =# ( b e ). 2'). When we let the surface of integration go to infinity the surface integral vanishes because of the radiation condition. ~ ( ( f i ~ ) ] )1 t (12.78) can be written in the form n = ( b Q ) x [a. JJJv.68). (ii x [b .80) ] .67). Ecb)(R)=iwp  b is a dyadic function. v x (b . (12.) [a .51).68) and (11.77) yields To find the integral solution for these two auxiliary field functions we introduce two dyadic Green functions ELb)and ??$I satisfy the following system of which equations: (12. E:!)(R.75) # JJJ . ])} .) . fi') . a)]x (b .74) b .Vx (bb)]}. As a result of (12. E " ( ~ . @.' (R. G(.V x [a . the electric dyadic Green function in such an unbounded region. (12. then Equation (12. P ) d s . (fi x { b . ~ ) ] b .~)] .Eit)(p. .~u)]. E ~ ) ( ~ (12.272 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap.76) We obtain the desired vectordyadic theorem in the form JJJ({vX  IV. . B ( ~ ) ( R )dS1. v x (b . R ) ] ~ = b . .70) (12. (b. b)]+ [i.78) and using the symmetric relations T [a.A={V x  (12. By means of the divergence theorem. (R.79) and In order to integrate (11. ( 6 . o x p. ~ ) ( (12.
91) can be treated as a twodimensional KleinGordon equation. B(R) and R(R).'(R.64) with (12.83) leads to or [(Va .d v 1+ & dz 8y adz a and where The validity of (12. .T ~ 6 ( RR') R1) k .then L ! . in a stationary medium.g d $ .86). 4. R') (12. V ) k2a]GP)(B. a < O or n p > l '1 where the operators V a and ( V . = . The most convenient approach is to adopt the operational method of Levine and Schwinger.85) and (12. d2 d2 1 d2 Gib)(li.72) if GLb)satisfies the differential equation It is sufficient for us to consider two distinct cases.(12. V ) are defined by In this case a = . reviewed in Chap.85) This solution is obtained by introducing a new variable za = at z and treating (12. .82).1 a 1.72) with E?) replaced by We consider the equation for E) . For simplicity.274 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. By combining (12.91) The solution for G") depends on the value of "a".).lit). (12. (12.E l ) + + + z 2 + k2a dx2 dy2 a d which is a mathematical statement of Huygens' Principle in a moving isotropic medium.90) would be the solution to (12. corresponding to the supersonic flow in hydrodynamics.86) can most easily be demonstrated by replacing the dyadic function in that equation by a vector function. 124 Monochromatically Oscillating FieM 275 In terms of the actual fields. we consider just the case corresponding to nP < 1. Case 1 . (12.I?) = 6(fi . G:~) where (a. Y za) Case 2.= . corresponding to two different orientations of the dipole with respect to the direction of motion 9.82) we obtain the formula If we relate zi!)with a scalar function Gkb)such that Then (12. The remaining problem in this section is to find the explicit expression of EL!.72) can be written in the form The discontinuous behavior of the function is a manifestation of the Cerenkov phenomenon. = 6(R .91) as an ordinary scalar wave equation in a pseudoCartesian coordinate system ( x . 19611 d V a . 12 Sec. As a result of (12. In the remaining part of this section we shall give the complete expressions of the electromagnetic field of a Hertzian dipole placed in a moving medium based on (12.particularly its sign.+ f . originally applied to find G. given by (12. = lit) eika!i Ra 4rRa I It can be verified that 1 v x E!~. Its solution is given by [Cohen.
the field vectors therein are all functions of space and time.276 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium chap. not significant. t) as a function of R and r .$ = where (1 + A) 1 [I . Conventional method is sufficient to solve the resultant equations. rlck2a2ei(DwOz) ER = 27rD2 (1 + A) cos 8 cos 4 The constitutive relations of the field vectors have the same form as (12. therefore. However. Case 2. The expressions derived here can also be obtained by a more meticulous method by the way of Fourier transform [Lee and Papas. 125 TimeDependentField in a Moving Medium 277 Case 1. we can introduce a new independent variable T defined by which is designated as the "pseudotime variable. Now by treating a scalar function f (R. The theory .1)cos2 (I 01 +ck2a3/2ei(D~Oz) 47rf2D + A) 1 When the current source is an arbitrary function of time. does provide us with a complete understanding of the radiation process in such a medium.0 ) 2 . the formulation will be cast in an entirely new manner by introducing a new independent "time" variable. In order to coordinate the method of dyadic Green functions with the classical method.60) and (12. ' 125 TIMEDEPENDENT FIELD IN A MOVING MEDIUM . I J(R1) = cb (R' . The constitutive relations stated by (12. This problem has previously been investigated and solved by Compton [I9661 based on a direct Fourier transform method which is quite complicated.1)cos2 81 R = (x2 + Y 2 + z 2 )' ' c = current moment. a is very near to unity and R is a very small quantity. 19641 at the expense of a rather elaborate analysis. D =k a i ~ f ~r f = [I + ( a .2 ( a .we have the following differential In a terrestrial environment. we find that the expressions for the field are given by presented here. sin 0 sine. Part of his analysis could be greatly simplified by making use of the result which was described in the previous section for the monochromatically oscillating fields.61) suggest that for a function such as B(R. the fields in a moving isotropic nondispersive medium have to be determined by starting with Maxwell's equations in the space and time domain. They will be denoted with a dependence on both R and t in a parenthesis as in the above two equations. t). By means of this approach we can avoid the use of a spacetime operator introduced by Compton.61). however. Dipole Parallel to the Direction of Motion. In this case. In the present work.(1 + H. the solution of the new field equations will be obtained by means of the method of potentials. The effect of the motion of the medium is. 12 See. namely.60)and (12." where H= ick2a3/2ei(D~"z) (1 47rfD + A) (sin 46 + cos o cos 44) The constant R has the dimension of the reciprocal of velocity. Dipole Perpendicular to the Direction of Motion.
108). From now on we should forget about the original time variable "t" and treating the field vectors as functions of (x. 125 TimeDependentField in a Moving Medium 279 relations according to the calculus of implicit functional transformation Compton who invoked a spacetime operator in his formulation.86) with the dyadic function in that equation replaced by 2 ( R ) and the function 5 . 2 ( R ) . H(R)] = 0.110) into (12. 1949.108) Since V . V )2 ( R ) = pa [ J ( R ) w 2 t 2 ( R ) i w c a ~ . hence where b = [&I' as introduced in the last section.70)' the inethod of Fourier transform will be used. We denote the Fourier transform of E(R.101) and (12.109) into (12. p according to (12. A(R) .110) d(R)and p(R) are two potential functions introduced in this formulation. 411.t ) .104) yields V x E(R) = iwpd . By substituting (12. V p is equal to a V .94) we obtain The first term in (12. 7 ) in contrast to the work of and cp such that . which is understood to be a function of w.69) and (12.107) (12.94) can be written in the form E(R) = iwb . z .y.( V .102) into (12. (12. R(R) V x R(R)= J(R) .107)we can relate the two vector functions 6 and b .109) and (12. (12.103) and (12.the components containing the derivatives A Fourier transform of (12. By substituting (12. 2 with a dynamic scalar potential function p such that In view of (12. Let where = R i .v p ( R ) .iwtd . The result is Similarly. [d . nction V x In the vect with respect to z are E(R. (12. Our approach follows D'Alemberts' method of solving onedimensional scalar wave equation [Sommerfeld. z.T ) simply by E(@. I2 Sec.60) and (12. the classical method of potentials with a slight modification could be used.111) can be split into two parts as shown by (12. p ] . z.95) can be converted to v. To solve (12.t ) with respect to t in (12.278 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. .we have By substituting (12. .y.y.98) the time derivative of B(R. E(R). 7 ) .112) A gauge condition is now imposed upon The important feature of this formulation is that we have changed the set of independent variables from ( x . t ) to ( x . + + (12.v .87). p. that is.
. then I (12. We consider a vector function f defined by In (12.117) to (12.124) produces the equation for G?)(R. V. where V. (12. a dyadic function. This equation is identical to (12. To find the integral solution for A(@ we can use the same scalar Green function ~ f ' introduced in (12. (VaF) = F(v.123) a'. denoted by G?)(R.91). . where V .fwe obtain a modified Green's theorem of the second kind in the form where Gf') ( a . V defined by (12.115). they satisfy the equations .r ) satisfies the differential equation = 6(R a1)6(r . where k = wnlc. which yields.v. a hybrid theorem involving a vector function P and a scalar function G can be derived.117) can be used to prove the symmetrical relation of the function Gf') that is needed later.GV . that is. R'.v.280 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. We consider two functions with different values of R'. it has the form where we purposely set the initial value of T equal to zero. 125 TimeDependentField in a Moving Medium 281 Under this condition (12.2. IZ') in the present context we can find the integral solution for A(E.) and G ~ ' ) ( ERb). is analytically equal to the operator V. R'). For an unbounded region the surface integral in (12. of course. . It should be remarked that we are now treating G ~ ) ( R . V is defined by The technique of elevating (12.122) v = FV . B)= l (fi. (a.124) By considering three distinct scalar functions Fi with i = (1.)GG(v.R') by identifying . 12 Sec. as the Fourier transform of an instantaneous function R') )! G r) defined in the rdomain. RA) and G = G ~ ' ) ( w . in view of the above two equations.)F. m 00 G?) i) eiwidr. If we replace RA and RE by and R' in (12.a'. (12. G?)(R. that is.0 ) . and V.116) This is a symmetrical relation to be used later. By applying the divergence theorem to V . . The theorem stated by (12. 19921 except that it is now extended to functions operated by 0.116) vanishes at infinity by assuming an appropriate radiation condition for the two functions. a l l .a ) = G?) ( a . is the modified "gradient" operator defined by (12.117) we let F = Gf')()(ji.91) found in the formulation for monochromaticallyoscillating fields in moving medium.3) as the components of a vector function F in Cartesian coordinate system. A Fourier transform of (12.V.121). (12. (VaG) . it becomes G?) ( R . At present. Some mathematical theorems similar to the ordinary ) Green theorem of the second kind but involving the modified Laplacian operator V.118) is discussed in Appendix D of the author's book on vector analysis [Tai. a. With this much explanation of the origin and the meaning of Gf)(R.112) reduces to where k2 = w2pe = (wn/c12 and the operator V.81). The function vaFis. V are needed. the equation applies to the continuous spectrum in the wdomain. RE).
y. By interchanging R and R' in (12. a = 1.) . the radiation condition is certainly well known. / which has the familiar characteristic of a retarded potential except it is expressed in the pseudotime domain. and making use of the symmetrical relation described by (12.124) that (12.solution for A (R. They are  fi where R. .130). then the theorem states I To find the instantaneous expression for A (R.122). In view of the defining equations for these two functions. The exact form of these conditions depend on the nature of the problem. If the initial value is chosen to be T'. we find = J (R'.128) has been derived under the condition that the intitial value of T is equal to zero. that is. (12. particularly the value and the sign of the constant a.92). By substituting these functions into (12.125). z .domain. For the time being we merely accept the vanishing of the surface integral as a postulate. hence It is obvious from (12. 125 TimeDependentFieM in a Moving Medium F = X(R) and G = GF)(R. the Fourier transform of two functions f (7) and f 2 ( ~ in ) the r. = (r2 + at2) The reciprocal Fourier transform of (12. 7). t ) let us consider the case corresponding to a > 0 or nb < 1. fir) by (12. For the case of a stationary medium. Because our simplified notation for the transformed function 5(8')does not reveal the explicit functional dependence on w we should clearly identify g 1 (w) . If 3.124). . T) or eventually the same function expressed in terms of the original variables (x. respectively.282 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap.127) with respect to w provides for the . (w) and g2 (w) denote. we obtain the corresponding expression would be The surface integral at infinity vanishes by assuming two proper radiation conditions for the two functions.129) can now be evaluated by means of the convolution theorem in the theory of Fourier integral.114) and (12. 12 Sec. T . and f 2 (T) in our formulation. (T).~.118) for a region extended to infinity or an open region. we have The Fourier integral contained in (12. where ra = ncla.T' . The expression for ~ f ) is then given (R.7.g2 (w) . R') in (12.. namely.
We leave it as an exercise in Appendix D with sufficient hint to execute it.109). t ) with A(R. 12 Sec. t ) given by (12. By denoting t . t ) is more involved. Equation (12.101) but carried out in a reverse manner. therefore. and (12.93). t) we have to go back to . which is valid for a field point. Equation (12. It should be mentioned . The situation is exactly like that of the monochromatically oscillating field. is found in Compton's work. the Cerenkov condition prevails. By following a similar analysis it can be shown that ~t) where t . To find the expressions for E (R. The calculation of Z(R.132) or (12. one finds It represents an ellipsoid with center at t = r = 0.135) but with A/& < 1. equivalent to when n = 1 (air medium) or 0 = 0 (stationary medium).then =t + For the case with a < 0. z . t ) can be found in a relatively simple manner. 7' = t1+ Rzf. where the constant a is defined by < assuming to the positive (np < 1) in the present case. the following inequalities hold true cCl This transformation is similar to (12. the ellipsoid degenerates to a spherical surface as it should be. a 0.137) is. The physical interpretation of the wave fronts for both cases. It turns out that the locus of the wave front is still given by (12. I which is the desired formula to calculate B(R. (12.. outside of the cone the field vanishes. then Ra = (r2 + at2) thus the locus of the wave front emitted from a point source located at i corresponds to ? The electromagnetic Mach cone is defined by r =) a / t. we have '. corresponding to n o > 1.(12. T ) in the original variables (R.113). t) and B (R. Equation (12.126) is given by (12. The function to be used in (12. By taking a reciprocal Fourier transform of (12. corresponding to qP < 1.r' = t .2') + R(z . It can be proved that for the case considered here with a > 0.t' . where (12.134) can be changed to where Now by treating these functions as implicit functions of R and t.110).z') 7.t d = t .136). The detached ellipsoidal wave front is inscribed inside the electromagnetic Mach cone.t' = q. with . lies inside the cone.136).109) with respect to w. t ) we merely put Rz.t' =t + R(z .ncla' R. 125 TimeDependentField in a Moving Medium 285 To convert A(R.284 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium T Chap. The expression for H (R.
67) we define a pair of electric and magnetic dyadic Green functions satisfying the following two equations for monochromatic oscillating fields: By applying method of separation of variables to (12. satisfy the following equation: V 1 I By means of (12. we used "a" and "b" for xo and yo. T) described by (12. = cos To find the eigenfunction expansions for the two functions for a rectangular waveguide.. In this chapter the letters "a" and "b" have been used to denote two parameters in the constitutive relations . As far as the result is concerned. In conclusion.286 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. = cos () mxx sX= sin () &I i The wave equations for these two functions are c. we have presented here a new method of formulating and solving the field equations in a moving medium by introducing a pseudotime variable that facilitates considerably the handling of the original differential equations. corresponding to x = 0 and xo. . Ka (h) where the scalar functions % _. y = 0 and yo. T) domain.T) and B(R. The method appears to be simpler than the direct method used by Compton with the introduction of a fourdimensional space and time operator because only existing formulas. The solenoidal vector wave functions needed to construct b =(b).148). we need Ed! and 5 They satisfy the boundary conditions at the ) : .141) where mxx c. = sin with and (2) (2) . An exercise is also assigned for the readers to practice this approach. the solution can also be obtained by considering the monochromatic solution as the Fourier transform of a timedomain field. The inverse Fourier transform would yield directly the timedomain dyadic Green function.104) can also be solved by introducing two dyadic Green functions E. it can readily be shown that The method of eigenfunction expansion can also be applied to find the dyadic Green functions for waveguides filled with a moving isotropic medium. In Chapter 5. In view of (12. . 126 RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE WITH A MOVING MEDIUM for moving medium. inner surface of the waveguide. T) and E.66) and (12.146) they are  N5mn ( = 1 ' = 1 v X [b . $mn (h)] (12. The theory is based on the technique of functional mapping in mathematic analysis. S. already available in the theory of monochromatic field.148) x V x [mzmn(h)i]. (12.146)(12.(R.Eii (12.103) and (12. are needed.(R. and . one finds that the resulting eigenfunctions are = 76(8 ..p)+ k2Eib). 126 Rectangular Waveguide with a Moving Medium 287 that the equations for E(R.~ are solutions of the following homogeneous differential equation b. T) defined in the (R. hence a change of notations for the widths of the waveguide is necessary.149). 12 See.
(12. the function Gel .rrk. Subsequently. there are two poles of the integrand in (12.R') = S(x . is recalled that "a" could be either positive or It negative.h) + Re(h)b . The discontinuity condition for E:). The constant "a" in that equation.x1)S(y.rrk:~oyo6(h.n # 0 According to the method of magnetic dyadic Green function. defined in Sec. is given by As a result of the normalization relations of the vector wave functions we find .288 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. 124.n (!c2. they are By applying the residue theorem to (12.156) in the hplane. Unlike in the theory of ordinary rectangular waveguide. one finds where + The primed functions are defined with respect to (XI.2xoyo (h2 .' U k2 '"  [ ( ) ( Egi +V x ( b ) z) 6 ) . derivable from (12. we let where kg denotes the guided wave number. the coordinate variables of fi'. Case 1.I t . a= (1p2) (1 n2p2) >O or n p < 1. is quite different.142). and (12. Wb(.y'.161) . n # n' . n = (p€/pO€()).xx @j. It can be verified that the normalization relations of the vector wave functions thus introduced are K k D = a ( 2 .60) .t?$c). R') = . 126 Rectangular Waveguidewith a Moving Medium 289 The trigonometrical functions and the cutoff wave number kc occurred previously in the theory of rectangular waveguide with stationary medium. there are two cases to be considered.141).148).h') In this case. 6(R . As a result of (12.149).t (z .~(R. we obtain where 60={ II O. in the plane z = z'. (12. lm 00 dh KD [ao(h) b . z').V x b. we have omitted the subscript 'mn' for the wave functions. m # m'. resulting from !c2k2 = 0.154). is given by must have the following form: (b) Z. a . The relation between the eigenvalues stated by (12.152). 12 Sec.k2) where with p = V / C . however.y').(I+ 60). depending upon the value of np.morn=O 1 .z') . (  h)] > m. 0. m # O.a2k2+ akz) = a2 For simplicity in writing.
R') becomes R where . vanishes. is confined within an electromagnetic Mach cone or the Cerenkov cone. the desired expression for Gel . This phenomenon resembles the solution for 2. indicates that standing waves are existing within the original Cerenkov cone. the contour of integration must exclude these poles for z > z' and enclose both poles for z > z'.:)in an infinite region given by (12. 12 Sec.60)I kc kgxoyo. 127 CYLINDRICAL WAVEGUIDE WITH A MOVING MEDIUM   Equations (12.159) to (12.vanishes for z < z'. in the absence of the waveguide.93).159) and (12. 127 Cylindrical Waveguide with a Moving Medium By substituting the expressions for EEL* from (12. where 2 1 C' = ia3(2 . The corresponding expression for (b) Gel ( .162) have been derived under the condition a > 0 or np < 1. we merely give the answers for E:). and as follows: In this case. When a = 1. where For z < z'. the poles of the integrand of (12. Case 2. Without going through the detailed derivation that is very similar to the previous treatment. they reduce to the expressions for a waveguide with a stationary medium.161).. They are given by b I I Since the primary field.154) become real. the function G. The structure of Ed!)+ and G:). The expression for EE): is then given by The function EEL.290 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. we obtain =@I.
12 Sec. ( ~ rsin n+e'hzi] ) 'Os 1 R g m n ( h ) V x =n p. a p ( k p ) ] .. z < z'. with Furthermore. The functions which we are interested in are again c 2 Gel. J. The other case corresponding to a < 0 has no practical significance in terrestrial problems.R ) =0.292 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. JA ( W O ) = 0.) 128 INFINITE CONDUCTING CYLINDER IN A MOVING MEDIUM Case 2. where k.. This mistake is now amended by way of the method =(b of G.(PTO)= dJn ( P T O ) / ~ ( P ~ O ) TO = radius of the cylindrical waveguide Gel (R. The vector wave functions to be used in the eigenfunction expansion are functions defined in a continuous spectrum both in the X and h domain. 19711 contained a mistake resulting from the direct synthesisof EZ) without the longitudinal functions.  jJ. 128 Infinite Conducting Cylinder in a Moving Medium  1 R l ( k p ) = RE (k. _) = V x ( h. It should be mentioned that an early work on this subject [Stubenrauch and Tai.. and the field under investigation is expressed in a frame stationary with respect to the moving cylinder. = (a2k2. k. = (a2k2+ k.a p 2 ) i The functions and other parameters are identical to the ones defined in Case 1. = (a2k2+ (b)  1 kx = (a2k2. To resolve this problem we need a Fourier integral representation of the functions E$b and EZ). From the point of view of the theory of relativity.$mn(h)] . this problem is equivalent to that of a conducting cylinder moving with a velocity vi in a stationary medium. they are M. k Jn(Xr0) = 0. The problem under consideration has the same geometry as the one discussed in Chapter 7 except that the medium surrounding the conducting cylinder is an isotropic medium moving in the zdirection with velocity G = v i . .aX2).) = V x . Only the case for a > 0 will m and be treated.
we obtain where Problems of similar nature. by the method of Emone finds where c . I2 Sec.143) must have the form m = Rmn(h) with Once E!b. the method of scattering superposition yields where the scattered term is given by For simplicity. In conclusion. . Some topics which are not covered in the text are absorbed in the exercises with enough hints so that the readers may wish to broaden the scope of study and to gain confidence in digesting and applying the method so introduced. The primed functions in (12. 128 Infinite Conducting Cylinder in a Moving Medium The orthogonal relations of these functions are Subsequently.. omitted.. the electric field due to a current distribution placed outside of the conducting cylinder can be calculated using the formula By eliminating the Aintegration with the aid of the dyadic operational method described in Sec. the subscript. in an unbounded region in view of (12. The magnetic dyadic Green function 22.So) 8~q2 ' With the aid of these relations we find Vector wave functions with superscript "(1)"are defined with respect to Hankel functions of the first kind in the generating function. we have compiled in this book many basic formulas for the dyadic Green functions of various canonical problems which could be used to formulate boundaryvalue problems in electromagnetic theory. that is.)is known. = ia2(2 . like a moving dielectric cylinder in air with a current source placed either inside or outside of the cylinder.170) are defined with respect to R'.294 Inhomogeneous Media and Moving Medium Chap. 19721. attached to the vector wave functions has been a = MEmn(h). 62. can be formulated accordingly [Stubenrauch. In the presence of a conducting cylinder with radius ro.
e. h3 = 1 . j. Cartesian System coordinate variables: vl . and Curl in O i h o g o ~Systems l Laplacian of f Appendix A Laplacian of F Mathematical Formulas =VV. 2 . 3 )in cyclic order. R = hl h2h3 Gradient of f Divergence of F (A4 I Curl of F Elliptical Cylinder VllV2. R. ii2. h2. in cyclic order. v3 unit vectors: 61. Rsin8 6 1 . . DIVERGENCE.Sec. k ) = ( 1 . Divergence. h3. ( i .c2. Derivatives of Unit Vectors A1 GRADIENT.FVXVXF. k = 1. . AND CURL I N ORTHOGONAL SYSTEMS I i . = R. c3 . 4.v3 = R l @ . AI I Gradient. A .v2.j . . G3 metric coefficients: h l .3.2. h2. # J h l .
Mathematical Formulas
Appendix A
Sec. A4
Integral Theorems
lnvariance of Differential Operators
Oi
i
a a
(gradient operator) (divergence operator)
6: a E  x  (curl operator) hi dv:
a
Oi
i
a
A4 INTEGRAL THEOREMS Gauss Theorem or Divergence Theorem
i
applicable to any two orthogonal sets.
A2 VECTOR IDENTITIES
Curl Theorem
a(Fx~)=b.(~~a)=e.(axb) x (6 x Z) = (a ~ )  ( a . b ) ~ b V(ab) = aVb + bVa v.(ab) = a ~ . b + &  ~ a ~x(ab)=aVxbbx~a V.(ZX~)==~VXS~.VX~ v(a.b)=zxvxbxvxa ( a . v ) 6 (6. v ) a v x ( a x b) = a v . b  b v . a  ( a . v ) b + (b . V)a V . (Va) = V2a v . (VZ) = v2a vx(vxa)=~(v.a)v~a V x (Va) = O V.(Vxiz)=O.
(A4 (A.9) (A.10) (A.11) (A.12) (A.13)
Gradient Theorem
Surface Divergence Theorem
+
+
Surface Curl Theorem
Surface Gradient Theorem
I
A3 DYADIC IDENTITIES
JJV, f d S
(A.21) (A.22) (A.23) (A.24) (A.25) (A.26)
Stokes Theorem
=
f fifdk.
a.(&xE)=b.(axZ)=(axb).E a x (5 x 2) = b . (a x E)  ( a . b)E
~ ( a b= a v b + (Va)b )
CrossGradient Theorem
Mathematical Formulas
Appendix A
Sec. A4
Integral Theorem
CrossDelCross Theorem
First DyadicDyadic Green's Theorem
First Scalar Green's Theorem Second DyadicDyadic Green's Theorem Second Scalar Green's Theorem
JJJ (flv2f2 f2v2f1) v JJ (flvf2 f2vfl)d d .

=

~ . (a.41)
First Vector Green's Theorem
/I
[(vx F1) . (V x F2)  F1 . v x v x F2]d ~
In the above formulas A denotes the outward unit normal vector for a closed surface. For an open surface, 1denotes the tangential unit vector to the edge of the surface, and A follows the righthand screw rule by turning 1.The unit vector m is perpendicular to the edge but tangential to the open surface; it is defined b y m = e x fi.
Second Vector Green's Theorem
I
First VectorDyadic Green's Theorem
Second VectorDyadic Green's Theorem
Sec. BI
Rectangular Vector Wave Functions
Appendix
B
Vector Wave Functions and Their Mutual Relationships
B1 RECTANGULAR VECTOR WAVE FUNCTIONS
I
I
~ k L ( h=  [  ~ k , ~ ~ ~ , ihk,Memn( h ) ] ) ( h ) k,2 1 Rgi ( h ) =  [  i h k x ~ o m(n )  rk,Memn( h ) ] h k,2

1
+
(B.10) (B.1 1 )
P.1)
1
It is to be noticed that is not equal to ! x V because the generating functions used to define them are different. The functions defined by (B.5) to (B.8) all satisfy the vector Dirichlet boundary condition at the side walls of the rectangular guide, corresponding to x = 0 and a, y = 0 and b. Another four functions that satisfy the vector Neumann boundary condition can be found in a similar manner.
~ k i
14). 83 Spherical Vecor Wave Functions B2 CYLINDRICAL VECTOR W V FUNCTIONS AE WITH DISCRETE EICENVALUES $$ ( h ) = Jn (Xr)sin n+eihz.304 Vector Wave Functions and Their Mutwl Relationships Appendix B i Sec. ( x ~ )Cyn+i eihh'. Other types of cylinfunctions. I (8..(=) . m = 1. cos sin $ ( h ) = Jn (w) n+eihz . When the eigenfunctions are continuous. we discard the constraints on X and p so that they may assume any value. = j. MgnAand drical vector wave functions can also be used to represent the electromagnetic fields. respectively. ( K R ) [ F $ p r ( c o s sin e)COS m+d = q I  [ n J n ( p r ) sin d J n ( p r ) cos n F+ r cos dr sin n + ~eihz ] (B. we have only two sets of instead of four sets. . In that case.14) q~. sin ihn sin IRjn ( 4 1 s The functions Me and are obtained.15) vx [J ( ~ r ) ~ ~ ~ n $ e ~ ~ ~(B.2. namely. COS Jn (Anma) = 0 or Xnma = prim. .13) and X by in (B.3. by replacing p by X in (B. Thus we have M z n r ( h )= V x ( h 1 K )= v x .sin +J)] ! =f 2 n ( n + 1) [i" P(m+lb (B.. ..2. (cos P " m sin 0 e)cos rn+Jl Sin =K 1 vx [q+ mn ( x ) (sin e cos +R + cos e cos $9 . ] . .13) 1 d dP. n = 0." cos + rT Jn(Xr)cosn& + X 2 J .1.16) sin i .
19) and (8. and $.   . . we have (2) (2)  a B4 CONICAL VECTOR WAVE FUNCTIONS . NZmnand Gem.23). NEmn.. by taking the curl of ( ~ .20) with n replaced by p or u. B4 Conical Vecor Wave Functiom Characteristic equation for p: Characteristic equation for U : P " 80) = 0 v (cos The expressions for m p . can be obtained N. n v . .:result is the same by inter. 2 i )(B. N. have the same form as the " spherical vector wave Gnctions defined by (B. 7%.22). changing the roles of and N in (B.(v) The relations between Ne mn.Appendix B Sec.21)(B.23). M. and (B. m p . For example.
x') in terms of the sine and cosine functions with periodicity 2a. that is. = cos k. 601 states that the gradient operator is invariant to the coordinate system.x') and its derivative are defined by 5 = sin 0 cos +R + cos o cos 49 .sin 44. + cos 0 cos q . C1. = sin k. G . the onedimensional delta function S ( x . i and R. let C . I I Chapter I 309 Find the Fourier series representation of a onedimensional delta function 6 ( x . = cos k. pp. S . Find the relations between the unit vectors 2 .J as tabulated in Table 12 by taking the gradient of an appropriate scalar quantity expressed in the two coordinate systems.3 A twodimensional dyadic delta function in the form of Exercises can be represented by a twodimensional Fburier series using two orthogonal sets of functions defined by Chapter 1 c1 . For example.. . 181. that is. 4. It is observed that the unknown coefficients must be placed at the posterior position. = sin k.I The method of gradient [Tai.x C . where where the unprimed and the primed quantities are defined in two arbitrary curvilinear orthogonal systems.x. 1992.y. S .sin &. 1964. p. let then determine An and Bn. DOthe rest to verify the results given in Table 12. d ! According to the theory of generalized functions [Gelfand and Shilov.y mr nr kx = T 7 k " b The series can be written in the form then v x =2 V ( Rsin O cos 4) = sin 0 cos 4~ Hence Determine the unknown coefficients and Bo. 9.
the equations d29v( x .0 ) / 4 s R 2 according to (1.x)] I + [f +(XI) f (x')] 6 ( x .x'). { 1. the threedimensional delta function.2') Show that the solution for G o ( R )can be obtained by the method of spherical Hankel transform.x') therein.2') + f(x)U(xl .x') = 6(x 1 .Exercises Appendix C Chapter 2 311 i Based on these relations. and then determine gv with the aid of (2). An alternative approach is to solve (4) by applying the same method.2 For a threedimensional scalar wave equation with spherical symmetry. Hint: The spherical Hankel transform of the singular function 6 ( R . A clear understanding of the present exercise would help to understand the foundation of the method of Em.x') = f ( x ) = f S ( x ) U ( x.2') d2x I . C2. x < 2' 11 where ! denotes the idem factor and 6 ( R . Hint: By definition.2). The differential equations governing the current and the voltage on a transmission line excited by a shunt current are given by (2. I We can define two scalar Green functions gv ( x .x') and gi ( x .84) with n = 0 and R' = 0 is given by + k2gv(x. Chapter 2 f ( R ) 6 ( R R1) v = f d (R). dv +f(x)U(xl. we have applied the OhmRayleigh method to solve (3) for an infinite line where the result is given by (2.x).1) and (2.[ f + ( x ) u ( x 2')  d Ilk€. prove that In Chapter 3. the corresponding freespace Green function G ~ ( R ) satisfies the equation where gv and gi satisfy. that is. respectively. the generalized function $6(x .R'). is defined by .x') is defined by For a discontinuous function described by and where U ( x .x') such that I This exercise is a scalar version of the method of Em to be used to find the eigenfunction expansion of the electric dyadic Green function in subsequent chapters.x') denoted by go(x.17) with gv(x. x > x' 0.
89) by the method of Fourier transform. By definition. Hint: The differential equation for Go(F. C2. 1941. 4051.st)S(y . J(Rt) J(Rt) .312 Exerckes Appendix c I I I Chapter 4 because jo(0) = 1 [Stratton.y'). 1941. p. R')V1 . R' = 0.10) is valid for the point of observation. j = 1.82) and (3.r') is Hint: V G ~ ( R . A = iwpoco$ as described by (3. With the aid of (l. 4831. The Hertzian potential function A obeys the gauge condition V . Let Find the surface charge density at the interface in terms of the normal component of El or E2 [Stratton. Show that in the farzone region the terms which are negligible in comparison with E and given by (3. The Debye potential function was introduced under the assumption that ?I = ARR and the gauge condition Determine g(X) by substituting the above two expressions into the differential equation. where V' denotes the gradient operator R') in the primed coordinate system and V' . p. The result should be the same as (2. that the electromagnetic field of a Hertzian dipole can be found by using AR instead of A. This exercise demonstrates very clearly the nonuniqueness of the potential functions as far as the solutions for E and il are concerned. then evaluate the inverse Fourier transform by the method of contour integration. ! Show that the integral solutions for A andJ+I given by (3. R') = 0. R')] = G ~ ( R .75) indeed satisfy the gauge condition postulated by (3. Show that for two lossy dielectrics in contact with complex dielectric constants Prove that 2 X Eml [Em2R . the circulation relation of the spherical Bessel functions with v = 0. o (R. where KOis a constant.ll3). the function Go(R) can readily be determined. This exercise will show that (2. Chapter 3 C3. R').83) are of the order of 1/kR2.87) with R1 therein replaced by R. [J(R')G~(R. Apply the Green function technique to determine V(x) along the line and verify your result by the classical method based on the theory of differential equations.2. x. i x v x E e 2 ( ~ =~ ) .4 Derive the expression for the twodimensional freespace Green function given by (2.. Chapter 4 C4.71). we have The boundary condition for the normal components of the electric fields is .3 An infinite line is excited by a shunt current source described by / Find the differential equations for AR and @ for the case that 7 = J ~ RShow .74) and (3. + + + k2Go = S(x d2Go dx2 d2Go dy2 . located either outside or inside the source region. C2. R').71).1 Find Ee2 and Gml for a halfspace ( r 2 0). R)] T = E m 1 ( R ( Hint: For three infinitesimal orthogonal current elements with current moments cj. = VGo(R.3placed at R .1 Apply a twodimensional Fourier integral transform to this equation.VIGo(R.
C4. R ) x E.R1l C4. R') in arriving at R') the final result. Derive this formula and compare it with the formula quoted in Exercise 4.88) and iz is an arbitrary constant. = Ee0(R.only one component in the zhas direction.18).51). This formula is found in the works of Franz [I9481 and Mentzer [1955. when the dyadic point source. The axis of the wedge corresponds to the zaxis.3 By definition. It was obtained by using the vector Green's theorem of the second kind. The result yields By means of the method of images find the electric dyadic Green function of the first kind for a rightangle conducting wedge (5 > 4 > 0). for a fictitious magnetic current source the field equations have the form By means of the method of images find the electric vector Green function of the first kind. Gel. 4661 is another version of Huygens' principle. . ) is R')z.314 Exercises Appendir C I I Chapter 4 315 where Hint: There are five images of a zdirected electric dipole placed at R' inside the wedge. R'). p. One of them can be derived by using the vectordyadic Green theorem of the second kind. It is observed that Stratton and Chu's formula involves not only the tangential components of E and H but also the normal component of E. You are required to fill in all the details of the derivation such as the use of the symmetrical relationships of Ze0(R.xL23 .(R. p.. an alternative formula for E(R) can be obtained. You are required to fill in the details of the derivation. C4. R the threedimensional freespace scalar Green function defined by (2. (1. and V x E.2iiGi It is assumed that the region of integration does not have a volume distribution of current. If we let P = E(R) and = V G @ . 1471. The axis of the wedge corresponds to the zaxis. for a 60" angle conducting wedge ($ > 4 > 0).4 where According to the duality principle. The result yields 8 R: = xiPl Answer:  + xLP2 . the nonvanishing component of Fe0 is the vector component defined by ceo.2 A formula due to Stratton and Chu [Stratton. (Go+ G i ) . 1941. with P = E(R) and 0 = G ~ ( R . (1. with P = E(R). Their images with respect to a magnetically perfectly conducting surface placed at z = 0 are described by where Huygens' principle in free space can be cast in several different forms.5 where Go = 11 eiklRiZII 47r IR . where Go(R.
(1. Discuss the case whereby P = H a . ~ ~ e ~ ~ g ' d . Chapter 5 C5.vectordyadic Green's theorem.k g ) U ( Cmn + 8.Not(kg)Nb.z ) ] =k x x m.2') ( When we apply the vector Green's theorem of the second kind to derive the = reciprocity theorems. Verify the complementary reciprocity theorem for the transmission lines stated by (4.316 Exercises Appendix C Chapter 5 A pair of dyadic Green functions can then be introduced to integrate these two equations.8 Prove the symmetrical relationship of V x GY)stated by (4. With the aid of Em find the integral solution for B.B)]x 22 The function Ee is now a solenoidal function while Em is not.h g ) N b ( k g ) U (z' . The last term with the factor 26 ( z .k g ) ~ z ..z') Jm = iwpoM.2 N o z ( k g )= . C4.a)] and m.205).1 = v t 6 ( R . [A' x E(R')]dS'.z ) ] ~ + C cmn26 (2  z') x potk g ) F o r( . show where Cm2obeys the boundary condition A x V x Gm2 = 0 on S. 0 = Hb.249).43) and and 1 .n 4 C s. however. ( .k g ) We( k g )U (z' .k g ) U m.  ( k g ) ]. The volume integral can be converted to an integral of equivalent magnetization vector defined by   Vx C Cmn [Be(kg)Oi:( .49).z ) ] =k (kg)we .z') k )~ cmn [D"o (kg).51). (5..n [me (Z . the two cases treated in the text are Case 1."& ( .x') s ( y . P = E.( zg.n + N o ( . Hint: Apply the .7 Vx m.z') can be transformed to .R') . m. and Case 2. show that I k.2) + B e ( .R') x 22/k2 with the aid of the twodimensional expansion  Verify the relationship V n Gel = B m 2 with b2 B given by (5.sysxlsy~~ ab . m. you must be careful in coordinating the boundary conditions. You may obtain the same answer with the help of the duality principle without repeating the analysis which leads to (4.k g ) Pe(kg)U ( 2.n a + B o ( .181). to this problem second with P = B and = Gm.. k + iwe0 f l m 2 ( R . Eb. 6 ( x . = Hb. P = E.n ( Z .y') = The rest is straightforward. 11 Then.S .n cmn [ N o ( k g ) ~ ~ ( . They are Hint: = '[k2 va(R 1 .k g ) ( C4.k g ) N b ( k g )(2' .When the formulation is applied to problems involving an electrically perfectly conducting scattering body.
Find the expressions for the electric field E(R) inside a rectangular waveguide excited by an infinitesimal electric dipole with current moment c located at &. and C2 are given by  Following a similar technique as hinted in the above exercise.yo. zo. extracting the singular term 2 26(R. Hint: factor mo Shown first me. C5.R')/k2 first and then regroup the remaining terms to obtain Eel in the form of (5. Then let I .R').) for the following cases: Then derive the formula I 8 (a) J ( R ) = c6 ( R . and zo are orthogonal with the same normalization I The rest follows the same procedure described in the method of c e ..49). and S. C1. S. = (xo. have the same meaning as the ones contained in and No. Find Eelfor a rectangular waveguide by using the vector functions defined by C2 = B2.. B1. R') = V6(R k2 where Eel is given by (5. k2 . where the constants h and kc and the functions C. C. It is observed that me is the same as Me and no and Z0.318 Exercises Appendix C Chapter 5 C5. that is.no. The coefficient Cl can be split into two terms.3 1 . where 1 eel Rt) = . nb.&)f (b) J ( R ) = CS (St. namely. that is.Ro) jj (c) J ( R ) = cS (R' .R') and so on. and ?b are defined with respect to the primed variables and h. with Hint and the answer for (c): The primed functions %b. B2. except some constants represent the transversal and the longitudinal components of I a. show that V .Ro) 2..2 Show that the coefficients Al.49). Cel(R.2%(R (R.
flo = Rot +No.R') In evaluating the curl of the residue series Sel in Gel. x = a.R')] = V 6 ( R .158).yo) 6 (2' . the answer is where It should be mentioned that the classical method of treating this class of problems is based on the method of Hertzian potential [Chien. the answer is where For Case (c).B') = Eml(R. where Not and No. Infeld. Hint: ze = Emwhere the two functions are given by (5.x1)6(y. 1 C5. according to (4. C5.6 Derive the expression for EAI fi') stated by (5.yo) 6 (z' .87). we have For a rectangular waveguide v x Ee2(R. x' = a where 6(7' .x1)6(y. 9' = b = (c) i Show that V x (5. C5. (R. 19491where different potential functions have to be found for different orientations of the dipole.5 I Find the expression for the electrical field inside a rectangular waveguide excited by an infinitesimal aperture field with fieldmoment f located on the wall of the waveguide.zo) 2. are discontinuous at z = z'. denote the transversal and the longitudinal component of No.zo) 2 . and Synge.183). The contribution due to these terms cancel the terms resulting from V x [ i i 6 ( R.320 Exercises Appendix C Chapter 5 For Case (c). Stevenson. take into consideration that the terms flotNb. that is. Pound.$ 0 ) 6 (z' .xo)6 (z' .7'') = 6(x .R') x i f 6(x . Hint and the answer for (c): In general.y').167).zo) 2.z') x 22 E(R1)= f 6 (Y' . and f l o z f l b .zo) y.8   Complete the derivation of (5. = ' 1 The dimension of the fieldmoment f is voltmeter. . The cases to be treated are ( a ) E(R1) f 6 (x' .157) and V x [ i i 6 ( R. Derive a twodimensional Fourier series representation of the delta function in the fornl ( d ) E(R1) f6 (y' .. y' = b = (b) E(R1) f 6 (x' .R')] / k 2 .y1)6(z.
0 ) i 1 b C6. Find the electric dyadic Green function of the first kind by the method of 2.o)$. The region of the function corresponds tooo>r>a. > J(R1)=Io cos kz16(r1. Find the electric dyadic Green functions of the third kind GC1)and 2!i21) the method by of scattering superposition. C6.2 J(R') = @6 (R1 &) 6(01. 74. With the aid of Eml find the farzone electric field of a longitudinal slot antenna cut on that cylinder with an aperture field described by 1 E ( .80)6(+' . Find Gel for this waveguide. both B and B.R ) stated by (6. It is terminated by a conducting plane at z = 0. C6.1 A plane wave in the form of E.R ) for a conducting cylinder of radius equal to "a" in free space. the dominant of mode (TE11). r' = a R find the expression of the electromagnetic field. When the guide is excited by an electric dipole with current moment c corresponding to a current distribution Find the function Em1(R. The guide occupies the region r q5 > 0.3 A cylindrical waveguide with radius "a" is filled with air in region 1 ( 0 > z > oo) and with a dielectric of permittivity e in region 2 (co > z 2 0).5 Verify the expression for E E l l ( E . Figure 62 is a useful aid to do this exercise. following the technique described in Sec. Find the scattered field.oo>z20.I for a semiinfinite conducting cylinder of radius "a" erected perpendicularly on a conducting ground plane.31).4 A semiinfinite circular waveguide occupies the region oo > z > 0.322 Exercises Appendix C Chapter 7 Hint: Split the term NoNb/(ts2 .b)6(q5' . Which is the dominant mode of all the modes? Hint: Halforder Bessel functions are involved in addition to Bessel functions of integral order.k 2 )into two sums as follows: . C7.)= Eo cos kz16(4' . The cylinder is concentric with the zaxis. Hint: Consider a current source in the form of A circular cylindrical waveguide of radius "a" is bifurcated by a conducting strip extended from the center of the guide to the wall.. . The axis of the cylinder coincides with the zaxis. C6. It is located at q5 = 0. Chapter 7 C7.75). Find ??.2 Find the farzone field of a halfwave dipole placed outside of a conducting cylinder with a current distribution described by I Find the electric dyadic Green function of the first kind for a semicircular waveguide with radius "a". Chapter 6 is incident upon a conducting cylinder with radius equal to "a".2r2420. ~ 2 ~ ~ sin &+zk cos 6%) ~ i ( x What is the main reason for such a splitting? See (5.0 ) R ' ~ e1 sin Determine the asymptotic expression for the scattered field when k& >> 1.
89).where region 1 corresponds to b 2 r 2 a and region 2 to r > b. if we apply the same method to expand V x [ ~ G ~ (E')]. The algebraic method of deriving Ee0in terms of the spherical vector wave function does not provide for the singular term of this function. Hint: The twodimensional Green function in free space is given by (2. Region 1 denotes the region inside the layer and region 2 the space outside. Derive (9. y = y'.4 + An infinite line current source is placed inside a 90" conducting wedge at x = x'. Find this identity. where b denotes the outer radius of the dielectric layer. which is quite complicated.aplane and the axis of the elliptical cylinder coincides with the zaxis. C7. C10. or r = r' and = 4'. Chapter 10 C10. The scalar Green's function for E. The domain of the function occupies the region ca > r 2 a. or gl = O at + = 0 and n +=. Chapter 9 Discuss the singular behavior of both E and near the edge of a halfsheet with the aid of the series expansion of the Fresnel integrals given by (9. we are dealing with functions of the third kind. then the singular term can be obtained by making use of the relationship Ee0= .5 C9.24).59).29) and (9.3 Find Eel for an infinitely long conducting halfcylinder with radius "a" placed on a conducting ground plane. C9. 19491.z plane. Chapter 8 (&+ & + k2) gl = 6 (x .y') The boundary conditions for gl are g l = O at x = 0 and y = O Find Eel for a semiinfinite conducting elliptical cylinder placed on a conducting ground plane. satisfies the differential equation + A conducting cylinder of radius "a" is coated with a layer of dielectric with thickness t = b .2 Verify (9. 2 Find the vector wave functions which can be used to construct the dyadic Green functions for an elliptical waveguide with major and minor axes denoted by "a" and "b". the major and minor axes are denoted by "a" and "b". E. ca > z > 00. The equivalence between these two solutions yields a relationship between a finite sum of Hankel functions of zeroth order and a series of Bessel and Hankel functions of fractional order.30) with the aid of the saddlepoint method of integration.32) by using (9. namely.324 Exercises Appendix C Chapter 10 325 Hint: Apply the method of images with respect to the conducting ground plane. You are not required to find the complete answer. n 2 > 0.18) or (9.XI)6 (y .a. b 2 r > a and r > b. Consider the case where the incident field is perpendicular to the edge. However. R R ~ ( R fi')/k2. Find the dyadic Green functions I?$'') and Ed2') for a perfectly conducting sphere of radius "a" covered by a concentric layer of dielectric with permittivity E and outer radius "b".20).1 Prove the normalization identities described by (8. Being a problem involving two regions. The axis of the cylinder corresponds to the zaxis. the ground plane corresponds to y = 0 or the x . Show that the result is compatible with Meixner's edge condition [Meixner. Outline the steps and the functions to be used to find EL1') and Frl). The solution for gl can be obtained either by the method of eigenfunction expansion using a series of Bessel functions and Hankel functions of fractional order or by the method of images. The ground plane corresponds to the y .23) by taking the partial derivative of the Sfunctions represented by (9.
. 19561. p. C10. j answer for C. that is. C10. iii = m2 and (2) in the zdirection.rr) 6 (4' .0) ? I RI2 sin 8' c6 (R' .(R') c6 (R' . C10.2 4nR2 R+m 1 ~ ~ lq2 ' 1 ~ where Bj denotes the incident plane wave and E.(R.0) R = RI2 sin 8' Find the expression for the electric field of this antenna.70) by working out the details based on the boundary conditions. The error made in that work would have been avoided if the dyadic Green function technique were available then.326 Exercises Appendir C Chapter I I 327 [V x L I!?.0) 6 (4' . Hint: The asymptotic expression for the spherical Hankel functions and the series expansion of the spherical Bessel functions are found in Stratton [1941. Determine the eigenfunction expansion of Gel by finding the degenerate form of EL1') as u approaches infinity. By definition..6 Show that the field of a horizontal magnetic dipole placed above a flat earth can be derived by using one electric Hertzian potential function Te and one magnetic potential function 77.5 When the conductivity of a flat earth approaches infinity the earth becomes a perfectly conducting plane.. The constitutive constants in region 1 are deR R 1 noted by pi and ei for this model (model B). Let the axis of the dipole lie (1) in the xdirection.. Hint: It would be convenient to use the formula Find the expression for the backscattering cross section for a conducting hemisphere resting on a conducting ground plane..a ) 6 (8' .) Two infinitesimal electric dipoles with the same current moment are placed at the poles of a conducting sphere with radius equal to "a". but is impinging on the hemisphere at an oblique angle 8 = O0 with the ground plane located at 8 = 7r/2. &(R) = S. iii = mi?..4 ~2.12)( .for the freespace function G. Sketch the steps that would give the complete J Chapter 11 Find the expressions for the electromagnetic field due to a longitudinal slot or a transversal slot on a single cone [Bailin and Silver. T ~ ) . 4051. . Hint: E = V X ~ ~ .4 Find the expression for the electric field of a small loop (magnetic dipole) with a magnetic dipole moment rn placed above a flat earth. Assume that the incident wave is polarized with the Evector parallel to the surface of the ground plane. + ~ W ( T ~ + & V V .R') and . C11.R') by starting with the eigenfunction expansion (2) .. Derive Nomura's expression for B. the fictitious magnetic current. We consider the case = p = po 2 in model A with electric constants €1 and € 2 . then &. given by (10. C10.R ). . the scattered field in the backward direction. R') in region 2 with constitutive constants p 2 and e2 and then applying the method of scattering superposition to determine (22) Gml ( . C11. that is. the backscattering cross section is defined by ub = lim where M denotes the equivalent magnetization vector. and the leading term of the field when ka << 1. Find the expression for (R.a) 6 (8' . and j.3  6 ( ~ R ) ] / k 2 .
Exercises Appendix C I Chapter 12 Hint: I Chapter 12 Show that for the electromagnetically "subsonic" case (np < I). t) in terms of A (R. the Fourier transform of the dynamic scalar potential function cp(R) is given by Let cml R') = E:~(R. namely. R ) . Find the expression for E(R. Cohen for the answer of that equation. T). and In the text. we identify the equation as a twodimensional KleinGordon equation and quoted the work of M. one finds Observe that V. (22) .J(R. the Fourier transform of A (R. Hint: By taking the divergence of the equation for A(@. + a .r a7 T) .a. The Green function Go for the moving isotropic medium in the "supersonic" case satisfies the differential equation = 6(R . Answer: where . t) .J(R. t).119). R') + Eg. t) and cp (R. T) and then cp(R.R ) so obtained should be the same as (11. (R.t) =V.r) Hence The boundary conditions are (R.) (R. H.R').  The expression for G(~:)(R. I with Determine cp(R.
which is a good candidate as a research topic to train a graduate student in analytic skills. . then Remark: This is a relatively difficult exercise. By evaluating the hintegration. Hint: We define C12.yplaneorz = 0. Jo(Xr)Xdh.O)S(z .4 Verify the identity stated by (12. That formula states C12. namely. namely.z) satisfies the equation Find the twodimensional Fourier integral representation of the functions and for a moving semiinfinite medium. Region 1 is air and region 2 contains the moving medium with velocity E = v2.zl). tip1) Ed1') = S(T 1 2n .79). The interface corresponds to the x . p. 4151 by an appropriate change of the parameters.330 Exercises Appendix C Chapter I 2 Show that the solution can also be obtained by applying a Fourier and Hankel transform to that equation. 1922. for z > z1 + k2/a12) Justify this step by invoking a priori condition for Cerenkov radiation. It is a test of the mastery of some important techniques developed in the book. for < z sin "$:") 21.3 Prove the symmetrical relationship as stated by (12. where Go(T.86). one obtains Go(r7z)= where hl = (X2 la\ ( g lom 0. The Bessel integral is then carried out by making use of the SonineGegenbauer formula [Watson. No hint will be provided for this exercise.
1965." IRE Trans. Lateral Electromagnetic Waves.. R. International Textbook Company. Articles and Reports Bailin. 1948. Mentzer. New York. J. and M: Owens. Uslenghi. D. 1952. Electromagnetic Radiation j?om Cylindrical Structures. Sommerfeld. AP4. Whinnery.. H.. Sommerfeld.. 171182. Courant. T.T. Springer Verlag. Generalized &tor and Dyadic Analysis. pp. The Mathematical Theory of Optics. 1982. Gelfand. Feynberg. McGrawHill. Stratton. Scattering and Difiaction of Radio Waves. Academic Press. Marcuvitz. Electromagnetic Theory. R. Pergamon Press. 1951. London. Marcuvitz. A. Field Theory of Guided Waves. Morse. New York.Radiation and Scatteringof Waves. Luneburg. 11. New York.J.. Oxford University Press. Ramo. Theory of Bessel Functions. R. G. Vol. 1943. Shilov. Washington. 1971. M. Electromagnetic Waves in Stratified Media. Van. No. New York. Springer .J. Verlag. W. L. Wait. D. Watson. Englewood Cliffs. E. 1986. Silver. Scranton. and E. C. and T. J. 1992." Electromagnetics. Cheng. B. T T Wu.. Vols. R. Pergamon Press. S. New York..... Oxford. IEEE Press. 313 (correction). A. New York. Prentice Hall. Pa.. E. p. Fock. Academic Press. L. 1955. and N. Dover Publications. T Copson. 1954. Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics. 6.References 333 Refer e n ces Books Abramowitz.. 1973. 1959. N. and S.J. Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable. E. New York. Cambridge University Press. 1936. Collin.Dyadic Green's Functions in Electromagnetic Theory. Sommerfeld. 1944. Senior. Modem Analysis. Feshbach. Whittaker. I. 1949. Dayton. London. J. N. B.. Dipole Radiation in the Presence of a Conducting Halfplane. and G. Government Printing Office.. Piscataway. New York. 1961. 1953. Tai. Clarendon. Providence. New York. S. and I? L. "Exterior Electromagnetic Boundary Value Problems for Spheres and Cones. 1950. Fast Fourier Transform and ConvolutionAlgorithms. 10 of M. Nussbaumer... R. McGrawHill. B. English translation of 1961Russian book published by the Foreign Technology Division. C.1860. PartialDifferentialEquations. Singular Electromagnetic Fields and Sources. 1969.. 1964. Differential and Integral Calculus. Interscience Publishers. Felsen. 1944. 7679. J. 2. H. J. R. New York. 1962. . Copson. J. pp. Brown University Press.. Stegun. McGrawHill... 1966. Van Duzer. L. 1965. 1922. New York. Maxwell. T. 1992. "On the Formulation of the Dyadic Green Function in a Layered Medium. and I. Handbook of Mathematical Functions.I. A. The Propagation of Radio Waves Along the Su$ace of the Earth. A. I? M. Tai. Y. NorthHolland. J.. E. Cambridge University Press. K... N. 1991. New York. J. N. Electromagnetic and Acoustic Scattering by Simple Shapes. pp. L. C. Waveguide Handbook. New York. T . Dover Publications.I. M. R. R.AP5.C.. Methods of TheoreticalPhysics. Radiation Laboratory Series. Pergamon Press. OrdinaryDifferentialEquations. A. National Bureau of Standards. ScientificPapers. Bladel. Baker. Ince. Baiios. New York.. Cambridge. 515.. 1964. Amsterdam. Bowman... T. The Mathematical Theory of Huygens' Principle.. 1941. Academic Press. E. King. N. Piscataway. John Wiley & Sons. J. New York.. Optics. T. Pergamon Press. Electromagnetic Difiaction and Propagation Programs. A. E. Part 11. Oxford University Press. New York.A. Ohio. S. Cambridge. Vol. N. U. IEEE Press.. Electrodynamics.. 1991. I?. New York. Vol. and G. B. Academic Press. L. 1956. 13... V A. Watson. WrightPattersonAir Force Base. Pergamon Press. Wait. and H. J. New York. Generalized Functions. R.
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178 Eaton. "On the Eigenfunction Expansion of Dyadic Green Functions." Proc. 60.. I. 1956. L.. J. Tai. J. R. Systems Laboratory. "Different Representations of Dyadic Green's Functions for a Rectangular Cavity. L. MSD1802. S. 144 Bailin.. Pounder. M. 326 Baker. T. l i i . 275 Collin." Proc. J. M. E. T. C.315 Gelfand. 144 Name Index Deschamps. 233 Feshbach. E. I? L. see Lee.1988. pp. New Mexico. 250 Chien. C. E. No.1992. 95 Compton Jr.." ZEEE Trans. J. 1973. Infeld. R. 213 . and I?Rozenfeld. 1973. Wilcox. T .. T. Vol.. J. and Stegan. Stevenson. Abramowitz. Burbank. ' 193 I . L. I. C.. and Synge. pp.. Bafios. 245253.. 61. p. L." J.. and Copson. 1987. Chinese Antenna Soc. S. Nanjing. Ann. 175 Hanington. see Morse and Feshbach Feynberg. T B. . J.et al.1967.. and Marcuvitz.... Vol. pp. A.. pp. see also Baker and Copson Courant." No. 309 Hansen. 320 Chu. see Lee. M. C. Bowman.B. 1976. 40. B. "Dyadic Green Functions for a Rectangular Waveguide Filled with Two Dielectrics. Nov. Vol. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation. pp. T . E. R. 245248. L.. "Complementary Reciprocity Theorems in Electromagnetic Theory. China. 262. N. A.. Tai.. Electromagnetic Waves and Appl. No. H. also "Math. 176 . 936945. V A.1972. Microwave Theory and Technique. 2. l i i . Antennas Propagation.. S. Senior.." ZEEE Trans. E. S. H. "Different Forms of Reciprocity Theorems. ZEEE. E.. F. Vol. Note.. 6. R.. Y. L. 597601. H. A. Hargreaves.. Tai. Albuquerque. T . A.1983. 355358. et al. T. Symp. 31. J. G. ZEEE... 16 Felsen. 314. 28. C..269. "Present Views on Electrodynamics of Moving Media. Antennas and Propagation. Tai. 2. R." ZEEE Trans. C. H. W Z.. T. (in Chinese). Franz.. and Silver. 8." Radio Science. C. W.. A.277 Copson. and Shilov. 2528. 30. 213.. "On the Presentation of Maxwell's Theory..110 . W W.. California.." Proc. Vol. No. W. 96. C. see Stratton and Chu Cohen. C. Dwight. Vol. and Uslenghi. 675481. G.. pp. 480. 233 Fock..W. Kirkland Air Force Base. 230 Boersma. B . Tai. T . Vol." Technical Report No. T. R. 24.336 References Tai.. "Dyadic Green Functions for a Coaxial Line. D. "Electromagnetic Theory of Luneburg Lens. E.. L. 261 Cheng. 255.
J. 52 Area.. 260. H.279 Stegan. 19 fractional order. and Papas. 42. see also Whittaker and Watson Whittaker. see Abramowitz and Stegan Stevenson. A. A. 213 Nomura. E. I?. H.. E.. R.. 250 v Van Bladel. T . 15..25.. J Jasik. S.. 94 Cone and spherical sector. E. N.. G.270. see Bowman et al. C. 223 Cones.128. C. Y. M. 99 Circular aperture on a sphere. H.. see King et al. 264 Infeld. 261 Nussbaumer. 231. 133 spherical.. H. 218 Cerenkov phenomenon. A. L. N. 277 Lee. 154 and half sheet. A. T A. 201 roots of.. T. see Lee and Papas Pounder. 16 Cavity cylindrical. K. 132 Levine. J. 151. Y... C. 128. 14. 162.. T . 199 Boundary conditions.. 196 in free space. 170. J. see Chien et al.313.. F! M.. E. 261 Continuity. and Rozenfeld. P.. 267 0 Owen. 58... 324 Mentzer. 142 rectangular. 262 Conical lens of Luneburg. C. see Chien et al. see Bailin and Silver Sommerfeld.114. M. 261 Subject Index M Marcuvitz. R.229. Law. 89. Lee. T.. 38 N Nomura. see Nomura and Takaku Uslenghi. 217 flat earth. F 270 ..201. 14. 119. 263 Wilcox. T . 270 Morse. S. see Chien et al. R. T .326 Stratton. 315 Stubenrauch. and Watson. C. Wait. A. W. Stratton.209. 326 Bessel functions circuiation relation of. and 'hi. G. 13 recurrence relation of cylindrical. 324 Coaxial line. vector... G. J. S. 213 Minkowski. K.. 175. see Chien et al.. Boersma. and Deschamps. etal.L. A. H. 46 Schwinger. ! Schelkunoff.. and Schwinger.. 293 Synge. 143 Complementary impedance condition. H. 295 Stubenrauch. 124 spherical. W. 135 Rozenfeld.. E. 92 Complementary reciprocity theorem.seeLee. S. 268 K King. C. 232 C Cauchy Riemann relations.47 in dyadic form. J. Abraham dipole. 199. K.. 60 Luneburg. I.. 231. and Feshbach. J. 133 roots of the derivatives of. H.270.270 integral relation of the product of cylindrical. 217 Circular cylinder.. Silver. C. L.. 5. B. F! L. and Van Duzer. T T. P Papas. 95 Van Duzer. J.207. 203 integral representation of.36. R.115. G. 159 conducting sphere. see also Felsen and Marcuvitz Meixner. E.90. C. R. Backscattering cross section.. Wu..20. 149 on a ground plane. see also Bowman et al. and Owen. Ramo. 275 Characteristic values..217. and Takaku.45. and Chu.. see Ramo et al. K..215. 151 of spherical. 192. S.. L. 154 dielectric... Tai.S.148. J. equation of. A. 315 Mie.59 . J. H. H. 19 of spherical. see Levine and Schwinger Senior. 176..263 T Tai.169.. J.233 L Law. 54 Asymptotic expression of farzone field conducting cylinder. J. W.C. 220 Confluent hypergeometric equation. 178..338 Name Inden I Ince. J.. L. L. N. 90. 128 Takaku. C.258 Watson.. J. J.231. R. Whinnery.205.242 Complementary unit dyadic.96..19.
1 Dupin. 262 L Laplace operator. 15 Diffraction by half sheet. 16 Hankel transform of. 275 Kronecker delta function. 124 sphere conducting. see scalar. 261 Half cylinder on ground plane. 51 Cylindrical waveguide. 1 Curl theorem. 266 magnetic. 205. conducting. 45 Generalized confluent hypergeometrical function.43 Maxwell fisheye. dyadic green functions Green's theorem scalar. 161 Excitation function. modified. 7 Images. 250 Field function.63 dyadicdyadic. 274 parallel plates. 322 classification of. 124 rectangular waveguide. 66 scalar. 23 vector. 14. 106 K KleinGordon equation. 63 bifurcated. 54 Magnetization. 6 curl of. 261 cylindrical. 108 FourierBessel transform. 229 magnetic. 54 Eigenfunctions. 30 Generating function. 231 spherical. 3 rectangular or Cartesian. 142 semiinfinite rectangular waveguide. 220 conducting cylinder. 211 dielectric coated. 133 Electric constant. associated. 74. 161 flat earth. second kind. 261 Edge condition. 10 vectordyadic. 114 rectangular cavity. 162 MaxwellAmpkre law.80. 39 Gauss's theorem. 10. 12. 9 posterior scalar product of. 108 . 269 I Idemfactor. 199 recurrence relations. 1 spherical. 67 elliptic cylinder. 5 vector. 54 Dupin coordinate system.76. modified. 225 potential type. 115 plane stratified media. 39 Malmsten equation. first kind. 260 Gauge condition. 66 second kind. 233 J Jordan lemma. 5 Current moment. 143 conducting cone. 261 conical. 308 Gradient theorem. 11. 153 second kind. 99. 69 symmetrical and antisymmetrical. 291 D'Alemberts' method. 263 Inhomogeneous medium. 269 Mathieu equation. 204 bifurcated circular waveguide. 8 solenoidal. 152 two dimensional.81 Ground wave.110 Hertzian dipole. 36. 40 Elliptical cylinder. 68 second kind. vector. 251 wedge. 239. 237 dielectric slab. 324 semicircular waveguide. 322 semiinfinitecylindrical waveguide. 4. 69 twodimensional Fourier transform of. 49 Gauss law. 157 dielectric layer on a ground plane. 157 dielectric coated cylinder. 52 Dirichlet condition dyadic. 274 Gradient. 279 Debye potential. 196 Effective height. 175 . 324 Half sheet. 142 with a moving medium.244 third kind. 12. 128 Dyadic function(s) anterior scalar product of. Fourier transform of. 7 Dyadic divergence theorem.Subject Znda Subject Znder Coordinate system cylindrical. 142 dielectric cylinder. first kind. 187 Dipole moment. 118 semicircularcylinder on ground plane. 114 Eaton lens. 9 definition of. 218 symmetrical properties of. 230 Huygens' principle. 14 Helmholtz equation. 65 Dyadic Green function(s) algebraic method. 8 components of. 8 anterior vector product of. 322 semiinfinite. 68 moving medium. 198 half sheet. 286 with two dielectrics. vector form of. 40 Magnetic dipole moment. 62 coaxial line. 274 Hypergeometric equation.313 Delta function. 57 first kind. 6 divergence of. 315 in moving medium.314 Indicia1 equation. 5 vector. vector. vector.84. 59. 11 dyadicdyadic. 264 Generalized functions. 175 Hankel function first kind. 128 elliptical cylinder. 38 Fast Fourier transform. 6. 275 Hertzian potential electric.85 vectordyadic. first kind. 30. 52 in moving medium. 169 Dyadic spatial operator. 7 Dynamic scalar potential. 97 Gradient operator.251 Fresnel integrals. 49. 215. 7 Kummer functions. second kind. 103 with moving medium. 199 Hankel transform. 157 cylindrical cavity. 57 first kind.206 Luneburg lens.152 spherical. 325 spherical cavity. method of. 7 transpose of. 153 Dyads. surface. 15 weighted. 99 Duality principle. 8 posterior vector product of. second kind.104 Eigenvalues. 274 Legendre functions. 5 Green functions. Faraday's law. 210 dielectric. 152. 268 M Magnetic constant. second kind. 249 electric. 255 Inhomogeneous spherical lens. first kind. see Hankel transform Fourier transform. 38. 92. 225 free space. 322 semicircular. 173 Luneburg lens.
128 Spectral function. 291 rectangular. 23 onedimensional. 98 with moving medium.. 103. 263 Piloting vector. 22 twodimensional. 97 inhomogeneous. 25.30. 23. 161 Scattering superposition.123 Time dependent field in moving medium.50 symmetrical property of. the method of. 220 cylindrical. 36 in elliptical cylinder coordinate system.110 of 103 Metric coefficients. 47 Moving media. 38 integral form. 296 Monochromatically oscillating field. 35. 25 first kind. 48 Vector wave functions Cartesian. 90 Riemann Pequation. 107 Unit vectors. 261 Normalization factor. 87 complementary. 60. conducting. Vector Green functions. hybrid. 21 classification of.. 97 S Saddle point method of integration. 16 Scalar Green functions. c. 59 Vector potential. 257 rectangular. 51 Wedge. 100 Neumann function. 96 conducting wedge. 9 Radiation aperture or slot on a half sheet.100 solenoidal.65. 133 with moving medium. 136 rectangular waveguide. 255 Reciprocity theorems.. 9 vector. 149 Waveguide cylindrical. 1 . 27 third kind. 89. 169 Neumann condition dyadic. 40 dependent. 118 Wave impedance. 286 with two dielectrics. 55 indefinite. 49 Vector wave equation homogeneous. 40 Surface current.123 Triple products dyadic. Papperitz equation. 137. 169 conical.Subject Index Subject In& Maxwell's equations definite form. 30 Stokes' theorem. 50 . 36 threedimensional. free space. 96. free space. 134.239 transmission line. 42 dyadic. 39 dyadic form. 144 NomuraTakaku distribution. 49 onedimensional. 324 Method of ??A. 114 of . 277 TM modes cylindical waveguide.. 45 E. 4 Surface charge. 136 rectangular waveguide.104 spherical. 98. 109 Radiation vector. 161 plane stratified media. 39 Potentials. 263 Unit step function. 33 Scalar wave equation inhomogeneous. free space. 49 Pseudocoordinate system. 233 Polarization. 182 inside a rectangular waveguide. 217 Radiation condition. 85 RayleighCarson. 27 twodimensional. 98. 38 independent. 100 rectangular. 41 Meixner's edge condition. 58 Surface Gauss' theorem. 86 Lorentz.. 102. 111 Operational method of Levine and Schwinger. 2 elliptical cylinder. 277 T TE modes cylindrical waveguide. 120 128 Singular term in Space wave. 1 OhmRayleigh method. 138 Notations. 323 on a sphere.274 E. 23 vector. 101. 26 second kind. 108 on a cylinder. 27. 97 Plane wave reflection coefficient.51. 67 scalar. 275 Pseudotime variable.