eveloping the Landscape Plan

Reviewed by David H. Trinklein Division of Plant Sciences

To develop an attractive and useful home landscape, use a step-by-step approach. List ideas and notes about the current landscape and desired changes, draw rough sketches to get a general idea of how to design the three major landscape areas, and then create a more final and exact plan to scale. This guide lists some principles of home landscaping to keep in mind when developing a plan, describes the three major landscape areas and their uses, and illustrates how to develop a final plan through several stages of sketches.

Steps to successful landscaping
• • • • •
Develop a list of existing and desired outdoor features. Draw a base plan. Outline major landscape areas. Locate desired features in proper landscape areas. Develop the final landscape plan.

An attractive, inviting landscape is the result of careful planning and application of landscape design principles.

Outdoor features
List all the outdoor features that your family desires and space permits, even though all may not be included immediately. As time goes by, interests may change and new features may be added or old ones removed. Develop your list for the present and near future. Include existing features on the list, and note which of those features are adequate and which could be improved. Your list might include some of the following outdoor features:

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Patio Children’s play area Sports area Cut flower garden Tool shed Vegetable garden Storage shed

Principles for home landscaping
Drives and walks should be straight unless there is a good reason for having curves. When possible, situate the drive and walk together to avoid breaking up the front lawn area. Use trees to frame the house and provide background. Don’t block the front view of the house with them. Locate play and utility areas where they don’t detract from the home. Don’t overplant. Know the ultimate sizes of plants and allow for growth. Use most plants in borders. An uninterrupted lawn gives a look of spaciousness and is easier to mow. Balance the landscape. Do not have one area more heavily planted or more colorful than another. Consider scale in planting. Large shrubs and trees may dwarf a small house.

Not everything in the landscape should be of equal interest. Create a center of interest with specimen plants, pools or statuary. Don’t create a botanical collection, but bring a variety of texture into the landscape. Coarse textures are dominant and should be used sparingly. Border plants may define property lines or provide privacy. They may be combined with fences, screens or other structures. Use small shrubs near the door, tapering to larger shrubs at the corners.

• • •

Hiding the entire front base with shrubs is not necessary in many homes. Groundcovers may tie plantings together. Plants with brightly colored leaves should be used very sparingly. Select plants for year-round interest as well as suitability for the environment in which they will be planted.

Base plan
After listing existing and desired features, prepare a simple but complete base plan (Figures 1 and 2). Before completing the final plan, you will need to draw the plan to scale, but doing so is not a necessity at this point. A base plan shows your property lines, house location, utilities (both above and below ground), all existing plant materials, walks, drives and topographic features such as rocks, streams, slopes or other characteristics of the grounds to be landscaped. Although exact scale is not necessary, try to obtain realistic proportions. Show dimensions for property lines, house outline and other permanent landmarks or structures (Figure 3). This will be the base of future drawing that will be done on tracing paper placed over this plan.
Figure 1 Measure property lines or boundary of area to be landscaped. Sketch roughly. Figure 2 Sight along one side of house to locate points for positioning house on plan. Any corner may be used where objects do not interfere with sighting. For example, locate corner of house relative to a square corner of the lot, left, or an angled corner, right. Figure 3 On the base plan, draw the lot, house and existing landscape features that will be retained.

Major landscape areas
On tracing paper placed over the base plan, outline the three major landscape areas: public, private and service (Figure 4).
Figure 4 On tracing paper placed over the base plan, sketch approximate location of major landscape areas.

Public area This is the area visible from the front of the house and the street. It contains the walks, drive and front entrance. Landscaping in this area should be relatively simple and combine well with the rest of the neighborhood. Service area This area should be located where it is not seen from the front but still has easy access from the drive. It is usually found to the rear or side of the property. It contains such items as garbage cans, clothes lines, compost heap, tool shed, storage shed and sometimes less attractive garden projects such as a cut flower garden, cold frames, hotbeds, plant propagation area or greenhouse. This area is normally screened from the private area. Private (living) area This is the most important area to develop as it provides an area for family activities and extends the living area from the house into the landscape. Normally, more landscape dollars and planning are needed to develop this area properly. This area may contain a patio, deck area, swimming pool, garden pool, fountain, recreation or sports area, children’s play area, shrub and flower borders, hedges, screens, vegetable garden or other attractive features for family interest and recreation.

Locate desired features in proper landscape areas
Place a fresh sheet of tracing paper over the base plan, and roughly sketch in the outdoor features on your list (Figure 5). This will give you an estimate of the space available in relation to the number of features wanted in the landscape. You may find the area is not large enough for all the features listed and some with low priority will have to be dropped. Next, determine more accurately how many square feet will be required for each of these items and fit them more precisely. This is when a base plan drawn to scale will be beneficial.
Figure 5 Lay a second sheet of tracing paper over the base plan and on it locate the desired landscape features. Try different arrangements and sizes of areas.

Develop the final landscape plan

a portion should be of hard surface such as brick. The sight and sound of moving water are relaxing and enjoyable. Private (living) area This area. a pump is needed to circulate the water. Some indication of the desired size of plants will be helpful when the time comes to select plant types. Shrubbery or fencing of some type is often used for privacy screening. concrete or stone. They may be located to block views from the private (living) area. reviewed April 2010 . the doorway is the focal point. Service area Because this area generally cannot be kept attractive. G6901. comfortable and attractive to invite use. use the larger plants at the corners and graduate to smaller plants toward the door. are used to accent plant materials at night and provide light for evening use. avoid using them unless they fulfill the needs of a location in the plan.General considerations When developing a landscape plan. To ensure maximum use. Plantings should lead a visitor’s eyes to the entrance. plant materials to form hedges. Water can be used in small garden pools or fountains. screenings are very important. Figure 6 Complete the landscape plan by selecting the most suitable features from the sketches. needs to be functional. This area is used mainly during warm weather. as appropriate. it must have a feeling of privacy and enclosure. groundcover or flowers. or a combination of both. Complete the plan before starting to plant. public area or neighbors. so it should have some protection from the sun. generally located behind the house. To create this effect. Public area This area (Figure 6) is designed to set off the house and make it more attractive and inviting to the visitor. To accomplish this. either by trees or an overhead structure. In the public area. Although you may have some favorite plants. Screens may be of fencing. Trees are used to frame the house. Once the general plan is complete. Landscaping should blend the house into the surrounding area so it appears natural. Simply label plants as trees. search catalogs or local nurseries to select appropriate plants. shrubs. Trees are used to break the roofline and give the home a feeling of permanence. either electric or gas. To be most effective. the strong vertical lines of the house are softened with plants. and bedded shrub plantings create a transition from open lawn areas to the house itself. To accomplish this. Lights. Two features often provided in the living area are light and water. you do not need to name specific plant materials until the general plan is complete.

1246). 73-479.L. They further embodied the goals of the Better Homes movement of the 1920s and reflected advances in zoning and subdivision regulation that had been advocated by city planners. not exceeding 6 percent at the time. and the real estate industry. community builders. and economies of scale. Department of the Interior. under Title II of the National Housing Act of 1934 revolutionized home financing. National Park Service National Register. self-contained neighborhoods and small. The creation of a permanent. FHA standards for safe. . History and Education Process & Policy Issues | Outreach to Diverse Communities | Landscapes | Recent Past | Miscellaneous Suburban Landscapes: The Federal Housing Administrations’s Principles for Neighborhood Planning and the Design of Small Houses Codified in the National Housing Act of 1934 (P. standardization. and required downpayments were set at 20% of the cost of a home. FHA-approved and redesigned projects reflected New Deal economics and incorporated the emerging technologies of prefabrication. national program of mutual mortgage insurance. efficient low-cost dwellings institutionalized the ideal of suburban life that had been envisioned by several generations of American designers and established a foundation for sound real estate investment. Mortgages were to be fully amortized through monthly payments extending over 20 years.S. Interest rates were to be relatively low. 48 Stat. Garden City planning principles and naturalistic landscape design coincided in many residential communities approved for federal mortgage insurance by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) in the 1930s. Amendments to the Act in 1938 and 1948 and the Veteran’s Readjustment Act of 1944 liberalized the terms for home mortgages by lowering (and in some cases eliminating) downpayments and extending the payment period to 25 and eventually 30 years.U. The Federal government insured loans granted by private lending institutions for as much as 80% of a property’s value. federal policy for privately constructed and financed single and multiple family homes shaped the character of American housing and suburban landscape in the mid-Twentieth Century.

fog. fostered a sense of community by providing harmonious and interesting streetscapes. For FHA administrators and designers setting the national standards that would be used to rate neighborhoods and homes for loan approval. and offered an efficient arrangement of house lots. used the legislation’s mandate as an opportunity to redirect the design of suburban America and to create conditions that would force public officials and planners alike to adopt planning measures and to abandon the rectilinear grid in favor of plans of curvilinear streets. drew from successful garden city and curvilinear models. and reflected Clarence Perry’s Neighborhood Unit concept which had been endorsed at the President’s Conference on Home Building and Home Ownership in 1931. FHA standards followed the established principles of landscape architecture and city planning. etc. Accessibility by means of public transportation (streetcars and buses) and adequate . Location possessing a suitable site in terms of topography. to gain the confidence of private lenders including the nation’s largest insurance companies as well as local savings and loan associations. from FHA's Planning characteristics into written standards and basic design Profitable Neighborhoods (1938). neighborhood of singlefamily dwellings. and to ensure a sound and solid foundation for private real estate investment. and excluding non-residential uses. soil condition. FHA’s curvilinear plans provided for long blocks of evenly sized house lots and streets of varied widths that were laid out in a hierarchy from perimeter access roads to cul-de-sacs. FHA redesign of a neighborhood in This office translated desirable neighborhood Pontiac. greatly reducing the cost of street construction and utilities. Michigan. smoke. obnoxious odors. and absence of hazards such as flood. FHA’s Land Planning Division. the design of safe and healthy neighborhoods and efficient small houses offered an unprecedented opportunity an opportunity to bring together the best practices of their respective professions and affect broad-sweeping change that would not only improve the quality of life for the average American family but also provide models for the growing metropolis of the future. eliminated dangerous fourway intersections. 2. Location exhibiting a healthy and active demand for homes. These plans made extensive use of cul-de-sacs. The FHA not only approved or rejected plans they actually redesigned many of the neighborhood plats submitted for review and approval (see illustration). principles that could be uniformly applied across the nation to the design of neighborhoods of small houses. Such plans discouraged through traffic. The FHA set forth seven minimum requirements for new subdivisions: 1. 3. headed by Seward Mott. FHA-approved plans. and minor residential streets interlinked by collector streets. courts.The driving force behind the 1934 legislation was to stimulate the building industry. discouraging through traffic. such as the one for a Pontiac. MI. tree cover.

7. minimum costs of construction). and merchandising costs. and where taxes and assessments were in line with the type of development contemplated and likely to remain stable. although not strict requirements. Compliance with city. particularly local zoning and subdivision regulations to ensure that the neighborhood will become stable (and real estate values as well. where development was financed and carried out under the direction of an "operative builder" who arranged for the purchase of land. whereby subdividers were financially able to carry through their sales and development program. 6. and shopping centers. livable neighborhoods and ensured stable real estate conditions that justified private mortgage lending and FHA mortgage insurance. county or regional plans and regulations. Such large-scale operations offered a "broader and more profitable use of capital" and permitted the introduction of industrial methods that resulted in savings in overhead. as well as the cost of preparing the land for occupancy. 5. construction. • • • • • • • • Careful adaptation of subdivision layout to topography and to natural features Adjustment of street plan and street widths and grades to best meet the traffic needs Elimination of sharp corners and dangerous intersections Long blocks that eliminated unnecessary streets Carefully studied lot plan with generous and well-shaped house sites Parks and playgrounds Establishment of community organizations of property owners Incorporation of features that add to the privacy and attractiveness of the community In 1936 FHA published Planning Neighborhoods for Small Houses as "a subdivision primer" setting forth standards for the design of new subdivisions that provided safe. preferably connected to existing public mains.) Protection of values through "appropriate" deed restrictions (including set-backs. and the design and construction of the houses." Standards called for the careful selection of sites suitable for the type of development contemplated and recognized that the attractiveness of the subdivision. The FHA encouraged large-scale operations. Gridiron street patterns were discouraged because they dispersed traffic evenly throughout . highways to schools." which. lot sizes. Guarantee of a sound financial set up.4. employment. Utilities were to provide "adequate supply of pure water" and modern methods of sewage disposal. Installation of appropriate utilities and street improvements (meeting city or county specifications). In addition. the design of the subdivision plat. FHA issued a set of "desirable standards. were additional factors considered in the approval process. and carefully related to needs of the development. and in addition develop "commercial services such as retail stores and gasoline stations necessary to the life of the new community. depended to a great extent on topography." Developers were able to achieve the plan in a consistent and harmonious manner.

and attractive setting. and houses were to be attractively grouped in relationship to each other. The right-of-way for through streets was to be at least 50 feet in width whereas that for cul-de-sacs could be as narrow as 30 feet with a paved strip as narrow as 18 feet. uninteresting architectural effect. and hawthorn. Recommended were street plantings of permanent shade trees such as red oak. and 3) cul-de-sacs.000 square feet) and in shapes that assured "privacy." Lot lines were to be drawn at right angles to street lines. . American and English elm. FHA recommendations called for the subdivision of house lots in sizes (ordinarily up to 5. The FHA suggested that the services of a landscape architect be retained. pleasant outlook. and American and European linden at forty-foot intervals on Elevations of neighborhood rights-ofeither side of the street and groupings of low shrubs way from Planning such as snowberry. walks. prairie rose. regal privet. and crescents which eliminated traffic hazards. corner lots were to be of generous size. The FHA suggested ways to vary a limited number of house designs. and by varying the setback line and the planting so that interesting groupings are secured. and reduced the cost of laying water and sewer mains. straight rows of houses. creating interesting vistas and doing away with the monotony of long. which would otherwise have little value. rosa rugosa." depending on the type of road and included four-foot sidewalks and eight-foot planting strips. stating: "variety and interest may be secured by sometimes having the end elevation and sometimes the side elevation toward the street. 2) minor residential streets where traffic was reduced to a minimum. and creating a monotonous. FHA standards provided recommended widths for streets. and pavements based on the volume and character of traffic expected. eliminating wide intersections and following topography with the result "that an attractive and unforced curvilinear layout is secured at reduced improvement cost. by the placement of the garages. Houses were to be in harmony with each other. hard maple. A hierarchy of roads was recommended. which included 1) major thoroughfares to provide quick and convenient access to principal centers. courts. cut down on paving costs. Japanese Neighborhoods specified the width of paved strips varying from 18 to 24 feet barberry.000 or 6." the street system increasing traffic hazards.FHA's Planning Neighborhoodsrecommended that culde-sacs and courts "be fitted into the plan so that odd-shaped inaccessible remnants of a subdivision. are converted into desirable lots. adding to construction costs. and monotony and excessive architectural ornamentation were to be avoided. pin oak. sycamore.

) . and established mandatory set-backs. included house. front and side entrances. to preserve it from loss due to overdevelopment of certain types of land use. such as commercial and apartment areas. and attached garage. but separate from. Restrictions were enforceable through civil law suits brought before local courts by any other owner of property within the subdivision. In Shelley vs.shade and fruit trees. Kraemer (1948). the U. and to provide a reasonable permanence of the use for which the area is designed. driveway. FHA's Planning Neighborhoodsprovided recommendations fro the design for neighborhood shopping centers which were located adjacent to.The design of house lot for "economy. and convenience. lawn and garden areas. Such covenants were to run with the land and be binding for a specified period of time. after which they would terminate or be renewed." Such concerns extended to the recording of neighborhood plats and the use of deed restrictions that controlled the density of development and the size of lots. prohibited offensive or annoying activities.S. On the value of zoning and deed restrictions to ensure neighborhood stability. set a minimum cost for construction. livability. Planning Neighborhoodsstated: "Proper attention to such relationships will tend to establish the new neighborhood on a sound basis as regards its general environment. (Note: FHA’s Underwriting Manual also recommended use of restrictions to maintain homogenous populations within subdivisions. and inexpensive shrubbery. residential streets and whose commercial activities could be controlled by deed restrictions. Supreme Court determined restrictions excluding residents on the basis of race unenforceable." illustrated inPrinciples of Planning Small Houses (1940).

House Type B House Type C House Type D House Type E Successively the five FHA house types offered a "range in comfort of living" and "slightly increasing accommodation" of space. Recent Developments in Building Construction. the prototype was designed for a family of three adults or two adults and two children. became known in the home-building industry as the "FHA minimum house. and Modern Housing addressed issues such prefabrication methods and materials. Illustrated by simple elevations in one or two variations and a floorplan. while two bedrooms and a bathroom were located off a small hallway at the back of the house. FHA recommended five basic house designs in Principles FHA House Type A floor plan of Planning Small Houses. The house contained four rooms plus a bath: a small kitchen and larger multipurpose living room extended across the front of the house. each type was presented without nonessential spaces. 4. and circulars such as Property Standards. House A. These appeared as in-fill in existing neighborhoods and as the basic units of new subdivisions that conformed to the standards set by FHA’s Land Planning Division." Measuring 534 square feet. which would become the industry standards during the 1930s for houses approved for FHA loan insurance. and. picturesque features. first published in the FHA’s Bulletin No.Promoting uniform standards for the construction of homes that many Americans could afford became a primary objective of the Federal Housing Administration. Increasing the home’s efficiency. new labor-saving technologies were reflected in a kitchen equipped with modern appliances and a utility room with an integrated mechanical system that replaced the basement furnace of earlier homes. Principles of Planning Small Houses in 1936. the simplest of the FHA designs (two models and floor plan are shown above). cost. were updated periodically." Houses could be built in a variety of materials. and principles of design. House designs. housing standards. including wood . and unnecessary items that would add to their cost. The kitchen’s placement at the front of the house facing the street was an important departure from traditional layouts. Through the approval of properties for federal mortgage insurance and the publication of standards. consequently. the FHA regulated the home-building industry for many decades. 1936. following the basic principle of "providing a maximum accommodation within a minimum of means. FHA House Type A Through its Small House Program.

. While Houses A and B were simple two-bedroom. prevailing winds. brick. demonstrating that such a house could be "attractively designed without excessive ornamentation. reinforced concrete. Factors such as orientation to sunlight. the largest of the houses. the one-story. offered three upper-story bedrooms and could be built with a basement.siding. concrete block. it was illustrated with simple ornamentation of a classically-inspired doorway and a semi-circular light in the street-facing gable. or stone. stucco." The 1940 revision of Principles offered a dramatically different approach to illustrating sound principles for home design and construction. two-bedroom "minimum" house was presented as a starting point from which many Streescape illustration from the 1940 edition ofPrinciples variations of houses could evolve through a flexible system based on expandability and variability. House E. House D also had the addition of an attached garage. and view became as important to house design as the efficient layout of interior space. shingles. C and D offered the same accommodations with the bedrooms placed on a second story. Praised for its livability. one-story designs.

Interior spaces. David Ames. The revised principles called for the standardization of the parts of a house. creating an irregular floor-plan and a gabledextension on the exterior. including plumbing. or to either side. ducts. Fireplaces and chimneys were added as well as basements. ceiling heights. closets. cabinets. could be enlarged by extending individual rooms outward toward the street. entranceways." Many variations were possible using this system and garages in several models were integrated into the overall house design. pipes. by using different materials and combinations of materials. Elevations and floor plans from the 1940 edition of Principles and even hardware. Examples of FHA Houses Listed in the National Register of Historic Places . windows. *This information is an excerpt from the National Register bulletin. to the rear of the lot. most frequently the living or dining room. Standardization offered "economies in construction without loss in flexibility in planning. and window types. doors sashes. and by introducing different roof types. floor and ceiling joists. National Park Service. The exterior appearance of houses of the same plan could be varied by reversing and revolving the plan. University of Delaware and Linda Flint McClelland. Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Historic Residential Suburbs for listing in the National Register of Historic Places by Dr.

custom built-in cabinets. Arizona The Mesa Journal-Tribune FHA Demonstration House was built in 1936 by the local Mesa Journal newspaper with an FHA-approved loan. Equipped with all the modern conveniences and materials of its day (such as central air-conditioning and heating. Arizona Mesa Journal-Tribune FHA Demonstration House. As part of the addition was still outside city limits. They hired an experienced construction foreman and directed him to hire and train young African American men as bricklayers. African American entrepreneurs. the couple personally provided financing at 6% interest to prospective buyers. copper water pipes. and Frances W. Edwards was at last able to persuade the FHA to approve mortgage loans to African Americans and by 1940. National Register Home | Publications Home | Workshop Home Comments or Questions . Editorial columns which appeared in the newspaper and advertisements placed in the paper by contractors who were constructing the home provide an unusually detailed chronicle of its construction.Edwards Historic District Oklahoma City. Oklahoma City. the house was constructed to encourage the people of Mesa to use FHA-backed loans to build new small house construction in Mesa in the late 1930s. OK when they began clearing the land. the Edwards bought the land on which the district is located from a white developer. electricians. the city subsequently declined to provide utility lines or paving. In 1937. Edwards Real Estate Investment Company sold the homes primarily to African American families. Edwards. and for the first two years. Oklahoma The Edwards Historic District is significant as an African American community response to housing segregation policies. 40 homes had been completed and occupied. Maricopa County. 1937-1939. and for its association with its developers. Mesa Journal--Tribune FHA Demonstration Home Maricopa County. and an attached garage). After a considerable political struggle. and the couple paid for these amenities in 1937 Typical houses within the Edwards Historic District. Walter J. in 1939 Mr. a copper roof. plumbers and carpenters as houses were built.

spread is usually abouttwo-thirds of listed height. Unless otherwise specified inplant descriptions. identify exactly where plantsshould go.JPJ Second. drawcircles representing approximate matureplant spread. You may wantto differentiate deciduous and evergreenplants with different symbols. using appropriately sizedcircles on your drawing.29 . which are usually drawn abouttwo-thirds their maximum size. Except for verylarge trees.

Finally. decide what plants and buildingmaterials will fulfill your designrequirements.Also choose building materials whose tex-tures and colors complement your design.Structures should . textures and colorsthat complement your design. The goal is to select plantsthat will grow well in your planting siteswhile providing forms.

for example. 30 . you’ll probably want awooden fence. If you have a wood-surfaced house. and its color should be thesame as or complement your house color.blend in with house andplants.

. Site planning Catalog number G8lNH153A3382A2865G1609A3434G2736 A1771 A1817A1730 NCR356 A3073A3435A1990 NCR26 A3383A2305Planning a Play Area in Your Residential Landscape Design Plant selection Container GardeningA Guide to Selecting Landscape Plants for WisconsinLandscape Plants That Attract BirdsLawn EstablishmentPrairie Primer Plant care Caring for Deciduous ShrubsCaring for Your Established Shade TreesEvergreens: Planting and CareFertilizing Garden and Landscape Plants and LawnsIdentifying Shade Tree ProblemsLawn Maintenance and ProblemsLawn Weed Prevention and ControlLawn Weeds and Their ControlMulches for Home Gardens and PlantingsOrganic Soil Conditions Catalog number A2079A3067A2308A2934A3134 Plant care (continued) Recognizing Common Shade Tree InsectsSelecting. Titles include: l Rethinking Yard Care l Shoreline Landscape Options and Plants l Landscape Practices for Healthier Plants and Improved Water Quality l Lawn and Garden Fertilizers l Lawn and Garden Pesticides l Selecting a Lawn Care Company l Watering Other publications Landscaping for Wildlife.For Further Reading Many publications on subjects related to home landscaping are availablethrough UWExtension county offices. Planting and Caring for Your Shade TreeTree and Shrub FertilizationTurf Insect Pest Control GuideWoody Ornamental Insect Pest Control Guide Yard Care and the Environment is a series of publications developed byUW-Extension and the Department of Natural Resources.

Wisconsin doesnot require licensing. patios. Of all the sources ofhave some experience in residential design. Some install fences. Some may do the planting. Most sell a wide variety ofmaterials. Box 7. Some states have regulatory lawsgoverning the practice of landscape architecture. Garden centers sell seeds. fertilizer and plants that they may ormay not have grown themselves. including bedding plants. Seven Research Park.bookstores and garden centers. pottery and patio . Some nurseriesoperate garden centers. MN 55155-4007. preparing alternative plans andselecting a final plan that includes plants and hardsurfacematerials and working drawings. but not necessarilylandscape services. Landscape contractors specialize in landscape constructionThey do rough and finish grading. Nurserymen grow plants for wholesale or retail sale.in contrast to the following segments of the landscape industry. only landscape architects offer assistanceany formal training in landscape design. seeding and sodding. St. sprinkler systemsand pools. but only a person who has a degree from anaccredited program can properly be called a landscape architect. They place land-scape plants and supply topsoil. A landowner’s guide todeveloping a beautiful yard that attracts wildlife.operate garden centers or offer extensive design assistance. As a rule.Basic books on home landscape design are also available at libraries. decks. particularly with plant selectionand placement.available from the Department of Natural Resources. Some mayoffer landscape design assistance. Livable Landscape Design (141IB-211). asphalt and other constructionmaterials.Most landscape architects specialize in planning and design anddo not sell plants or other materials or do landscape construction. landscape contractors do not grow plants. concretework for drives.with site selection and planning. 31 For Assistance Homeowners who need assistance with developing and carryingLandscape industries that offer some landscape design servicesout a landscape plan can turn to several sources of professionalmay employ landscape horticulturists – trained specialists inand technical services:ornamental horticulture who may have some experience in plantLandscape architects are professional consultants who plan anding design – and landscape designers – individuals who maydesign the arrangement of outdoor areas. walks and low retaining walls. NY 14850. Provides afairly detailed reference on the process and principles of livable residentiallandscape design. Paul. available from Cornell University Distribution Center. Ithaca.

Both are landscape architects.© 2003 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. 32 Editing.S. Jerry L. but some retail and in-stall sod for homeowners. University of Wisconsin–Extension provides equal opportunities in employment andprogramming. in cooperation with the U. If you need this information in an alternative format. they do not offer landscapedesign services. Madison. Cooperative Extension. University of Wisconsin–Madison and the University of Wisconsin–Extension. Mosser Graphic Design. Cooperative Extension. Tlusty is a professor of landscape architecture at the College of Agricultural andLife Sciences. Acts of May 8 and June 30. 103 Extension Building. but few install them. Martha Fish Illustration. Somegarden centers offer limited planting design services. Wayne G. visit our web site at http://cecommerce. Wilson are University of Wisconsin–Extension community resource agents in Washington and MarathonCounty. respectively. contact the Office of EqualOpportunity and Diversity Programs of call Extension Publishing at 608-262-2655 .and lawn fur-niture. Planning and Designing Your Home Landscape (G1923) RP-02/2004 Leave a Comment of 38 Submit Characters: 400 . including Title IX and ADA requirements. 1914. Wilson and Thomas J. Some may deliver large plants. As a rule. WI 53706..Most sod producers sell sod wholesale. Renee Graef Authors: Dan A. Send inquiries about copyright permission to: Cooperative ExtensionPublishing Operations. Department of Agriculture.University of Wisconsin–Extension.edu or call toll-free: 877-WIS-PUBS (9477827).To see more publications or to order copies of this publication.Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work. 432 N. Lake St.uwex.

binh_dinhcong7039 I love this nice book. În lucrările scriitorului antic Dioscoride se semnalează că în Dacia exista cultura roiniţei. cimbrului şi calomfirului. Thank you. iar o . 11 / 19 / 2009 Cultura florilor in ţara noastră este cunoscută din cele mai vechi timpuri iar provenienta lor este foarte diferită.

spre exemplu busuiocul. J. foto : adevarul. La început se produceau flori modeste. Knechtel. mai ales în mediul sătesc. iar în anul 1878 salvia şi mai târziu în anul 1925 cactusul ( limba soacrei). specia de liliac Syringa josikaea întâlnită astăzi pe Valea Jadului şi Valea Drăganului din Transilvania. au fost aduşi de turci. au fost aduse spre desfiinţare. Leyvraz. Ştefănescu. proveniţi din Asia Mică. iar în anul 1545 s-a cultivat pentru prima dată la noi crinmul alb adus de turci din Asia Mică. care a fost cultivat în ţara noastră pentru prima dată în anul 1572 ( cu toate că după unii istorici se crede că a fost adus din Italia pe timpul Imperiului roman). Foarte cunoscut şi răspândit . Codlea – Sere de la Braşov. narcisele. la numai 5 ani pătrunde şi în ţara noastră. etc. Montigny a organizat parcul de la Mogoşoaia. salvia şi altele ne arată că acestea au existat încă de pe vremea romanilor. întâlnite astăzi în Poiana Narciselor de lângă Făgăraş. iar în anul 1806 . O mare parte din speciile floricole ajunse în ţara noastră se cultivau pe lângă curţile boiereşti şi pe lângă mănăstiri. Editura Ceres. în anul 1453 . Serele Codlea. piaţa locală funcţionând şi asigurând cererea din material importat în detrimentul producătorului autohton.A. gura leului. zambilele. Ilie Morlova. W. înfiinţându-se în jurul fiecărui centru urban sere de flori ce asigurau materialul dendro-floricol pentru amenajările locale exterioare sau pentru alte evenimente locale. îşi face apariţia în Europa laleaua. O serie de specii. garofiţele . Din regiunea Mediteranei pătrund la noi în ţară . Chiar şi cele mai mari sere de flori de la noi din ţară . Rathan specialist în culturi forţate şi J. dintre care nu lipseau lalelele şi trandafirii.serie de denumiri de origine romană şi greacă a unor specii floricole . Din China s-a adus în ţara noastră în anul 1869 . etc.2011 Bibliografie : Floricultura – Dr. Tot în această perioadă a început să se înmulţească şi plantele de apartament precum ficuşii. Întreprinderea Horticolă 1 Mai din Bucureşti.ro – sera de flori Slobozia. în anul 1824 pentru prima dată în ţara noastră dalia şi florile de piatră . al cărui plan era întocmit chiar de Mavrogheni. palmierii. Cycas. serele şi suprafeţele cultivate cu flori au crescut constant. F. primula. după anul 1989 aceste sere locale. Narcissus poeticus. Dacă pe timpul comunismului. ale comunităţilor locale au fost distruse în totalitate. este leandrul. . crinul. Dracaena. pentru că cele mai pretenţioase se importau. cuprinde o serie de plante decorative . ultimii 20 de ani au adus o scădere considerabilă în acest sector economic. Ing. De pe ţărmurile apusene ale Mării mediterane pătrund în ţara noastră . unde s-au construit sere pentru flori. lăcrămioarele.10. Thomas Hope în cartea „ Anastase sau memoriile unui grec „. În primele decenii ale secolului XIX iau fiinţă I. în anul 1590 . Aşadar.S. Haşeganu. cum sunt trandafirii de dulceaţă cultivaţi în ţara noastră încă din anul 1430. Milea Preda . Din America au fost aduse. horticultorul A. D. ce a luat fiinţă la Bucureşti. Autor : Constantin Claudiu Publicat 19. Rebhuhn. După ce în anul 1554. menta. Lacroix specialist în plante de apartament. Nevoia de flori tăiate nu putea fi satisfăcută exclusiv prin importanţa lor. Astfel horticultorii din acele vremuri sunt I. Din flora spontană autohtonă fac parte specia de bujori Paeonia romanica. prima întreprindere de acest gen din România este cea a lui L. trandafirul. În secolul trecut . de aceea în jurul anului 1840 . iar în anul 1883 bujorii. au contribuit la la îmbogăţirea sortimentului de plante ornamentale. albăstrelele. arată că grădina palatului lui Nicolae Mavrogheni .