A guide to referencing

with exAmpleS in the ApA & hArvArd StyleS

A Guide to referencinG Sixth edition

A Guide to RefeRencinG
with exAmpleS in the ApA & hArvArd StyleS Sixth edition university of canberra library and Academic Skills program 2010

published by:

university of canberra library and Academic Skills program university of canberra Act 2601 AuStrAliA

first published 1986 Second edition 1988 Second edition, revised 1990 third edition 1999 fourth edition 2003 fifth edition 2007 Sixth edition 2010 © university of canberra library, 2010 this publication is also available online at: http://www.canberra.edu.au/library/research-gateway/research_help/referencing-guides iSBn 9781740883153

tABLe of contents

introduction to the Sixth edition
why should i acknowledge my sources? when should i acknowledge my sources? how do i integrate my sources into my writing? how do i evaluate my sources? how do i acknowledge my sources? print resources web resources

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AmeRicAn PSycholoGicAl ASSociAtion (APA) RefeRencinG Style
Books one author – in-text reference placement one author – when fewer than 40 words are quoted one author – when 40 or more words are quoted two authors three to five authors - when reference to specific page/s required Several works by same author, same year Several authors, different years, referred to collectively in your work e-Book – online book citing a source within a source chapter in edited book Brochure – author is also publisher editor compiler, or reviser, or translator no author or editor Approximate date of publication no date of publication

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A Guide to RefeRencinG iii

Graph. etc.A Guide to RefeRencinG iv corporate author – when the author is also the publisher corporate author – commissioned reports Second or later edition multi-volume work JouRnAL . – online otheR souRces Blog post cd recording – music chart see figure. table. neWsPAPeR & neWsLetteR ARticLes Journal article with one author – separated paging (paginated by issue) Journal article with two authors – continuous paging throughout a volume Jounral article with three to five authors Article in online journal with six or seven authors Journal or magazine article with no volume or issue number Journal article retrieved from a database – with a doi (digital object identifier) Journal article retrieved from a database – without a doi Book review in a journal newspaper article – with an author newspaper article – without an author newspaper article retrieved from a database Article in an online newsletter GoveRnment PuBLicAtions Government department as author legislation Government publication – with identifying number Government report – online Government approved standards univeRsity PRovided study mAteRiAL reading bricks and e-reserve lecture / tutorial notes. map or chart conference or seminar papers in published proceedings – print conference or seminar papers in published proceedings – online dictionary / encyclopaedia – print 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 .

map or chart image – online interview – on radio interview – on television map see figure. map or chart Graph see figure. list. table. Graph. Graph. map or chart motion picture (movie) personal communication podcast (audio) radio program – broadcast radio program – transcript Speech Speech – online table see figure. table. table. etc.APA 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 A Guide to RefeRencinG v . – online dvd / videorecording email facebook update figure. Graph. Graph. table.dictionary / encyclopaedia – online discussion group. map or chart television advertisement television program – broadcast television program – transcript thesis or dissertation – print thesis or dissertation – retrieved from a database thesis or dissertation – retrieved from the web video blog post web document – dated & author or sponsor given web document – author or sponsor given but not dated web source with no page numbers website – entire website wiki youtube post see video blog post sAmPLe RefeRence List .

separated paging (paginated by issue) Journal article with two or three authors .continuous paging throughout a volume Journal article with more than three authors Journal or magazine article with no volume or issue number Article in online journal or magazine Journal article retrieved from a database Book review in a journal newspaper article – with an author newspaper article – without an author newspaper article retrieved from a database online newspaper or newsletter article 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 .A Guide to RefeRencinG vi ‘hARVARd’ AuthoR-dAte RefeRencinG Style Books one author – in-text reference placement one author – when fewer than 30 words are quoted one author – when 30 or more words are quoted two or three authors more than three authors . different years. same year Several authors. referred to collectively in your work e-Book – online book citing a source within a source chapter in edited book Brochure – author is also publisher editor compiler.when reference to specific page/s required Several works by same author. or translator no author or editor Approximate date of publication no date of publication corporate author – when the author is also the publisher corporate author – commissioned reports Second or later edition multi-volume work JouRnAL. neWsPAPeR & neWsLetteR ARticLes Journal article with one author . or reviser.

Graph. table. list. table. table. map or chart motion picture (movie) personal communication podcast (audio) radio program – broadcast radio program – transcript Speech 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 29 A Guide to RefeRencinG vii .GoveRnment PuBLicAtions Government department as author legislation Government publication – with identifying number Government report – online Government approved standards univeRsity PRovided study mAteRiAL reading bricks and e-reserve lecture / tutorial notes. Graph. map or chart Graph see figure. map or chart conference or seminar papers in published proceedings – print conference or seminar papers in published proceedings – online dictionary / encyclopaedia – print dictionary / encyclopaedia – online discussion group. table. etc. map or chart image – online interview – on radio interview – on television map see figure. etc – online otheR souRces Blog post cd recording – music chart see figure. Graph. Graph. – online dvd / videorecording email facebook update figure.

hARvARd 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 32 . map or chart television advertisement television program – broadcast television program – transcript thesis or dissertation – print thesis or dissertation – retrieved from a database thesis or dissertation – retrieved from the web video blog post web document – dated & author or sponsor given web document – author or sponsor given but not dated web source with no page numbers website – entire website wiki youtube post see video blog post sAmPLe RefeRence List . Graph.A Guide to RefeRencinG viii Speech – online table see figure. table.

milton. it is important to let the reader of your writing know where you found your ideas. hoW do i evaluate my sources? it is very important that you evaluate the information you intend to use to ensure that it is from an authoritative source and is appropriate for your research. for more information use the guides for evaluating sources under ‘web resources’. conclusion. idea. this means: • it must be relevant to your argument • it must join neatly with what comes before and after • it must make logical and grammatical sense. dc: Author.edu.). example. importantly. hoW do i integrate my sources into my writing? when you are taking something from another source. editors and printers (6th rev. Style manual for authors. the library provides uc students and staff with access to the bibliographic management software refworks and endnote which enable users to create and organise their own personal database of references. (2002 ). this sixth edition of A guide to referencing covers the most common problems university students encounter when referencing published and unpublished print. ed. When should i acknowledge my sources? you should acknowledge your sources whenever you use a source of information: • as your inspiration • as the source of a theory. whenever you have taken something from another author (that is. A Guide to RefeRencinG 1 . (2010). or findings). opinion. this is important whether or not you use the author’s own words and. Why should i acknowledge my sources? At university a large percentage of your written work is based on the ideas of other writers. non-print and electronic material. deliberate plagiarism is a serious act of academic misconduct. therefore. Australia: wiley. words or data as if they were your own. rev. you have taken an author’s theory. you must acknowledge and cite your sources. argument or point of view • for specific information such as statistics. examples or case studies • for direct quotations (using the author’s exact words) • to paraphrase or summarise an author’s work.). you must make sure it fits properly into this new context. whatever referencing style is chosen you must be accurate and consistent. the university of canberra imposes strict penalties on students who are found to contravene the university’s student Academic integrity Policy which is available in UC Student Guide to Policies at: http://www.intRoduction to the siXth edition As with previous editions. plagiarism occurs when you use other people’s ideas. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed. importantly. washington. if your unit outline or faculty specifies a particular referencing style then you must use that style or you may be penalised.canberra. you must say where the original can be found.au /student-services you need to acknowledge your sources: • to show that you have read and understood the research published in your area of study • to lend authority to what you are writing • to strengthen your argument • to support your own ideas • to provide details or background to what you are writing • to provide interest. in other words. you are taking it out of its original context and putting it into a new context – your own assignment. to avoid plagiarism. it draws on the most recent editions of publications that have served as authorities for previous editions of this guide: American psychological Association.). (Snooks.

An interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology.edu/ instruct/guides/evaluation..canberra. milton.edu. Burton. and more. 6th edn. follows an authordate system developed for Australian authors. turabian.lib. washington. http://www. MLA style manual and guide to scholarly publishing 2008. Snooks & co. Style manual for authors. lJ 2010.. ritter. and dissertations: Chicago style for students and researchers. dc. wayne c.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index. Qld. 3rd edn. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Chicago.) 2003. http://facultysite. 3rd edn.dianahacker.monash. library and Academic Skills program staff can refer you to other print and web-based guides which may address your query. modern language Association of America. or apply this Guide’s basic rules to construct your reference. monash university library’s Citing and referencing tutorials. theses. ApA.aspx American psychological Association’s Frequently asked questions. professions. 7th edn.edu. http://www.unimelb.org/apa-style-help. The Oxford style manual. c 2006.umuc. .canberra.berkeley. Booth et al. Cite right: a quick guide to citation styles: MLA. the sciences. editors and printers. The Chicago manual of style.edu.au/tutorials/citing/ university of maryland university college library’s APA citation examples (based on 6th ed. Kl 2007. Sometimes the type of item you need to reference may not be covered in this Guide.usq. university of chicago press.lib.au/index.edu.aspx diana hacker’s Research and Documentation Online. http://www. wiley. university of chicago press. A manual for writers of research papers.apastyle. module 3: evaluate your resources. Module 6: Use your information appropriately.A Guide to RefeRencinG 2 hoW do i acknowledge my sources? if your unit outline or faculty has not indicated a preferred referencing style.au/studyskills/writing/sources university of canberra library’s PILOT. do?page=3955 Print resources (Note that these references have been set in the ‘Harvard’ referencing style) American psychological Association 2010. university of chicago press 2003.html Acknowledging sources in academic writing http://www. http://www. wiley.edu.au/library/help/referencing/ the following are some useful web-based guides to assist in avoiding plagiarism: Academic honesty and plagiarism http://academichonesty. and the second set. 15th edn. Both systems are based on an ‘author-date’ style. university of chicago press. new york.canberra.au/ pilot/module6/index. http://www. rm (ed.au/ pilot/module3/3_3/index.com/resdoc/ central Queensland university’s Referencing styles. here is a selection you may find useful: lipson.edu. the first set of examples follows the ApA author-date system. http://www. often referred to as the ‘harvard’ style. oxford university press.html university of canberra library’s pilot. rev.au/fcwviewer/view. http://www.html Web resources American psychological Association’s APA Style Help. as it does not cover referencing examples for every source.edu/ library/guides/apa. editors and printers 2002. APA. this Guide provides a range of examples from two well known styles.shtml university of Southern Queensland library’s Referencing guides.) http://www. & comp. 6th edn.html the following are useful guides for evaluating sources: university of california Berkeley library’s Critical Evaluation of Resources.edu. you could consult the main authority for the referencing style you are using. rev.cqu. milton. Qld. http://www.

(2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed. A. 2007. more information is available from: http://www. dc: Author. A Guide to RefeRencinG 3 . Understanding urban policy: A critical approach.aspx in-text RefeRence RefeRence liSt BooKS one author – in-text reference placement Note: there are two main ways to use in-text references. 2007) was that… OR ‘Author prominent’ (the author’s name is outside the parentheses): cochrane (2007) concluded that… An interesting view was expressed that “the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned” (cochrane. A. use double quotation marks to show the exact words. mA: Blackwell publishing. ‘Information prominent’ (the author’s name is within parentheses): the conclusion reached in a recent study (cochrane.apastyle. washington. cochrane. 117). OR An interesting view was expressed by cochrane (2007) that “the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned” (p. mA: Blackwell publishing. (2007). Understanding urban policy: A critical approach. to focus on the author – ‘author prominent’. cochrane. malden.).org/apa-style-help. firstly. one author – when fewer than 40 words are quoted include the material in the paragraph and include specific page number/s. to focus on the information from your source – ‘information prominent’. (2007). malden.AmeRicAn PsychoLoGicAL AssociAtion (APA) RefeRencinG styLe these examples are based on the following publication: American psychological Association. p. 117). Secondly.

m. several works by same author.) immediately after the year. m. same year Arrange alphabetically by title in the reference list. 1996a. & wilson. leadership and change in schools have been major topics of discussion for several years (fullan. (1996a).. 20) concluded that… Subsequent in-text reference/s: (duffy et al. v.. w. p.. fullan. 2001. A. A. 1996b) and this conference… “educational change” has taken on a new meaning in recent years (fullan. A. 1996b) … fullan. in International handbook for educational leadership and administration. p. “b”. “c”. w. list all the authors’ family names.A Guide to RefeRencinG 4 in-text RefeRence one author – when 40 or more words are quoted Begin quoting the material on a new line. wieniawa-narkiewicz. wieniawa-narkiewicz. littlejohn. points out that: there are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily. The new meaning of educational change. london. surgical services have experienced major changes. nJ: pearson prentice hall. deakin. much has been written about acute care. leadership for change. three to five authors – when reference to specific page/s required for the first in-text reference. Southbank. hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of the surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours. (1996b).’ for subsequent entries. then use the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al. england: cassell. (2005). (2001). Guide to writing in biomedical sciences. S..). ny: Kluwer Academic publishers. Australia: thomas wadsworth. etc. finkelman (2006). place lowercase letters (“a”. K. indent it 5 spaces (use the indent tool to keep all lines of the quote evenly indented). this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and research here… two authors when considering context and communication littlejohn and foss (2005) maintained that… A recent study (duffy. . 184) recently. & wilson. & foss. new york. for example. 2001. and include specific page number/s. Theories of human communication (8th ed. e.. Leadership and management in nursing. (2006). use double spacing for both your text and the indented quote. duffy. 20) RefeRence liSt finkelman. K. deakin. and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery. make sure the quote is exactly as it was published. (p. omit the quotation marks. Australia: university of canberra. upper Saddle river.

edu. views on globalization. (1999). G. (1997).d. (2004).au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/guide. lilly (as cited in maxwell. Phonology. A Guide to RefeRencinG 5 . dick. An introduction to action research. richards. Brochure – author is also publisher the security of personal information is addressed in the transAct brochure (transAct. (n. Helping children who are deaf: Family and community support for children who do not hear well. B. permanent identifier assigned to many electronic documents. Greenstein. 2004) that meant we could… niemann. different years. A doi is a unique. macisaac. S.. doi:10. (1995). vivaldi (ed. use “Available from” instead of “retrieved from”. w. . Kemmis & mctaggart. f. and growth [Adobe digital editions version]. Australia: century.in-text RefeRence several authors.scu.).. (eds.) transAct. chapter in edited book we found helpful information about deaf children (niemann.). S. & david. (2001). 29-43). .d. & david. S. r. retrieved from http://physicsed. (2000). p. 1995) suggests… RefeRence liSt carr.1036/0071393722 Schiraldi (2001) offers solutions to ptSd. 1986. macisaac. K. retrieved from http://www. 1988. canberra.org /publications_download_deaf. n. & mctaggart.php Schiraldi.buffalostate. r. (1986). 1999. citing a source within a source when citing a source you haven’t read yourself. the cyclical process (carr & Kemmis. in h. c. Guide to equipment and service [Brochure]. & Kemmis. The action research planner (3rd ed. Australia in a global world (pp. l. d. A beginner’s guide to action research. cA: Brooks cole... Separate each reference with a semicolon. referred to collectively in your work list sources alphabetically by family name in the in-text reference in the order in which they appear in the reference list. The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing.edu/danowner/actionrsch.html e-Book – online book . Greenstein. d. melbourne. 1999.). 2000. Australia: deakin university. 1997) included reference to… OR richards (1997) proposed that… maxwell. london. england: falmer press.html Kemmis. recovery. 25) found that… A discussion about Australia’s place in today’s world (richards. . p.).if there is a doi (digital object identifier). retrieved from http://www. include it instead of the ‘retrieved from’ statement. dick.hesperian. (1988). d. OR lilly’s 1980 study (as cited in maxwell. but which is referred to in a source you have read. 25) stated that “. Becoming critical: Education knowledge and action research.”. north ryde. San francisco.if the url leads to information about how to obtain the book. Australia: Author.

(1999). rev. J. canberra. Best practice: Process innovation management. J. 1983. (original work published 1991). england: Butterworth-heinemann. so it is important to… Macroeconomics. no. Indigenous housing needs 2009: A multi-measure needs model (Aihw cat. macroeconomics considers prices and quantities (Macroeconomics.). 43-57). møller. Australia: emu press. d. trans. Okun. prices and quantities.). give the full name with the abbreviation for the first in-text reference.A Guide to RefeRencinG 6 in-text RefeRence editor in discussing best practice.) and for this reason… A recent study (Australian institute of health and welfare [Aihw]. (ed. (1983). no author or editor . Australian institute of health and welfare. or translator use the following abbreviations after the person’s name in the reference list: comp. Browne. 2007] have provided more up-to-date information confirming that… Some aspects of forensic science are more challenging than others (Browne. Forensic science as a career. 50) which provides us with… RefeRence liSt Zairi. pp. in the latter case. Sophie’s world: A novel about the history of philosophy (p. Smythe.d.). such as Smythe [ca. london. or Reviser. Gaarder. (1994). use the abbreviation only for subsequent references. m. Ant colonies: How they communicate. 2009) highlighted … Subsequent in-text reference/s: the Aihw (2009) found that… this novel by Gaarder (1991/1994) provides an appealing approach to… OR Socrates has been described as “enigmatic” (Gaarder. england: tower publishing. oxford. (2009). england: phoenix house. Zairi (1999) identified… OR Best practice indicators in management have been identified (Zairi.the title may be shortened to the main title (omitting the sub-title) or the first few words of the title. n. Approximate date of publication other academics. prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. Australia: Author. 1999) and… compiler.use the title in the position of the author. canberra. . [ca.d. oxford. p. trans.Spell out the full name of the body each time it is cited in-text. 1991/1994. 2007]. london. hou 214). unless it is long and has a familiar/easily understood abbreviation. no date of publication corporate author – when the author is also the publisher . england: Blackwell. (n. . v.

Adelaide. m.). duke. 2007)… Jackson. new approaches to drug therapy.. c. A Guide to RefeRencinG 7 . h. Journal article with two authors – continuous paging throughout a volume. on quality in art and art therapy. in an earlier article.if each issue of a journal begins on page 1. 27) claim that there is much to learn about these writers which results in… OR there is so much to learn about our country (clark. t. second or later edition peters (2001. Kramer and Bloggs (2002) stipulated in their latest article… OR this article on art (Kramer & Bloggs.. A history of Australia: Vol. Local government’s current and potential role in water management and conservation: Final report. (eds. The earth abideth for ever. it was proposed (Jackson. t. RefeRence liSt South Australian centre for economic Studies. (1978). Psychology Today and Tomorrow. The elements of counselling (2nd ed. Australia: Author. 27(1). inge. 40. ny: St. 6) argued that “. & Bloggs. t. 1-2). (2001).” multi-volume work inge. p. Australia: melbourne university press. A. peters.in-text RefeRence corporate author – commissioned reports the report prepared by the South Australian centre for economic Studies (2009) was discussed. duke and Bryer (1978. do not include the issue number in your reference list entry.. e. include the issue number in parenthesis immediately after the volume number in the reference list. Black American writers: Bibliographical essays (vols. JouRnAl. new york. 4. (2007). martins. 218-231. Brisbane. regardless of issue number. & Bryer.. American Journal of Art Therapy. p. (2002). 42) that we kept returning to… clark. . Australia: macmillan. m..if the journal volume page numbers run continuously throughout the year. 1851-1888. 1978. J. r. neWSPAPeR & neWSletteR ARticleS Journal article with one author – separated paging (paginated by issue) . (2009). 54-59. commissioned by the local Government Association of South Australia. p. (1978).). 2002) stipulated that… Kramer. m.

Borg.1037/a0016372 . J. 871–875. & mattila. 13(1). november 24). Kuosma. e.biotechniques. ervasti.. 10-23. A study examining priming (Johns & mewhort. (2008). 2009). list all the authors’ family names. Atp luminescence–based motility assay. Badache. 2008. A. Aresta. J. p. 1162-1174. (2009). J. A.’ for subsequent entries. d. doi: 10. 2008) concluded that… Subsequent in-text reference/s: (elo et al. & collette. no other retrieval information is necessary. Johns. Always include the doi if one is provided (usually in the article’s full-text.use a doi (digital object identifier) if one is assigned instead of the ‘retrieved from’ statement. RefeRence liSt elo. t. Kuosma. then use the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al. (2005. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. retrieved from http://www. if there is a doi. test sequence priming in recognition memory. abstract or database record).. Memory and Cognition. 2009) discovered … A recent study to investigate the effects of an organisational stress management program on employees (elo. e. restouin. A. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning. 96-well–adapted. & thompson. 2005) suggested that… Journal article retrieved from a database with a doi (digital object identifier) A doi is a unique. . 54-60... S. 11) A simple AlmA is described in a recent study (restouin et al.Give the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al. (2009). permanent identifier assigned to articles in many databases..A Guide to RefeRencinG 8 in-text RefeRence Journal article with three to five authors for the first in-text reference. Article in online journal with six or seven authors . & mattila. 35.’ for all in-text references. p. l.. A simplified. fallen for a scam lately? AustraliaToday. evaluation of an organizational stress management program in a municipal public works organization. 47..com/BiotechniquesJournal/ wychick... y.. & mewhort.. ervasti. prébet.. BioTechniques. Journal or magazine article with no volume or issue number wychick and thompson (2005) foreshadow that scam will still be enticing… OR An interesting approach to scam (wychick & thompson.

Sydney Morning Herald. da Silva and dias (2009)… RefeRence liSt ramalho. Ozculture newsletter. internet pioneer to oversee network redesign.cultureandrecreation. how big should we be? A herculean task accomplished [review of the book Human body size and the laws of scaling: Physiological.if there is no doi. darby. the journal url can sometimes be found in the database record or in the full text view of the article.the highest in the British empire (“Australians and the western front”. Public Health Nutrition. november). 1299–1300. doi:10. retrieved from http://www..in-text RefeRence Journal article retrieved from a database without a doi .au/newsletter/ A Guide to RefeRencinG 9 . (2009). (2007. da Silva.if the online article is only available from a database (e. G.gov. m. 15.smh. the redesign of the internet (“internet pioneer”. 2007). J. darby (2002) provided… Australia’s casualty rate was almost 65 per cent . performance. (2007. by t. longevity and ecological ramification. The Canberra Times. include the entry page url of the database where it was found. 11. p.au newspaper article – with an author the notion of a Bill of rights may be inappropriate in the Australian context (waterford. l. do a web search to locate the url of the journal’s home page & include it in the reference list.com. The Canberra Times. (2009. Article in an online newsletter in an attempt to save the tiger. S. .org. A. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology. for discontinued journals where the journal home page doesn’t exist). Book review in a journal in his review of thomas Samaras’ latest book.1017/S1368980009990656 waterford. Bill of rights gets it wrong. 12. Give the database name if not in the url. & dias. retrieved from http://www.. growth. Genetic plant improvement and climate changes. 189-195. may 28). August 20). Samaras]. retrieved from http://www. 2007) is said to… newspaper article – without an author newspaper article retrieved from a database do a web search to locate the url of the newspaper’s home page & include it in the reference list. rarest tiger skin a rugged survivor. m. marson (2009) identifies… the effects of climate change on agriculture are studied by ramalho. (2009).sbmp. p.g. (2002. 2009) Australians and the western front.br/cbab marson. 9(2). may 30).

2006) presents Australian Government agencies with… Subsequent in-text reference/s: dofA (2006) identified … department of finance and Administration.au/ Note: this is an example of a commonwealth Act.gov. 7) as well as… Standards Australia. catalogue numbers. (2008). retrieved from http://www. use the abbreviation for subsequent references. retrieved from http://www.au /publications/families/index. in relation to action regarding unsuitable goods. Families in Australia: 2008.cfm#contact Government approved standards …and “including data in computer systems.Spell out the full name of the body each time it is cited in-text. Government publication – with identifying number includes report numbers. Delivering Australian Government services: Managing multiple channels. Legislation the need for guidelines to manage and use multiple channels to deliver e-government services (department of finance and Administration [dofA]. Australia: Author. 2008)… trade practices Act. no. 74B of the trade practices Act (1974) states… recently released statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) (2007) reveal interesting changes in Australian society. unless it is long and has a familiar/easily understood abbreviation. 2008) examines a selection of key topics … Subsequent in-text references: families in Australia were highlighted (pm&c. canberra. s. Sydney. (1996).A Guide to RefeRencinG 10 in-text RefeRence RefeRence liSt GoVeRnment PuBlicAtionS Government department as author . .comlaw. canberra. Subsequent in-text references: the ABS (2007) reported that … First in-text reference: A recent government report (department of the prime minister and cabinet [pm&c]. cth.0). (1974). (2006). Australia: Author. p. (2007).dpmc. created or received and maintained by an organisation” (Standards Australia. Australian social trends (cat. Government report – online department of the prime minister and cabinet. in the latter case. Australian Standard AS 4390: Records Management. etc. Australia: ABS. Australian Bureau of Statistics. give the full name with the abbreviation for the first in-text reference.gov. 4102. 1996.

St. September). 509-517. (2005). rose (1996. 80. Unit 8147 Writing short narratives. p. 78(5). A. etc. (1997). freedom of information under review. use the following style: hade. – online in examining the genre of fiction (St.in-text RefeRence RefeRence liSt uniVeRSity PRoVided Study mAteRiAl Reading bricks and e-Reserve hade (2002/2005. vincent welch. use the following style: rose. retrieved from university of canberra e-reserve. S. vincent welch.canberra. p. Australia: mushroom records. november 18). (2009. lecture 1. 2009)… Keim. Kelly. 509) quoted tom engelhardt to support his view that we shouldn’t take engelhardt’s comments about reading being “harmful to your kids” and went on to explain… If you cite an item from a Reading brick. 2002) If you cite an item from E-Reserve.for a blog comment. use ‘web log comment’ instead of ‘web log post’ and include the exact title (including ‘re:’ if used) cd recording – music lyrics from paul Kelly’s song “from little things big things grow” (Kelly. melbourne.edu. track 10) were used in recent television advertisements. 4-8. (reprinted from The Horn Book Magazine. 1997. Storyselling: Are publishers changing the way children read? in Unit 007689 Writing for young people PG: Selected readings. the plight of the flapper skate was recently highlighted (Keim. Australia: university of canberra. 4) determined that… Lecture / tutorial notes. (1996. retrieved from http://www.au/ in a review of the Freedom of Information Act 1988. week 1: What is fiction? [lecture powerpoint slides]. 2009)… otheR SouRceS Blog post . Canberra Bulletin of Public Administration. id error leaves fish at edge of extinction [web log post]. from little things big things grow. B. p. (2009). on Songs from the south: Paul Kelly’s greatest hits [cd].list the author’s name as it is used in the posting (including nicknames) .wired. d. retrieved from http://learnonline.com/wiredscience /2009/11/extinction-error/ A Guide to RefeRencinG 11 .

if it is from regularly published proceedings (e.cengage.pdf vandenBos. S. lifetime prediction: fact or fancy? in m.g. dictionary / encyclopaedia – online include information about editions.au/image_cache/GA11825. 1996). Budd (eds. Strickland (ed. A. m. Sense and sensibility [dvd]. (1995). volume numbers and page numbers in parenthesis following the title in the reference list. J. 123)… A psychological overview of Adhd (Arcus. do a web search for the home page of the publisher of the encyclopaedia and use the url in the reference. treat as personal communication and cite in-text only. in h. use the Book chapter citation format. Proceedings of the Sir Mark Oliphant International Frontiers of Science and Technology Australian Geothermal Energy Conference.org/mailman/listinfo /actkm_actkm. (2001). Gurgenci & A. . use the Journal article citation format.com/ Note: if retrieved from a database. 2007) provided details in an email and we acted on that information. retrieved from http://actkm. & u. w. specific volume numbers or page numbers in parenthesis following the title in the reference list. June 11). padfield. dc: American psychological Association. 2007) and from personal experience… weidner. conference or seminar papers in published proceedings – online tester (2008) points to the value of using geothermal sources for power and energy. 1995) email – neveR cite addresses without permission of the owner of the address ms coleman (personal communication.A Guide to RefeRencinG 12 in-text RefeRence conference or seminar papers in published proceedings – print if the paper is from a book. – online According to one definition of “bivalence” (vandenBos. there are strongly held views about knowledge management (weidner. annual). Koch. dictionary / encyclopaedia – print include information about editions. (2007). not included in Reference List. Johnsen. discussion group. Km reducing in popularity [discussion list message]. Kejser (eds. washington.gov. retrieved from http://www. The Gale encyclopedia of psychology. the future of geothermal energy as a major global energy supplier. denmark: royal danish Academy of fine Arts. (2008). canberra. etc. tester. 2001)… Arcus. Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (Adhd). in B. p. 2007. B.). (2007.). (director).org lee. Australia: Geoscience Australia. r. in a paper about conservation of photographs (edge. (1996).). t. r.). d. Australia: columbia triStar home video. retrieved from http://www.gale. Proceedings of the Conference on Research Techniques in Photographic Conservation (pp. the proposition that… RefeRence liSt edge. July 11. APA dictionary of psychology.ga. d. 97-100). dvd / videorecording Jane Austen’s world came alive in Sense and sensibility (lee. copenhagen. (ed. G. J. list. S.

melbourne. Kevin rudd. [chart]. c. canberra. interview with raelene Boyle. & pyke. Jackson. map Geoscience Australia [nAtmAp] (cartographer). Australia: Author. n.com /note. the type of entry immediately after the title: [figure].nga. in Strategy maps: Converting intangible assets into tangible outcomes (p. (director). d. p.gov. Haystacks. national Gallery of Australia. mA: harvard Business School. october 16). 2009). [table]. in square brackets. [map]. S. map to locate a property just outside the Australian capital territory.php?note_id=200124043571&ref=mf Note: 2009a is used as there is another example in this guide by the same author published in the same year. include. p. S. october 24). canberra. 1890)… interview – on radio in a recent interview with the prime minister (mitchell. Sydney. & norton. 2009a) RefeRence liSt rudd.au /detail-lrG. Australian civilian corps to help in crises [facebook update]. image – online Graph the internal processes were well described (Kaplan & norton. September 25).… interview – on television he demonstrated his professionalism and sensitivity in an interview with raelene Boyle (denton. table. [television broadcast]. $52 million will be provided to deploy Australian civilian troops (rudd. (producer and interviewer).facebook. (producer). r. interview with the prime minister. denton A. 2004) which led to… Graph Kaplan. Boston. retrieved from http://www. retrieved from http://artsearch. new Zealand: imagine films.. monet. The lord of the rings: The return of the king [motion picture].cfm?irn=29073&view=lrG mitchell. New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory [map]. midday [painting].in-text RefeRence facebook update list the author’s name as it is written (including nicknames). figure. (presenter). Graph. use the 1:100 000 map produced by Geoscience Australia (2004) which covers… the effective use of light in monet’s ‘haystacks’ (monet. (1890). (2009a. map or chart cite each of these as you would for a book. [Graph]. in Enough Rope with Andrew Denton. ACT region. (2006. 48). K. (2003). Note: Give the country where the movie was made – not the city. internal processes deliver value over different time horizons [Graph]. 2006) and… motion picture (movie) Jackson and pyke (2003) provide evidence that belief in a world… A Guide to RefeRencinG 13 . Australia: radio 3Aw. (2004). (2009. (2004). Australia: Australian Broadcasting corporation. in Mornings with Neil Mitchell [radio broadcast].

canberra. 2007) was able to confirm that the floods had not reached their area.htm hodson. Australia: ABc radio Australia.A Guide to RefeRencinG 14 in-text RefeRence Personal communication includes private letters. Radio program . in Rewind [television program] [transcript]. retrieved from http://www. the prime minister of new Zealand referred to… the problems of teenage anxiety were graphically captured (Beyondblue. these are cited in-text only. personal interviews.abc. for direct quotes. etc.au/ra/innovations/stories/s1302318. (2007.net. April 25). (reporter). retrieved from http://www. remembrance day Speech presented at the Australian veterans memorial Service. Sydney. 2004) and it is worthwhile… mclaughlin. 2007) was a new experience and i decided… when discussing how people write about music. Prime Minister’s 2007 Anzac Day message. Peace in today’s world. Australia: win tv. melbourne. (presenter). de Bono. Koval (2009)… nolan.broadcast Radio program – transcript the views of the internationally renowned author and public speaker. clark. november 7). 2007). August 6. (2009. not in the reference list. RefeRence liSt not included in Reference List. 2005) which… speech Amongst the views expressed about war and peace (hodson.abc. (2005.anzac. email.htm . canberra. Australia: ABc tv. february 14). (presenter). The Book Show [radio broadcast]. m. r.net. c. Always check the television station’s website and use the transcript. cyclone tracy.au/tv/rewind/txt/s1233697. november 11). S. retrieved from http://abc. francis (personal communication. lightning ridge. Are we hardwired for creativity? in Innovations [radio program] [transcript]. 2009)… television advertisement television program – broadcast television program – transcript cyclones often affect Australia. (2007. november 19). mascall. Beyondblue: Anxiety [television advertisement]. retrieved from http://www. AM: News & current affairs [Audio podcast]. memos. 2000) were… speech – online in her AnZAc day speech (clark. melbourne. (2000. Stateline [television broadcast]. h.au/news/subscribe/amrss. prompted me to follow up one of the interviews (mascall. September 4). Kimball. if one is available. (presenter). listening to the news on my mp3 player (nolan. especially in the north (mclaughlin. Podcast (audio) J.nz Beyondblue (producer). A. cite in-text only.net. Australia: ABc radio national. november 29). t. (2009. 2009)… examining future plans for canberra’s city area (Kimball. Australia. (presenter). (2004. (2009.sml Koval. April 28). Australia: ABc tv.govt. telephone conversations.

. this number can be found in the results list or in the record for the item under “publication number”. university of canberra.in-text RefeRence thesis or dissertation – print the extent to which nutrients are important is demonstrated by Brown (2001.com/watch?v=i8idJ-0S5rs Note: 2009b is used as there is another example in this guide by the same author published in the same year. thesis or dissertation – retrieved from a database Socha (2010) examined the reliability and validity of course forms. retrieved from http://www. thesis or dissertation – retrieved from the web A study linking clubs with learning (mccaffrey. & west. retrieved from http://www. September 29). & west. retrieved from the reserve Bank of Australia website: http://www. J.au/public /adt-Auc20081205. Price incentives and consumer payment behaviour. A. n. (AAt 1462244) Note: end the reference with the unique number for the thesis/dissertation which begins with ‘AAt’ or ‘umi’. Australia). Socha. t. speaking about Australia’s role in the G20 forum (rudd.). (2008). K. G. 2009) found that participation in a loyalty program and access to an interest-free period… Simon. university of canberra.d. Students’ assessments of instruction: A validity study (masters thesis). K. Australia.csiro. 252)… RefeRence liSt Brown. update on new G20 arrangements [video file].html Web document – author or sponsor given but not dated the commonwealth Scientific and industrial research organisation (cSiro) is designing several energy-efficient electric machines to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (cSiro. p. A Guide to RefeRencinG 15 . Reducing Australia’s greenhouse emissions factsheet.au/publicationsAndresearch/rdp /rdp2009-04.rba. 2008)… mccaffrey. Smith. The extent to which clubs are perceived as learning organisations (doctoral thesis. (2010). (2009b.edu. (2001).au/resources/ps282.d. Towards an in situ technique for investigating the role nutrients play in epilithon growth in an Australian upland stream (unpublished doctoral thesis).. J.095000/ rudd. Available from proquest dissertations and theses database.youtube.gov. (2009).). Smith.html commonwealth Scientific and industrial research organisation.canberra. (n. video blog post the prime minister.… Web document – dated & author or sponsor given An rBA paper (Simon. retrieved from http://erl. 2009b).

as the information is likely to change in these sources.d.A section heading and paragraph number (e.d. 2009. 2)… Note: the heading of the section was “university material – who owns copyright?” RefeRence liSt university of canberra. para. A long section heading may be shortened and enclosed in double quotation marks. Copyright guide. in Wikiversity. from http://en.wikiversity. employment and workplace relations (http://www.edu.gov.deewr.org/wiki/Great_debates_in_media_literacy . [version 13 – 22 January]. retrieved from http://www. retrieved october 27. para.g. introduction. Wiki include the date retrieved.A Guide to RefeRencinG 16 in-text RefeRence Web source with no page numbers Include in in-text references: . the role of media corporations in the media literacy movement is discussed (“Great debates in media literacy”. Website – entire website the new website of the department of education. 2009.canberra.) copyright ownership of “lecture notes created as part of a lecturer’s employment at the university” (university of canberra. n. “university material”.au) includes useful information on current government education policy.A paragraph number with the abbreviation ‘para’ (count paragraphs if numbers are not visible). or . 3). Great debates in media literacy: theory and practice of media literacy. (n.au/copyright /guide#heading14 not included in Reference list.). (2009).

Johnsen.cultureandrecreation. d. The new meaning of educational change. in Wikiversity. A beginner’s guide to action research. (2001). canberra. denmark: royal danish Academy of fine Arts. london. retrieved from http://www.Sample Reference list . london.. (2006.gale. Delivering Australian Government services: Managing multiple channels. leadership for change. Kejser (eds. Proceedings of the Conference on Research Techniques in Photographic Conservation (pp. & mattila. (1986). Sydney Morning Herald. (2001).gov. Gaarder. A. Brown. Great debates in media literacy: theory and practice of media literacy. & Kemmis.edu. Towards an in situ technique for investigating the role nutrients play in epilithon growth in an Australian upland stream (unpublished doctoral thesis). (1996). canberra.smh. Geoscience Australia [nAtmAp] (cartographer). Australia: win tv.cengage. england: phoenix house. in B. (2006). england: tower publishing. nJ: pearson prentice hall.com. h. 4.anzac. Sophie’s world: A novel about the history of philosophy (p. retrieved from http://www.. J. Understanding urban policy: A critical approach. (1996b). Beyondblue: Anxiety [television advertisement]. trans. in Enough Rope with Andrew Denton. B. Indigenous housing needs 2009: A multi-measure needs model (Aihw cat. K. malden. (2000).. 1851-1888. A. Ozculture newsletter. Browne. Australia: Author. w. (2007). April 25). Forensic science as a career. Strickland (ed. london. (1996a). J. in International handbook for educational leadership and administration. J. fullan.0). Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. november 29). Leadership and management in nursing.).au/ publications/families/index.dpmc. canberra.). 13(1). Australia: Author. england: cassell. (n. upper Saddle river. interview with raelene Boyle.csiro. from http://en. New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory [map]. edge. Australia: Australian Broadcasting corporation. (2009). (2008).au/resources/ps282. Prime Minister’s 2007 Anzac Day message.scu.html duffy. t. clark.nz cochrane. Australian social trends (cat. (n. Australia: university of canberra. August 20). Australia: ABS. (2009. ervasti. elo. london.gov. w.. Australian institute of health and welfare. rarest tiger skin a rugged survivor. [television broadcast]. no.wikiversity. c. finkelman. (2006). m.html darby. Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (Adhd). 2009. canberra. A history of Australia: Vol.. lifetime prediction: fact or fancy? in m. department of the prime minister and cabinet. (2007. Families in Australia: 2008. m.d. d. Australia: melbourne university press. retrieved from http://www. S.cfm#contact dick. September 25). møller. mA: Blackwell publishing. A. (original work published 1991). no. A Guide to RefeRencinG 17 . (2009.). november). retrieved from http://www.).. (1994).APA the examples provided for the American Psychological Association (APA ) referencing style would look like the following entries in a Reference list. p. The earth abideth for ever. retrieved from http://www.). (2001). 97-100). m.org/wiki /Great_debates_in_media_literacy References Arcus. Guide to writing in biomedical sciences. Reducing Australia’s greenhouse emissions factsheet. v. h. 10-23. copenhagen. Koch. (2008).com/ Australian Bureau of Statistics. 4102. deakin. Australia. clark. (n.govt. m. & u. (2004). & wilson. england: falmer press. padfield. ny: Kluwer Academic publishers.au/newsletter/ Beyondblue (producer). university of canberra. Sydney. S. A. S.au denton A. (2002. ACT region.d.d.). new york. wieniawa-narkiewicz. B.. Australia: Author. The Gale encyclopedia of psychology. Becoming critical: Education knowledge and action research. canberra. retrieved from http://www. commonwealth Scientific and industrial research organisation. hou 214). department of finance and Administration. evaluation of an organizational stress management program in a municipal public works organization. retrieved october 27. Kuosma. e. e. G. fullan. (1978). A. carr. (2007). retrieved from http://www. (producer and interviewer).au/schools/gcm/ar/arp /guide. Australians and the western front. J.

university of canberra. r. Phonology. midday [painting]. San francisco. f. on quality in art and art therapy. S. macisaac. (1890).cfm?irn=29073&view=lrG . J.).. r. melbourne. mccaffrey. performance. & foss. Peace in today’s world. p. duke. A.au/ra/innovations /stories/s1302318. (2009. m. littlejohn. (1999). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning. (2004). Stateline [television broadcast]. Psychology Today and Tomorrow. (presenter). Keim. Kramer. & mctaggart. melbourne. id error leaves fish at edge of extinction [web log post].abc. Black American writers: Bibliographical essays (vols.au/public/adt-Auc20081205. in Mornings with Neil Mitchell [radio broadcast]. r. (producer). internal processes deliver value over different time horizons [Graph]. Australia: radio 3Aw.net. The Canberra Times. S. (2000. Public Health Nutrition.canberra. (2005). p. (presenter). october 16). retrieved from http://erl. november 19). in Rewind [television program] [transcript]. 35. (presenter). 1299–1300.html Macroeconomics. (2002). American Journal of Art Therapy.). t.au /detail-lrG. An introduction to action research. melbourne. 48). 12. Australia).. 1162-1174. november 7). d. (2003). 54-59. from little things big things grow. Kemmis. (1983). 78(5). melbourne. Jackson. & pyke. (director).abc. doi: 10. retrieved from http://physicsed. cA: Brooks cole. (eds. Australia: ABc radio national.. Haystacks. (2009. c. (presenter). (1995). Australia: university of canberra. m. retrieved from http://www. S. & norton.wired. mA: harvard Business School.htm maxwell. Australia: thomas wadsworth. Are we hardwired for creativity? in Innovations [radio program] [transcript]. growth. (2005.buffalostate.1037/a0016372 Kaplan..A Guide to RefeRencinG 18 hade. The action research planner (3rd ed. A. november 11). november 18). how big should we be? A herculean task accomplished [review of the book Human body size and the laws of scaling: Physiological. remembrance day Speech presented at the Australian veterans memorial Service. (eds. m. Australia: deakin university. (1995). retrieved from http://artsearch. by t.htm mitchell. test sequence priming in recognition memory. Australia: columbia triStar home video. ny: St. doi:10. england: Blackwell. t. & mewhort. new approaches to drug therapy. p. Boston.1017/S1368980009990656 mascall. cyclone tracy. monet. lee. 40. martins. Memory and Cognition. r. 1-2). 27(1).. A. A. (2007. Storyselling: Are publishers changing the way children read? in Unit 007689 Writing for young people PG: Selected readings. w. (reporter). (director).nga. K. d.au /tv/rewind/txt/s1233697. Southbank. The Book Show [radio broadcast]. in Strategy maps: Converting intangible assets into tangible outcomes (p. (reprinted from The Horn Book Magazine. Sense and sensibility [dvd]. (2007). The extent to which clubs are perceived as learning organisations (doctoral thesis. longevity and ecological ramification. melbourne. & Bloggs. S. on Songs from the south: Paul Kelly’s greatest hits [cd]. inge. 218-231. d. Kevin rudd. (2008).com/wiredscience/2009/11 /extinction-error/ Kelly. (2009. Australia: ABc tv. n. Okun. canberra. The lord of the rings: The return of the king [motion picture]. (2005). february 14). S. J. internet pioneer to oversee network redesign. (1988). Johns. 15.edu.).). prices and quantities: Essays in memory of Arthur M. (1978). e. (2004. Sydney. Australia: ABc tv. retrieved from http://www. d.net. (2009). Theories of human communication (8th ed. retrieved from http://www. (1997). (2009. 2002) hodson. canberra. oxford. Koval. may 28). & Bryer. September 4). m. new york. B. Samaras]. Australia: mushroom records. (2009). Australia: ABc radio Australia.. new Zealand: imagine films. 509-517. lightning ridge. marson. Australia. S. e.edu /danowner/actionrsch. national Gallery of Australia.gov. c. Kimball.. interview with the prime minister. p.095000/ mclaughlin. Jackson.

A. Adelaide.comlaw..1036/0071393722 Simon. (2005. 189-195. and growth [Adobe digital editions version]. retrieved from http://www. update on new G20 arrangements [video file]. APA dictionary of psychology. fallen for a scam lately? AustraliaToday. A..canberra. (2010). S. (2007.com /note.canberra. (2007.facebook. m. The elements of counselling (2nd ed. June 11). K. A simplified. ramalho.gov.sml peters. Socha. Badache. (2009). commissioned by the local Government Association of South Australia. Australia: Author. 11. Australian civilian corps to help in crises [facebook update]. in h. Guide to equipment and service [Brochure]. canberra. (2009a.org wychick.pdf trade practices Act. p. Australia: emu press. Bill of rights gets it wrong. retrieved from http://actkm.). l. J. G. (2001). (2001).ga. w. Australia: Author. Km reducing in popularity [discussion list message]. t. c.au /publicationsAndresearch/rdp/rdp2009-04.. 54-60. l. (2007). Best practice: Process innovation management.org. Copyright guide. J. BioTechniques.. & west.au/image_cache /GA11825. Budd (eds. (n.gov. the future of geothermal energy as a major global energy supplier.org/mailman/listinfo/actkm_actkm.au/ Standards Australia. rudd. St. Sydney. & dias. retrieved from http://www.sbmp.nolan. y. (ed. (2009). r. Price incentives and consumer payment behaviour. (2009b.. Local government’s current and potential role in water management and conservation: Final report.d. england: Butterworth-heinemann. 2007]. week 1: What is fiction? [lecture powerpoint slides]. G. university of canberra. G. April 28). views on globalization. & thompson. 96-well–adapted.. A. (2007. A.au/copyright/guide#heading14 vandenBos. in h.com /BiotechniquesJournal/ richards. Aresta. prébet. november 24).gov. tester. Australia: macmillan. [ca.php?note_id=200124043571&ref=mf rudd. (2009). 9(2). Ant colonies: How they communicate. dc: American psychological Association. Unit 8147 Writing short narratives. (1999). retrieved from the reserve Bank of Australia website: http://www. doi:10. AM: News & current affairs [Audio podcast]. (2009). Australia: Geoscience Australia. retrieved from http://learnonline. [version 13 – 22 January]. canberra. (1974). recovery. lecture 1. may 30). 871–875.).. The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing.edu. Proceedings of the Sir Mark Oliphant International Frontiers of Science and Technology Australian Geothermal Energy Conference. 4-8.net. freedom of information under review.edu. 47. vincent welch. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology. Canberra Bulletin of Public Administration.au/news /subscribe/amrss. retrieved from http://www. october 24).). r. 80. Brisbane. (1996. weidner. r. retrieved from http://www. canberra.html Smythe.. Smith.br/cbab restouin. K.au/ transAct. J.). Australia: century. K. m. retrieved from http://abc. Gurgenci & A. cth. Atp luminescence–based motility assay. (ed. north ryde. oxford. Zairi.com/watch?v=i8idJ-0S5rs Schiraldi. da Silva. Available from proquest dissertations and theses database. Genetic plant improvement and climate changes. retrieved from http://www. (2008). rose. washington. The Canberra Times. (2009).). t. J. t. September 29). retrieved from university of canberra e-reserve. September). (presenter).rba. 29-43). (AAt 1462244) South Australian centre for economic Studies. waterford. v. (2009). K. J. A Guide to RefeRencinG 19 . l. d. retrieved from http://www. Borg. Australia in a global world (pp. vivaldi (ed.).. (1996). Australian Standard AS 4390: Records Management. & collette. Australia: Author. Students’ assessments of instruction: A validity study (masters thesis). retrieved from http://www. S. (1997).youtube.biotechniques. t..

editors and printers 2002. wiley. mA. Please note: some examples have been adapted from the guidelines in the publication above. cochrane.A Guide to RefeRencinG 20 ‘hARvARd’ AuthoR-dAte RefeRencinG styLe these examples are based on the following publication: Style manual for authors. 117) that ‘the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned’. malden. Blackwell publishing. Snooks & co. in-text RefeRence RefeRence liSt BooKS one author – in-text reference placement Note: there are two main ways to use in-text references. p. mA. Blackwell publishing. OR An interesting view was expressed by cochrane (2007. to focus on the author – ‘author prominent’. A 2007.. A 2007. rev. p. firstly. milton. 117). cochrane. . Understanding urban policy: a critical approach. 6th edn. to focus on the information from your source – ‘information prominent’. malden. and include specific page number/s use single quotation marks to show the exact words ‘Information prominent’ (the author’s name is within parentheses): the conclusion reached in a recent study (cochrane 2007) was that… OR ‘Author prominent’ (the author’s name is outside the parentheses): cochrane (2007) concluded that… An interesting view was expressed that ‘the connection of high profile developments to their surrounding environment has increasingly been questioned’ (cochrane 2007. Secondly. Understanding urban policy: a critical approach. one author – when fewer than 30 words are quoted include the material in the paragraph. Qld.

pearson hall. Aw 2006. nJ.’ use all names in the reference list several works by same author. for example. place lowercase letters (“a”. Guide to writing in biomedical sciences. 1996b) and this conference… ‘educational change’ has taken on a new meaning in recent years (fullan 1996b)… fullan. deakin. finkelman (2006. littlejohn. new york. Theories of human communication. 20) concluded that… RefeRence liSt finkelman. 2001. same year Arrange alphabetically by title in the reference list. p. and include specific page number/s omit the quotation marks use double spacing for your text and single spacing for the indented quote make sure the quote is exactly as it was published two or three authors much has been written about acute care. london. “c”. 8th edn. use the first author’s family name followed by ‘et al. and due to the increasing use of outpatient surgery. v. m 1996b. university of canberra. Kluwer Academic publishers. duffy. recently. in International handbook for educational leadership and administration. indent it 5 spaces (use the indent tool to keep all lines of the quote evenly indented). pointed out that: there are many changes in acute care services occurring almost daily. hospitals are increasing the size of their outpatient or ambulatory surgery departments and adjusting to the need of moving patients into and out of the surgical service in 1 day or even a few hours. Leadership and management in nursing. 184). 20) concluded that… OR duffy et al. surgical services have experienced major changes. p. this trend has been seen in some Australian hospitals and research here… when considering context and communication littlejohn and foss (2005) maintained that… A recent study (duffy et al. KA 2005. ‘leadership for change’.) immediately after the year. A. The new meaning of educational change. (2001. fullan. e & wilson. leadership and change in schools have been major topics of discussion for several years (fullan 1996a. Sw & foss. thomas wadsworth. upper Saddle river. Southbank. cassell. K 2001. A Guide to RefeRencinG 21 . wieniawa-narkiewicz. more than three authors – when reference to specific page/s required for in-text references.in-text RefeRence one author – when 30 or more words are quoted Begin quoting the material on a new line. “b”. etc. p. vic. m 1996a.

deakin university. p.edu. Brochure – author is also publisher editor for one editor. Helping children who are deaf: family and community support for children who do not hear well. or translator use the following abbreviations comp. Becoming critical: education knowledge and action research.d. in hl vivaldi (ed. m (ed. phoenix house.). San francisco. p møller.edu/danowner/actionrsch.scu. but which is referred to in a source you have read. r (eds) 1988. Greenstein & david 2004) that meant we could… niemann. rev. referred to collectively in your work list sources alphabetically by family name in the in-text reference in the order in which they appear in the reference list. trans. edited by Zairi (1999) provided useful steps to identify… OR indentifying best practice indicators in management are available (ed. canberra. OR lilly’s 1980 study (cited in maxwell 1999. Gaarder. Guide to equipment and services. nSw. original work published 1991. Butterworth-heinemann. citing a source within a source when citing a source you haven’t read yourself. the cyclical process (carr & Kemmis 1986.A Guide to RefeRencinG 22 in-text RefeRence several authors. http://www. north ryde. Brooks cole. Zairi. century. dick 2000. Separate references with a semi-colon. viewed 28 may 2004.html e-Book – online book we found helpful information about deaf children (niemann. Kc 1997. chapter in edited book lilly (cited in maxwell 1999. n. p. oxford. dick. 3rd edn.d. http://www. J 1994.. The action research planner. viewed 3 June 2004. d 1995. cA. london. macisaac 1995) suggests… RefeRence liSt carr.html Kemmis. falmer press. Phonology. A beginner’s guide to action research. Berkeley. use the abbreviation (ed. for more than one editor.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/guide.). brochure. different years. http://physicsed. An introduction to action research. ‘views on globalization’.php maxwell. Zairi 1999) and… this novel by Gaarder (1994) provides an appealing approach to… richards.hesperian. hesperian foundation. Best practice: process innovation management. 25) stated that ‘…’. Best practice: process innovation management. cA. transAct. 25) found that… A discussion about Australia’s place in today’s world (richards 1997) included reference to… the security of personal information is addressed in the transAct brochure (transAct. macisaac. . london. S & mctaggart. f 1999. melbourne. viewed 11 June 2007. use the abbreviation (eds) compiler. Greenstein.buffalostate. B 2000. eds Kemmis & mctaggart 1988. d & david. S. Sophie’s world: a novel about the history of philosophy. transAct n. d 2004. w & Kemmis. S 1986. trans.) 1999. Australia in a global world. or Reviser.org /publications_download_deaf.).

Forensic science as a career. corporate author – commissioned reports Australian institute of health and welfare 2009. canberra. no date of publication corporate author – when the author is also the publisher for corporate authors with long names. macmillan.d. emu press. v c.. . Aihw cat. A history of Australia. duke & Bryer 1978. Jr (eds) 1978. no.the title may be shortened to the main title (omitting the sub-title) or the first few words of the title. prices and quantities 1983. SAceS. Approximate date of publication other academics have provided more up-to-date information (Smythe. hou 214. 43-57). A Guide to RefeRencinG 23 . St martins.) and for this reason… A recent study (Australian institute of health and welfare [Aihw] 2009) highlighted … Subsequent in-text reference/s: the Aihw (2009) found that… macroeconomics considers prices and quantities (Macroeconomics. inge. pp. 4. m & Bryer. prices and quantities: essays in memory of Arthur M Okun 1983.. Blackwell.. 2007. there is much to learn about these writers (inge. c.’. 2007) that… Some aspects of forensic science are more challenging than others (Browne n. melbourne university press. Ant colonies: how they communicate. duke. t 2001. Indigenous housing needs 2009: a multi-measure needs model. use the abbreviation in subsequent references.in-text RefeRence no author or editor . cmh 1978. mt. canberra. Browne. Brisbane. 27) which results in… OR there’s so much to learn about our country (clark 1978. vols 1 & 2. 1851-1888. Jd n. p. 42) that we kept returning to… clark. The earth abideth for ever. prepared by the South Australian centre for economic Studies. london. vol. Smythe. Adelaide.use the title in the ‘author’ position.d. 6) argued that ‘. oxford. Aihw. The elements of counselling. p. Local government’s current and potential role in water management and conservation: final report. the report prepared for the local Government Association of South Australia (2009) was discussed and… local Government Association of South Australia 2009. Black American writers: bibliographical essays. new york. tower publishing. 2nd edn. spell out the full name of the body and include an abbreviation in the first in-text reference. peters. p. so it is important to… RefeRence liSt Macroeconomics. second or later edition multi-volume work peters (2001.

‘new approaches to drug therapy’. 1. Memory and Cognition. regardless of issue number. 13. 27. http://www. d 2009. ‘ethics. 2.A Guide to RefeRencinG 24 in-text RefeRence RefeRence liSt JouRnAl. no. viewed 17 november 2009. A 2008. t 2002. no. in an earlier article. ‘on quality in art and art therapy’. Journal article retrieved from a database A study examining priming (Johns & mewhort 2009) discovered … . wychick. J. 62-77. pp. neWSPAPeR & neWSletteR ARticleS Journal article with one author – separated paging (paginated by issue) if each issue of a journal begins on page 1. followed by ‘et al. 24 november. give the first author’s family name. vol. 54-9. pp. American Journal of Art Therapy. psycArticleS database. vol. AustraliaToday.joaag.php Johns. pp. ‘fallen for a scam lately?’. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. A recent study to investigate the effects of an organisational stress management program on employees (elo et al. 40. include the issue number. ‘evaluation of an organizational stress management program in a municipal public works organization’. pp. vol. Journal article with more than three authors for all in-text references. vol.continuous paging throughout a volume if the journal volume page numbers run continuously throughout the year. 3. A 2007. ‘test sequence priming in recognition memory’. l 2005. e & mewhort. no. ervasti.com/home_page. 54-60. pp. wychick and thompson (2005) foreshadow that scam will still be enticing… OR An interesting approach to scam (wychick & thompson 2005) suggested that… Article in online journal or magazine An article linking ethical behaviour and religion (noor 2008)… noor. viewed 20 november 2009. it was proposed (Jackson 2007)… Jackson. vol. 218-31. pp. Kuosma. 1162-74. do not include the issue number in your reference list entry. Psychology Today and Tomorrow. 35.’ Journal or magazine article with no volume or issue number Kramer and Bloggs (2002) stipulated in their latest article… OR this article on art (Kramer & Bloggs 2002) stipulated that… Kramer. 10-23. p 2008. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning. A. p. 2008. JOAAG: Journal of Administration & Governance. Journal article with two or three authors . 11) concluded that… elo. 1. e & Bloggs. religion and good governance’. e & mattila. J & thompson.

13 July. Trade Practices Act 1974 (cwlth).au newspaper article – with an author the notion of a Bill of rights (waterford 2007) may be… newspaper article – without an author the redesign of the internet (‘Internet pioneer’ 2007) is said to… newspaper article retrieved from a database in an attempt to save the tiger. p. not shortage of laws. Legislation the need for guidelines to manage and use multiple channels to deliver e-government services (department of finance and Administration [dofA] 2006) presents Australian Government agencies with… Subsequent in-text reference/s: dofA (2006) identified… First in-text reference: in relation to action regarding unsuitable goods. s. Canberra Times.comlaw. 11. viewed 20 november 2009. A Guide to RefeRencinG 25 . use the abbreviation in subsequent references. 1299–300. e 2003. darby (2002) provided… online newspaper or newsletter article clark (2003) referred specifically to… GoVeRnment PuBlicAtionS Government department as author for corporate authors with long names. clark. ‘enforcement. Regulations and ordinances) in the Reference List only if it is important to a better understanding of your assignment or is required by your lecturer.gov. eBSco eJS database. 30 may.in-text RefeRence Book review in a journal in his review of thomas Samaras’ latest book. dofA. Delivering Australian Government services: managing multiple channels. J 2007. Acts of Parliament. ‘how big should we be? A herculean task accomplished’. at the heart of spam’s virulent growth’. marson (2009) identifies… RefeRence liSt marson. viewed 20 november 2009. ‘internet pioneer to oversee network redesign’ 2007. 15. Sydney Morning Herald. 20 August. review of Human body size and the laws of scaling: physiological. pp. performance. by t Samaras.canberratimes. Canberra Times.com. factiva database. viewed 10 may 2006. 28 may. canberra. http://www.g. A 2002. vol. Public Health Nutrition. http://www. ‘rarest tiger skin a rugged survivor’. 12.au/ department of finance and Administration 2006. viewed 25 July 2003. longevity and ecological ramification. Sm 2009. 74B of the Trade Practices Act 1974 states… Subsequent in-text reference/s: According to the trade practices Act… include references to legislation (e. Canberra Times. darby. p. spell out the full name of the body and include an abbreviation in the first in-text reference. waterford. ‘Bill of rights gets it wrong’. growth.

Australian Standard AS4390: Records Management. created or received and maintained by an organisation’ (Standards Australia 1996. September.edu. ABS. Unit 8147 Writing short narratives.cfm#contact Standards Australia 1996. ‘Storyselling: are publishers changing the way children read?’. viewed 20 november 2009. 4) determined that… if you cite an item from a Reading brick. 7) as well as… RefeRence liSt Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007. St.dpmc. The Horn Book Magazine.canberra. use the following style: rose. – online in examining the genre of fiction (St. in Unit 007689.A Guide to RefeRencinG 26 in-text RefeRence Government publication – with identifying number recently released statistics from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS 2007) reveal interesting changes in Australian society. Writing for young people PG: selected readings 2005. use the following style: hade. 78. pp. http://www.au/publications /families/index. no. 509) quoted tom engelhardt to support his view that we shouldn’t take seriously engelhardt’s comments about reading being ‘harmful to your kids’ and went on to explain… in a review of the Freedom of Information Act 1988. A 1996. department of the prime minister and cabinet 2008. lecture 1. d 2002. viewed 20 november 2009. Canberra Bulletin of Public Administration. vol. p. 4102.au/ Lecture / tutorial notes. 80. S 2009.0. Australian social trends. if you cite an item from e-Reserve. vol. uniVeRSity PRoVided Study mAteRiAl Reading bricks and e-Reserve hade (2002. no. Subsequent in-text reference/s: the ABS (2007) reported that … Government report – online A recent government report (department of the prime minister and cabinet [pm&c] 2008) examines a selection of key topics … Subsequent in-text reference/s: families in Australia were highlighted (pm&c 2008)… Government approved standards …and ‘including data in computer systems. vincent welch 2009)… . http://learnonline. rose (1996. lecture powerpoint slides. 5. week 1: What is fiction?. 4-8. university of canberra. p. vincent welch. canberra. Families in Australia: 2008. Standards Australia. cat.gov. ‘freedom of information under review’. university of canberra e-reserve. pp. Sydney. 509-17. etc. p. viewed 6 June 2007.

the proposition that… conference or seminar papers in published proceedings – online tester (2008) points to the value of using geothermal sources for power and energy. http://www. ‘Km reducing in popularity’. dc. Proceedings of the Sir Mark Oliphant International frontiers of science and technology Australian geothermal energy conference.gov. ‘from little things big things grow’ 1997. edge. viewed 5 January 2010. JS Johnsen & uB Kejser (eds).com/wiredscience/2009/11/extinction-error conference or seminar papers in published proceedings – print in a paper about conservation of photographs (edge 1996).list the author’s name as it is used in the posting (including nicknames) . royal danish Academy of fine Arts. tester. washington. in B Strickland (ed.wired. d 2007. APA dictionary of psychology. ActKm. American psychological Association. discussion list message. – online there are strongly held views about knowledge management (weidner 2007) and from personal experience… A Guide to RefeRencinG 27 . melbourne. http://www. ‘Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (Adhd)’. Arcus. viewed 21 november 2009. The Gale encyclopedia of psychology.org/mailman/listinfo /actkm_actkm. ‘id error leaves fish at edge of extinction’. Jw 2008. Proceedings of the Research techniques in photographic conservation conference. http://actkm. ‘lifetime prediction: fact or fancy?’. canberra. dictionary / encyclopaedia – print According to one definition of ‘bivalence’ (vandenBos 2007. web log post. 97-100.org the plight of the flapper skate was recently highlighted (Keim 2009)… Keim. Gr (ed. in mS Koch. 18 november. p. t padfield. B 2009. etc. ‘the future of geothermal energy as a major global energy supplier’.au/image_cache/GA11825. on Songs from the south: Paul Kelly’s greatest hits. Geoscience Australia. m 1996. oxford reference online database. 123)… dictionary / encyclopaedia – online A psychological overview of Adhd (Arcus 2001)… discussion group. copenhagen. Wired Science blog.ga. mushroom records.in-text RefeRence RefeRence liSt otheR SouRceS Blog post . d 2001.) 2007. list. use ‘web log comment’ instead of ‘web log post’ and include the exact title (including ‘re:’ if used) cd recording – music lyrics from paul Kelly’s song ‘from little things big things grow’ (1997) were used in recent television advertisements. written and performed by paul Kelly. pp. 11 June. weidner. cd.pdf vandenBos. viewed 20 november 2009.).for a blog comment. viewed 11 June. in h Gurgenci & Ar Budd (eds).

11 July. radio 3Aw.gov. only included if permission to include the address has been granted. table. melbourne. Haystacks. motion picture. Australia. facebook update $52 million will be provided to deploy Australian civilian troops (rudd 2009a)… rudd. map. email. Auckland. monet. Australian Broadcasting corporation. Kevin Rudd and Labor. Graph. Enough Rope with Andrew Denton 2006.au email – neveR cite addresses without permission of the owner of the address ms coleman provided details in an email on 11 July 2007. Geoscience Australia. dvd.com.facebook. columbia triStar home video. http://artsearch. Sydney. canberra. (Mornings with Neil Mitchell 2009)… he demonstrated his professionalism and sensitivity in an interview with raelene Boyle (Enough rope with Andrew Denton 2006) and… interview – on television motion picture (movie) the evidence (The lord of the rings 2003) that belief in a world… . ‘internal processes deliver value over different time horizons’. 24 october. graph. http://www. figure. midday. if included. radio broadcast.php?note_id=200124043571&ref=mf Note: 2009a is used as there is another example in this guide by the same author published in the same year. 16 october. ‘Australian civilian corps to help in crises’. nZ. The lord of the rings: the return of the king 2003. directed by Ang lee. use the 1:100 000 map produced by Geoscience Australia (2004) which covers… Graph Kaplan. p. table.g. viewed 18 november 2009. map or chart cite each of these as you would for a book. mcoleman@hometown. m 2007. rS & norton. ACT region. no entry in Reference List. include the type of entry immediately after the title. Kevin rudd. painting. c 1890.com/note. interview with the prime minister. usually. directed by peter Jackson. interview with raelene Boyle. harvard Business School. RefeRence liSt Sense and sensibility 1995. canberra. dp 2004.cfm?irn=29073&view=lrG Mornings with Neil Mitchell 2009. Boston. this is the format to use in the Reference list: coleman. chart Graph the internal processes were well described (Kaplan & norton 2004) which led to… map to locate a property just outside canberra. K 2009a. mA.A Guide to RefeRencinG 28 in-text RefeRence dvd / videorecording Jane Austen’s world came alive in Sense and sensibility (1995). 48 map Geoscience Australia [nAtmAp] 2004. facebook update. e. New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory. produced by Steve pyke. image – online the effective use of light in monet’s ‘haystacks’ (monet 1890)… interview – on radio in a recent interview with the prime minister.nga. map. 25 September. imagine films. viewed 20 november 2009.au /detail-lrG. television broadcast. figure. national Gallery of Australia. and if it is considered helpful to your reader. graph. in Strategy maps: converting intangible assets into tangible outcomes.

28 April. 29 november.au/news/subscribe/amrss. viewed 5 June 2007. clark. prompted me to follow up one of the interviews (‘Are we hardwired for creativity?’ 2005) which… speech Amongst the views expressed about war and peace (hodson 2000) were… speech – online in her AnZAc day speech (clark 2007).abc. Stateline 2009. etc. A 2000.htm interview with edward de Bono. http://www. listening to the news on my mp3 player (AM: news & current affairs 2007) was a new experience and i decided… when discussing how people write about music (The Book Show 2009)… AM: news & current affairs 2007. radio Australia. nSw. canberra. telephone conversations. Radio program – broadcast Radio program – transcript the views of the internationally renowned author and public speaker. canberra. remembrance day Speech presented at the Australian veterans memorial Service. de Bono.sml The Book Show 2009. ABc tv.anzac. not in the reference list. hodson. ‘peace in today’s world’. http://abc. melbourne. Always check the television station’s website and use the transcript. http://www.au/ra/innovations/stories/s1302318.govt. melbourne. Rewind. Sydney. Beyondblue: anxiety. viewed 6 June 2007. especially in the north (‘cyclone tracy’ 2004) and it is worthwhile… ‘cyclone tracy’ 2004. ABc tv. radio broadcast.net. television advertisement.abc. television program transcript. audio podcast. lightning ridge. 6 August 2007) was able to confirm that the floods had not reached their area. RefeRence liSt not included in Reference List. Sydney. win tv. h 2007. francis (personal communication. viewed 21 may 2007. 4 September. http://www. cite in-text only. radio program transcript. ABc radio national.net. television broadcast. ‘prime minister’s 2007 Anzac day message’. presented by chris Kimball. ABc radio. email.au/tv /rewind/txt/s1233697.htm A Guide to RefeRencinG 29 . ‘Are we hardwired for creativity?’ 2005.net. 25 April. memos. Innovations. 11 november. accessed 28 may 2007. 14 february. 7 november. the prime minister of new Zealand referred to… the problems of teenage anxiety were graphically captured (Beyondblue 2009)… examining future plans for canberra’s city area (Stateline 2009)… television advertisement television program – broadcast television program – transcript cyclones often affect Australia. 19 november. personal interviews. Podcast (Audio) J. for direct quotes.in-text RefeRence Personal communication includes private letters. if one is available. these are cited in-text only.nz Beyondblue 2009.

Sydney.A paragraph number with the abbreviation ‘para’ (count paragraphs if numbers are not visible). Update on new G20 arrangements.edu. online video.canberra. 3). viewed 20 november 2009. http://erl. viewed 2 november 2009. ‘Students’ assessments of instruction: a validity study’. 29 September.d. version 13 .22 January. 252)… RefeRence liSt Brown.A section heading and paragraph number (e. Socha. phd thesis.au/public /adt-Auc20081205. para. Copyright guide. t 2009. http://www..A Guide to RefeRencinG 30 in-text RefeRence thesis or dissertation – print the extent to which nutrients are important is demonstrated by Brown (2001. ‘the extent to which clubs are perceived as learning organisations’. cSiro. viewed 20 november 2009. reserve Bank of Australia.… Web document – dated & author or sponsor given An rBA paper (Simon.html commonwealth Scientific and industrial research organisation n.au/copyright/guide#heading14 Web document – author or sponsor given but not dated the commonwealth Scientific and industrial research organisation (cSiro) is designing several energy-efficient electric machines to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (cSiro n. university of canberra.gov. K 2009b. p. Smith. viewed 24 november 2009. viewed 21 november 2009.edu. Australasian digital theses program. introduction.youtube. ‘towards an in situ technique for investigating the role nutrients play in epilithon growth in an Australian upland stream’.com/ watch?v=i8idJ-0S5rs Note: 2009b is used as there is another example in this guide by the same author published in the same year. mccaffrey.au/resources/ps282. phd thesis. proquest dissertations and theses database. G 2001. J. J 2008.canberra. A 2010. Reducing Australia’s greenhouse emissions factsheet. para. ‘university material’.d. speaking about Australia’s role in the G20 forum (rudd 2009b). http://www. . viewed 23 november 2009.rba.html university of canberra 2009.). or . http://www.g.095000/ rudd. A long section heading may be shortened and enclosed in single quotation marks. 2)… Note: the heading of the section was ‘university material – who owns copyright?’ Web source with no page numbers Include in in-text references: . Price incentives and consumer payment behaviour. masters thesis. canberra. K & west. university of canberra.au/publicationsAndresearch/rdp/rdp2009-04. Smith & west 2009) found that participation in a loyalty program and access to an interest-free period… Simon. thesis or dissertation – retrieved from a database Socha (2010) examined the reliability and validity of course forms.csiro. http://www. copyright ownership of ‘lecture notes created as part of a lecturer’s employment at the university’ (university of canberra 2009. thesis or dissertation – retrieved from the web A study linking clubs with learning (mccaffrey 2008)… video blog post the prime minister.

in-text RefeRence Website – entire website the new website of the department of education. canberra. the role of media corporations in the media literacy movement is discussed (‘Great debates’ n.au/ Wiki ‘Great debates in media literacy: theory and practice of media literacy’ n.d.) RefeRence liSt department of education. wiki article.d. viewed 21 november 2009. deewr.deewr.wikiversity. employment and workplace relations 2009. Wikiversity. http://en. viewed october 27 2009.org/wiki/Great_debates_in_media_literacy A Guide to RefeRencinG 31 .. employment and workplace relations (deewr 2009) includes useful information on current government education policy.gov. http://www.

). A. t padfield. The Gale encyclopedia of psychology. http://www.html ‘cyclone tracy’ 2004. ‘towards an in situ technique for investigating the role nutrients play in epilithon growth in an Australian upland stream’. Sydney. viewed 21 november 2009. malden. Sydney. 97-100. . v. no. television advertisement. http://www. 7 november.abc. clark. canberra. written and performed by paul Kelly. hou 214. Brown. viewed 6 June 2007. employment and workplace relations 2009. A beginner’s guide to action research. tower publishing. mcoleman@hometown. 25 April. falmer press. viewed 5 June 2007. ‘evaluation of an organizational stress management program in a municipal public works organization’. A 2007. A history of Australia.au commonwealth Scientific and industrial research organisation n. no.au/ department of finance and Administration 2006. 20 August. Sydney Morning Herald. Aihw cat.cfm#contact dick.edu. e & wilson.com. 11 July.0. 29 november. 28 April. canberra. pearson hall. no. Becoming critical: education knowledge and action research. G 2001. vol. ‘prime minister’s 2007 Anzac day message’. Rewind. cd. http://www. cSiro. Beyondblue 2009. Australian social trends.canberratimes. television program transcript. canberra. nJ. canberra. wieniawa-narkiewicz. oxford reference online database.A Guide to RefeRencinG 32 Sample Reference list . copenhagen. Enough Rope with Andrew Denton 2006. viewed 10 may 2006. 10-23. university of canberra. department of education.au/ra/innovations /stories/s1302318.net. accessed 28 may 2007.net. finkelman. deakin. The Book Show 2009. http://www. Proceedings of the Research techniques in photographic conservation conference. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. ‘rarest tiger skin a rugged survivor’. melbourne. http://www. Understanding urban policy: a critical approach.d. A. in mS Koch. m 1996. 13 July. B 2000. vol. ervasti. http://www.. http://abc. melbourne.au clark. ‘enforcement. Aw 2006. 13. at the heart of spam’s virulent growth’. ABc tv. elo.gov. not shortage of laws. http://www. Australian Broadcasting corporation.govt. audio podcast. Families in Australia: 2008.html duffy. 4. viewed 3 June 2004. clark. in B Strickland (ed. Jd n. Kuosma. Canberra Times.com.htm darby. upper Saddle river. ABS. viewed 20 november 2009.au /news/subscribe/amrss. Sydney. interview with raelene Boyle. royal danish Academy of fine Arts.sml ‘Are we hardwired for creativity?’ 2005. m 2007.au/tv/rewind/txt/s1233697. Forensic science as a career.gov. JS Johnsen & uB Kejser (eds). on Songs from the south: Paul Kelly’s greatest hits. radio program transcript. viewed 21 november 2009. 1. 1851-1888.dpmc.d. d 2001.scu.deewr. 19 november.harvard the examples provided for the ‘harvard’ Australian author-date referencing style would look like the following entries in a Reference list. phd thesis. win tv. http://www. cmh 1978. Innovations. edge. radio Australia.net. References AM: news & current affairs 2007. p 2008.nz cochrane. factiva database. ‘from little things big things grow’ 1997. viewed 21 may 2007. Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007. viewed 25 July 2003. S 1986. The earth abideth for ever. carr. Reducing Australia’s greenhouse emissions factsheet. canberra. cat.htm interview with edward de Bono. radio broadcast. melbourne university press. ABc radio. w & Kemmis. mA.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/guide. e & mattila. ‘Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (Adhd)’. london.au /resources/ps282. Blackwell publishing.au/publications/families/index. mushroom records. 14 february. 25 September. canberra. A 2002. dofA. university of canberra. Delivering Australian Government services: managing multiple channels. pp. Arcus.abc.csiro. Aihw. television broadcast. Guide to writing in biomedical sciences.. 4102. pp. london. viewed 21 november 2009. ABc radio national. Browne. K 2001. Leadership and management in nursing. email. h 2007. Indigenous housing needs 2009: a multi-measure needs model. Beyondblue: anxiety. coleman. J. department of the prime minister and cabinet 2008. e 2003. Australian institute of health and welfare 2009.anzac. melbourne. deewr. ‘lifetime prediction: fact or fancy?’.

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edu.edu.canberra.edu. Sixth edition . university of canberra #00212K.information in this guide was correct at time of printing and was produced by the university of canberra library and the Academic Skills program.au www. AcAdemic SKillS PRoGRAm t 6201 2205 e asp@canberra.au/studyskills .the univerSity of cAnBerrA liBRARy t 6201 2953 www.au/library Australian Government higher education (cricoS) provider.canberra.