Presented by:MD KHALID AKHTAR 06-EES-23 SHAMS TABREZ 06-EES-56 SAJID ASLAM 06-EES-54

INTRODUCTION PRIMARY PURPOSE PLANNING REQUIREMENTS ISSUES & FACTORS PLANNING SECTION CONCERNED STUDIES/ANALYSIS CHARACTERISTICS MODELS USED IN TRANSMISSION PLANNING METHODOLOGY TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS STRATEGIES TESTING/OPERATION CONCLUSION REFERNCES

INTRODUCTION
It is an analysis of transmission requirements for various generation projects and system reinforcement needs based on detailed system studies. The transmission system are referred to bulk power supply, and the sub-transmission system & distribution system are considered to be the final means of transfer the electric power to the ultimate customer.

PRIMARY PURPOSE
To determine the lowest possible cost, transmission and substation additions which render the transmission network to be able to supply the loads and facilitate wholesale power marketing with a given criteria. To design a safe, reliable and economical transmission system that works effectively to meet the customer needs. Establishment of guidelines for an effective, efficient, competitive and economic transmission network.

PLANNING REQUIRMENTS
Transmission planning and development should aim at achieving an acceptable system performance and to facilitate comparison of options on techno-economic angle. The requirements and major attributes of planning to achieve this are:· Data on existing system · Load forecast · Generation expansion plan · Seasonal load-generation Scenario · Network expansion options

ISSUES & FACTORS
• Planning Period • Load Forecast and transmission usage projection • Generation Resources (Location, Type, etc.) • Discrete Transmission Capacities • Different Alternatives • End Effects • Economy of Scale • Economic and Financial Constraints • New and Emerging Technology • Various Uncertainties and Risks • Service Reliability and Cost Considerations • Taking care of Future Requirements

PLANNING SECTION
Forecasts and consideration of uncertainties - Load forecasting - Forecasts of generation patterns and other factors that may influence transmission needs. Proposal based on long term perspective plan brought out by the CEA. Studies of options/alternatives Discussion with regional standing comity.

COCERNED STUDIES/ANALYSIS
• Load flow studies for flow, voltage, and transmission loss evaluations • Contingency load flow analysis for alternatives to meet reliability criteria • Stability analysis to verify that alternatives meet reliability criteria. • Short circuit tests to verify that existing or new breakers will be able to interrupt faults within their ratings. • Other studies including voltage sag studies. • Alternative methods

CHARACTERISTICS
Meeting targets for adequacy, security and reliability Low cost and low environmental impact Right -of-way optimization/conservation Ease of operation and maintenance Amenable to development in stages Identifying weak areas and corresponding strengthening

WHAT IS A WELL PLANNED SYSTEM
ADEQUACY --Normal and Contingency BALANCE --Size & Strength - Provide Proper Economic Signals to the competitive Market Place MAINTAINANCE --Effective, Efficient, Suitable & Flexible SAFETY & PROTECTION RECOVERY --Restoration

MODEL USED IN XMISSION PLANNING
1-Transmission route identification & selection.
(a)-service region (b)-possible Xmission route. (c)-Route check. (d)-candidate Xmission route. (e)-proposed Xmission route.

Models Used Continue...
2-Xmission system expansion planning.
(a)-Heuristic model. (b)-Single stage optimization model. (c)-Time phased optimization models.

3-Network analysis. 4-Reliability analysis.

TECHNOLOGYCAL OPTIONS
In the planning phase with techno-economic studies keeping in view various state-of-art technological options are used & these are as follows:400kV AC, 765kV AC, 1000kV AC • HVDC/UHVDC ( +500kV, +600kV, +800kV) • Hybrid model • High capacity lines with multi-circuit, high conductor temperature option • Series compensation for transmission capacity enhancement • Dynamic reactive power compensation- TCSC, SVC, STATCOM/FACTS

STRATEGIES FOR TRANSMISSION DEVELOPMENT
• Transmission development in a phase growth manner in

accordance with generation/load growth.
• •

Conservation of right-of-way. In forest areas construction of lines with tall towers/multicircuit lines leading to less trees cutting. Use of high capacity lines(800KV HVDC,765KV AC).

TESTING/OPERATION OF TRANSMISSIONTRANSMISSION-SYATEM
The adequacy of transmission system should be tested for different load generation scenarios as listed in order to test the situation of maximum burden in transmission system. Summer peak load Summer off-peak load • Winter peak load • Winter off-peak-load • Monsoon peak load • Monsoon off-peak load
• •

Sensitivity in respect of generation dispatch and load demand should be tested.

CONCLUSION
The main objective of transmission planning & its methodology is to achieve an acceptable system performance and to allow comparison of options on the basis of techno-economical angle.

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El-Abiad, A. H., ed., “Power System Analysis and Planning.” Hemisphere, New York, 1983. Rincliffe, R. G., Planning and Operation of a Large Power Pool, IEEE Spectrum 4, 91-96, 1967. Dusonchet, Y. P., and El-Abiad, A. H., Transmission planning using discrete dynamic optimizing, IEEE Power Appar. Syst. PAS-92 (4), 1385-1371,1973. Edison Electric Institute, “EHV Transmission Line Reference Book.” EEI, New York, 1968. Power Grid corporation Of India Ltd website. ABB website.