Coverage and Capacity of GSM System

GSM&UMTS Pre-sales RNP Department

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

Huawei Confidential

Foreword

The planning for the radio network mainly involves coverage and capacity. The coverage planning involves radio propagation and hardware model. The capacity planning involves channel

configuration and location area planning. This course describes the preceding contents.

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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Overview
C3Q
Coverage, Capacity, Quality & Cost
Quality

Capacity

COST
Coverage

GSM Dimensioning Flow Inputs
Coverage Related -Coverage Region -Propagation Condition
- Area Type Information

Outputs
BTS Quantity Cell Radius No. of BTS TRX Configuration per BTS Subs. per BTS Capacity Requirement Abis Configuration … Configuration

-Location Probability Capacity Related -Spectrum Available -Subscriber Growth Forecast -Traffic Density -Blocking Probability

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.

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Page 4 .Coverage Dimensioning • Max Path Loss • Propagation Model • Coverage Dimensioning Capacity Dimensioning Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd.

Link Budget Cell radius EIRP Max. Ltd. Path Loss Receive Sensitivity Cell Radius Propagation Model Huawei Technologies Co. Page 5 ..

Ltd.Max Path Loss Uplink Budget BTS Antenna Diversity Gain Slow fading margin BTS Antenna Gain Interference margin TMA Gain (optional) MS Antenna Gain MS Transmit Power Body Loss Feeder Loss Pa th Penetration Loss Lo ss UPLINK BUDGET Gain Margin Maximum allowable path loss BTS Sensitivity MS Transmit power Loss BTS Rx sensitivity Huawei Technologies Co. Page 6 ..

. Page 7 .Max Path Loss Downlink Budget BTS Antenna Gain Slow fading margin MS Antenna Gain Interference margin BTS Transmit Power TMA Insertion Loss (optional) Combiner Loss Body Loss Feeder Loss Pa th Lo ss Penetration Loss DOWNLINK BUDGET Maximum allowable path loss Gain Margin BTS Transmit power MS Sensitivity Loss MS Rx sensitivity Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

Ltd.Loss between BTS antenna and MS antenna Name BTS Tx Power MS Tx Power BTS antenna gain MS antenna gain BTS antenna div. gain BTS combiner loss BTS Feeder loss Item A B C D E F G Name TMA gain Penetration loss Slow fading margin Body loss BTS Rx sensitivity MS Rx sensitivity Max. Page 8 .Max Path Loss Path Loss .. allowable P-loss Item H I J K L M N Uplink: Uplink: B + D ––K ––I I––JJ––N + E + C (+ H) ––G = LL B+D K N + E + C (+ H) G = Downlink: Downlink: A ––F ––G + C ––N ––I I––JJ––K = M A F G+C N K=M Huawei Technologies Co.

do?m ethod=showMMDetail&f_id=GSM200810200035 BTS3012(DTRU 900M) Transmitter power Receive Sensitivity 60W(GMSK)/40W(8PSK) -112.Max Path Loss MS/BTS Tx Power & Rx Sensitivity MS Typical Tx Power: 2w (33dBm)@900MHz. Ltd.com/mm/docMaintain/mmMaintain. Page 9 .5dBm BTS3900(DRFU 900M) 45W(GMSK)/30W(8PSK) -113dBm Huawei Technologies Co. 1w(30dBm)@1800MHz Typical Rx Sensitivity: -102dBm (for planning) BTS http://3ms.huawei..

.8dBm@900M DCOM 3. Page 10 .Max Path Loss Combiner Loss ANTA DPX RXDI ANTB DPX RXDI ANTA DPX RXDI ANTB DPX RXDI BTS3012 Output 47.8dBm@900M Connector 0. Ltd.2dBm COM COM COM TRX1 TRX2 TRX3 TRX4 TOC Output Power = Transmitter Output Power – Combiner Loss – Duplexer Loss – Connector Loss TRX1 TRX2 Huawei Technologies Co.3dBm@900M DDPU 0.

2dB/100m 16.87dB/100m 5/4 inch 2.31dB/100m Huawei Technologies Co.Feeder loss b/w BTS and antenna --.03dB/100m 5.98dB/100m 4.Jumper Loss b/w BTS and antenna --.Connectors loss b/w BTS and antenna Jumper between TTA and feeder Feeder TTA 1/2 inch 900M 1800M 11.1dB/100m 7/8 inch 4.Max Path Loss Antenna Feeder Loss Antenna stand Jumper between antenna and TTA Jumper between lightening arrester and cabinet Lightening arrester Feeder Loss in Link Budget includes: --.. Ltd. Page 11 .

Page 12 .Max Path Loss Antenna Gain Typical gain: Omni: 11dB Directional: 18 dB In-building: 2dB Receive diversity gain: 2 way receive diversity: 3dB 4 way receive diversity: 6dB Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd..

5~1 dB) to downlink Affect the Stability of network Huawei Technologies Co. Worsen downlink Introduce insertion loss (0.Max Path Loss TMA Technical Theory of TMA TMA is to reduce the noise figure of BTS. TMA Affect link budget Improve uplink Generally.. Page 13 . the TMA gain can be calculated as to against feeder loss between BTS and TMA. Ltd. so as to improve the sensitivity of BTS.

Max Path Loss Fading Margin Slow fading (long term fading) Fast fading (short term fading) Caused by multi-path propagation Fast fading margin: 3dB Huawei Technologies Co.. Page 14 . Ltd.

Fmedian (x) Received Signal Level [dBm] Page 15 . the more SFM required SFM required σ Coverage Probability: Coverage Probability: P COVERAGE (x) = P [ [F(x) > Fthreshold ] ] P (x) = P F(x) > F COVERAGE threshold Fthreshold Huawei Technologies Co..Max Path Loss Fading Margin Slow Fading Signal levels obey Log-Normal distribution Slow Fading Margin depends on: Area Coverage Probability – The higher coverage probability is. Ltd. the more SFM required Standard Deviation Probability Density – The higher standard deviation is.

8/1.9/2.1 GHz Scenario Dense urban Urban Suburban Rural Highway Body loss Page 16 18~28 16~23 11~19 8 8 800/900 MHz 18~25 14~20 10~16 8 8 2~3 450 MHz 14~22 10~18 8~14 6~12 8 W dBm X dBm Penetration Loss=X .-W Penetration Loss=X W Huawei Technologies Co.. .Max Path Loss Penetration Loss & Body Loss Building Penetration Loss W1 D W2 E2 Relate to frequency and building character Frequency ↑ Penetration loss ↑ E1 θ θ Wall: 5~30 dB (concrete / brick / wood / …) Glass / Car: 6~10 dB Elevator: ~30dB …… Typical penetration loss value (dB) Frequency 1. Ltd.

Max Path Loss Path Loss Name BTS Tx Power MS Tx Power BTS antenna gain MS antenna gain BTS antenna div. gain BTS combiner loss BTS Feeder loss Item A B C D E F G Name TMA gain Penetration loss Slow fading margin Body loss BTS Rx sensitivity MS Rx sensitivity Max. Page 17 . Ltd.. allowable P-loss Item H I J K L M N Uplink: Uplink: B + D ––K ––I I––JJ––N + E + C (+ H) ––G = LL B+D K N + E + C (+ H) G = Downlink: Downlink: A ––F ––G + C ––N ––I I––JJ––K = M A F G+C N K=M EiRP: Equivalent isotropic Radiation Power (BTS) EiRP = A – F – G + C (MS) EiRP = B + D Huawei Technologies Co.

Ltd..Coverage Dimensioning • Max Path Loss • Propagation Model • Coverage Dimensioning Capacity Dimensioning Huawei Technologies Co. Page 18 .

antenna height and other conditions. Huawei Technologies Co. etc. Page 19 . Predict the path loss along a link or effective coverage area of a transmitter. antenna height. distance..) The model is usually used to predict the behavior of propagation for all similar links under similar constraints.Propagation Model What is Propagation Model Tradition model is an empirical mathematical formulation describe radio wave propagation as a function of frequency. distance. Ltd. – Path Loss = f (frequency.

1*lg(f) ––0.55*lg(Hb)]*lg(d) − a(Hm − Cm •• a(Hm) ) = [1.8] (for city) •• Cm = 00(for urban area) C = (for urban area) m = 2*[lg(f/28)]22+ 5.9 − 6. Page 20 .94 (for open area) = 4.55 + 26.82*lg(Hb + [44.7]*Hm ––[1.4 (for suburban area) = 4..78*[lg(f)]22––18.94 (for open area) Huawei Technologies Co.56*lg(f) ––0.Propagation Model Common Models Okumura/Hata Frequency: 150~1500 MHz Distance: 1~20 Km Tx antenna height: 30~200m Cost231/Hata Frequency: 1500~2000 MHz Distance: 1~20 Km Tx antenna height: 30~200m Lp = 69.55*lg(Hb)]*lg(d) − a(Hm))− Cm Lp = 69.33*lg(f) + 40.4 (for suburban area) = 2*[lg(f/28)] + 5.7]*Hm [1.16*lg(f) − 13.9 − 6.33*lg(f) + 40.16*lg(f) − 13.1*lg(f) 0.8] (for city) a(Hm = [1.55 + 26.78*[lg(f)] 18.82*lg(Hb))+ [44.56*lg(f) 0. Ltd.

according to the selected diffraction algorithm Diffraction_loss. show the speed of signal fading along with distance K distance factor. avg. relate to frequency K1 constant. Ltd. clutter loss according to the digital map Huawei Technologies Co.constant. relate to frequency •• K2. . Page 21 .. avg. according to the selected diffraction algorithm •• f(clutter).affect the relation between path-loss and transmitter antenna height K3 affect the relation between path-loss and transmitter antenna height •• Diffraction_loss.distance factor. . show the speed of signal fading along with distance 2 •• K3. clutter loss according to the digital map f(clutter). .Propagation Model Typical Propagation Models U-Net SPM model Based on Hata model Suitable for more macro cell scenarios Be used to do coverage prediction and simulation by software Lp = K1 + K2 **lg(d) + K3 **lg(Hb))+ K4 **Diffraction_loss + K5 **lg(d) **lg(Hb)) Lp = K1 + K2 lg(d) + K3 lg(Hb + K4 Diffraction_loss + K5 lg(d) lg(Hb + K6 **Hm + Kclutter **f(clutter) + K6 Hm + Kclutter f(clutter) •• K1.

Propagation Model Model Tuning Why Propagation environment is very complicated No universal model It’s necessary to calibrate the model based on the on-site test How On-siteTest CW (Continuous Wave) test – Accurate but high cost (money and workload) Existing telecommunication network DT Calibrate the model by software (U-Net) Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd. Page 22 .

Coverage Dimensioning • Max Path Loss • Propagation Model • Coverage Dimensioning Capacity Dimensioning Huawei Technologies Co. Page 23 .. Ltd.

Coverage Dimensioning Cell Radius Path Loss = f (frequency. designed according to: Distance. BTS antenna height) Allowable max. calculated through link budget Frequency.e. path loss. i. confirmed BTS antenna height. distance. Page 24 . cell radius. Ltd. can be figured out UL/DL Balance Balance or Not? Cell radius? UL or DL? UL DL Difference: • • • • • • BTS/MS Tx power Tx Combiner loss BTS/MS Rx sensitivity Rx diversity gain UL/DL Frequency TMA gain Huawei Technologies Co..

5 * R Highway site: D = 2 * R D R Huawei Technologies Co.Coverage Dimensioning Coverage Area of Single Site Coverage area of single site R • 3-cell site with 65degree H-BW antenna Area = 9 3R2 8 R • Omni site • 3-cell site with 90degree H-BW antenna Area = 3 3R 2 2 Distance between 2 sites Normal site: D = 1. Page 25 . Ltd..

Suburban. Rural. Highway.Coverage Dimensioning BTS Quantity Dimensioning Coverage Requirement Total coverage area: XXX Km2 Divided into several scenarios CBD. Dense urban. etc. . Ltd. Area of each scenario BTS Quantity Dimensioning Except for highway: BTSQuantity = ∑ Highway: Total Area of EachScenario CoverageArea of Single Site Total Length of Highway 2 * CellRadiusof Single Site Page 26 BTSQuantity = ∑ Huawei Technologies Co. Urban..

based on the theoretic calculation only Lack of consideration of actual situation Scrambling of coverage area Unnecessary area Possibility of sites acquisition …… How to improvement Field survey Terrain. … Huawei Technologies Co. GoogleEarth. scenario division.. Ltd. buildings. existing networks. traditional map. … Lay out BTS depends on both dimensioning and map Digital map. population.Coverage Dimensioning BTS Layout Shortcoming of Dimensioning Too simple. photographs. Page 27 .

. Ltd. Page 28 .Coverage Dimensioning • Max Path Loss • Propagation Model • Coverage Dimensioning Capacity Dimensioning Huawei Technologies Co.

Page 29 . Ltd.. configuration Coverage Dimensioning BTS Quantity Huawei Technologies Co.Capacity Dimensioning Capacity Planning Process Coverage area per Site Traffic model Distribution of Subscribers Traffic Load per Site GoS Limitation Judgment Capacity limitation Erlang-B TRX/Channel/… Configuration Coverage limitation END Frequency Planning Figure out the max.

A = offered traffic from one or more users in the system n = number of calls per hour T = average call time in seconds Huawei Technologies Co.Capacity Dimensioning Key Factor: Traffic Model Traffic Model Traffic refers to the usage of channels and is usually thought as the holding time per time unit for one or several circuits.. Page 30 . Erlang Erlang (E) is the unit of measurement for traffic intensity. Ltd. Measure of Traffic: 1 Erlang = 1 Call with duration 1 Hour A = n x T / 3600 Erlang where.

For a Lost Call system.. Ltd. the GoS can be measured using such equation: Grade of Service= Number of lost calls Number of offered calls Huawei Technologies Co.Capacity Dimensioning Key Factor: GoS GoS (Grade of Service) It is the probability of a call in a circuit group being blocked or delayed for more than a specified interval. Page 31 .

. Page 32 .Capacity Dimensioning Key Factor: Erlang-B Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

01Erlangs (from Erlang’s B Table) The number of subscribers per cell = 9..000 Max Configuration of BTS is S222 GoS = 2% Answer: Traffic channels per Cell = 2 x 8 –1 (Control Channels) = 15 TCH Traffic per cell = 15 TCH with 2% GoS = 9.000 / 328 = 28 cells No of 3 sector sites needed = 10 Huawei Technologies Co.01 E / 25 mE = 328 No of cells needed = 10.Capacity Dimensioning Example How many 3 sectored sites needed for Area X if Traffic per subscriber = 25mE Number of Subscribers = 10. Ltd. Page 33 .

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