. 5 1 So after all we can say that the UK is one of the most powerful countries with great culture and

it would be very exiting to visit it.

In acest capital sunt redate 40 de teme privind civilizatia spatiului cultural al limbii engleze.

CIVILIZATIA

3. Climate and Nature of Great Britain

1. United Kingdom
The official name of the country we usually call England and occasionally Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The U. K. is situated on the group of islands lying just off the mainland of northwestern Europe. The British Isles include Great Britain proper, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales. The southern part of Ireland is the Republic of Eire. Great Britain is separated from the continent by the English Channel, the narrower part of which is called the Strait of Dover. The British Isles are surrounded by the shallow waters of the Irish Sea and the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Channel and the Atlantic Ocean. Britain is comparatively small, but there is hardly a country, in the world where such a variety of scenery can be found. There are wild desolate mountains in the northern Highlands of Scotland - the home of the deer and the eagle. The Pennine Range in northern England and the Cambrian Mountains in Wales are much lower. In the extreme south of England are the famous chalk hills, some of which form the Dover Cliffs. The southern and southeastern parts of the island lie in varied lowlands. The rivers of the region are short and of no great importance as waterways. The longest of them is the "Father of London", the Thames, which is a little over 200 miles. Britain's principal ports are London, Liverpool, Manchester, Hull, and Glasgow. Thanks to climatic conditions, Britain in truth looks like one great well-ordered park with its old trees, green meadows and hedges.

The climate in Great Britain is generally mild and temperate due to the influence of the Gulf Stream. The south-western winds carry the warmth and moisture into Britain. The climate in Britain is usually described as cool, temperate and humid. British people say: "Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather." The weather in Britain changes very quickly. One day may be fine and the next day may be wet. The morning may be warm and the evening may be cool. Therefore it is natural for the people to use the comparison "as changeable as the weather" of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something. The weather is the favorite topic of conversation in Britain. Rainfall is more or less even throughout the year. In the mountains there is heavier rainfall then in the plains of the south and east. The driest period is from March to June and the wettest months are from October to January. The average range of temperature (from winter to summer) is from 1 5 to 23 degrees above zero. During a normal summer the temperature sometimes rises above 30 degrees in the south. Winter temperatures below 1 0 degrees are rare. It seldom snows heavily in winter, the frost is rare. January and February are usually the coldest months, July and August the warmest. Still the wind may bring winter cold in spring or summer days. Sometimes it brings the whirlwinds or hurricanes. Droughts are rare. So, we may say that the British climate has three main features: it is mild, humid and changeable. That means that it is never too hot or too cold. Winters are extremely mild. Snow may come but it melts quickly. In winter the cold is humid cold, not the dry one. This humid and mild climate is good for plants. The trees and flowers begin to blossom early in spring.

4.

Customs and traditions in UK

2. London-capital of Great Britain
The capital of Great Britain is London. It's political, economic and commercial center of the country. Its population is about 8 million. London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. The heart of London is the City, its financial and business center. Numerous banks, offices and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live here, but over a million people come to the city to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the City. Perhaps the most striking of them in St. Paul's Cathedral, the greatest of British churches. Another important monument of London is The Tower of London which was used for many purposes: as a royal palace, an observatory, an arsenal, a state prison and it is now a museum. For many visitors the principal attraction is the Crown Jewels, the finest precious stones of the nation. Westminster is the historic, the governmental part of London. Westminster Abbey is a national shrine where the kings and queens are crowned and famous people are buried. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower, which contains the hour-bell called Big Ben, is known the world over. Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen. Trafalgar Square is the geographical center of London. On the north side of Trafalgar Square is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. Not far away is the British Museum - the biggest museum in London. The West End is the richest and the most beautiful part of London. Only reach people live there. But in the same time The East End is the poorest district of London. There are a lot of factories, workshops and docks here. The streets are narrow, the buildings are unimpressive. This is the place of living of the working class.

Almost every nation has a reputation of some kind. The English are reputed to be cold, reserved, rather haughty people. They are steady, easy-going and fond of sports. There are certain kinds of behavior, manners and customs which are peculiar to England. Britain is a nation of animal lovers. In Britain pets can send Christmas cards to their friends, birthday cards. Every Englishmen spends his weekend different: those who live in cities and towns like to go out of town. They may go to stay in the country to admire the bright sun and fresh air where no crowds of people, just silence and leisure are. There are some traditions concerning food. English cooking is heavy, substantial and plain. The Englishman likes a good breakfast. To him a good breakfast means porridge with, fish, bacon and eggs, toast and marmalade, tea or coffee. Tea is part of the prose of British life, as necessary as potatoes and bread. Seven cups of it wake you up in the morning; 9 cups will put you to sleep at night. The English have a popular specialty known as fish and chips. They are bought at special fish and chips shops.

5.

New Year's Day in UK

The celebration of New Year's Day varies according to the district. In the south of England, the festival of Christmas, lasting 12 days from December 25th, runs on well into the New Year. The decorations of colored streamers and holly, put up round the walls, and of course the fir-tree, with its candles or lights, are not packed away until January 5th. On the evening of December 31st, people gather in one another's homes, in clubs, in pubs, in restaurants, and hotels, in dance halls and institutes, to "see the New Year in". On New Year's Day all English schoolchildren make New Year resolutions. They make up lists of shortcomings which they intend to correct. The children, their mothers and fathers, and their friends laugh and have a good time when they read them. The children promise to keep them.

54
In the north, and in Scotland, particularly, the Year known as Hogmanay is very well kept up. The ceremonies are similar, but they have an added called "first foot". This means opening your door to anyone who knocks it after midnight, and who will then enter the house, carrying a piece of coal-or wood, or bread. The visitor is entertained with cakes and ale. Considerable quantities of good Scotch whiskey are consumed during these celebrations

_55_
Most of the "Sundays" contain more reading matter than daily papers, and several of them also include "color supplements"- separate color magazines which contain photographically-illustrated feature articles. The British are one of the biggest newspapers-reading nations in the world.

8. Museums and Art Galleries of London

6. Places of interest

There are a lot of places of interest in London. They are all worth seeing. On the north side of Trafalgar Square stands one of the world's greatest art galleries. The National Gallery represents all schools of Western painting from the Italian Primitives to the early 20th century. Portraits by Reynolds and Gainsborough can be seen here. Since the time of William the Conqueror the Tower of London has served as a fortress, a royal residence, treasury, mint and prison. Here many people were imprisoned and beheaded. Now it's a museum. St. Paul's Cathedral is the largest and the most magnificent church of the city. The High Altar forms a memorial to those who died in the two World Wars. The Victoria and Albert Museum represents the finest examples of the applied and decorative arts of all kinds. It has collections of furniture, jewellery, costumes, musical instruments and metalwork. The Barbican centre was opened by the Queen in 1982. It includes a concert hall, the home of the London Symphony Orchestra, two theatres, three cinemas and an art gallery. Piccadilly Circus is one of London's busiest roadjunctions. It's always full of cars, people as there are many theatres, shops and restaurants there. The statue of Eros is in the middle of Piccadilly. One of the beautiful things in London is Madame Tussaud's museum. It represents wax figures of the famous and infamous people of the past and present. The Chamber of Horrors is of particular interest and also Company and the Royal Ballet.

London is very rich in museums and art galleries. If you are fond of painting you'll go to the Tate Gallery. There are about 300 oils and 19000 watercolors and drawings. There are many works by the English painter William Turner there. There are a lot of paintings by the 16-th century English artists and paintings by foreign artists of the 19-20-th centuries, such as Pablo Picasso's paintings. There are many interesting sculptures there of Henry Moor's The British Museum is the largest and richest of its kind in the world. It comprises the national museum of archaeology and ethnography and the national library. The present building was built in 1852. It contains books and manuscripts: Greek, Roman, British and Oriental antiques. It has a department of Ethnography. This collection is so vast that only a very small percentage of it is on show to the public. There's also a department of prints and drawings. There're departments devoted to maps, coins, medals and philately. Those who come to the British museum can see a fascinating array of clocks and watches. Cultural life of London would be impossible without the Royal Albert hall, the Royal Festival hall, the National theatre and a great number of museums: the Victoria and Albert museum, the Geological Museum, the Museum of Mankind, Natural history museum and others.

9. The houses of Parliament

7.

Press in Britain

Probably in no other country are there such great differences the various national daily newspapers- in the type of news they report and the way they report it. On the one hand, there are the "quality" newspapers: The Times, The Independent, The Guardian, the Financial times and the Daily Telegraph. These concern themselves, as far as possible, with factual reports of major national and international events, with the world of political and business and with the arts and sport. On the one hand, there are the "populars" and "tabloids", so-called because of their smaller size. The tabloids- the most widely read of which are The Daily Mail, The Daily Express, the Daily Mirror, The Sun and the Daily Star- concentrate on more emotive reporting of stories often featuring sex, violence, the Royal Family, film and pop stars, and sport. It is often said that the popular press aims to entertain it's rather than inform them. In addition to the 12 national daily newspapers there are nine national papers which are published on Sundays.

The house of Parliament in London, known also as the Palace of Westminster is the place where members of Parliament (M.P.) gather to make laws. The members of each House meet in sessions which begin at the end of October and last for about one hundred and sixty days. The sittings usually begin at 10 o'clock in the morning and end in the late afternoon; but if Parliament is discussing an important question sittings may go on till late at night. All the time Parliament is in session, a flag can be seen over the building, and when the House of Commons is still sitting after dark, there is a light over the face of Big Ben. The members of the House of Commons sit on two sides of the hall. The Speaker is the chairperson at all the debates in the House of Commons, and it is duty to keep order. The Speaker is elected by all the members of the House of Commons. He belongs to one of the political parties in Parliament, but he never votes are equal he votes with the government. The chairperson of the House of Lords is Lord Chancellor. He sits on the Woolsack, a large bag of wool covered with red cloth. If shows that wool made England rich

10. Political system of United Kingdom

Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. It means that there is a Queen (or King) and the Parliament. The Queen has almost no power in the country. Her powers are limited by the Parliament. Laws are made by the Parliament. The Queen is only a formal ruler: she reigns but does not rule. In fact everything that she does is done on the active of her ministers, who are responsible for the royal acts. Thus, most of her functions are symbolic. The Queen's residence in London is Buckingham Palace. The British Parliament consists of two cambers: the House if Lords and the House of Commons. There are more than 1000 members in the House of Lords. Many seats are hereditary. The House of Commons has 635 members. They are elected by a general election (secret ballot). The government is headed by the Prime Minister, who is the leader of the party that has won the election. In Great Britain there are three main political parties: the Conservatives, the Labour Party and the Liberals.

11. Sightseeing London

The Tower of London is the most famous of all the historical buildings in London. In the past the Tower of London served both as a palace and as a state prison, but it is only a museum today. Trafalgar Square is in the centre of the West End of London. On the north side is the National Gallery; in the north-east corner is the National Portrait Gallery, and in the centre is Nelson's Column with the figure of the great seamen. Trafalgar Square is the place where mass meetings and demonstrations for peace and for working people's rights take place. "Big Ben" is the name of the great bell which strikes the hour. It is in the clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament. Westminster Abbey is the historic building in London to which every visitor sooner or later goes. Many of Great Britain's famous men are buried in Westminster Abbey. Piccadilly Circus is a square in the central part of London. London's best-known theatres and cinemas and most famous restaurants are on Piccadilly Circus. Hyde Park is the largest park in the West End of London. In the

"Judas Maccabeus" and 'The Music for the Royal Fireworks" Like Chaucer and many other great artists. Paul's Cathedral. Art and Ethnography. But London's famous men are not only writers. the architect. The British Museum is one of the largest museums in the world. Handel is buried in Westminster Abbey. Archaeology. William Shakespeare also lived in London. He lived there for more than twenty years. including St. Equally famous is the general who led the army at the battle of Waterloo in 1815. It consists of the National Library and Museum of History. _55_ 12. Some lived there all their lives.54 19th century it became a popular place for public meetings. His most famous work. 'The Canterbury Tales". the poet. London. He has a very special memorial in Trafalgar Square. He came to London from Hanover in 1710After some success and some failure he at last became famous. opens at the Tabard Inn. This is George Frederick Handel. Music is represented by a very interesting figure. Others lived in London only for a short time but all gave something to this great city One of the first names of importance is that of Geoffrey Chaucer. He knew the courts of King Richard II d King Henry IV. in Southward. He acted at the Globe Theatre and wrote his plays in London. Admiral Lord Nelson. Some were born there. Another famous London figure is one of England's greatest seamen. Some facts about London London has been home of many famous Englishmen. He lived most of his life in London. This was the Duke of Wellington. This happened when he composed "The Messiah". His house stands at Hyde Park Comer. spent most of his life in London. He also designed palaces and fine houses. Sir Christopher Wren. It is sometimes known as Number One. Like . He designed many beautiful churches.

Although King George III modernized and Britain was originally a land of vast forests. etc. Oak. the Woodcraft Folk. the day of sending and giving presents to those you love. This exam was called the General Certificate of Education (GCE). whit-Monday. language courses 4 years. 13. The most numerous are blackbirds. Stratford-upon-Avon Stratford-upon-Avon lies at the very heart of England. to which it was once joined. Hedgehogs. Paul's Cathedral. Primary education takes place in infant schools for pupil's ages from 5 to 7 years old and junior schools (from 8 to 11 years). Here you can visit Shakespeare's birthplace (it is a museum now). It protests against nuclear weapon tests. Youth organizations in Great Britain Youth and youth movement have become important factors in the life of the country. There are over 90 universities in GB. the Duke of Wellington is buried in St. wolf have been hunted to extinction. 18. 4 youth organizations associated with political parties. They had special uniforms. geese and other water fowl has diminished during recent years. enlarged the house considerable. pupils ages from 9 to 11 years. and beech are the commonest trees in England. Full courses of study offer the degree of Bachelor of Art or Science. The Scout movement was intended for boys from 11 to 14. and pupils can stay at school voluntarily up to three years longer. Halloween is the day or evening before all Saint's Day. They unite people who are interested in basebaii. There are some traditions on New Year's Day. and its name. May Day. Buckingham Palace Buckingham palace is the official London residence of Her Majesty The Queen and as such is one of the best known and most potent symbols of the British monarchy. Mainly oak and beech in the Lowlands and pine and birch In the Highlands. Des 26th -Boxing Day. first Duke of Buckingham. joy and hopes. Youth Organization Greenpeace deals with most urgent ecological problems. youth organizations controlled by religious bodies. where Shakespeare lived when he retired and died in 1616. Also there is a Pancake Day. and seals live along much of the coast. It is compulsory up to the age of 16. courses in technology and some professions connected with medicine. The Royal Shakespeare Company. but in 1916 Baden Powell introduced a program for younger people. The two largest non-political youth organizations are the associations of the Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides. the transformations that give the building its present palatial character were carried out for King George IY by Nash. Thousands of people from all parts of England and foreign visitors come here on Shakespeare's birthday (23rd April) to pay tribute to the great poet.the time of love. The private sector is running parallel to the state system of education. The number of ducks. etc.m________________________________________ Admiral Nelson. Deer live in some of the forests in the Highlands of Scotland and England. Most private schools are single-sex until the age of 16. Extensive forests remain in eastern and northern Scotland and in south-eastern and western England. Vegetation and wildlife 14. Some 230 kinds of birds live in Britain. The first man to come into the house is very important. A GCE of Advanced ("A") level was taken two years after the Ordinary level exam. Colleges offer courses in teacher training. a special training system and the motto "Do your best!" There are some other non-political organizations: the Combined Cadet Force. Anna Hathaway's cottage the foundations of the New Place. 15. in the 19th century universities. It attracts people not only by its history and connection with William Shakespeare. and the new universities. others are now protected by law. They are divided into three types: the old universities (Oxford. regularly performs here and in the Barbican Centre in London. Here in Stratford there is Holy Trinity Church where William Shakespeare was buried. In England. of course. sparrow and starling. Some areas have different systems in which middle schools replace junior schools and take JM--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Buckingham House was built for John. Otters are common along rivers and streams. by Edward Blore for King . Many of these organizations have done and still are doing useful work in providing leisure facilities for young English people. This examination could also be taken by candidates at a further education establishment. but also by its wonderful nature and typical English character. It's the most beautiful time of the year . It was sold to the Crown in 1762. Another best-loved holiday is St. the National Federation of Young Farmers Clubs. many are songbirds. while Scotland has much pine and birch. Robin Redbreast is the national bird of Britain. A custom is decorating eggs for children. which is one of the best known and largest theatre companies in the world. And. It's the season of good will. Some of them date back to Shakespeare's time. between 1702 and 1705.Valentine's Day on the 14th of February . There are over 2500 fee-charging independent schools in GB. He called them Wolf Cubs. golf. Mother's Day. 2. The Englishmen believe that he brings luck. April's Fool Day. There are many foxes. There are about 60 youth organizations in Great Britain. Yet it has been a royal residence for only just over two hundred and thirty years and a palace for much less. known the world over. Among other sights connected with the name of Shakespeare there is an interesting monument with the statue of the great poet on top and with characters from his plays round it. badges. Greenpeace. Sport clubs are characteristic youth organizations in the UK. sea and soil pollution. Most degree courses at universities last three years. Easter is a church holiday. Stratford stands on the river Avon and is one of the oldest market towns. Most students live away from home. Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities). 17. Secondary education has been available in Britain since 1944. and another 200 are regular visitors. Sea Cadet Corps. Holidays in Great Britain English are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them. All youth organizations can be divided into three large groups: non-political organizations. English people celebrate Christmas on the 25th of December. Other public holiday are Good Friday. in flats of halls of residence. It is very difficult to generalize about particular types of schools as schools differ from one to the other. Medicine and dentistry courses are longer (5-7 years). The houses are small and lots of them are very old. Children dress up in Halloween costumes and masks over their faces. Many larger mammals such as bear. as you will not see modern buildings there. Just round the corner there is Grammar school that Shakespeare used to attend. 3. One of them is the old First Footing. is owed not to a monarch but to an English Duke. you should visit the Royal Shakespeare Theatre.the holiday of love and affection. ash. It has still preserved its own character and atmosphere. a red-brick building standing on the banks of the Avon. hares. According to the Act of Parliament of 1871 there are 4 bank holidays Easter Monday. At the age of 16 pupils take school-leaving examinations in several subjects at the Ordinary level. elm. The fauna or animal life of Britain is much like that of north-western Europe. Educational system in Great Britain The educational system of Great Britain is extremely complex and bewildering. football. with great stretches of marshland and smaller areas of moors. the Youth Hostels Association. 1. Religious young organizations and groups aim at helping to elderly people or working in hospitals. rabbits. 16. such as London and Manchester universities. rats and mice are numerous. Pupils of comprehensive school had taken the examination called the Certificate of Secondary Education either with or instead of the GCE. There are not only universities in Britain but also colleges.

European Commission . The transition from analogue to digital transmission technology is now expanding this capacity enormously. Cable franchises have been granted covering areas comprising 83 per cent of all homes and nearly all urban areas in Britain. In recent years the availability of more radio frequencies. Queen Mary used the firm of White Alum to redecorate a number of rooms. respecting human rights. the United States is pushing forward its aggressive unilateral policy that is based only on Washington's understanding of the current international situation. has already made a greater number of local. has their offices. The political regimes in European countries are very close to American. Now. when the rooms are filled with flowers and thronged with formally dressed guests and liveried servants. Commonwealth leaders and representatives of the Diplomatic Corps and conducts Investitures. and where the majority of the Royal Household. But an economical competition would be intense. The EU was established after 2nd World War. and representing the EU in international scope and signing trade and cooperation agreements. Member countries must have a functioning market economy. Media in Great Britain The media play a central role in Britain's daily life. consisting of six main Departments and a staff of about three hundred people. Canada and China).based interactive services. British television productions are sold world .55. Only a few years ago. the question must be asked if this policy achieved its goals. One thing is clear. It is possible that the USA will not be able to continue its unilateral policy anymore because it goes against objective processes in the world economy and international relations. including cable and satellite services. so any military confrontations are very unlikely at this point. between the euro and the dollar. to suggest and monitor the international agreements. Court of Justice -checks whether laws are in the accordance with the justice or not Court of Auditors . after two and a half years of the war. broadcasts television and radio programs. Television viewing is by far Britain's most popular leisure pastime: over 97 per cent of households have at least one TV set.the ITC (Independent Television Commission). it now also embraces the principles of competition and choice: re- The establishment of the EU intended to work toward common goals of European countries. Today EU became driving force into the international market for member countries. and in the 1920s. Role of the USA in the world politics It is impossible to discuss a future role of the United States of America in the world without understanding the global processes that have been taken place in the world over the last several years. implementing the legislation to assure that law is property applied. Cable services are delivered through underground cables and are paid for subscription. which licenses and regulates commercial radio services. France. There is another potential threat to the USA. such as home shopping and email. according to the EU budget. In mid . Now. The main function of this institution is to exercise the issues related to the legislation.The main functions of this institution is to exercise the issues related to the legislation. and the protection of minorities. the Radio Authority.entertaining. But of course the Palace is also far more than just the London home of the Royal Family and a place of lavish entertainment. Council of the European Union . The . together with satellite. 1950 the EU was created and initially six European countries joint to the EU: Belgium. Second. The EU has such a structure that there are 5 institutions and each of them is responsible for a respective objective: European Parliament . Italy. was a break point event in these processes. many try to get rid of it and buy euros. and by James Pennethoooorne. Broadcasting in Britain has traditionally been based on the .William IY and Queen Victoria in the end. without doubt. Germany. Luxemburg. is already on. On May 9. - 5 which 19. and the Netherlands. 21. the military operation itself was a success. it showed people a danger of an international terrorism. The USA cannot stabilize the situation.Its major function is to check whether all the Union's revenues and expenditures are going in a regular manner. and the Iraqis continue to organize attacks against the US and coalition forces. European Union principle that it is a public service accountable to people. Cable also has the capacity for computer . among a multitude of engagements. The requirements for the countries willing to become member of EU are the following: Member countries must be a stable democracy.1 million homes able to receive such services. the event brought about a confrontation between 22.These include Receptions and State Banquets. national and international services possible. which licenses and regulates commercial television services. France officially undertook the establishment of the EU proposing to create "the first concrete foundation of a European federation". and it is on such occasions. informing and educating. but are otherwise independent in their daily conduct of business. this strategy did not produce desirable results. including cable and satellite. On the one hand. the rule of law. It could be said that the other war. While retaining the essential public service element. implementing foreign and security policy. monitor the budget. What would happen if all this dollar cash came back to the USA? India. In the reign of King Edward Yll. Japan.and of course .the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation). It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. It has become the administrative centre of the monarchy where. cable and microwave transmissions. People and businesses all over the world tried to keep their savings in dollars. First. The rooms open to visitors are used principally for official entertainment . Then other countries joint to the EU and today the number of the SL two different viewpoints on the development of world politics. Digital technology is being introduced which will support up to 500 television channels. Such kind of economic communities are needed to increase today's economic growth and make countries better off. . On the other hand. a dollar was almost equivalent to gold. It m occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean.This is the most influential institution in decision making process. Did it bring a peace and stabilization in the post Sad am country? Yes. Geographical position of USA The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia. politicians from many countries believe that any active actions to preserve world order must be organized only by United Nations.1999 there were about 12. and the dollar is loosing so far. when a dollar is getting cheaper. This US strategy was clearly demonstrated in Iraq. September 11. Her Majesty receives foreign Heads of State. the future of the country directly depends on today's policy. member countries is 27. The three bodies work to broad requirements and objectives defined and endorsed by Parliament. Despite the military successes. much of the present white and gold decoration was substituted for the richly colored 19th century schemes of Nash and Blare. implementing foreign and security policy. and Russia will probably also try to make their influence on the world politics comparable with their economical potential.wide 20. that the Palace is seen at its most splendid and imposing. however.It is mainly responsible for creating the initial outline of legislation. questioning and challenging . Satellite television and cable services are funded mainly by subscription income. and 3 million subscribing homes. .

observed annually on the last Monday in May in most of the United Independence Day is an annual holiday commemorating the formal adoption by the Continental Congress of the Declaration of Independence on July 4. also known as the Western Islands. The chief imports are food and iron The most populous city in Scotland is Glasgow. schools. Scotland Scotland is administrative division of the kingdom of Great Britain. textiles. the number of the participants and the city host for the Games. radio and television sets. textiles. Chicago. ermine. There is a custom of sending greeting cards or gifts to express affection. Olympic Games The Olympic Games have a very long history. It is represented by 72 members in the House of Commons and by 16 Scottish peers in the House of Lords. and larch. a holiday honoring lovers. stadiums. the competitions were held in Greece to symbolize the continuation of the centuries-old tradition. The only large indigenous mammal in Scotland is the deer. situated off the northeastern coast. The south has subtropical climate. and wildcat. wrestling. The Fourth of July is traditionally celebrated publicly with parades and pageants and public speeches. America's largest rivers are the Mississippi. DC. and the juridical. that of Scotland is subject to the moderating influences of the surrounding seas The most common species of trees indigenous to Scotland are oak and conifers—chiefly fir. the Fourth of July holiday has been accepted as the official anniversary of United States independence and is celebrated in all states and territories of the U. The longest river of Scotland is the Tay. Republic of China. The chief exports are petroleum and natural gas and manufactured goods. So the Olympic Games became the symbol of peace and friendship. armaments. There are always several cities wishing to host the Games. 1Q__________________________________________________________ 25. and the Shetland Islands. St. Christmas is an annual festival. It is formed by the representatives of all countries which take part in the Olympic Games. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. Both agriculture and industry are important in the economy of Scotland. All the cities in Greece sent their best athletes to Olympia to compete in the Games. Memorial Day is a legal holiday. The climate of the country varies greatly. The largest of the other islands is the Island of Arran. machinery. blackcock. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA. Other important industrial cities are Dundee and Aberdeen. many different kinds of sports: running. _______________________________________________________________________Zi The next summer games will be held in Beijing. In 1894. a special federal area where the capital of the country. press centers. the Clyde. pine. which are especially numerous in the central and northern regions. was first celebrated in early colonial times in New England. 24. Detroit. The largest cities are New York.6 total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometers. There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic _______________________________________________________________________62.S. There is always an interesting cultural programmer of concerts.. It is the central policymaking body of the Olympic movement. The climate of the central part is continental. to celebrate the Nativity. Valentine has traditionally been regarded as the patron saint of lovers. the Hebrides. Summer and Winter Games are held separately. held on December 25. Over one hundred and fifty countries are represented in the International Olympic Committee now. the legislative. The coldest regions are in the north. Thanksgiving Day. and waterfowl. is by far the more abundant of the two species. etc. cars. Among the most important manufacturing industries are aircraft. which is located in Alaska. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. 1776. and it takes great efforts to arrange everything. for each Games. a legal holiday in the U. occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. however. The International Olympic Committee decides upon the programmed of the games. In 394 AD the Games were abolished and were not renewed until many centuries later. whose habitat is the Highlands. San Francisco and others. an evergreen trimmed with lights and other decorations. or birth of Christ. boxing. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. the Rio Grande and the Columbia. The population of the country is about 250 million. Loch Ness. Holidays in USA The U. are Loch Lomond (the largest). The climate of Alaska is arctic. situated off the western coast. According to the US Constitution the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive. January 1 in the Gregorian calendar.. Washington. is derived from the so-called paradise tree. in Philadelphia. Thousands of athletes. Philadelphia. rabbit. is the principal navigational stream.S. They began in 777 BC in Greece and took place every four years for nearly twelve centuries at Olympia. site of the port of Glasgow. and Loch Katrina. The United States is a federal union of 50 states. They included . ptarmigan. pine marten. has no national holidays. is celebrated on February 14. After that the city of the Games starts preparations for the competitions.S. headed by the President. New Year's Day is the first day of the year. Legal holidays days on which banks. but the red deer. each of which has its own government. The most suitable is selected by the International Committee. addressed all the sports governing bodies and pointed out the significance of sports and its educational value. Baron Pierre de Coubertin. the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. exercised by the Congress. hotels. exhibitions. For the period of the Games all the wars stopped. a majority of which are contained in three groups—namely. Other indigenous mammals are the hare. Loch Tay. generally designating the fourth Thursday of November as a holiday. and since then each president has issued a Thanksgiving Day proclamation. symbolizing Eden. The USA is a highly developed industrial country. 23. Although the signing of the Declaration was not completed until August. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington. Saint Valentine's Day. constructs new sports facilities. the Missouri. It also has a sea boarder with Russia. In 1896 the International Olympic Committee was set up. furniture and paper. etc. situated northeast of the Orkney Islands. the Orkney Islands. especially burlap. a Frenchman. Scotland is governed as an integral part of Great Britain. or other public institutions and most places of business are closed. clothing. Of course. Besides. It is the world's leading producer of copper and oil and the world's second producer of iron ore and coal. The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia. each country has its National Olympic Committee. As a geopolitical entity Scotland includes 186 nearby islands. Like the climate of the rest of Great Britain. and whiskey. The Christmas tree. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains. Both the red deer and the roe deer are found. journalists and guests come to the Games. Los Angeles. festivals. President Abraham Lincoln appointed a day of thanksgiving. The highest peak is Mount McKinley. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland as well as a major industrial area and seaport Notable among the lakes. is situated. otter. Two years later the first modern Olympic Games took place. Game birds include grouse.

The first theatre in England "The Backfires" build in 1576. a square or an open area there. and unbootable once have no numbers and the spectators occupy them on the principal: first come . The Old Man and the Sea and others He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954. Theatres in Great Britain One peculiarity of the theatres in Great Britain is a follows: there are two kinds of seats. thinkers. The liberal arts program. he wrote "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer". explorers. It was called after George Washington. It dominates the city of Washington. The most impressive and the best-known ones are the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument. Education in USA 27. Abraham Lincoln was the sixteenth president of the United States. He was a brilliant writer of stories and novels. or a four-year course leading to a degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science. The war ended on April 9. and the Arlington National Cemetery is outside the city limits just across the Potomac River near the Pentagon in Virginia. Theatres are very much the same in London as anywhere else. One can easily find a park. The Jefferson Memorial is worth seen. It has little industry. 26. music halls and cinemas are in the West End. It usually takes four years to meet the requirements for a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. Famous people of America There are many outstanding people in United States. A Master of Arts or Master of Science degree may be obtained in one or two additional years. the tallest stone structure in the USA. There are no skyscrapers. musical comedy and variety. President Lincoln and his wife went to the theatre. It was burnt down in 1808 and rebuilds exactly a year after. Admission to the American high school is automatic on completion of the elementary school. The North won the Civil War. it is one of the few well-known opera houses open for 11 months of the year and it employs over 600 people both of the Opera company and the Royal Ballet. The four-year course is usually subdivided into a lower division (which may be called the junior college). He was a supporter of the South. As a rule. it is always interesting to find out something about the origin and history of such trifles. "The Royal Shakespeare Company" and "Covent Garden".costumes. which will carry you to 500foot level observation windows. "Tom Sawyer" and "Huckleberry Finn" are among the most popular books ever published in the United States. 28. and art several times a week. You'll find opera. The Washington Monument. It is located on the north bank of the Potomac River. may be a two-year junior college course. ballet. The North wanted the United States to stay together as one country. is known to most people as Mark Twain. It opened in September 1809. and only one million people. there was a war between the North and the South of the United States. too. for democracy and civil rights. which make our life more comfortable. America produced statesmen. especially outdoors. followed by a four-year high school. sitting on a lawn? May be you're against all these hot dogs and The general pattern of education in the USA is an eight-year elementary school. because it's a junk food. Since the middle of the last century "Covent Garden" became exclusively devoted to opera. While he worked as a reporter he began to sign his articles "Mark Twain". music. The dominant figure is the realistic figure of Abraham Lincoln seated in the centre of the open temple. which is connected with the White House by Pennsylvania Avenue. and some state universities require a certain scholastic average. musicians. the Hall of Representatives. scenery. Lincoln became president in 1860. The best seats at theatres are those in the stalls. which is the last two years. drama. One reason Washington looks different from other cities is that no building in the city may be more than 40 meters tall. and "The Globe" build in 1599. because they would hide the city's many monuments from view. It is three blocks south of the White House. 29. Washington is one of the most beautiful and unusual cities in the United States. The highest academic degree is the ! Doctor of Philosophy. and the last of all the gallery where the seats are cheapest. and classes in each of these subjects meet for an hour a day. While he spent his summers on his farm. Inside the theatre. In 1861. Speaking about our times we should first of all mention "The English National theatre". 30. Students must complete a certain number of courses in order to receive a diploma. The elementary school is followed by four years of secondary school. Sometimes a certain pattern of high school studies is necessary. 1865. Lincoln died the next morning. however. five days a week. The first two years cheeseburgers. everything being done of the most lavish scale. higher education in the USA may be divided into two broad fields: liberal arts and professional.first served. consisting of the two first years. and the upper division. which is closely connected with William Shakespeare. His most successful novels are the following: For Whom The Bells Tolls. If you are staying in London for a few days. It may take any number of years to complete the original research work necessary to obtain this degree. or high school. the circle and the upper circle. Each of these fields may be further subdivided into undergraduate and graduate levels. It is situated south of the Washington monument near the Potomac River. revue. writers. During the fouryear high school program the student studies four or five major subjects per year. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn". the chief theatres. continue the general education and specialization begins in the third year. Boxes. Six days later. In addition. on the undergraduate level. Often the last two years of elementary and the first years of secondary school are combined into a junior high school. There are eight years of elementary schooling. The heart of Washington is the Capitol. is called the "Pencil" because of its shape. Ernest Hemingway is one of the greatest 20th-century American writers. If he fails a course. The Washington Cathedral is on Massachusetts Avenue. comedy. the first President of the USA. Among Mark Twain's other books are "Joan of Arc". you'll have no difficulty whatever in finding somewhere to spend an enjoyable evening. the student usually has classes in physical education. They really make life more pleasant. or a certificate of graduation. Then comes the pit. dresses. a man went behind the president and shot him in the head. It is 555 feet tall. with Shakespeare's "Macbeth". The man's name was John Wilkes Booth. are the most expensive. There is an elevator. Usually there is no admission examination required by a state university for those who have finished high school within the state. All the tourists begin sightseeing from the Capitol and see the Senate Chamber. The famous Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is visited by millions of people every year. Anyway. is in the Potomac River. or average of high school grades. It is designed like a Greek temple. At the West End theatres you can see most of the famous English actors and actresses. It was opened to the public in 1888. In general. the plays are magnificently staged . Samuel Langhorne Clemens. Lincoln was the leader of the North. From then on Clemens used Mark Twain as his pen-name. "Life on the Mississippi". he repeats only that course and not the work of the entire year. Washington is the place where mass demonstrations take place against unemployment and racism. the Statuary Hall and some others. which can be booked an advanced (book able). of course. The Library of Congress contains millions of books and manuscripts. The first "Covent Garden theatre" was built in 1732. Now "Covent Garden" in busier than ever. And ancient time's plays were acted inside churches and later on the market places. The Lincoln Memorial is in the west of the Washington Monument. scientists and other people who are well known around the world. Fast Food of America Have you ever enjoyed a hamburger. The people in the South wanted a separate government from the United States. Washington Washington is the capital city of the United States.12___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________72. don't they? . published in 1876.

But in 1945 a new machine was invented that changed the history of the product. skating. and they ensure that it is and remains equal to and impartial for everyone.for much that followed. Basketball and volleyball have been invented in America. American football. Aerobic exercise and training with weight-lifting machines are two activities which more and more men and women are pursuing. The exact ingredients and the quantities are not known . Most popular games in the USA are hockey. assumes the Presidency for the balance of his term. The electric machine enabled to pop corn outside the home. Sports in USA Americans pay much attention to physical fitness. their appointments are for life. Science in 20th century The 20th century began slowly. Jogging is extremely popular. only 41 years old in 1900. Under the Constitution. country courts and mayor's courts The main job of courts of appeal is to review cases appealed from trial courts to determine if the law was correctly interpreted or applied. The Supreme Court of each state is primarily a_ court of appeal and the court of last resort. But civilization was not crushed by the two great wars. 11 Federal Courts of Appeals and. Largely hidden during that war was an awful truth that called into question progress and the notion of human nature itself. The President proposes bills to Congress. the Supreme Court. The Executive Branch is headed by the President. it is made from corn. intend for rich elite people. The roaring 1920s and the Depression years of the 1930s proved to be merely a prelude to World War II. Any natural-born American who is 35 years old or older may be elected to this office. new ideas would burst upon the world with a force and frequency that would turn this stately march of progress into a long distance. volleyball. The Legislative Branch is made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives.. Therefore. Every American citizen is allowed to vote from the age of 18.the political. That is why we call it popcorn. serves as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and. There is a large choice of sports in America. who. baseball. the citizens of the 20th century felt free to reinvent themselves. in 1789. they adopted a new Constitution establishing a federal union under a strong central government. determined by natural law. archery. who made a brown syrup by mixing coca leaves and cola nuts. Washington. One more reason is that Americans use sports activities for teaching socials values. The obsession with winning causes some people to wonder whether sports in America should be such serious business 34. Many people like to put salt or melted butter in their popcorn. Political system of USA The nation's capital. skating etc. The Great War did more than devastate a generation of Europeans. The century of steam was about to give way to the century of oil and electricity. This makes a "pop" noise. each chosen in a different manner. Clear as a day. Before long the Great War received a new name World War I. playing to win is emphasized more than playing for fun. and fitness-conscious movie stars that play up the glamour of fitness have heightened enthusiasm for these exercises and have promoted the muscular. It's a curious thing but of 1903 coca leaves were no longer used in the drink.Coca-Cola The world famous fresh drink Coca-Cola first was an all-purpose medicine. tennis. No one could have guessed then that.C. conflicts between states or between citizens of different states.12___________________________________________________________ Pop Corn.S. It became so popular with the soldiers that the US Army asked the company to start ten factories in Europe. basketball. they resolve disputes under it. Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. the House of Representatives make the decision. As a result. People participate in swimming. And everybody thought that the development would continue in the small steps that had marked the progress of the 19th century. each able to check and balance the others.psychoanalysis and the Bomb. And the World War II helped to make Coca-Cola popular outside America. at the top. when the Coca-Cola Company sent bottles of the drink to US soldiers fighting in Europe. and in the event of the death or disability of the President. Another reason of the popularity of sports is the people's love of competition of any kind. marathons. baseball. Cases begin there and most instances are finally resolved there. is the capital of a federal union of 50 states. Each state elects two members of the 100-member Senate. The famous American habit of eating popcorn at the movies is well-known. . proposed a scientific basis for the notion that progress was gradual but inevitable. The elective process for a U. They administer it. if no candidate has a majority. Federal judges are appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate. Federal courts decide cases involving federal law. a Senator's term of office is six years The Judicial Branch is made up of Federal District Courts (at least one in every state).It's impossible to imagine American takeaway food or snacks without popcorn. Actually. bowing. to minimize political influences. the water inside makes the corn explode. Some Americans like active games and others like quite games. in the century just beginning. free-for-all sprint. This can be explained by the size and variety of the country. and the ruins provided the stimulus to build a way of life again. It set the tone . President is unique. healthy body as the American beauty ideal American sports are becoming more competitive and more profit-oriented. acts as chairman of the Senate. He mixed the syrup with soda water. which have general civil and criminal jurisdiction and smaller in importance municipal courts. is chosen in nationwide elections every four years. football and basketball. Many sports and sporting activities are popular in the USA. The presidential candidate needs 270 electoral votes to be elected. D. as golf and crocket. ambassadors and other members of the Executive Departments The Vice President. The trial courts in each state include: common pleas courts. the federal government is divided into three branches. In that task they were assisted by two profound developments . with the approval of the Senate makes treaties and appoints federal judges. mankind's steps had at last been guided up the right path. industry and moral philosophy. together with the Vice President. To a degree previously unheard of and perhaps unimaginable. enforces federal laws. But the five major American sports are hockey. telegraph or the typewriter had enabled people to get on with their ordinary lives a little more conveniently. some peeper to have it without. had an idea of selling Coca-Cola as a soda fountain drink. The USA court system 32. such as teamwork and sportsmanship. Inventions like the railroad or the The courts are the overseers of the law. The syrup wasn't a success and then another druggist. videos. 33. 31. Either way Americans love their popcorn Coca Cola. elected from the same political party as the President. courts of appeal and High Court or Supreme Court. track-and-field. to the ticking of grandfather clocks and the stately rhythms of progress. Thanks to science. Opportunities for keeping fit and playing sports are numerous. when you put a kernel of corn on a fire. Thrust into this race. Both systems are organized into three basic levels of courts-trial courts. Soon everyone was going to soda fountains and asking for Coca-Cola.the CocaCola Company keeps its recipe a secret __________________________________________________________________72. All this explains why Americans have traditionally done well in many kinds of sports. made in 1886 by a druggist from Atlanta. squash and badminton. the children of the 20th century would witness more change in their daily existence and environment than anyone else who had ever walked the planet. skiing. But what about the first part of the word "pop". In the United States each state is served by the separate court systems. state and federal. perhaps because it is the cheapest and most accessible sport. Trial courts bear the main burden in the administration of justice. Books. Assassinations in Sarajevo in 1914 lit a spark that set off an unprecedented explosion of destruction and death. Jacobs. I think that quite games. And soon movies started selling popcorn to make more money. moral and intellectual temper .

Queens. because many kinds of sport have taken the origin in England. There are such competitions as putting the weight. Near 1 million people live here. The first such race was held in 1820. It is interesting to see the egg-and-spoon race. where he died in 1616. boat-racing. and Fifth Avenue is famous for world-class shopping. Football. Their influence was greatest in Wales. The great legal issues facing the Supreme Court at present are Government involvement with religion. That's why we'll try to answer the question where the British come from and who they are. Rugby is a popular game in England. There are some amateur teams but most of the teams are professional ones in England. The Englishmen love sports. rowing and walking. It famous for Theatre district. They are motor-car racing. Englishmen like playing tennis but many of them prefer to watch this game. For more than a century. and race and sex discrimination. Now football is the most popular game in Britain. the northern part of Britain and Ireland remained unconquered and preserved Celtic culture. There are some racing competitions in England. Most of New York's skyscrapers are located on the island of Manhattan. But nobody can be sure that this story is true. It was built in 1886. entertainment. There are such buildings as Art Deco Chrysler Building and there were twin towers of the World Trade Center. An important event which contributed to the unification of the country was the adoption of Christianity in England in 664. cricket. Sports in Great Britain National sports in Great Britain. We don't know why he left Stratford-on-Avon. His knowledge of stage and his poetical genius made his plays the most wonderful ones ever written. All kinds of racings are popular in England. There is a story that Shakespeare's first job in London was holding rich men's horses at the theatre door. __________________________________________________________________72. 10 historical plays (such as Henry 4. tossing the caber and others. there have been many waves of immigration into Britain. Englishmen pay much attention to swimming. Wall Street is famous for finance. It was Alfred who defeated the Danes making them sign a peace agreement. The English are great lovers of sports. After 800 BC the Celts arrived from Central Europe and opened up a new important page of the British history. Usually the Oxford—Cambridge Boat Race takes place at the end of March or at the beginning of April. Later. centuries. must carry an egg in a spoon. Madison Avenue means advertising. it has been one of the world's leading business. William Shakespeare 35. there are more than thirty theaters there. but even now there are problems there connected with religion. Twelfth Night. John Shakespeare. Cornwall. Shakespeare spent the last years of his life at Stratford. Shakespeare wrote 37 plays: 10 tragedies (such as Hamlet. New York City is the capital of USA It is the most populous city in the United States. There are some tennis clubs in England. Scotland and Ireland. There are many amateur rugby teams in this country. Shakespeare became an actor and a member of a very successful acting company. And there are a lot of other famous streets which known nationwide. who takes part in this competition. It's not enough to write several volumes to tell the full history of the country.When Shakespeare was twenty-one. The French language became the official language of the ruling class for the next three politics. dogracing. donkey-racing. The name «Britain» comes from the name of a Celtic tribe known as the Britons. It was a present from the people of France. he went to London. It is usually held on the Thames River. He was buried in the church of Stratford. The last of the invaders to come to Britain were the Normans from France. It is a very interesting question. which is situated there. At the age of six he was sent to school. The Bronx is famous for a zoo. customs and traditions. Recently. Now Britain is a multinational society. As the home of the United Nations. Football was played by the whole village teams in the middle ages in England. It is a team game. The captain of the team must be the oldest or best player. for example. There is a famous crossing Times Square. 17 comedies (such as As You Like It. which benefits from the influence of different people and cultures. Much Ado About Nothing). all of whom are appointed for life by the President with the Advice and Consent of the Senate. the greatest and most famous of English writers. it has got a long history. education and have an independent church. but had to leave it at the age of 13.12___________________________________________________________ The federal court structure is similar to the structure of the state court system. New York has five boroughs: Manhattan. It's highly probable that The Comedy of Errors. horse-racing. It was the time of the English Renaissance. and probably the greatest playwright who has ever lived. and when he fell into debt. William Shakespeare. One of the famous building in the world is the Statue of Liberty. History of Great Britain The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country of great history rich in important events and entertaining legends connected with them. Professional football is a big business. media. The runner. So some of them may have been lost in the fire when the "Globe" burned down in 1613. New York 36. It represents America's symbol of freedom! In 2005. The main street. Brooklyn. Wimbledon it is the centre of lawn tennis. Othello. Football is played at schools too. Macbeth). It is a game that is played between two teams of players using an oval ball that can be handled or kicked. It consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices. Staten Island and the Bronx. is also here. The trial courts in the federal system are the United States District Courts. In the 9th century the Danes attacked England. That's why these parts of Britain are very different from England in language. He also left 7 books of poems and sonnets. 37. It is played from May till September. in Stratford-on-Avon. although Scotland continued to keep its own system of law. In sprite of his fame we know very little about his life. but over than 5 million come here to work from all parts of the city every day. fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the major global cities. William had to help him . This explains the great number of French words in English. They only like to speak about sports. Wales. the city is a hub for international diplomacy. However the final unification of Scotland and England took place in 1707 when both sides agreed to form a single parliament in London for Great Britain. 1564. The last half of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th centuries are known as the golden age of English literature. However quite soon it was attacked by Germanic tribes: People began to call the new land of the Angles and Saxons England. It is not allowed to drop the egg. education. The duty of the Supreme Court is to decide whether laws passed by Congress agree with the Constitution. A monument was erected to the memory of the great playwright in the Poet's Corner in Westminster Abbey. There were a lot of people watching this race. The USA Supreme Court is the highest court in the nation and the court of last resort. It is an interesting contest between the universities of Oxford and Cambridge. Broadway. and every evening they play their plays. sports. as they were driven to these parts by the invaders who followed them. but if you play there it is necessary to pay money for it. was born on the 23d of April. was a glove-maker. Many traditional sporting contests take place in England. Manhattan is the center of New York City. Some kinds of sport are professional in England. financial and cultural centers and its influence in 38. they are called sports-lovers in spite of the fact that some of them neither play games nor even watch them. abortion and privacy rights.. Shakespeare's experience as an actor helped him greatly in the writing of his plays. His father. Richard 3). Romeo and Juliet and some other plays by Shakespeare were performed for the first time on this stage. King Lear. Residents of the city are known as New Yorkers. Ireland was England's first colony.. and sometimes it is even called "the age of Shakespeare". nearly 170 languages were spoken in the city and 36 percent of its population was born outside the . The United States courts of appeal are intermediate courts of appeal between the district courts and the United States Supreme Court. Most of Shakespeare's plays were not published in his lifetime.

The monument to Walter Scott is in the main street of the city. Every generation is unique in its experience. For a happy family life two people must understand and respect each other. videos. . large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking countries. was borne in Edinburgh. it is dangerous in big cities to walk back home late in the evening. music. and every Commonwealth Games. exhibitions. City life has its advantages and disadvantages. money. The past exists to help the young to avoid unnecessary blurs. Australian culture. Robert Louis Stevenson. salaries are much higher and one has a larger variety of jobs to pick from. It lies on seven hills and goes down on those hills to the sea. And of course one of the most urgent problems is the accommodations problem. netball. Living in a city one has all sorts of museums. theatres.12___________________________________________________________ United States. At an international level. books and television. its grammar and spelling are largely based on those of British English. In 1973. opera. pollution. Cities are also centers of education. There is a monument to him in the city. the great Scottish poet published his first book of poems in Edinburgh.5% Australians over the age of 1 5 regularly participate in organized sporting activities. Sport plays an important part in Australian culture. Australia hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. rowing and swimming. Garbage and sewage are two major problems of cities as well as air and water pollution. for example. Adults always complain that the young are not what they were. The adults start the war but the young die in it. Edinburgh Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland and one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. Many young people move to cities because there are more opportunities for continuing their education there. hockey. is roughly equal to the settled population of the city. They want to overcome their own difficulties without turning back. Another problem of the youth is the relationship of the young people with their friends and beloved. In fact the city is one of the most vibrant. Nationally. It is regrettable. The problem of love is very important for the young. From the street in the centre of the city you can see ships coming to Edinburgh from different countries of the world. and crafts — have achieved international recognition. pubs. besides. other popular sports include Australian rules football. cosmopolitan cities in Europe and is regularly voted as one of the most desirable places to live in the world. The young know what they want. Among the disadvantages there are crime. The vigor and originality of the arts in Australia — literature. theatre. It should be said that the young have other problems as well. was born and lived in Edinburgh. Another advantage it better living conditions. Movies also have a big impact on what people wear. a collection of official and independent festivals held annually over about four weeks from early August. Besides it's not safe in terms of crime. And the solution to this problem is that both the young and adults should be tolerant and patient to each other. Australian English is a major variety of the language. Robert Burns. choose clothes every morning that say a lot about them and how they feel that day. the Edinburgh Military Tattoo. But they do want to have them. For example. restaurants at their command. assisted by a climate that favors outdoor activities. Problems of the youth Youth is the time when a person is trying to find his place in the world One of the problems is a generation gap. The young want to live their own life. A question of taste. They prefer to make their own mistakes rather than to listen to the warnings of the adults. and the like. horse racing. 1. One can either get robbed of their purse. From the point of view of ecology cities are not the best place to live in. Walter Scott. It has its own ideals and a system of values concerning every aspect of human life. Few young people in our country have their own apartments. rugby league. The number of visitors attracted to Edinburgh for the Festival. First of all. spending their free time. Of course city life has a lot of advantages and disadvantages. such as Times Square. 39. In the main they share the apartments with their parents even after getting married. Moreover. dance. Patrick White was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. painting. Fashion Fashion is something we deal with everyday. Over the past 50 years. Even people. he is recognized as one of the great English-language writers of the 20th century. and the Edinburgh International Film Festival. it is easier to find work in the city than in the country. we definitely get fashion ideas from music clips. employment. movie theatres. and has ranked among the top five medal-takers since 2000Televised sport is popular. the only Australian to have achieved this. He loved the city and wrote about it his best novels. __________________________________________________________________72. who say they don't care what they wear. Unfortunately the life of the young is frequently determined by the adults. the father of the historical novel in the world literature. cinema. Australia has participated in every summer Olympic Games of the modern era. Australian culture has been strongly influenced by American popular culture (particularly television and cinema). it is always a great pleasure to go to a country side with a beautiful and green view The atmosphere of rural life is also great as when you get there it seems that time goes by slowly and there is no need to hurry. communication. but the young are not always ready to have stable relations. One has to watch out for pickpockets even in the daylight. Therefore there are a lot more free time facilities than in rural areas. 2. found their way into standard English. In general all the problems of the youth are linked with the present rather then with the past or future. football (soccer) and motor . and Australia's Asian neighbors. and performs well in cycling. Many great men have lived and worked in this beautiful city. Edinburgh is well-known for the annual Edinburgh Festival. For example it is known that more sunglasses were sold in America after the movie Man in Black. In the city people live in more modern houses which need less work doing to them. are busy at all hours. but if you get tired of social life. However. high prices. Usually country's largest and best universities are located in big cities. cities are the centers of culture and social life. 3. City disadvantages cities life-advantages of living and in CREATIVITATEA Acest capitol contine 40 de teme libere inspirate de realitatea inconjuratoare. some of which have since 1437 and is the seat of the Scottish Parliament. New York is also known as "The City that Never Sleeps. enormous traffic jams and overcrowded streets and subway and of course the threat of the present . Australia has particularly strong teams in cricket. And a fantastic place to live. It has been the capital of Scotland concerned with education. hobby. Since 1788. The highest hill is three hundred meters above the sea.acing. 23. They are Every now and then we ask ourselves whether it's better to live in a city our in a countryside. jewelry or mobile phone or even get attacked. although distinctive Australian features had been evolving from the environment and indigenous culture. the Edinburgh International Festival. rugby union. a famous English writer. some of the highest rating television programs include the summer Olympic Games and the grand finals of local and international football (various codes) competitions 40.terrorism. These words are repeated from generation to generation.This is a city that knows how to be both ancient and modern. The most famous of these events are the Edinburgh Fringe (the largest performing arts festival in the world). overlaid with a rich vernacular of unique lexical items and phrases." not least because its subway system operates around the clock and because many neighborhoods in Manhattan. That saves a great part of their time and effort. the primary basis of Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic. din viata de fiecare zi.

-explains mother her son's behavior. But the pupils have to come to school ten minutes to 8 to do morning exercises. aU. because love has traditionally been considered to be something that unites people( at least that's what I've been taught). cw&te $ft basis. every day we have two breaks of 1 0 minutes and two breaks of 1 5 minutes at school. relatives and neighbors. After all a Woman and a Child are only for which is worthy to live 12."The murder of Roger Ackroyd". run around you don't giving even a minute for rest. who enjoy wearing modern clothes but not obsessed by them. Some critics say that Agatha Christie introduced a novelty in this work. By paper.It's when another person's needs become more important than yours and you don't see it as a burden.It seems as if each and one of us has a different understanding of love. at Ivte.. And sometimes they can't Keep your wrists in a natural. Love is a feeling that makes you stronger and helps you get through a crisis. Books stirred my imagination. "What have you done? It costs a small fortune". Role of woman in society 6. I think too many pupils study in every class. 'From a tegar potnr of view. They could spend this time The ongoing changes in social. They are always in a hurry eating their lunch. there are no real mechanisms of women's rights fulfillment as well as for their active participation in social life. but I believe it's a great feeling. unforced... funny. The electricity often attracts children. And they are forced to study the subjects they are not interested in and it takes them too much time to learn the subjects unnecessary for their future life.cried poor daddy looking at the black clouds of smoke rising above the system block. And certainly I have my favorite book. political and economic spheres of the country entails not only the raise of women's role in society. And it doesn't working on the subjects which will be needed for their future profession. and extraordinary talent. astounding calmness of Hercules Poirot fill this book. I'm not talking about the children becoming criminals but about the "normal" children making life with them completely intolerable. A child is the charming. spending all their money on the latest clothes even if they don't look good in them. We cannot imagine our being without him and therefore we guard him by day and by night. But who knows what vices can be grown up in this innocent soul. eventual equal social rights for any human being regardless of six-foot both of men and women. It is ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------________________91 the story by Agatha Christie . I can't let myself be cynical about love. expanded the boundaries of the familiar world and filled my life with great expectations of joy and happiness I'm fond of reading and I've read a lot of books of different genres. Maybe I'm too young and inexperienced. They like to shove fingers into the socket. For example. that love is all it's cracked up to be. - the colors should correspond to the corporate colors . because the murder is a storyteller.. It should be mention that our lessons start at 8 o'clock. What concerns my school the pupils are not free in their choice of the subjects. I can't but agree. The subject of love is one that has inspired poets. Sometimes they even can help to solve difficult problems of life. Things I dislike in my school I like my school very much because I have spent the best years of my short life there. He is the sense. of. different sides that reflect our understanding of life. Of course there are big companies tha< do not allow people to come at work in what they want. In the "The murder of Roger Ackroyd" the main characters and environment are typical for 1920th in England.12___________________________________________________________ Depending on their attitude towards clothes and fashion. The book is a faithful and undemanding friend: it can be put aside and taken up again at any moment. Free economic relations and temcsatvrato. "Daddy.And yet. Because of that we have to protect them from theirs own curiosity. All of the shirts are supposed to have collars. "The murder of Roger Ackroyd" has made a great impression on me. to cut the wires.Love has been defined as wise. All this is presented vividly and brightly. by simple paper a child can cut his soft flesh and cause the hemorrhage. So I don't think books need to be rescued. they have to respect the dress code. etc. For example.. creature. mentioned above deodorant can explode in the fire or just in the strong sun and cause the severe injures. It's when you do your best to make each other's lives somewhat easier in this troublesome world. people that just do not care the way they look. writers. It seems for them that everything what they see is the toys and of course want to play. except on Fridays.. . sj^xejcea. They bother. Love means different things to different people necessarily mean that love no longer unites people. 4. But personally. those lucky in love and those who have been passed over by Cupid. I think there is not necessary to do them because on the one hand some pupils do such exercises at home every morning and on the other hand it is not comfortable to do exercises in our school clothes. It may be a surprising revelation to some of us. It just means that love has different dimensions. silly. Prevent a misfortune! That should be our device. Most of them sit far from the blackboard. registered in the policy of each big company. Some say that love is the true meaning of our life. and nobody is allowed to wear jeans. profound. The book is the surest way to bring nations together. It gives us an insight not only into the past. . Everything starting by deodorants and finishing by the video's remote control presents a danger in children's hands. Books in our lives 11. to twist the electrical lamps. However. so they develop reader's imagination and arouse curiosity. fashion fans. cry. straight position 5. people can be divided in three groups: fashion slaves.dark blue and white. in addition they are accompanied by breaking of stereotypes to treat human beings by sex that had been shaping through decades. Love is something that makes us tender. shout.. J2Q__________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________72. or at least the attitude to love varies greatly from person to person. Reading both entertains and educates people. Women's clothes are not supposed to be skintight. Besides. It causes diseases connected with stomach. Show me how computer works". This probably happened because we had a very good and widely read library in home.said the son shoving by screwdriver into the system block. The author shows us its owner with his habits. Excitement. But in spite of it I dislike the whole system of education. of QUI life.. . and caring. A Child Despite the increase in TV watching and the developing of World Wide Web. It's something I can't imagine my life without. They also say that "love is the master key that opens the gates of happiness". And nowadays it makes really unforgettable impressive reading. bitter. There a lot of such experience No. disturb. horror. an employee is not allowed to wear certain items of clothing to work. and affectionate. According to the dress code. Books help us to discover new things and explore new ideas. One of the main heroes of the book Hercules Poirot gets over a lot of problems before catching a murder. admiration. Books portray life in its richness.. The action takes place in a country house. to shake the lustres. but also into the future. It's possible him to be a great misfortune or even a disaster. there's no use denying the fact that love has as many definitions as there are human beings on this planet. revenge. suspense. "He is just a child". But 1 5 minutes is not enough to have a lunch for the pupils. Their curiosity and plays could cause the terrible consequences. a man ancf a woman r'n our country are equal. men are supposed to wear ties and business suits. Reading is the perfect way to relax and spend your free time. in practice. I become very keen on literature early in life. too short and too open. Clothes also can't be too bright. reading is still very important. But the "toys" sometimes could be by no means harmless.

a rare but severe expression of this damage is known as fetal alcohol syndrome 9. After all a Woman and a Child are only for which is worthy to live 11. to get some money for living. In summary we may say that we hear a lot about hazards associated with working with computers. regional and national levels. Thanks to Recent evidence has shown that heavy and even moderate drinking during pregnancy can cause serious damage to the unborn child: physical or mental retardation. the main goals are protection of women's rights and elimination of discrimination in society. If documents are not sufficiently illuminated. or both. Ministry of Health encountered with many strange diseases caused by unsanitary conditions of living. However. severe injures. a man and a woman in our country are equal. They bother. the number of women taking part in the country's political.12___________________________________________________________ Housework. People steel money from those who's richer than they are.Working in the same position for too long causes tension buildup and is thought to increase the risk of repetitive motion injuries. On the one hand a lot of outstanding discoveries made the life of the people more comfortable and pleasant. to shake the lustres. So homeless people don't have places to work. Along with that. shout. Nepal. We cannot imagine our being without him and therefore we guard him by day and by night. The electricity often attracts children. economic and civic life shows that women are restricted in the spheres of politics and government. Vary your tasks during the day to avoid sitting in one position for several hours or performing the same hand motions without interruption. Build more houses and shelters or even temporary places of living. Statistic shows that level of crimes is much higher in those countries and cities where the major issue is homelessness. Take periodic breaks. there are no real mechanisms of women's rights fulfillment as well as for their active participation in social life. unforced.cried poor daddy looking at the black clouds of smoke rising above the system block. In poor countries. Because of that we have to protect them from theirs own curiosity. Government doesn't have to make more charities for homeless people. -explains mother her son's behavior. economic and civic life shows that women are restricted in the spheres of politics and government. __________________________________________________________________72. substantial media attention has been directed at potential adverse health effects of long-term computer use. Despite the fact that birthrates in the country have been falling. Despite the fact that birthrates in the country have been falling. We should take into consideration many facts. to twist the electrical lamps. Homeiessness Homelessness is a huge problem in the whole world. there are measures that really do work: Use the minimum force necessary to press the keys. mentioned above deodorant can explode in the fire or just in the strong sun and cause the 12. headaches. Remedies include changing postures frequently. Women's salaries are on average lower than men's. By paper. government pays not enough money for living. Somali and many. However. in addition they are accompanied by breaking of stereotypes to treat human beings by sex that had been shaping through decades. support for cooperation between women's organizations on the national and international arenas. widening women's participation in policy decision-making processes on the local. etc. 10. there is a lack of knowledge about modern contraception and a correspondingly large number of abortions. For example. Along with that. Show me how computer works". drink from not clean creeks or even puddles. It is science that does us good or does it bring disaster? To answer the question whether science does us good or does it bring disaster isn't a simple task. and doing exercises such as tightening and releasing fists and rotating arms and hands to increase circulation. Housework. but it should make more activities. straight position Within the past two years. . Everything starting by deodorants and finishing by the video's remote control presents a danger in children's hands. It's possible him to be a great misfortune or even a disaster. Huge wave of sickness grabbed streets of India. and women are likewise far more likely to fall victim to violence and unemployment So. so called "third world countries" you can meet homeless people on every corner. cry.said the son shoving by screwdriver into the system block. "What have you done? It costs a small fortune". Their curiosity and plays could cause the terrible consequences. It is understandable that women decide to defer having children later or do not have children at all. A NIOSH study recommends 200-500 lux for general office work. Prevent a misfortune! That should be our device. which is light within the field of vision that is brighter than other objects to which the eyes are adapted. Crime is another problem caused by homelessness and homeless people. children are obstacles in the labor market. run around you don't giving even a minute for rest. People that spend most of the time working at computers should pay attention at the following factors: Light and glare. Fortunately. many other "third world countries" Unfortunately diseases and viruses is not only problem caused by homelessness. there is a lack of knowledge about modem contraception and a correspondingly large number of abortions. by simple paper a child can cut his soft flesh and cause the hemorrhage. desk lights are recommended in preference to ceiling lights. the number of women taking part in the country's political. that's why homeless people go the wrong way Keep your wrists in a natural. Without scientific discoveries and inventions no progress would be possible. . 'From a legal point of view. to cut the wires. political and economic spheres of the country entails not only the raise of women's role in society. A Child A child is the charming creature. But problem of homelessness must be solved! People must not loose their conscience and help their brothers and sisters on the streets. chores and raising children are generally considered to belong to a woman's domain. Computers and Health 13. children are obstacles in the labor market.1 5 minute break from the keyboard every hour). it'll help to solve the issue with living place. and impaired vision are often a product of improper illumination resulting in glare. Women's salaries are on average lower than . disturb. It is for sure that civil volunteers will help with money and many other activities. However. I don't know. Government has all power to help homeless people and solve the problem with homelessness. performing other work interspersed with computing (some studies recommend a 1 0 . "He is just a child". "Daddy. It seems for them that everything what they see is the toys and of course want to play. But who knows what vices can be grown up in this innocent soul. widening access to international resources and experience of women's organizations on an international level. Sometimes robberies end up with serious injuries or even homicide. Free economic relations and democratization of all spheres of life create the basis for eventual equal social rights for any human being regardless of six-foot both of men and women. There a lot of such experience No. and learn from experience that long hours at the keyboard can bring on eyestrain and various aches and pains. That's why government of "third world counties" tries to solve this problem by building more homes and shelters. other sources suggest 500-700 lux for light characters on dark monitors and somewhat more for darkon-light. It is understandable that women decide to defer having children later or do not have children at all. in practice. Role of woman in society The ongoing changes in social. Homeless people eat from dirty waste. He is the sense of our life. They like to shove fingers into the socket. chores and raising children are generally considered to belong to a woman's domain. which increase reflections from video screens Breaks and exercises. I'm not talking about the children becoming criminals but about the "normal" children making life with them completely intolerable. Nigeria. which involves homeless people themselves.Eyestrain. But the "toys" sometimes could be by no means harmless. Charities and donations also to not enough to live a good life. such as carpal tunnel syndrome.

deforestation. which in turn is causing the global temperature to rise. and advertisements the same as TV are an essential part of our everyday life. see films. Alfred Nobel invented a new explosive (dynamite) to improve the peacetime industries of road building. Some books arouse our interest. Climate scientists have linked the ncreased levels of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere to luman activities. All this shows that science can take good forms and evil forms. On the one hand a lot of outstanding discoveries made the life of the people more comfortable and pleasant. Physiology. but saw it used as a weapon of war to kill and injure his fellow men. Global warming will produce far more profound climatic changes than simply a rise in global temperature. to stop people to investigate and explore the world. but is this a good thing or a bad one? Don't we go out less often. some make us think which is very important and demand great erudition on the part of the readers. It is science that does us good or does it bring disaster? To answer the question whether science does us good or does it bring disaster isn't a simple task. But people should care it wouldn't be led in wrong direction. delight. widening access to international resources and experience of women's organizations on an international level.5°C over the past 100 years. was to see an end to wars. Chemistry. As a result. But on the other hand such outstanding discoveries of the 20th century as atom fission led to creation of the weapons of mass destruction. People learned to use scientific achievements in curing incurable earlier diseases. Books expand the boundaries of the familiar world for us.12___________________________________________________________ men's. because the colorful TV commercials convince him of the best qualities of the product. watch TV. What form does it take depends on the way people work with science. gasoline for transportation). regional and national levels. the main goals are protection of women's rights and elimination of discrimination in society. TV is a very expensive medium and many countries don't have the technology and the money to make their own television programs. operas and ballets and watch all kinds of contests. Advantages and disadvantages of TV and Advertisements We talk to various people from different countries about their attitudes about TV and advertisement. and thus between nations. and rice "'arming. nave been rising. We should say that science has a potential for both good and evil. His greatest wish. unconsciously chooses the advertised products. amuse us giving pleasure and delight. TV most definitely plays a very important part in people's life. They make the world much larger for us. Global Warming "Global warming" has been introduced by the scientific community and the media as the term that encompasses all potential changes in climate that result from higher average global temperatures. people learned how to produce steel and metal alloys -now we use railways and airplanes. on having entered the store. though. more heat is being trapped than previously. They tell us how great and wonderful man is. 13. quizzes and sporting events. Development of chemistry led to new synthetic fibers and people got more clothing and food. As the Earth's climate is the result of extremely complex nteractions. oil. Medical men use laser to cure and investigate diseases and the same time laser can be used for destruction. They teach us and open their hearts for us. Thus despite our dissatisfaction when being bombarded by all the advertisers' information we must admit that they do perform a useful service to society. Now you are very often hearing "We are going to stay at home and watch the television". particularly carbon dioxide. Books Except for a living man there is nothing more wonderful than books. An analysis of temperature records shows that the Earth nas warmed an average of 0. In the conclusion we may say. How do people usually answer the question: "What are you going to do tonight?" or "What are you going to do at the weekend?" In other words how do people spend their free time? Some 20 or 30 years ago the usual answers used to be "We are going to the theatre" or "We are going to the party" or "We are having some friends round". feelings of curiosity and admiration. the atmospheric concentrations of these gases. __________________________________________________________________72. The products are shown from the best point of view and the potential buyer. You can also get a lot of useful information of the educational channels. The second function is to sell. 16. according to the scientific possible scenarios. Hundreds of scientists from many different countries are working to understand global warming and have come to a consensus on several important aspects. and natural gas for heating and electricity. . scientists still cannot predict the exact impact on the earth's climate of these rising levels of heat-trapping gases over the next century. and women are likewise far more likely to fall victim to violence and unemployment So. In general. and then we used to? Don't we read less? What are the functions of advertisements? The first one to mention is to inform. support for cooperation between women's organizations on the national and international arenas. One buys this washing powder or this chewing gum. Modern TV offers viewers several programs on different channels. We learn many things by reading books. 15. an atmospheric doubling of carbon dioxide could occur as early as 2050. Achievements of biology and chemistry are also used to cause damage to people. It is impossible to stop progress. Medicine. The result is that most countries are dependent on TV of Britain and America. however. Literature and Peace. Does TV educate or stimulate? Or it is a drug or tranquilizer used to control the population. Thanks to discovery of electricity we can listen to the radio. Without scientific discoveries and inventions no progress would be possible. some entertain. ma. until his death in 1896. cattle ranching. and he spent much time and money working for this cause. in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal. We should take into consideration many facts. In addition to regular newscasts you see plays and films. We can hardly read some books and stories for laughing and some dramas and romances for tears. 14. is a memorial to his interests and ideals. The current best estimate is that f carbon dioxide concentrations double over preindustrial levels. widening women's participation in policy decision-making processes on the local. His famous will in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding discoveries in Physics. For the past 1 5 0 years.

it is most common in East Asia. According to the World Health Organization. Books give food for our mind and warmth for our soul. There are different kinds of books. statistics show that at least a quarter of people even in these regions continue to smoke. It's so nice to read ooems which gradually are unfolding and revealing their rich inner self. It was adopted by many Europeans following the colonization of the Americas. and the pipe. where as many as two-thirds of all adult males smoke tobacco. historical dramas. Tobacco may be smoked in several forms.12___________________________________________________________ Books arouse different emotions in us. The practice of smoking tobacco originated among Native Americans in eastern North America. Because of concern over the health effects of tobacco smoking. feel sympathy or indignation. 17. intelligent. essays. And the last group is people who like to read non-fiction literature. Smoking Smoking is a big social issue in many countries nowadays widely discussed in newspapers. However. the practice has rapidly declined in recent years in the United States. detective and spy stories. Pipes and cigars are . __________________________________________________________________72. They are science-fiction and fantasy stories. Books have a great impact on our characters. the cigar. Readers can be divided into some groups. where tobacco is native. struggle and reach success together with the characters of the books. humorous stories. We should love books as they are the sources of knowledge and can make us strong. but a very interesting group is people who prefer romantic and detective stories. adventure books and Dooks about travels. which appeal to different kinds of readers. The most popular group is people who read fantastic stories. There are many other small groups. and there is no indication smoking will go away completely. but those three is bigger than others. Canada and western Europe. Another not so popular. the most common being the cigarette. Diographies and autobiographies. as one reads them again and over again. books about animals and nature. they penetrate deep into our souls and hearts. radio and TVshows. We love and suffer. tales and fairytales. Cigarette smoking is the most common. they add to molding of our characters and forming our moral values. cry or laugh. and well educated. We are influenced by good examples.

and other disorders. he or she will prescribe some medicine which you can get made up at chemists [drug-store] At chemist's shop you can get different kinds of medicines: pulls. Their record over the past forty years or so hasn't been exactly spotless. have a splitting headache feel dizzy or cough you go and see a doctor or send for him at once. I watch also in order to get informed with all that is happening in my country but also abroad. Several European countries such as the Republic of Ireland. I remember one of my most serious illnesses.less common. 1. You do not have to seek constant approval for everything you do. Discovery channel. 24 hours a day of music. Physical exercises are good pastime. So. they are: NTV. That's why the World Service is not always popular with governments. but it's their own life and their own choice. especially lung cancer. MTV. My nose was running. I will. If you are running a temperature.if they are prepared to admit it . every thought you think is observed by some critical adult who may draw Usually adults like Euro news or BBC channels. ORT. Enjoyment is a principle one could apply to all aspects of life. Adults choose the clothes their children will wear. They have more money to spend and enjoy their freedom. Sweden. For all the nostalgic remarks you hear. It's about time somebody exploded that hoary old might about childhood being the happiest period of your life. can you believe it? I like to listen music very much. PROTV and others. And if on occasion you are teased. The hookah or water pipe is used in the Middle East. about the events that happened in the world. you have your own place to live in and your own money to spend. and sometimes I even make myself the music. Medical research has found that smoking is a major contributing factor towards many human health problems. Some say they smoke in order to relax. Early in the morning I woke up and felt dizzy and feverish. You can simply tell other adults to go to hell: you are on yourself. They take leave to doubt that the older generation has created the best of all possible worlds. Somebody thinks that TV is bad. do as you were told. That is true that good health is better than the best medicine. I also have few KOSMOS TV's channels. so obsessed with mean ambitious and the desire to amass more and more material possessions? Can anything be right with the rat-race? Haven't the old lost touches with all that it is important in life? These are not questions the older generation can shrug off lightly. TVE. Certainly. I can do that all day. that is why I enjoy watching MTV. Italy. TV even helps you to know more about yourself. Childhood might certainly be fairly happy. often including bars and restaurants. Who ever asked a six. but from the different point of view. There is nothing more unpleasant than being taking ill. the worlds open up before you. Norway. Still. TV in my life TV is very important thing in our life. Office hours. I am very tolerant towards smokers as long as they don't smoke in my presence and it's of no harm to me. The old always assume that they know best from the simple reason that they have been around a bit longer. The old. JflS____________________________________________________________________ Illness started unexpectedly. I think that most of the minors smoke in order to be like everybody else.could learn a thing or two from their children. So here are some words about the channels that I like. I think that adults usually like to watch more informational channels rather than channels with cartoons or music. Sleep with your window open. Medicines and health. I also like several foreigner channels. You are no longer teased. I believe that in the future TV will be better and everyone will like it. the martial law. Of course it's very harmful for them. which adult would honestly change places with a child? Think of the years at school: the years living in constant fear of examinations and school report. punished or ridiculed by heartless adults because you failed to come to some theoretical kind of standard. MTV is a music channel. for instance. for the most part by the non-smokers. Smoking is not supported by many people in the world. 5. especially Euro sport. What a relief it is to grow up. that's why sometimes my mother makes me turn off TV. Keep your teeth clean. In addition. All news in the BBC are checked at least twice before it is broadcasting." and a dire warning would follow. The younger generation knows best 19. sometimes my family has a problem with choosing channels. the books they will read and the friends they will play with. ointments and many other things. The Bush house is a headquarters of the BBC World Service. 2. the times you had to go early to bed. Would not people work better if they unflattering conclusions about your character. 18. and BBC. I had a splitting headache and terrible cough. You have a sound mind in a solid body. 21. I also like NTV. It is surely not wrong to enjoy your work and enjoy your leisure. and some stereotype these as exclusively for men. are nothing more than enforced slavery. in many countries some jurisdictions impose restrictions on where smoking is allowed. You are free to choose. The English proverb "Sickness in the body brings sickness to the mind. 3. I was sneezing . Take long walks in the open air as often as you can. I like some of them and hate others. Childhood is certainly happiest time of your life not the Old people are always saying that the young are not what they were. Every movement you make. Cause of our different tastes. Here some rules for good health. Traditionally the young have turned to their elders for guidance.year old for an opinion? Children don't have opinions. expresses the similar idea. tablets. They grow up more quickly. It was four years ago. We have a lot of TV channels. And you know why! Cartoon network is not bad. TVR1. to be cool and become a grown up. They don't like to feel that their values are being questioned or threatened. And this is precisely that the young are doing. rest and distract from their daily stress. People start smoking for different reasons. to shed restricting inhibitions. If you do early exercises you feel refreshed you have a good posture and that makes you felled so pay attentions to the way you stand waken sit. but I think that it's better for children not for me. But I have to say that I like also the channels that show news. for example: Cartoon network. why have the older generation so often used violence to solve their problems? Why are they so unhappy and guilt-ridden in their personal lives. I think that all teenagers of my age like to watch MTV or other entertainment channels. The same comment is made from generation to generation and it is always true. Keep your body clean. and eat disgusting stuff that was supposed to be good for you.. Suddenly you regain your balance. about the others counties. heart attack. my favorite channel is MTV. many people continue smoking. 4. or if they do nobody notice. as an Old Latin saying goes. It is surely not wrong to life in the present rather than in the past or future. It has never been truer that it is today. you know how to deal with it. Mother and father are kindly but absolute dictators.. The young are better educated. Think of the curfews. Form this building the BBC broadcasts radio programmers to the whole world. but I don't think so. 20.. What they reject more than anything is conformity. Today the situation might be reversed. Remember how "gentle" pressure was applied with remarks like "if you don't do as I say. Wear clean clothes. TVM. One of the biggest lessons they could learn is that enjoyment is not "sinful". We can say that TV is our eyes because TV helps us to know more about the world.. Spain and Scotland have legislated against smoking in public places. but its greatest moments can't compare with the sheer joy of being an adult. were given complete freedom and responsibility? And what about clothing? Who said that all the men in the world should wear dull grey suits and short haircuts? If we turn our minds to more serious matters. which is one of the best information's channels in the whole world. I like to watch TV very much.

which must he taken in order to improve the ecological situation. recycle more. felt my pulse. But now. Traveling by air is more popular in our days than other ways of traveling. conserve wildlife and nature. we are at a crucial turning point. 26. Cars and factories pollute the air we use. funny smiling faces. The other problem is that our forests are dying from acid rains. Modern life is impossible without traveling. The place may be an interesting city. These are the main practical measures. Governments must be prepared to take action against pollution. I had phenomena and I was to be taken to the hospital. People travel by boat. act locally». Extracting a tooth or having a tooth field is quite common things but now painful. So we celebrate all holidays in a very special way and it keeps our family together in spirit. the fashion world has once again discovered the wonderful styles from the '60s. For example. But most of all I'm afraid of visiting a dentist. Preparation for Christmas are always pleasant: buying gifts. It's always interesting to discover new things. act according to the dictum «think locally. flooding coastal areas and ruining vast tracts of farmland. We have upset nature's sensitive equilibrium releasing harmful substances into the air. spend their holidays there.5 Degrees C. I believe that on this day if you make a wish staying next to the Christmas tree it will undoubtedly come true. If a ship loses some of the oil in the water. candles. to sleep in warm bed and many other advantages. changes the climate and ecosystem in the world. We have only a few years to attempt to turn things around. make them feel proud of their nation. though we may read about them in books and newspapers. Each family is like a little country with its own traditions. If you look down at the Earth from a plane you will see how wonderful our planet is. There is nothing worse than camping in rain. But now the situation changed. I think that our education becomes richer when you travel. Next morning after Christmas we all are looking for the sweets which the Santa puts into the Christmas stoking. We have traditions in fashion.all the time. Many ships sail in the ocean water.5—4. all the members should be present. the weather must be good for that. high snow-capped mountains. My family strongly believe in rules and traditions. set up environmental research centers and take practical urgent measures to avoid ecological catastrophe. Besides I was running a high temperature. I could hardly recognize my own voice. Such people are very fond of traveling and have the sense of adventure. by train. or on TV.. All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages. careless ways. Fishermen catch contaminated fish which may be sold in markets. Usually we celebrate this holiday in a family circle but sometimes we invite our relatives and close friends to the party. Our most favorite holiday is Christmas. I enjoy staying at a hotel. Such events of national importance unite people. the water becomes dirty. You can see many continents and oceans. The cookies and cakes are very special not only because of the cream but also because of their form and color. redesign and modify purifying systems for cleaning and trapping harmful substances. One of the most important pollution problems is the oceans. in behavior and in all other aspects of life 25. rivers and lakes. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations. They travel to see other continents and countries. affects the balance of nature in many ways. 22. It looks like the end of civilization on the Earth. green forests and fields. in food. because you can see new things which you never seen in your life before and besides by traveling and sightseeing we can get to know the world around us. protect and increase the greenery and broaden 10 7 ecological education. These are the consequences of the development of civilization. It is more comfortable to stay there. The doctor asked me to strip to the waist. In our family this dinner is very important. Hippie fashion Today. modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns. and people may get sick from eating them. I had to stay for a month there and obliged to get a lot of penicillin injections. gifts. The 5th of June is proclaimed the World Environmental Day by the UNO and is celebrated every year. Toothache can't be compared with anything else. We've come full circle and clothes are not the only part of hippie Dom to resurface for . a picturesque village or some other attractive place. To my mind. they look like Christmas-trees. We celebrate it on the 25th of December. countries and rivers. You will see blue seas and oceans. Their fume also destroys the ozone layer which protects the Earth from the dangerous light of the Sun. some carrying oil. United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) concentrates its activities on these issues. We must review our wasteful. meet new people. Every nation has its own customs and long-lived traditions. My favorite holiday Computers project that between now and the year of 2030 we are going to have increase of the average temperature between 1. What can be done to protect nature? I believe that environment disasters can be avoided if people broaden ecological education and every person understands that the beauty of nature is extremely fragile and people must obey the unwritten laws of nature. examined the throat. If we are fond of traveling we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see at home. by plane or on foot. to listen to different musical rhythms. In the long run I recovered of course. Some progress has been already made in this direction. When the meal is ready the real Christmas comes with the big family dinner. Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays traveling. Some people enjoy camping in tents. traditions which have been set by my grand-grand parents long ago. sending Christmas cards and decorating Christmas tree with small. or teddy-bears. Acid Measures are to be taken. Ecological problems 23. then sounded my lungs. to try to different food. to take a hot shower. I don't really believe in Santa but I believe that Christmas is a very unusual holiday when the wonders happen and all dreams may come true. bright-colored lights and small colored glass ornaments. we are obliged to remove factories and plants from cities. Of course. Deforestation. sweets and illumination. especially destruction of tropical forests. cities and lakes. Others believe in seeing as much as possible in the time they have. 159 countries-members of the UNO have set up environmental protection agencies. to meet different people. There is a great number of exciting events which are held in every country throughout the year. different ways of life. at the end of the 20th century. Nature protection 24. polluting rivers and oceans with industrial waste and tearing up the countryside to accommodate our rubbish. Another important problem is air pollution. Many fish are dying in the sea. Some people like to go on one place and 108______________________________________________________ The Earth is the only planet in the solar system where there is life. They hold conferences discussing ecological problems. or waste from the ships in put into the ocean. Many sea birds die because of the polluted water. you must look through some advertisement.fishing ships. use modern technologies. It kills animals. some ships carrying people. think globally. They travel to enjoy picturesque places or just for a change of scene. For hundreds of thousands of years the human race has thriven in Earth's environment. You can enjoy being alone. we must consume less. Water contamination could lead to shortages of safe drinking water. others are getting contaminated. Air pollution could be reduced if plants and factories were made to fit effective filters on chimneys and car exhausts. first. Traveling. All my life is filled with ___________________________________________________________________ ma. There are numerous public organizations such as Greenpeace that are doing much to preserve environment. If you want to travel. just because it is Christmas. Sea levels would rise by several meters.

the only thing that will save the world. 27..What is the practical importance of facts about our identity and persistence? Imagine that surgeons are going to put your brain into my head. killing and envying just because they love each other. What they have in common that makes them all questions about personal identity is difficult to say. claiming that only theirs are true. Not that love that Sigmund Freud told us about. may be just the contrary for other people.We often speak of one's "personal identity" as what makes one the person one is. One of them is a physical sense of perception. Jewelry. leather vests. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium. The English language arrived in Britain on the point of a . Personal identity-it deals with questions about ourselves qua people (or persons). Rock 'n roll stars like Jimmy Hendrix and The Beatles appeared in public and on record albums in all sorts of colorful costumes. It also depends on the culture we are living in. That's why pupils have got such subject as a foreign language at school. such as cakes and ice-cream. Women wore saris from India and sarongs from Bali and Java. Learning foreign languages It is necessary to learn foreign languages.. to blue jeans to patchwork. In the '60s. Therefore it is said "Tastes differ". the 29. American. as opposed to a non-person? What would it take for a chimpanzee or a Martian or an electronic computer to be a person. for something to count as a person. which is determined by the way we were brought up. a mishmash of Indian. It is obvious that every country and nation has its own taste and way of thinking but to my opinion that makes each nation special and interesting in the meantime! 28. bandannas. Mexican. I'm talking about REAL LOVE. on the other hand. porridge or omelet Tastes differ even among people belonging to different sex. Your identity in this sense consists roughly of those attributes that make you unique as an individual and different from others. India or Morocco was essential. Some people call such ideas "philosophy" of life. The most common question is what it takes for us to persist from one time to another. There is no one problem of personal identity. thoughts and some beliefs. Hippies developed their own cuisine. Hippies influenced not only clothes but a wide range of ideas and attitudes thus changing society in the process. even leather pants were popular. what seems beautiful and tasteful to us.. as. Throughout the history people have got to know famous people.Food is an important part of every culture. Even if a person says that he doesn't live according to some rules or ideas. Today we see many different people who live in different places.which means that she became fond of music. They found that women are more prone to eat comfort foods high in fat and sugar. jackets with frills. Many new fashions emanated from San Francisco and London to some extent.they are too busy living their life full of hatred and rudeness. in "It tastes so sweet. belonging to different groups following different teachings. The typical hippy vehicle was a VW bus or van or bug. for example. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium. by the time when we were growing. They brought a tsunami of new styles and colors into fashion like never before. people all over the world quote Shakespeare. The elements that went into the hippy wardrobe were only limited by their psychedelic imaginations. the hippies took fashion on an eye-popping psychedelic journey. What is necessary. These were often painted . Accessories included love beads. especially if made of silver from Mexico. Everybody knows his own language. for some past or future being to be you? But there are other questions of equal interest and importance. one day he will be noticed and taken for example. We often hear people say "this thing is tasteful or tasteless" or "this person has good taste" or "his taste is bad". on our age and on the people we are surrounded by. chocolate or ice-cream. Indian cotton and silk were all popular fabrics. Will the resulting person (who will think he is you) be responsible for my actions.. for example "she developed a taste for music" .What is it to be a person? What is necessary. hippies turned fashion upside down and inside out. Tastes differ Everyone lives his own life relying on some ideas. are more likely to turn to soups. People are still in need of the most essential thing to rely on: they are in need of LOVE. Or it is the way you see or define yourself. killing. who "taught" people how to live. and it is important not to run them together. Person hood. Each of us perhaps remembers quarreling with one of our friends over what tastes better: fried potatoes or macaroni with meat. __________________________________________________________ 111 This means that all of us have some kind of a taste. Moreover. You could acquire a new identity. The main thing for people became choosing which "philosophy" to follow. batik. in different cultures. Recently American medical journal Psychology and Behaviour published the results of a very interesting research. leather.. Velvet. The new millennium is not so much different from the old one. they are different. if they could ever be? What matters. and what is sufficient. From the Haight-Ashbury to London to Katmandu. denim. Bellbottoms ruled the day. but it is useful to know foreign languages somebody said: "English is a language that came from nowhere to conquer the world. when people don't even think about quarrelling. he defines himself as a follower of such "never-care" philosophy. try it!" Taste may also be defined as aesthetic feeling towards something or understanding.. People are still quarrelling. People are so different and what we suppose is good for us. without warning. Middle Eastern. Your individual psychological identity is a property that you might have for a while and then lose. Identity. deceiving. The philosophy should meet challenge of the new millennium." These words are really true! The most important contribution was made by William Shakespeare. I am who I am. It's a symbol of the resurgence of hippie values in their culture. Each of such people believes that he follows the right philosophy and those who live differently are wrong. pasta and steaks. Shakespeare's influence on everyday English speech is great. Discussions that go by the name of personal identity are most often about questions like these: Who am I? . or for yours? Or both? Or neither? That completes our survey. Small campers and even school buses were converted into living space for one to a dozen people. Who is that person? The word "taste" has several meanings. to hip huggers. The philosophy must teach people to love each other. The fashion leaders were the icons of our day. called philosophers. and what is sufficient. it depends on the social class we belong to and even on our profession. or perhaps carry on without one. but a range of loosely related problems.m the new millennium. They used the Web to survey 277 male and female participants in order to find out what kind of food they prefer. People today are not aware of that enormous lack of love in their hearts . and granny glasses. lying and dying. the discipline. Though these questions are related. They missed one thing: the main thing was to choose which philosophy was RIGHT. Many are familiar thoughts that occur to everyone at some time: What am I? When did I begin? What will happen to me when I die? Philosophical discussions of personal identity go right back to the origin of 112_________________________________________________________ 30. There should be at least one person to start living according to "new" philosophy. Tastes differ even within one country. from striped. Most of them try to criticize others' ideas. Men. and that neither of us has any choice about this. Very few of them try to understand others' philosophy of life. and most major figures have had something to say about it. Italian and Asian with an emphasis on vegetarian.

Received . Now I would like to tell you about Standard English and Regional accents. That is why there are so many loans in English language.sword.

which peaked towards the end of the 19th century. Part of the problem is the size of the job market itself. but because they don't have financial resource to fall back on. And it is also very bad. English is a West Germanic language originating in England. the United Kingdom and the United States of America (also commonly known as the Anglosphere. factories. and they become widespread among the population. But what is happiness? Is it something that you feel at a fleeting moment or does it has to last a certain amount of time before it can officially be called "happiness"? While the thought of blazing through the sky after jumping out of a plane may spell utter bliss for some. Finland . It is thought of a standard form and is often used by the BBC. But after graduating and finding a job is very hard most of theme are very disappointed and prefer to go abroad and work instead staying here. and the first language for most people in Australia. Experts say that happiness is an emotion. Sweden . It is also used in teaching English in many parts of the world. But on the other hand if you studied a lot during school and high school years then you will find a good. 34. every country needs a standard form of the language because of the contact between people of this country. in order to get a degree and serve to the society. Also like any emotion. a large percentage of the population claimed to be able to converse in English in the Netherlands . All this can be achieved only with good specialists and professionals 33. it is currently the language most often taught as a second" language around the world. or a part of it. Creating those places for young people is the burning question now. business. after Mandarin Chinese and Spanish. Among non-English speaking countries. make a list of your interests. better and that people be grateful to theme. Many students finish high school and begin college without a clear idea of what they want to do in future. Most of the scientific. incomprehensible. advertising. aviation. but at the beginning they are undeveloped and may not seem outstanding. There must be a lot of new plants. We spend great part of our lives at our jobs. Rhyming slang is a way of speaking. United Kingdom. the Commonwealth Caribbean. talents and abilities.When students enter the high schools they all want for sure to become good specialist and all want to work and give the best from theme in order to help the society to become richer. Books. 31. Highway to happiness Most of us want to be happy. as of 2005. Accent is the sound of a person's pronunciation of the language. South Africa . corporations are interested in finding the cheapest labor. Unemployment especially hits poor and working class families the hardest. But these students are glad to find a job and work even if it has nothing to do with the specialty they learn five years for in our country young people are still a little suppressed. to graduate it and apply the knowledge accumulated. Of those nations where English is spoken as a second language. New Zealand. Denmark Luxembourg. The most serious problem is that of finding working places for such a great number of specialists. they have complexes but abroad the life is quite different. Canada. Over 309 million people speak English as their first language. while new and . English is the dominant international language in communications. The problem of unemployment is also connected with the economic crisis in our country. But there are a lot of loanwords in every language nowadays.the existence of millions of unemployed people tends to present most of those working from asking for higher wages since they can be replaced easily. technological and academic information in the world is expressed in English. World of jobs It is certain the fact that every person since child dream to continue the studies and enter a good University. But above all you must evaluate yourself. They all go to institutes or universities and even academies. Modern English is sometimes described as the global lingua franca. not because this people are more likely to be unemployed. collect as much information as you can. The countries with the highest populations of native English speakers are. Ireland. it is extremely important to explore your choice of occupations from every angle. and the leading language of international tourism. English today is probably the third largest language by number of native speakers. To my mind. And I think when this crisis comes to an end the problem of unemployment will not be so urgent. Australia . and the emergence of the US as the leading economic power of the 20th century. the lingua franca of the modern era. in descending order: United States . entertainment. as very few of theme do find a good paid job with good conditions . The importance of English language. Every year thousands of students graduate the high schools but uncertain of their future. What one person defines as something that keeps them smiling may be just the thing that makes another person miserable. so choosing a right career is one of the most important decisions you will make in your life. it has often been referred to as a "global language". second -in their search for profits. Ireland. I think that our state has to give more attention to educational system and the employment system if we want to achieve better results and get to be seen at international level." If this is true. But there is one more problem when people who leave one or institutions are not satisfied with the working conditions and work as other specialists. English is the chief language of international business and academic conferences. and Germany Norway and Iceland also have a large majority of competent Englishspeakers. science. English is one of six official languages of the Nations. Cockney is the way of speaking English and it is known as the London dialect. My purpose is to show you why the English is a world language.and New Zealand Countries such as Jamaica and Nigeria also have millions of native speakers of dialect continuums ranging from an English-based creole to a more standard version of English. Young people begin to work very early from the point of view of age. The present day world status of English is the result of two factors: the expansion of British colonial power. is substituted for a standard word. Austria . In old industries there may be little need for new workers. First start with you. Most people have a lot of these. Problems of unemployment I think that the problem of youth employment is very actual and must be solved as quickly as possible.19 Hi pronunciation is the form of British English pronunciation used by many educated people in every part of Britain. then no matter what 32. There is a standard form of the language and some dialects in our country too. As a result they have only their diplomas but they do not work according to their professions. It is even believed by some that everyone has a "happiness baseline. Slovenia . bad words. Therefore. By concentrating on a few. some people simply seem to experience it more than others. well paid job for sure as society need and will need always good specialists in every sphere of activity. In conclusion I would like to say that now there are more than 60 countries that speak English as the dominant or official language. The Federal Government should do something about this problem. Find out where your interests and talents lie. Every day for example in advertisements we can hear and see new. India has the most such speaker's . While English is not an official language in most countries. Belgium . and newspapers written in English are available in many countries around the world. growing industries will offer jobs now and in the future. it comes and goes. get more and more experience out of their work and have more possibilities to realize themselves. magazines. Because English is so widely spoken. With so many kinds of jobs (2000) how can you tell which will interest you? Some of occupations are already overcrowded. It shows where a person comes from and what class he or she belongs to. hospitals and other enterprises to give jobs to all the graduates. English is the main language of popular music. home computers and video games. Unemployment exists primarily for two reasons: first . or on one you may surprise yourself at how good you can get. others may shiver at the mere mention of it. ordinarily popular among cockneys in which a rhyming phrase. radio and diplomacy.Following India is the People's Republic of China. and just like any emotion. Canada.

The importance of money in today's society is rather large. Immigration will not only continue. Once people accumulate wealth. Those born in money seem to have to work less than those bom without it. Of course. 35.' This is the first commandment of God's 1 0 Commandments. and the most significant establishment in it. Many organizations and businesses in modern society revolve around money. in politics. They don't have to work because they were lucky enough to be born with money. Her great responsibility in providing stable and happy life inside the family is in itself an effective factor in man's success. Now that we're armed with the map to happiness. Money is something that everyone. money does not account for much when it comes to happiness. Migration is a sensitive subject among populations in general. It is held too high in society. Money is the god that many place above God. forgive. happiness does not magically appear overnight. the nature of integration programs and the type of integration measures that should be provided are heavily being debated. However.10. It's almost to the point where money can be seen as its own entity which Women constitute half of the society and in some societies the proportion exceeds that percentage. The intelligentsia and sociologists have to do their hardest job in enlightening the society about the mutual role played by both men and women in building an advanced society where both men and women are equal in importance and roles played in life. In the search for happiness. Nevertheless. laugh. her job as a housewife and her role in the development of the society whereas man's role is mainly outside the family sphere. In a modern society. The family as the most important component of the society. and if non-compliance might lead to legal and financial consequences. Man and Woman in the society The relationship between man and woman in the society has always been subject to a longstanding controversy. People might see this as a threat to their own situation and safety. the successful integration of legally residing third-country nationals. money is the equivalent to the air we breathe. there are many other things that can contribute to our happiness other than those listed above. Moreover ever the successes scored by man are imprints of women who help in their ideas and encourage them in the accomplishment of those successes. particularly in the society. Politicians and society in general need to accept the fact that the majority of EU Member States have become immigration destinations. it's important not to forget the small stuff. Money finds itself everyone across society. but also strongly influences the economical and political arena more than ever before in the modern era. At present. Large-scale migration will continue to have profound economic. Money determines ones social position in society. The power of a dollar is a leading concept in a modern society. Especially in periods of economic recession migrants are an easy scapegoat. ONE: 'You shall have no other gods before Me. impact on people's everyday life. Importance of money in modern society. Money is too powerful of a tool for it not to diminish the morals and values of many Americans. Then when we find ourselves anything less than pleased. you may be missing out on the "little things" that are right in front of you every day that can cause enjoyment. political. We turn on the television and wonder what celebrities like Paris Hilton. 37. 36.20 happens in our life. The more money you have the easier life is for you. including a possible impact on the migrant's residential status. Money determines many things in society. Modernity is a society that lusts money. we often look to others to make us happy. Curriculum Vitae IAVORSCHI ARINA 21. most migrants were unskilled workers who took up rough poorly paid jobs which local workers refused to do. When it comes to achieving happiness. The impact of migration on the society Immigration is a highly sensitive political issue in all the Member States of the European Union. She is an indispensable energy possessing an indispensable role. And the man is incapable to have the same patience and endurance the woman entertains in running the affairs of the family. would place itself above God in many cases. Republic of Moldova Tel: (373) 069112222. we may be wondering where to start. (373 22) 127911 E-mail: arina@yahoo. but will also increase inside the Union. They are often seen as 'those others invading our economies. Everything depends on money. atheists and religious leaders included. engineers and in other areas of social development activities. only we can be held accountable for our own happiness because only we have the power to change the situation we are in. are able to see eye to eye on. doctors. and their descendants. She is the mother of the society and does more than one role. It is the majority of the ordinary people that hold wrong ideas about the role of both man and woman in the society and those ideas are the cause of the imbalanced relationship between man and woman in the society. But this situation has been complicated further by the increasing immigration of high-qualified people. And the answer is nothing. Cash has the ability the transform even the best people into greedy savages. People got through many years of schooling with the hope that they will graduate making six figures. I've personally seen many relationships go sour over disputes involving money. they are not any more satisfied with their life than those who can only afford to meet their most basic needs. Migration has a profound 38. In addition to that sacred role the woman also plays a recognized role outside the family sphere as she proved to be successful teachers.com . Politicians should be very clear in explaining their ideas to the wider public and the beneficial effects that immigration brings to our societies. It's the one thing the majority of society will agree they couldn't live without. as well as the Lisbon Strategy. At official level. and live can lead to lifelong satisfaction. Although this may come as a surprise to many. political and cultural area of receiving societies maximize the demand for effective and comprehensive policies on immigration and integration of migrants. Simply appreciating the little things in life and learning to love. And thus in many cases she is behind his success. is seen as a paramount goal for the benefit of EU social cohesion and economic welfare. By concentrating too much on being happy. it is found even among the intellectuals that some of them do not recognize her importance other than a housewife raising children and taking care of them and the entire household. Our glorious history has abundance of examples of great women successful in various aspects of life. we play the blame game and hold them responsible for the cause of our feelings. and Nicole Ritchie do for a living. In the past. The thought of the "easy life" ties hand in hand with the power of a dollar and people in a modern society fight for that life. education and fighting beside their brother's men. looking for our jobs'. the major role in running it is upon the shoulders of the woman.14 Chisinau.1990______ Ismail street 16/3 fl. As with anything. So it is very difficult to live out the first commandment in a modern society. religion. In my opinion this would be the hardest commandment to follow in a modern society that is so enamored with money. Multidimensional consequences in the social economic. Another key issue is whether such measures should be mandatory or not. as is the case in our Yemeni society. we will always return to our original level of happiness after a certain amount of time. social and cultural consequences within the EU. The progressive establishment of a common EU framework for the integration of migrants has therefore become a top priority. Migration has always remained a delicate topic.

As long as we will be confronted with these problems. 40. presumably. Violence originates in many places-self. Many people believe that violence towards children reaches its peak in the lives of teenagers. Ideal lyceum: Ideal place of study is the place where pupils go with pleasure. While this is According to the latest researches estimates. However. For instance. A lower level of education . Internet Explorer. for example. But the main responsibility it lies of course on parents. Correspondingly. Future plans: Studying in an USA high school Society problem: One of the most ardent problems of the society is unemployment. Chisinau. Microsoft Excel. which in turn affects health positively. English (fluently). Moldova Hi ABILITIES Languages: Romanian (native).independent of individual income . health care systems need to shift towards more geriatric care. for example. 39. even newborn. the ones that are the most indicated to take care and protect their children and assure all good conditions in order to grow up good and elevated citizens. French (medium). Since people are living longer. Violence is a part of every child Violence is a part of every child's life. And of course where pupils do all possible to study and become good citizens ready to serve to the society. aggravated assault. motor. the community and the media-and violence affects children and youth at every age. Utilisation PC: MS Office.21 STUDIES 1996 Theoretical Lyceum " Dante Alighieri". diseases and migration. There is an income gradient affecting health: the poor generally suffer worse health and die younger than people with higher incomes. the life expectancy estimate is 2-5 years higher than similar estimates for a number of considerably richer regional countries. it can improve income. diet. we will have to fight against poverty. All are affected. and to have slower cognitive development. In conclusion it can be said that most of the policy and data collection related to violence in children's lives tends to focus on a single type of violence (such as child abuse or media violence). Also. reading.47 Rates of reported physical abuse are about the same for children in middle childhood as for younger children. In these conditions the migration increases and a lot of people go abroad to earn money in order to assure the normal level of life. Children and youth are witnesses and victims. sanitation and health services. poverty. to be depressed and anxious. our society will stop fighting against such problems as migration. Domestic violence Many children who live in household are often exposed to domestic violence. Health outcomes of Republic of Moldova are influenced by various factors that operate at individual. Media Violence Most children are exposed to media violence at some level on a daily basis through television. When the government will solve this problem. In so doing. though not all are affected equally. older people can respond with lifestyle changes that can increase healthy years of life. and robbery also increases as teens get older. People are considered to be in absolute poverty if their incomes are not sufficient to purchase very minimal goods and services. The teachers are pleasant and ready to give the best from their knowledge to the young generation. As the length of life increases. Education can also give more access to knowledge about healthy behavior and increase the tendency to seek treatment when needed. other types of violence actually begin to recede during the teenage years. Obvious factors are. children who have been exposed to domestic violence often suffer from insomnia and have trouble with bed-wetting. better food and living conditions. more exposed to television violence than children who are younger or older. or a particular group (such as teens or inner-city children). or neighbourhood). a particular social context (such as the family. measures to improve health and prevent disease need to focus on people of working age. household and community levels. the prevention and management of chronic diseases and more formal longterm care. . school. and some become perpetrators. video games. canto Jogging. with depression and hostility and with adverse effects on health. a person born in the Republic of Moldova in 2003 can expect to live 67 years on average: 71 years if female and 63 years if male. Most of the young people that graduate high schools cannot apply the knowledge as the government cannot assure a stable place of work. painting. and cognitive skills. Compared with children in other households. where the labs are provided with the necessary tools. access to clean water. Life expectancy in the country is about 1 1 years lower than the Europa average of 79 years. they are more likely than other children to exhibit aggressive and antisocial behaviour. corruption. health behavior. swimming. despite being the second poorest county in the European Region. Russian (fluently). family. Health care in Republic of Moldova Dancing. peers. or music Children in middle childhood watch more television and are therefore. Education tends to enhance an individual's job opportunities. Violence at teenagers.is correlated with the inability to cope with stress. They also are more likely to experience difficulties in school and to score lower on assessments of verbal. The risk of being a victim of sexual assault. the latter are better able to afford the goods and services that contribute to health. Personal experience: 200120022003Preferences: Hobby: Olympiad at Mathematics English Language debates Olympiad at English Language true for some of the more extreme forms of violence. And it is the Government's task to ensure good life and health conditions to the citizens.