Organic Light Emitting Diode

An organic light emitting diode (OLED), is a light-emitting diode (LED) whose emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds that emit light with the application of electricity. This layer of organic semiconductor material is formed between two electrodes, where at least one of the electrodes is transparent. The two organic compounds such as: Alq3 (Aluminum tri (8hydroxyquinoline)) and diamine (TPD- Tetra P-Phenyl diamine) etc. One of them acts as emissive polymer and the other as conductive polymer.

OLED Components

foil) . • Anode (transparent) .The anode removes electrons (adds electron "holes") when a current flows through the device. • Organic layers .Fig.These layers are made of organic molecules or polymers.The substrate supports the OLED. OLED Components An OLED consists of the following parts: • Substrate (clear plastic. . glass.

TPD is the HTL.The cathode injects electrons when a current flows through the device. this is where light is made. Alq3 is the ETL. This layer (p-type material) is also called the hole-transport layer (HTL). This layer corresponding to the n-type material is called the electron-transport layer (ETL).  Emissive layer . How OLEDs Work . One conducting polymer used in OLEDs is diamine. • Cathode (may or may not be transparent depending on the type of OLED) .This layer is made of organic plastic molecules that transport "holes" from the anode. Conducting layer .This layer is made of organic plastic molecules (different ones from the conducting layer) that transport electrons from the cathode.

OLEDs emit light in a similar manner to LEDs. through a process called electro-phosphorescence. .

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) • Soon. the emissive layer becomes negatively charged.  The cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer of organic molecules. . because in organic semiconductors holes are more mobile than electrons. while the conductive layer becomes rich in positively charged holes. • An electrical current flows from the cathode to the anode through the organic layers (an electrical current is a flow of electrons). This happens closer to the emissive layer.  The anode removes electrons from the conductive layer of organic molecules. (This is the equivalent to giving electron holes to the conductive layer.The process is as follows: • The battery or power supply of the device containing the OLED applies a voltage across the OLED. • Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine.

it does not suffer from the viewing angle limitation like an LC based device.• The recombination causes a drop in the energy levels of electrons. • Since an OLED emits light through a recombination process. so they are moving away from each other and do not recombine. The color of the light depends on the type of organic molecule in the emissive layer. the brighter the light. Types of OLEDs There are several types of OLEDs: . accompanied by an emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. holes move to the anode and electrons to the cathode. • The OLED emits light. • The device does not work when the anode is put at a negative potential with respect to the cathode. The intensity or brightness of the light depends on the amount of electrical current applied: the more current. In this condition.

. The anode strips are arranged perpendicular to the cathode strips. External circuitry applies current to selected strips of anode and cathode. The intersections of the cathode and anode make up the pixels where light is emitted. organic layers and strips of anode. the brightness of each pixel is proportional to the amount of applied current. Again.• Passive-matrix OLED • Active-matrix OLED • Transparent OLED • Top-emitting OLED Passive-matrix OLED (PMOLED) PMOLEDs have strips of cathode. determining which pixels get turned on and which pixels remain off.

Active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) . passive-matrix OLEDs consume less battery power than the LCDs that currently power these devices.PMOLEDs are easy to make. PMOLEDs are best suited for small screens (2to 3-inch diagonal) such as those in cell phones and MP3 players. mainly due to the power needed for the external circuitry. but they consume more power than other types of OLED. Even with the external circuitry.

organic molecules and anode. The best uses for AMOLEDs are computer monitors. so they are efficient for large displays. Transparent OLED . The TFT array itself is the circuitry that determines which pixels get turned on to form an image.AMOLEDs have full layers of cathode. large-screen TVs. but the anode layer overlays a thin film transistor (TFT) array that forms a matrix. AMOLEDs consume less power than PMOLEDs because the TFT array requires less power than external circuitry.

They are best suited to active-matrix design. Manufacturers may use top-emitting OLED displays in smart cards.Transparent OLEDs have only transparent components (substrate. it allows light to pass in both directions. cathode and anode). Top-emitting OLED Top-emitting OLEDs have a substrate that is either opaque or reflective. . When a transparent OLED display is turned on.

lighter and more flexible than the crystalline layers in an LED or LCD. Regular LEDs often form the digits on digital clocks and other electronic devices.OLED Advantages and Disadvantages The LCD is currently the display of choice in small devices and is also popular in large-screen TVs. organic layers of an OLED are thinner. OLEDs offer many advantages over both LCDs and LEDs:  The plastic. .

 OLEDs can also have a faster response time than standard LCD screens. they consume much less power than LCDs. LCDs work by selectively blocking areas of the backlight to make the images that visible.  Moreover. OLED-based displays do not suffer from the viewing angle effect even if the viewing angle approaches 90 degrees from normal. OLED substrates can be plastic rather than the glass used for LEDs and LCDs. Whereas LCD displays are capable of a 1 ms response time. Because the light-emitting layers of an OLED are lighter. the substrate of an OLED can be flexible instead of rigid.01 ms response time. while OLEDs generate light themselves.  OLEDs do not require backlighting like LCDs. an OLED can theoretically have less than 0. . Because OLEDs do not require backlighting.

So. Moreover.Water can easily damage OLEDs.Manufacturing processes are expensive right now. For example. So. but it also has some problems:  Lifetime . proper colour balancing is also a problem.  Unlike LCDs OLEDs have poor reflectivity. in the outdoor condition poor readability is a problem. Moreover. screen burn in (or imagepersistance) occurs. blue OLEDs have much lower life span than red and blue OLEDs.  Manufacturing .Limited lifetime of different OLEDs as organic materials have shorter lifespan than common semiconductor materials.  Water .Problems with OLED OLED seems to be the perfect technology for all types of displays. . life spans for different coloured OLEDs are not same.

.e. text or word documents) than documents with black background. Power consumption of OLEDs are much higher for images with white backgrounds (i.