Chapter 1: Introduction to Signals

Problem 1.1:
i) z[m,n,k] is a three dimensional (3D) DT signal. The independent variables are given by m, n, and k,
while z is the dependent variable. Digital video is an example of a 3D DT signal of the form z[m,n,k]. The
intensity z of the pixels in a frame is a function of the spatial coordinates (m,n) and frame number k.
ii) I(x,y,z,t) is a four dimensional (4D) CT signal. The independent variables are given by x, y, z, and t,
while I is the dependent variable. Atmospheric pressure is an example of a 4D DT signal of the form
I(x,y,z,t) if recorded continuously in time and space. The atmospheric pressure I is a function of the spatial
coordinates (x,y,z) and time t. ▌

Problem 1.2:
The CT signals can be plotted using the following MATLAB code. The CT signals are plotted in Fig.
S1.2. The students should also try plotting them by hand. ▌

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
t
x
1
(
t
)
cos(3π t/4 + π/8)
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
t
x
2
(
t
)
sin(-3πt/8 + π/2)
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
t
x
3
(
t
)
5t + 3exp(-t)
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
t
x
4
(
t
)
(sin(3π t/4+π/8))
2
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
-2
-1
0
1
2
t
x
5
(
t
)
cos(3π t/4) + sin(π t/2)
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
-150
-100
-50
0
50
t
x
6
(
t
)
t exp(-2t)

Fig S1.2: CT signals plotted for Problem 1.2.
2 Chapter 1



% MATLAB code for Problem 1.2
clf
% signal defined in part (i)
t1 =-1:0.01:2 ;
x1 = cos(3*pi*t1/4+pi/8) ;
subplot(3,2,1), plot(t1, x1), grid on;
xlabel('t');
ylabel('x1(t)');
title('cos(3\pi t/4 + \pi/8)');

% signal defined in part (ii)
t2 =-1:0.01:2 ;
x2 = sin(-3*pi*t2/8+pi/2) ;
subplot(3,2,2), plot(t2, x2), grid on;
xlabel('t');
ylabel('x_2(t)');
title('sin(-3\pi t/8 + \pi/2)');

% signal defined in part (iii)
t3 =-2:0.01:2 ;
x3 = 5*t3+ 3*exp(-t3);
subplot(3,2,3), plot(t3, x3), grid on
xlabel('t');
ylabel('x_3(t)');
title('5t + 3exp(-t)');

% signal defined in part (iv)
t4 =-1:0.01:2;
x4 = sin(3*pi*t4/4+pi/8);
x4 =x4.*x4;
subplot(3,2,4), plot(t4, x4), grid on;
xlabel('t');
ylabel('x_4(t)');
title('(sin(3\pi t/4+\pi/8))^2');


% signal defined in part (v)
t5 =-2:0.01:3 ;
x5 = cos(3*pi*t5/4) + sin(pi*t5/2);
subplot(3,2,5), plot(t5, x5), grid on;
xlabel('t');
ylabel('x_5(t)');
title('cos(3\pi t/4) + sin(\pi t/2)');


% signal defined in part (vi)
t6 =-2:0.01:3 ;
x6 = t6.*exp(-2*t6) ;
subplot(3,2,6), plot(t6, x6), grid on;
xlabel('t');

% clear figure




% Label of X-axis
% Label of Y-axis
% Title





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Solutions 3
ylabel('x_6(t)');
title('t exp(-2t)');

print -dtiff plot.tiff;
% Label of Y-axis
% Title

% Save the figure as a TIFF
file

Problem 1.3:
(i) The value of x1[k] for 5 5 k − ≤ ≤ is shown in the following table.

k −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x1[k] 0.38 −0.92 0.92 −0.38 −0.38 0.92 −0.92 0.38 0.38 −0.92 0.92
The sketch of x1[k] is shown in the top left figure in Fig. S1.3.
The other functions can be plotted in a similar way. However, we use MATLAB to plot the six DT. Fig.
S1.3 contains the subplots for these sequences followed by the MATLAB code used to generate them. ▌
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
k
x
1
[
k
]
cos(3π k/4 + π/8)
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
k
x
2
[
k
]
sin(-3π k/8 + π/2)
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
-50
0
50
100
150
200
250
k
x
3
[
k
]
5k + 3
-k
-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
k
x
4
[
k
]
|sin(3π k/4 + π/8)|
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
-2
-1
0
1
2
k
x
5
[
k
]
cos(3π k/4) + sin(π k/2)
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
k
x
6
[
k
]
k 4
-|k|

Fig S1.3: DT signals for P1.3

% MATLAB code for Problem 1.3
clf
% signal defined in part (i)
k1 =-5:5 ;

% clear figure


4 Chapter 1

x1 = cos(3*pi*k1/4+pi/8);
subplot(3,2,1), stem(k1, x1, 'filled'),
grid on;
xlabel('k');
ylabel('x_1[k]');
title(' cos(3\pi k/4 + \pi/8)');

% signal defined in part (ii)
k2 =-10:10 ;
x2 = sin(-3*pi*k2/8+pi/2);
subplot(3,2,2), stem(k2, x2, 'filled'),
grid on;
xlabel('k');
ylabel('x_2[k]');
title('sin(-3\pi k/8 + \pi/2)');

% signal defined in part (iii)
k3 =-5:5 ;
x3 = 5*k3+ 3.^(-k3);
subplot(3,2,3), stem(k3, x3, 'filled'),
grid on;
xlabel('k');
ylabel('x_3[k]');
title('5k + 3^{-k}');

% signal defined in part (iv)
k4 =-6:10 ;
x4 = abs(sin(3*pi*k4/4+pi/8)) ;
subplot(3,2,4), stem(k4, x4, 'filled'),
grid on;
xlabel('k');
ylabel('x_4[k]');

title('|sin(3\pi k/4 + \pi/8)|');
axis([-6 10 0 1]);

% signal defined in part (v)
k5 =-10:10 ;
x5 = cos(3*pi*k5/4) + sin(pi*k5/2) ;
subplot(3,2,5), stem(k5, x5, 'filled'),
grid on;
xlabel('k');

ylabel('x_5[k]');

title('cos(3\pi k/4) + sin(\pi k/2)');

% signal defined in part (vi)
k6 =-10:10 ;
x6 = k6.*4.^(-abs(k6)) ;
subplot(3,2,6), stem(k6, x6, 'filled'),
grid;


% Label of X-axis
% Label of Y-axis
% Title





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% Title





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% Title





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% Label of X-axis
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% Title
Solutions 5
xlabel('k');

ylabel('x_6[k]');
title('k 4^{-|k|}');



Problem 1.4:

Because
1
( ) x t has a fundamental period of
1
T , and
2
( ) x t has a fundamental period of
2
T ,

1 1 1
( ) ( ) x t x t T = + and
2 2 2
( ) ( ) x t x t T = + .
Evaluating the
1
( ) g t nT + , we obtain,
1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ), g t nT ax t nT bx t nT ax t nT bx t mT ax t bx t g t + = + + + = + + + = + =
which proves that ( ) g t is periodic with period
1
nT .
Problem 1.5:
(i) All CT sinusoidal signals are periodic. The function x1(t) can be simplified as follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0
1( ) sin 5 8 2 sin 2 5 8 cos 5 / 8 cos , 5 / 8 x t t t t t π π π π π ω ω π = − + = − = = = .
Therefore, x1(t) is periodic with fundamental period
0
2 2 16
1 5 / 8 5
T
π π
ω π
= = = .
(ii) 2( ) sin( 5 / 8 2) cos(5 / 8) x t t t π π π = − + = .
The signal x2(t + T) can be simplified as follows:
2( ) cos(5 / 8 5 / 8)
cos(5 / 8) 2( ) 5 / 8 8/ 5
x t T t T
t x t if T or if T
π π
π π π
+ = +
= = = =

In other words, x2(t) is periodic with T
2
= 8/5.
(iii) Looking at the individual terms

( ) ( )
2 7 2 10
1 2 6 / 7 3 3/ 5 3
3( ) sin 6 7 2cos 3 5
periodic periodic
T T
x t t t
π π π
π
π
= = = =
= +


Because
1
2
7 / 3 7
rational number
10 / 3 10
T
T π π
= = ≠
,
3
( ) x t is not a periodic signal.
(iv) All CT complex exponentials are periodic.
Therefore
( ) ( )
4( ) exp 5 4 x t j t π = +
is also periodic with fundamental period
2
4 5
T
π
= .
(v) Looking at the individual terms
6 Chapter 1

( ) ( )
2 16
1 3 / 8 3

5( ) exp 3 8 exp 86
periodic not periodic
T
x t j t t
π
π
π π
= =
= +


We observe that the second term is not periodic. Therefore, the overall function x5(t) is not periodic.
(vi) The function x6(t) can be simplified as follows
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
5 30
1 2 2 12 160
2
4 16 4 32 1
5 3 5 2 3
4 4 32 4 4 32 4 32 1
5 5 3 5 2 5 3 5 3
4 12 160 12 160 1 1
5 2 15 2 15
6( ) 2cos *sin 2cos 1 cos
cos cos cos cos cos cos
cos cos cos
t t t t
t t t t
t
periodic periodic periodic
T T T
x t
t t
t t
π
π
π π
π π π π π
π π π

− +
= =
= = × −
( = − = − − + +
¸ ¸
= − −

30
3
12 160
π
π +
=

x6(t) will be periodic if all possible combinations T
1
/ T
2
, T
1
/ T
3
, and T
2
/ T
3
are rational numbers.
Since
1 5 12 160 12 160 40
2 30 12 3
2
1 rational number
T
T
π π
π π π
− −
= × = = − ≠ ,
x6(t) is not a periodic signal.
(vii)

2
2
1 20 10
2 30 15
constant
7( ) 1 sin 20 cos(30 / 3)
periodic
periodic
T
T
x t t t
π π
π π
π
= =
= =
= + + +

Since
1 15 3
10 2
2
rational number
T
T
π
π
= × = = ,
x7(t) is periodic. The fundamental period of x7(t) is
1
2T = 3T
2
=
5
π
. ▌
Problem 1.6:
(i)
k j k
e k x
π
= − × = 5 ) 1 ( 5 ] [ 1 .
For the complex exponential term, 2π/ω
0
= 2, which is a rational number. Hence, x1[k] is periodic
with a period of K
1
= 2mπ/ω
0
= 2 by setting m = 1.
(ii) Considering the two terms separately in x2[k],

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 8 2 2 8
7 / 4 7 3/ 4 3
, ,
signal 8 signal
2[ ] exp 7 4 exp 3 4
rational rational
periodic with K aperiodic
x k j k j k
π π π π π
π
π
Ω Ω
= = = = = ≠
=
= +


we note that the 2
nd
complex exponential term exp(j(3k/4)) is not periodic. Signal x2[k] is, therefore,
not periodic.
(iii) Considering the two terms separately in x3[k],
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 8 2 2 8
7 / 4 7 3 / 4 3
, ,
signal 8 signal with 8
3[ ] exp 7 4 exp 3 4
rational rational
periodic with K periodic K
x k j k j k
π π π π
π π
π π
Ω Ω
= = = = = =
= =
= +


Solutions 7
we note that both complex exponential terms are periodic with the same period K = 8. Signal x3[k] is,
therefore, periodic with an overall period of 8.
(iv) Considering the two terms separately in x4[k],

| | ( ) ( )
2 2 16 2 2 128
3 / 8 3 63 / 64 63
, ,
signal 16 signal 128
4 sin 3 8 cos 63 64
rational rational
periodic with K periodic with K
x k k k
π π π π
π π
π π
Ω Ω
= = = = = =
= =
= +


we note that both complex exponential terms are periodic with two different period of 16 and 128.
Since the ratio of the two periods is 1/8, a rational number, therefore, x4[k] is a periodic signal. The
fundamental period is given by 16n = 128m, which equals 128 by setting n = 8 and m = 1.
(v) Considering the two terms separately in x5[k],
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 7 2 2 8
4 / 7 2 7 / 4 7
, ,
signal 7 signal 8
5[ ] exp 7 4 cos 4 7
rational rational
periodic with K periodic with K
x k j k k
π π π π
π π
π π π
Ω Ω
= = = = = =
= =
= + +


we note that both complex exponential terms are periodic with two different period of 8 and 7. Since
the ratio of the two periods is 8/7, a rational number, therefore, x5[k] is a periodic signal. The
fundamental period is given by 8n = 7m, which equals 56 by setting n = 7 and m = 8.
(vi) Considering the two terms separately in x6[k],
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

128 with signal periodic
rationa 39 / 128 / 2
2
1
128 with signal periodic
rationa 87 / 128 / 2
2
1
2 1
64 / 39 sin 64 / 87 sin 64 / 63 cos 8 / 3 sin ] [ 6
=
⇒ = Ω π
=
⇒ = Ω π
π − π = π π =
K
l
K
l
k k k k k x
we note that both complex exponential terms are periodic with the same period K = 128. Signal x6[k]
is, therefore, periodic with an overall period of 128. ▌
Problem 1.7:
(i)

1
2
1
2 / 1
2
1
0 0
) 2 sin( ) 4 sin( ) 3 sin( ) cos( ) ( 1
= =
π + π = π π =
T with perioidic T with perioidic
t t t t t x
We note that x1(t) is periodic with the fundamental period T = 1. Since periodic signals are always
power signals, x1(t) is a power signal.
The total energy E
x1
in x1(t) is infinite.
Based on Problem 1.10, the average power in a sinusoidal signal x(t) = A
1
sin(ω
1
t + φ
1
) + A
2
sin(ω
2
t +
φ
2
) is given by (A
1
)
2
/2 + (A
2
)
2
/2 if ω
1
≠ ω
2
. The average power in x1(t) is, therefore, given by 1/8 + 1/8
= 1/4.
(ii) For the CT signal
( ) ( ) 2 exp 2 x t t = − ,
the total energy and average power are given by
Total Energy:
4 4 4
1 1
2 4 4
t t
x
E e dt e e


− − ∞
−∞
−∞
( = = − = = ∞
¸ ¸ ∫

Average Power: | | | |
T T
T
T
T
T
e
T
T
T
T
t
T
T
x
e e dt e P
t
4 4
8
1
) 4 ( 2
1 4
2
1
2
lim lim lim
4

∞ → −

∞ →


∞ →
− = = =


.
8 Chapter 1

Applying the L’Hopital’s rule
| | ∞ = + =

∞ →
T T
T
x
e e P
4 4
8
1
2
4 4 lim .
Since the signal has infinite energy and infinite power, the signal is neither an energy signal nor a
power signal.
(iii) Since x3(t) is a complex signal, the total energy and average power are given by
Energy: ∞ = = =
∫ ∫

∞ −

∞ −

dt dt e E
t j
x
1
2
3
.
Power: | | 1 ) ( lim 1 lim lim
2
1
2
1 2
2
1
3
= − − = = = =
∞ →

∞ →


∞ →
∫ ∫
T T dt dt e P
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
t j
T
T
x
.
The signal x3(t) is a power signal.
(iv) The energy in x4(t) is finite and given by
| | | |
2
1
2
1
0
) 2 (
2
4
1 0 ) (
2
= − − = = =



∞ −



t
e t
x
dt t u e E .
The average power is zero and x4(t) is an energy signal.
(v) Since x5(t) is a finite duration signal with finite magnitude, it must be an energy signal. The total
energy in x5(t) is given by

| |
3 3
3
2
1 1 1
5 2 2 6
3
3 3
cos (3 ) 1 cos(6 ) sin(6 ) 3.
x
E t dt t dt t t
π
π π π

− −
= = + = + = (
¸ ¸ ∫ ∫

The signal x5(t) has finite (non-zero) energy, and hence is an energy signal. Average power P
x5
in
x5(t) is zero.
(vi) Since x6(t) is a finite duration signal with finite magnitude, it must be an energy signal. The total
energy in x6(t) is given by

3
3
2 4
4
2
(4 ) 2 2
8 8 16
6 3 3 3 3 3
0
2
0 2
(4 ) 0
t
t
x
E t dt t dt

= + − = − = − − = (
¸ ¸ ∫ ∫
.
Since x6(t) has finite energy, it is an energy signal. Average power P
x6
in x6(t) is zero. ▌
Problem 1.8:
(i)

16
2
1
16
2
1
0 0
) 8 / sin( ) 8 / 5 sin( ) 8 / 3 sin( ) 4 / cos( ] [ 1
= =
π + π = π π =
N with perioidic N with perioidic
k k k k k x
We note that x1[k] is periodic with an overall period of N
0
= 16. Since periodic signals are always
power signals, x1[k] is a power signal. Based on Problem 1.10, the average power in a sinusoidal
sequence x[k] = A
1
sin(ω
1
k + φ
1
) + A
2
sin(ω
2
k + φ
2
) is given by (A
1
)
2
/2 + (A
2
)
2
/2 if ω
1
≠ ω
2
. the
average power is given by P
x1
= 1/4 + 1/4 = 1/2. The total energy E
x1
in x1[t] is infinite.
Solutions 9
(ii) Since x2[k] is a finite duration signal of length 11 with finite magnitude, it must be an energy signal.
The total energy in x2[k] is calculated as follows.

∑ ∑
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
− =
π −
− =
π
− = − =
π
− =
π +
− =
+ + =
+ = = π =
0
10
8 / 3
4
1
0
10
8 / 3
4
1
2
11
0
10
0
10
2
) 8 / 3 cos(
2
1
0
10
2
) 8 / 3 cos( 1
0
10
2
2
) 16 / 3 ( cos
k
k j
k
k j
k k
k
k
k
k
x
e e
k E

Using the GP series, we obtain
1344 . 0 3244 . 0
) 1 (
) 1 (
8 / 3
8 / 33 8 / 30 0
10
8 / 3
j
e
e e
e
j
j j
k
k j
+ =


=
π
π π −
− =
π


and 1344 . 0 3244 . 0
) 1 (
) 1 (
8 / 3
8 / 33 8 / 30 0
10
8 / 3
j
e
e e
e
j
j j
k
k j
− =


=
π −
π − π
− =
π −

.
The total energy is, therefore, given by E
x2
= 5.5 + 0.1622 = 5.6622.
The average power P
x2
in x2[k] is zero.
(iii) | | 3 ( 1) 1
k
x k = − = .
We note that the signal x3[k] is a power signal with an average power of 1. The total energy E
x3
in
x3[k] is infinite.
(iv)
| | ( ) ( )
4 exp 2 8 1 x k j k π π = + = .
We note that the signal x4[k] is a power signal with an average power of 1. The total energy E
x4
in
x4[k] is infinite.
(v) Since x5[k] is a finite duration signal of length 16 with finite magnitude, it must be an energy signal.
The total energy in x5[k] is given by

11 10 15
5
0 11
(2 1)
2 1 5 2052.
(2 1)
k
x
k k
E
= =

= + = + =

∑ ∑

The average power P
x5
in x5[k] is zero. ▌
Problem 1.9:
The CT signal x(t) = A sin(ω
0
t + θ) is periodic with the fundamental period T
0
= 2π/ω
0
. Its average power
is calculated as follows:
| |
| | | |
0 0
0
0 0
2 2
0
0 0
2 2 2
2 2
0 0
0 0 0
0 0
2 2
0 0 0 2 2
0
0 0 0
0 0
2 2
0
0 0 0
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 2
2 4
( ) sin ( ) 1 cos(2 2 ) sin {1 cos(2 )}
(2 2 ) 0 sin(2 2 )
sin
T T
x
T
T T
T
A A
T T
A A
T T T
A A
T T
A A
T T
P x t dt t dt t dt
dt cos t dt T t
T
ω
ω
ω θ ω θ θ θ
ω θ ω θ
( = = + = − + = −
¸ ¸
= − + = × − − × +
= × − ×
∫ ∫ ∫
∫ ∫

| | | |
| |
0
2
2 2
2
0 0 0 0 0
0 0
2 2
2
0
2 4
2 4
(2 2 ) sin(2 ) sin(4 2 ) sin(2 ) , 2
sin(2 ) sin(2 ) ,
A
A A
T
A A
T
T T T
π
ω ω
ω
ω θ θ π θ θ ω π
θ θ
( + − = − × + − = =
¸ ¸
= − × − =


10 Chapter 1

which proves the result. Note that the power of a sinusoid does not depend on its initial phase θ. ▌

Problem 1.10:
The CT signal y(t) = A
1
sin(ω
1
t + φ
1
) + A
2
sin(ω
2
t + φ
2
) is the sum of two sinusoids and may not be always
periodic. It is periodic only when ω
1

2
is a rational number. To consider the general case, where y(t) is
not necessarily periodic, we will use the general formula to evaluate the power in the signal.
1 2
1 2
2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2
2
2
1 1
2 2
1 1
2 2
lim ( ) lim sin( ) sin( )
lim sin ( ) lim sin ( ) lim sin( )sin( )
T T
y
T T
T T
T T T
A
T T T
T T T
P P
A
T
T T
T T
P y t dt A t A t dt
A t dt A t dt t t
ω φ ω φ
ω φ ω φ ω φ ω φ
→∞ →∞
− −
→∞ →∞ →∞
− − −
= =
= = + + +
= + + + + + +
∫ ∫
∫ ∫

3
P
dt
=

The right hand side of the above equation includes three integrals. The first integral P
1
represents the
power of a periodic signal A
1
sin(ω
1
t + φ
1
). Based on Problem 1.9, the average power P
1
is given by
(A
1
)
2
/2. Similarly, the secong integral P
2
= (A
2
)
2
/2. The third integral is evaluated by substituting
) cos( ) cos( ) sin( ) sin( 2
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
φ − ω − φ + ω − φ + ω + φ + ω = φ + ω φ + ω t t t t t t
to get

∫ ∫

∞ →

∞ →
φ − φ + ω − ω + φ + φ + ω + ω =
T
T
T
A A
T
T
T
T
A A
T
dt t dt t P )] ( ) cos[( lim )] ( ) cos[( lim
2 1 2 1
2
2 1 2 1
2
3
2 1 2 1
.
Case ω
1
≠ ω
2
: In such a case, both integrals result in finite values giving
0 2) # value (finite lim 1) # value finite ( lim
2 2
3
2 1 2 1
= + × =
∞ → ∞ →
T
A A
T
T
A A
T
P .
Case ω
1
= ω
2
: In such a case, we obtain

1 2 1 2
1 2
3 1 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 2
lim (finite value # 1) lim cos[( )]
0 lim 2 cos[( )] cos[( )].
T
A A A A
T T
T T
T
A A
T
T
P dt
T A A
φ φ
φ φ φ φ
→∞ →∞

→∞
= × + −
= + − = −


Combining the above results, we obtain

2 2
1 2
2 2
1 2
1 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 2
2 2
cos( ) .
y
A A
A A
P
A A
ω ω
φ φ ω ω
¦
+ ≠
¦
=
´
+ + − =
¦
¹

Problem 1.11:
The power of the CT signal x(t) is calculated as follows:
( )( )
0 0
2 2
* * *
( ) ( ) ( )
j t j t
x
P x t x t x t De D e DD D
ω ω −
= = = = = ,
which proves the result. ▌
Problem 1.12
The average power of the CT signal x(t) is given by
Solutions 11
0.5 0.5 0.5
2
* *
1 1 1
1 1
0.5 0.5 0.5
0.5
( ) *
1
1 1
0.5
lim ( ) lim ( ) ( ) lim
lim
n m
n m
T T T
N N
j t j t
x n m T T T
T T T
n m
T T T
T
N N
j t
n m T
T
n m
T
P x t dt x t x t dt D e D e dt
D D e dt
ω ω
ω ω

→∞ →∞ →∞
= =
− − −

→∞
= =

| || |
= = =
| |
\ .\ .
=
∑ ∑
∫ ∫ ∫
∑∑

,
Changing the order of the integral and summation, we obtain
∑∑

= =

ω − ω
∞ →
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
N
m
N
n
T
T
t j
T
T
m n x
dt e D D P
m n
1 1
5 . 0
5 . 0
) (
1 *
lim
The above integral has two different sets of values for ω
n
= ω
m
and ω
n
≠ ω
m
.
Case I (ω
n
= ω
m
): 1 lim 1 lim lim
1
5 . 0
5 . 0
1
5 . 0
5 . 0
) (
1
= × = =
∞ →

∞ →

ω − ω
∞ →
∫ ∫
T dt dt e
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
t j
T
T
m n

Case II (ω
n
≠ ω
m
):
| |
| |
( )
0.5
0.5
( )
1 1 1
( ) ( )
0.5
0.5
2
( )
lim lim lim 2 sin(0.5( ) )
lim finite value 0
j t
n m
n m
n m n m
n m
T
T
j t
e
n m T T j j T
T T T T
T
T
T
e dt j T
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω ω ω
ω ω
ω ω


− −
− →∞ →∞ →∞


→∞
( = = −
¸ ¸
= × =


Combining the two cases, we obtain,
( ) ( )
∑ ∑∑ ∑∑
= =

= =
=
=
= + =
N
m
m
N
m
N
m n
n
m n
N
m
N
m n
n
m n x
D D D D D P
1
2
1 1
*
1 1
*
0 1 ,
which proves the result. ▌
Problem 1.13:
Note that the energy of the signal in one period (T = 1) is given by

2 2
2 1 2 1
1 2 2
2 2
2 2 1
0 0 0
0 2 2
1
0 0 0 4
( ) ( ) 1 2 2
1 2
(1/ 4) 0.5 (1/ 4) 0.5 (1/ 4) 0.5 .
1 3
m m
m m
m m
x
m m m
m m m
m m m
E x t dt x t dt dt
− −
− − − −
∞ ∞ ∞
− − −
= = =
∞ ∞ ∞
= = =
| | | |
( = = = = − | |
¸ ¸
| |
\ . \ .
= − = = × =

∑ ∑ ∑
∫ ∫ ∫
∑ ∑ ∑

Therefore, the average power is given by, 2/ 3
x
P = (as period=1). ▌
Problem 1.14:
(i)
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2sin 2 2 cos 4
odd even
even
odd
x t t t π π
= =
=
=
(
( = +
(
¸ ¸

12 Chapter 1

We note that x1(t) is a product of an odd term with an even term. Overall, x1(t) is, therefore, an odd
function.
(ii)
( )

( )
2
2 cos 3
even
even
even
x t t t
=
=
=
= +

We note that x2(t) is a sum of two even terms. Overall, x2(t) is, therefore, an even function.
(iii)
( )

( )
3
,
,
3 sin 3
t
even odd
odd
even odd
x t e t π



=

We note that x3(t) is a product of a neither-even-nor-odd term with an odd term. Overall, x3(t) is,
therefore, a neither-even-nor-odd function.
To evaluate the even and off components of x3(t), we evaluate

( ) ( ) ( )
3 3
3 sin 3 sin 3
t t
x t e t e t π π − = − = − .
The even and odd components are given by
Even Component:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3 3
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 ( ) 3 3 sin 3 sin 3 sin 3
t t t t
even
x t x t x t e t e t e e t π π π
− −
( ( = + − = − = −
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
.
Odd Component:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3 3
1 1 1
2 2 2
3 ( ) 3 3 sin 3 sin 3 sin 3
t t t t
odd
x t x t x t e t e t e e t π π π
− −
( ( = − − = + = +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
.
The even and odd components of x3(t) are shown in Fig. S1.14.1.
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-15
-10
-5
0
5
time (t)
x
3
(
t
)
x3(t) = exp(-3t) × sin(3πt)
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-15
-10
-5
0
5
time (t)
x
3
(
-
t
)
x3(-t) = -exp(3t) × sin(3π t)
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-15
-10
-5
0
5
time (t)
x
3
(
t
)
:

E
v
e
n

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
x3
even
(t) = 0.5(e
-3t
+ e
3t
) sin(3π t)
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-15
-10
-5
0
5
time (t)
x
3
(
t
)
:

O
d
d

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
x3
odd
(t) = 0.5(e
-3t
+ e
3t
) sin(3π t)

Solutions 13
Fig. S1.14.1: CT functions x3(t), its reflection x3(−t), and its even and odd components
for Problem 1.14(iii). Only the range between (−1 ≤ t ≤ 1) is plotted.
(iv)
( )

( ) 4 sin 5
odd
odd
even
x t t t
=
=
=
=

We note that x4(t) is a product of two odd terms. Overall, x4(t) is, therefore, an even function.
(v)
( )

( )

,
,
5
odd
even odd
even odd
x t t u t
=


=

We note that x5(t) is a product of an odd term with a neither-even-nor-odd term. Overall, x5(t) is,
therefore, a neither-even-nor-odd function.
To evaluate the even and off components of x5(t), we evaluate
) ( ) ( 5 t tu t x − − = − .
The even and odd components of x5(t) are given by
Even Component: | | t t tu t tu t x t x t x
even
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
) ( ) ( ) ( 5 ) ( 5 ) ( 5 = − − = − + = .
Odd Component: | | t t tu t tu t x t x t x
odd
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
) ( ) ( ) ( 5 ) ( 5 ) ( 5 = − + = − − = .
The even and odd components for x5(t) are plotted in Fig. S1.14.2 within the range (−1 ≤ t ≤ 1).
14 Chapter 1

-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time (t)
x
5
(
t
)
x5(t) = t u(t)
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time (t)
x
5
(
-
t
)
x5(-t) = -t u(-t)
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
x5
even
(t) = 0.5×|t|
time (t)
x
5
(
t
)
:

E
v
e
n

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time (t)
x
5
(
t
)
:

O
d
d

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
x5
odd
(t) = 0.5×t

Fig. S1.14.2: CT functions x5(t), its reflection x5(−t), and its even and odd components for
Problem 1.14(v). Only the range between (−1 ≤ t ≤ 1) is plotted.

(vi) The function x6(t) is a neither-even-nor-odd function.
To evaluate the even and off components of x6(t), we evaluate

3 0 2 3 2 0
6 2 4 6 4 2
6( )
3( 6) 4 6 3( 6) 6 4
0 elsewhere 0 elsewhere.
t t t t
t t
x t
t t t t
− ≤ − ≤ − − ≤ ≤ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
≤ − ≤ − ≤ ≤ −
¦ ¦
− = =
´ ´
+ ≤ − ≤ + − ≤ ≤ −
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¹ ¹

The even and odd components of x6(t) are given by
Even Component:
Solutions 15

1 1
2 2
3( 6) 6 4
6 4 2
3 0 2 3 2 0
3 2 0
6 2 4 6 4 2
6 ( ) 3 0 2
3( 6) 4 6 3( 6) 6 4
6 2 4
0 elsewhere 0 elsewhere
3( 6) 4 6
0 elsewhere.
even
t t
t
t t t t
t t
t t
x t t t
t t t t
t
t t
+ − ≤ ≤ − ¦
¦
− ≤ ≤ −
¦
≤ ≤ − − ≤ ≤ ( ¦ ¦
− − ≤ ≤ ¦
(
¦ ¦
≤ ≤ − ≤ ≤ −
¦ ¦ ¦
(
= + = ≤ ≤
´ ´ ´
( − + ≤ ≤ + − ≤ ≤ −
¦ ¦ ¦
≤ ≤
(
¦ ¦ ¦
¹ ¹
¸ ¸
− + ≤ ≤ ¦
¦
¹

Odd Component:

1 1
2 2
3( 6) 6 4
6 4 2
3 0 2 3 2 0
3 2 0
6 2 4 6 4 2
6 ( ) 3 0 2
3( 6) 4 6 3( 6) 6 4
6 2 4
0 elsewhere 0 elsewhere
3( 6) 4 6
0 elsewhere.
odd
t t
t
t t t t
t t
t t
x t t t
t t t t
t
t t
− + − ≤ ≤ − ¦
¦
− − ≤ ≤ −
¦
≤ ≤ − − ≤ ≤ ( ¦ ¦
− ≤ ≤ ¦
(
¦ ¦
≤ ≤ − ≤ ≤ −
¦ ¦ ¦
(
= − = ≤ ≤
´ ´ ´
( − + ≤ ≤ + − ≤ ≤ −
¦ ¦ ¦
≤ ≤
(
¦ ¦ ¦
¹ ¹
¸ ¸
− + ≤ ≤ ¦
¦
¹

The even and odd components for x6(t) are plotted in Fig. S1.14.3 within the range (−6 ≤ t ≤ 6). ▌
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
time (t)
x
6
(
t
)
x6(t)
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
time (t)
x
6
(
-
t
)
x6(-t)
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
time (t)
x
6
(
t
)
:

E
v
e
n

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
X6
even
(t)
-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
time (t)
x
6
(
t
)
:

O
d
d

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
X6
odd
(t)

Fig. S1.14.3: CT functions x6(t), its reflection x6(−t), and its even and odd components
for Problem 1.14(vi). Only the range between (−6 ≤ t ≤ 6) is plotted.
16 Chapter 1


Problem 1.15:
(i) 1[ ] sin(4 ) cos(2 / 3)
odd even
x k k k π
= =
= +


We note that the DT signal x1[k] is a sum of an odd term with an even term. Overall, x1[k] is,
therefore, a neither-even-nor-odd function.
The even and odd components of x1[k] are given by
Even component: { }
1
2
1 [ ] 1[ ] 1[ ] cos(2 / 3).
even
x k x k x k k π = + − =
Odd component: { }
1
2
1 [ ] 1[ ] 1[ ] sin(4 ).
odd
x k x k x k k = − − =
The even and odd components are plotted in Fig. S1.15.1 followed by the Matlab code used to
generate the two components.
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-2
-1
0
1
2
k
x
1
[
k
]

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-2
-1
0
1
2
k
x
1
[
k
]
:

E
v
e
n

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-2
-1
0
1
2
k
x
1
[
k
]
:

O
d
d

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t


Fig. S1.15.1: Odd and Even components of x1[k] in Problem 1.15(i) for (−20 ≤ k ≤ 20).

% MATLAB code for Problem 1.15(i)
% clear figure
clf
% signal defined in part (i)
k1 =-20:20;
x1 = sin(4*k1) + cos(2*pi*k1/3);
subplot(3,1,1), stem(k1, x1, 'filled'), grid on
xlabel('k'); % Label of X-axis
ylabel('x1[k] ') % Label of Y-axis
axis([-20, 20, -2, 2]) ;
Solutions 17
%
k1 =-20:20;
x1_even = cos(2*pi*k1/3);
subplot(3,1,2), stem(k1, x1_even, 'filled'), grid on
xlabel('k'); % Label of X-axis
ylabel('x1[k]: Even Component') % Label of Y-axis
axis([-20, 20, -2, 2]) ;

% signal defined in part (i)
x1_odd = sin(4*k1);
subplot(3,1,3), stem(k1, x1_odd, 'filled'), grid on
xlabel('k'); % Label of X-axis
ylabel('x1[k]: Odd Component ') % Label of Y-axis
axis([-20, 20, -2, 2]) ;
print -dtiff plot.tiff ; % Save the figure as a TIFF file

(ii)
| | ( ) ( ) 2 sin 3000 cos 2 3
odd even
x k k k π π
= =
= +


We note that x2[k] is the sum of an even with an odd component. Therefore, the DT signal is
neither even nor odd.
The even and odd components of x2[k] are given by
Even component:
{ }
1
2
2 [ ] 2[ ] 2[ ] cos(2 / 3).
even
x k x k x k k π = + − =
Odd component:
{ }
1
2
2 [ ] 2[ ] 2[ ] sin( / 3000).
odd
x k x k x k k π = − − =
The even and odd components are plotted in Fig. S1.15.2. Note that the odd component is close to 0
for the plotted values of k. This is because sin(πk/3000) ≈ sin(0) = 0 for (−20 ≤ k ≤ 20).
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-2
-1
0
1
2
k
x
2
[
k
]

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-2
-1
0
1
2
k
x
2
[
k
]
:

E
v
e
n

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-2
-1
0
1
2
k
x
2
[
k
]
:

O
d
d

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t


18 Chapter 1

Fig. S1.15.2: Odd and Even components of x2[k] in Problem 1.15(ii) for (−20 ≤ k ≤ 20).

(iii)
3[ ] exp( 7 / 4) cos(4 / 7 ) cos(7 / 4) sin(7 / 4) cos(4 / 7)
cos(7 / 4) cos(4 / 7) sin(7 / 4)
even odd
x k j k k k j k k
k k j k
π π π π π π
π π π
= =
= + + = + −
= − +


Therefore, the DT signal is neither even nor odd.
The even and odd components of x3[k] are given by
Even component:
{ }
1
2
3 [ ] 3[ ] 3[ ] cos(7 / 4) cos(4 / 7).
even
x k x k x k k k π π = + − = −
Odd component:
{ }
1
2
3 [ ] 3[ ] 3[ ] sin(7 / 4).
odd
x k x k x k j k π = − − =
The even and odd components are plotted in Fig. S1.15.3. Since x3[k] is complex, we plot the real
and imaginary components of x3[k] separately. Although the real component of x3[k] is even and
the imaginary component is odd, x3[k] is neither-even-nor-odd. This is the reason why the even
component of x3[k] is the same as its real component and the odd component is the same as the
imaginary component.
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-2
-1
0
1
2
k
x
3
[
k
]
:

R
e
a
l

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
x3
real
[k] = cos(7πk/4)-cos(4πk/7)
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-2
-1
0
1
2
k
x
3
[
k
]
:

I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
x3
imag
[k] = sin(7πk/4)
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-2
-1
0
1
2
k
x
3
[
k
]
:

O
d
d

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
x3
odd
[k] = sin(7πk/4)
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-2
-1
0
1
2
k
x
3
[
k
]
:

E
v
e
n

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
x3
even
[k] = cos(7πk/4)-cos(4πk/7)

Fig. S1.15.3: Odd and Even components of x3[k] in Problem 1.15(iii) for (−20 ≤ k ≤ 20).

iv) 4[ ] sin(3 / 8) cos(63 / 64)
odd even
odd
x k k k π π
= =
=
=

Solutions 19
We note that x4[k] is a product of an odd function with an even function. Therefore, the DT signal
x4[k] is odd.
v) Computing the time reversed form of
( 1) 0
5[ ]
0 0
k
k
x k
k
¦ − ≥
=
´
<
¹

we obtain
0 0 ( 1) 0 ( 1) 0
5[ ]
( 1) 0 0 0 0 0
k k
k
k k k
x k
k k k

¦ > ¦ − − ≥ − ≤ ¦ ¦
− = = =
´ ´ ´
− ≤ − < >
¦ ¹ ¹ ¹
.
Since x5[k] ≠ ± x5[−k], the DT signal x5[k] is neither-even-nor-odd. The even and odd components of
x5[k] are given by
Even component:
{ }
1 1
2 2
1
2
( 1) 0
1 0
5 [ ] 5[ ] 5[ ] 2 0
( 1) 0
( 1) 0
k
even
k
k
k
k
x k x k x k k
k
k
¦ − <
= ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
= + − = = =
´ ´
− ≠
¦
¦ ¹
− >
¦
¹

Odd component: { }
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> −
=
< − −
= − − =
. 0 ) 1 (
0 0
0 ) 1 (
] [ 5 ] [ 5 ] [ 5
2
1
k
k
k
k x k x k x
k
k
odd

The even and odd components are plotted in Fig. S1.15.4. ▌

-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
k
x
5
[
k
]
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
x
5
[
k
]
:

E
v
e
n

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
k
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
k
x
5
[
k
]
:

O
d
d

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t

20 Chapter 1

Fig. S1.15.4: Odd and Even components of x5[k] in Problem 1.15(v) for (−20 ≤ k ≤ 20).

Problem 1.16:
(a) Assume x(t) to be an even function for T = T
e
. Using x(t) = x(−t), we get
( ) ( ) ( )
5
2
5
2
) (
5
2
5
2
) (
5
2
5
2
sin 3 sin 3 sin 3
e e e
T
t
t x
T
t
t x
T
t
π
π

π
π
π
π
+ − = − − = −


or, ( ) ( ) π + + + = −
π
π
π
π
) 1 2 ( sin 3 sin 3
5
2
5
2
5
2
5
2
m
e e
T
t
T
t
.
The above expression implies that
π + + = −
π π
) 1 2 (
5
2
5
2
m
e e
T T
,
or,
4
) 1 2 ( 5 +
=
m
e
T
with m ∈ Z
+
.
(b) Assume x(t) to be an odd function for T = T
o
. Using x(t) = −x(−t), we obtain
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
5 5 5 5 5 5
( ) ( )
3sin 3sin 3sin
o o o
T T T
t t t
x t x t
π π π
π π π

− = − − − = +


or,
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
5 5 5 5
3sin 3sin 2
o o
T T
t t
m
π π
π π
π − = + − .
The above expression implies that
2 2
5 5
2
o o
T T
m
π π
π − = − ,
or,
5
2
m
o
T = .
with m ∈ Z
+
.
Problem 1.17:
(a) Neither-even-nor-odd; aperiodic; and energy signal.
Energy = 5
2
× (0.5) + 5
2
× (0.5) = 25 and Power = 0.
(b) Odd signal; periodic signal with period 1; and power signal.
Power = [2.5
2
× (0.5) + 2.5
2
× (0.5)]/1 = 6.25 and Energy = ∞.
(c) Neither-even-nor-odd; aperiodic; and energy signal.
Energy: ( )
3
1
3
) (
0
3
0
3
2
5 . 1
3
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

− = = =





∞ −

∫ ∫
t
t t
x
e
dt e dt t u e E .
Power = 0.
(d) Odd signal; periodic signal with period 3; and power signal.
Solutions 21
Power:
3
3
5
3
2 3 3 3 5
3
0
0
( 2.5) 1 1 1 25
( 2.5) 2.5 ( 2.5)
3 3 3(5/ 3) 15 12
t
P t dt

( = − = = − − =
¸ ¸ ∫
.
Energy = ∞. ▌

Problem 1.18:
The waveforms of the signals are shown in Fig. S1.18, where the individual components are plotted in the
top subplot followed by the overall signal. ▌


t
0
u(t)
4 8 12 16 −4 −8 −10 −12
2u(t − 3)
−u(t − 9)
−2u(t − 6)
1
2
3
−3
−2
−1
t
0
u(t)
4 8 12 16 −4 −8 −10 −12
2u(t − 3)
−u(t − 9)
−2u(t − 6)
1
2
3
−3
−2
1
2
3
−3
−2
−1

t
0 4 8 12 16 −4 −8 −10 −12
1
2
3
x1(t)
t
0 4 8 12 16 −4 −8 −10 −12
1
2
3
t
0 4 8 12 16 −4 −8 −10 −12
1
2
3
x1(t)

(i)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 3 2 6 9 x t u t u t u t u t = + − − − − −
t
0
1
( ) t π sin
2 6 8 4 −8 −4 −2 −6
t
0
1
( ) t π sin
2 6 8 4 2 6 8 4 −8 −4 −2 −6 −8 −4 −2 −6

t
0
1
( ) | | t u π sin
2 6 8 4 −8 −4 −2 −6
t
0
1
( ) | | t u π sin
2 6 8 4 2 6 8 4 −8 −4 −2 −6 −8 −4 −2 −6

(ii)
( ) ( ) ( )
2 sin x t u t π =
t
0 2 6 8 4 −8 −4 −2 −6
) 2 / ( rect t
) 4 / ( rect t
) 6 / ( rect t 1
2
3
t
0 2 6 8 4 2 6 8 4 −8 −4 −2 −6 −8 −4 −2 −6
) 2 / ( rect t
) 4 / ( rect t
) 6 / ( rect t 1
2
3

t
0 2 6 8 4 −8 −4 −2 −6
) ( 3 t x
1
2
3
t
0 2 6 8 4 2 6 8 4 −8 −4 −2 −6 −8 −4 −2 −6
) ( 3 t x
1
2
3

(iii)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 rect 6 rect 4 rect 2 x t t t t = + +
22 Chapter 1

Figure S1.18: Waveforms for CT signals specified in Problem 1.18 (i) – (iii).



t
0
r(t)
2 4 6 8 −2 −4 −6 −8
−r(t − 2)
−2u(t − 4)
1
2
3
−3
−2
−1
t
0
r(t)
2 4 6 8 −2 −4 −6 −8
−r(t − 2)
−2u(t − 4)
1
2
3
−3
−2
1
2
3
−3
−2
−1


t
0
x4(t)
2 4 6 8 −2 −4 −6 −8
1
2
3
t
0
x4(t)
2 4 6 8 −2 −4 −6 −8
1
2
3

(iv)
( ) 4 ( ) ( 2) 2 ( 4) x t r t r t u t = − − − −

t
0
e
−t
u(t)
1 2 −1 −2
1
e
−3t
u(t)
t
0
e
−t
u(t)
1 2 −1 −2
1
e
−3t
u(t)

t
0 1 2 −1 −2
1
x5(t)
t
0 1 2 −1 −2
1
t
0 1 2 −1 −2
1
x5(t)

(v)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
5 exp exp 3 ( ) x t t t u t = − − −
t
0 2 4 6 8 −2 −4 −6 −8
1
2
3
−3
−2
−1
−3δ(t − 3)
2δ(t + 1)
3sgn(t) · rect(t/4)
x6(t)
t
0 2 4 6 8 −2 −4 −6 −8
1
2
3
−3
−2
−1
−3δ(t − 3)
2δ(t + 1)
3sgn(t) · rect(t/4)
x6(t)

(vi)
( ) 6 3sgn( ) ( / 4) 2 ( 1) 3 ( 3) x t t rect t t t δ δ = ⋅ + + − −
Figure S1.18 (contd.): Waveforms for CT signals specified in Problem 1.18 (iv) – (vi).

Problem 1.19:
(i) Expressing ( ) ) 2 sin( ) 2 cos(
3 3 2
t j t e e
t j
π + π =
+ π

gives the real and imaginary components as
Solutions 23
) 2 sin( ) ( 1 and ) 2 cos( ) ( 1
3
imag
3
real
t e t x t e t x π = π = .
The real and imaginary components are plotted separately in Fig. S1.19.1, where we note that the
fundamental period is 1 s. The fundamental frequency is, therefore, given by f
0
= 1 Hz.
−2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−40
−20
0
20
40
time (t)
R
e
a
l

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
x1(t) = exp(j2 πt +3)
−2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−40
−20
0
20
40
time (t)
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
−2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−40
−20
0
20
40
time (t)
R
e
a
l

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
x1(t) = exp(j2 πt +3)
−2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−40
−20
0
20
40
time (t)
R
e
a
l

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
x1(t) = exp(j2 πt +3)
−2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−40
−20
0
20
40
time (t)
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
−2 −1.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−40
−20
0
20
40
time (t)
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t

Fig. S1.19.1: Real and imaginary components of
3 2
) ( 1
+ π
=
t j
e t x .
(ii) Expressing ( ) ) 2 sin( ) 2 cos(
3 3 2
t j t e e
t t t j
π + π =
+ π

gives the real and imaginary components as
) 2 sin( ) ( 2 and ) 2 cos( ) ( 2
3
imag
3
real
t e t x t e t x
t t
π = π = .
The real and imaginary components are plotted separately in Fig. S1.19.2, where we note that x2(t)
is not periodic but is instead a rising exponential modulated with a sine wave.

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-200
0
200
400
600
time (t)
R
e
a
l

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
−1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−300
−200
−100
0
100
time (t)
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-200
0
200
400
600
time (t)
R
e
a
l

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-200
0
200
400
600
time (t)
R
e
a
l

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
−1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−300
−200
−100
0
100
time (t)
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
−1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−300
−200
−100
0
100
time (t)
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t

Fig. S1.19.2: Real and imaginary components of
t t j
e t x
3 2
) ( 2
+ π
= .
(iii) Expressing ) 2 3 sin( ) 2 3 cos(
3 2
t t j t t e
t j t j
π − + π − =
+ π −

gives the real and imaginary components as
) 2 3 sin( ) ( 3 and ) 2 3 cos( ) ( 3
imag real
t t t x t t t x π − = π − = .
The real and imaginary components are plotted separately in Fig. S1.19.1.The fundamental
frequency is, therefore, given by f
0
= 1 − 3/(2π) Hz.
24 Chapter 1

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time (t)
R
e
a
l

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
x3(t) = exp(−j2πt + 3t)
−1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−0.5
0
0.5
1
time (t)
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time (t)
R
e
a
l

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
x3(t) = exp(−j2πt + 3t)
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
time (t)
R
e
a
l

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
x3(t) = exp(−j2πt + 3t)
−1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−0.5
0
0.5
1
time (t)
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t
−1 −0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
−0.5
0
0.5
1
time (t)
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

C
o
m
p
o
n
e
n
t

Fig. S1.19.3: Real and imaginary components of
t t j
e t x
3 2
) ( 3
+ π −
= .
(iv) – (vi) The remaining three signals are all sinusoidal signals. x4(t) has the fundamental period of 1s,
x5(t) has the fundamental period of 2 s, and x6(t) has the fundamental period of 2 s. The fundamental
frequencies are 1, 1/2, and 1/2 Hz for x4(t), x5(t), and x6(t), respectively. The three waveforms are plotted
in Fig. S1.19.4. ▌
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
x4(t) = cos(2πt + 3)
time (t)
x
4
(
t
)
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
-2
-1
0
1
2
time (t)
x
5
(
t
)
x5(t) = cos(2πt + 3) + sin(3πt + 2)
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
time (t)
x
6
(
t
)
x6(t) = 2 + 4cos(2πt + 3) - 7sin(3πt + 2)

Fig. S1.19.4: Signals x4(t), x5(t), and x6(t) for Problem 1.19.
Problem 1.20:
Solutions 25
The value of x1[k] and x3[k] for 3 8 k − ≤ ≤ is shown in Table. The corresponding waveforms for the
above signals are shown in Fig. S1.20. The waveforms for the remaining signals are plotted in a similar
way, and are shown in Fig. S1.20. ▌

Table S1.20: Values of x1[k] and x3[k] for 3 8 k − ≤ ≤ in Problem 1.20
k −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
x1[k] 0 0 0 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0
x3[k] 0 0 0 0 1 5 19 65 211 665 2059 6305

-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
k
(i) x1[k] = u[k] + u[k-3] -u[k-5] - u[k-7]

-2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
(ii) x[k] = Σ δ[k-m] for m ≥ 0
k

(i) (ii)
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
k
(iii) x3[k] = (3
k
- 2
k
)u[k]

-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
k
(iv) x4[k] = u(cos(πk/8))

(iii) (iv)
-4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
k
(v) x5[k]= ku[k]

-8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
k
(vi) x6[k]= |k| (u[k+4] - u[k-4])

(v) (vi)
26 Chapter 1

Figure S1.20: Waveforms for DT signals specified in Problem 1.20.
Program 1.20. MATLAB Program for generating subplots (i) and (iii)
% MATLAB code for Problem 1.20 (i) and (iii)
% clear figure
clf
% signal defined in part (i)
k1 =-2:8 ;
x1 = [0 0 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0];
subplot(2,1,1), stem(k1, x1, 'filled'), grid on
xlabel('k') % Label of X-axis
ylabel('x1[k]') % Label of Y-axis
axis([-2, 8, 0, 3]) ;


% signal defined in part (iii)

k3 = -2:8 ;
x3 = (3.^k3-2.^k3).*(k3>=0) ;
subplot(2,1,2), stem(k3, x3, 'filled'), grid on
xlabel('k') % Label of X-axis
ylabel('x3[k]') % Label of Y-axis
axis([-2, 8, 0, 7000]) ;
print -dtiff plot.tiff ; % Save the figure as a TIFF file
Problem 1.21:

(i) Using the impulse function property f(t) δ(t − t
0
) = f(t
0
) δ(t − t
0
), we obtain
). 1 (
9
8
) 1 (
1 1 7
1 ) 1 ( 2 5
) 1 (
7
2 5
) 1 (
7
2 5
4 2
2
1
4 2
2
4 2
2
− δ = − δ
+ +
+ +
= − δ
+ +
+ +
= − δ
+ +
+ +
=
t t t
t t
t t
t
t t
t t
t

(ii) Using the impulse function property f(t) δ(t − t
0
) = f(t
0
) δ(t − t
0
), we obtain

0
0
1
1
2
sin( ) 1 sin( ) 1 sin( )
( ) ( ) lim ( ) ( )
2 2 2
t
t
t t t
t t t t
t t t
δ δ δ δ

=
=
(
(
= ⋅ = =
(
(
¸ ¸

where the L’Hopital’s rule is applied to evaluate the value of sin(t)/t at t = 0.
(iii) Using the impulse function property f(t) δ(t − t
0
) = f(t
0
) δ(t − t
0
), we obtain
( )
3 3
2 2
1 1
2 2
5
125 1 124
5 ( 5) ( 5) ( 5)
25 2 27
ω ω
ω ω
ω
δ ω δ ω δ ω δ ω
− −
+ +
=

− = − = − = −
+
. ▌
Problem 1.22:
(i) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 5 4 5 4 5 4 t t dt t dt t dt δ δ δ
∞ ∞ ∞
−∞ −∞ −∞
− − = − = − =
∫ ∫ ∫
.
Solutions 27
(ii) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
6 6 6
1 5 4 5 4 5 4 t t dt t dt t dt δ δ δ
−∞ −∞ −∞
− − = − = − =
∫ ∫ ∫
.
(iii) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
6 6 6
1 5 4 5 4 5 0 t t dt t dt t dt δ δ δ
∞ ∞ ∞
− − = − = − =
∫ ∫ ∫
.
(iv)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 10 10 2 4 2
3 4 9 3 3 9
2 / 3 5 3 / 4 5/ 6 5 ( ) 5 t t dt t t dt t t dt δ δ δ
∞ ∞ ∞
−∞ −∞ −∞
− − = − − = − −
∫ ∫ ∫

which simplifies to

( ) ( )
10 10 460 10 460 4 2
3 3 9 9 81 9 81
115/ 27
5 t dt t dt δ δ
∞ ∞
− −
−∞ −∞
≈−
| |
| = × − − = − =
|
\ .
∫ ∫

.
(v)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
exp 1 sin 5 4 (1 ) exp 1 sin 5 4 ( 1) t t t dt t t t dt π δ π δ
∞ ∞
−∞ −∞
− + − = − + −
∫ ∫

which simplifies to

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) exp 0 sin 6 4 ( 1) sin 6 4 ( 1) sin 3 2 1 t dt t dt π δ π δ π
∞ ∞
−∞ −∞
= − = − = = −
∫ ∫
.
(vi)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
1
sin 3 4 ( 1) sin 3 4 1 sin 3 4
t t t
t
t e t dt t e t dt t e π δ π δ π
∞ ∞
− + − + − +
=−
−∞ −∞
( ( ( + − + = + + = +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ∫ ∫

which simplifies to

( ) ( )
3 3 3
1
2
sin 3 4 sin 3 4 e e e π π = − + = − = − .
(vii)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
5
6 10 sin 3 4 5 6 10 sin 3 4
t
u t u t t t dt u t u t t π δ π

=
−∞
− − − − = − − − ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ∫

which simplifies to

( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) 5 6 5 10 sin 3 5 4 0 0 sin 15 4 0 u u π π = − − − = − = (
¸ ¸
.
(viii) By noting that only the impulses located at t = −20 (m = −4), t = −15 (m = −3), t = −10 (m = −2), t =
−5 (m = −1), t = 0 (m = 0), t = 5 (m = 1), t = 10 (m = 2), t = 15 (m = 3), and t = 20 (m = 4) lie within
the integration range of (−21 ≤ t ≤ 21), the integral reduces to
dt m t t dt m t t I
m m





− =


−∞ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
− δ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
− δ =
21
21
4
4
21
21
) 5 ( ) 5 ( .
Changing the order of summation and integration, we obtain
( ) . 0 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 5 ) 5 (
4
4
4
4
21
21
= + + + + + − − − − = = − δ =
∑ ∑

− = − =

m m
m dt m t t I ▌
Problem 1.23:
(i) Equation 1.43(a) is satisfied as
28 Chapter 1

. 0 provided 0 lim lim
2 2 2
0
) (
0
≠ = =
π
ε
→ ε
ε + π
ε
→ ε
t
t t

Integrating | | 1 ) ( tan lim lim
1 1
) (
0
) (
0
2 2 2 2
= ε = =

∞ −

π

∞ −
ε + π
ε
→ ε

∞ −
ε + π
ε
→ ε
∫ ∫
dt dt
t t
,
confirming that Equation (1.43b) is also satisfied.
(ii) Equation 1.43(a) is satisfied as
. 0 provided 0 lim lim
2 2 2 2 2
4
2
0
4
2
0
≠ = =
π
ε
→ ε
ε + π
ε
→ ε
t
t t

Integrating
∫ ∫

∞ −
ε + π
ε
→ ε

∞ −
ε + π
ε
→ ε
= = dt dt I
t t
2 2 2 2 2 2
4
2
0
4
2
0
lim lim .
Substituting x = 2πt gives 1 lim lim
2 2 2 2
2
0
1
2
2
0
= = =
∫ ∫

∞ −
ε +
ε
→ ε
π

∞ −
π
ε +
ε
→ ε
dx I
x
dx
x

confirming that Equation (1.43b) is also satisfied.
(iii) Equation 1.43(a) is satisfied as
( ) . 0 provided 0 sin lim
1
0
≠ = ε
π
→ ε
t t
t

Integrating ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫

∞ −
π
ε
π
ε
→ ε

∞ −
π
ε
→ ε

∞ −
π
→ ε
= = ε = dt dt dt t I
t
t
t
t
sinc lim lim sin lim
0
) sin(
0
1
0
.
Using the CTFT pairs discussed in Chapter 5, it can be shown that (see below)
( )
1
sin c t dt σ
σ

−∞
=

.
From Table 5.2, we know: ( ) ( )


∞ −
ω
π
ωτ
π τ
ω τ = d e c
t j t
2 2
1
sin rect .
Substituting t = 0 in both side, we obtain ( ) 1 sin
2 2
1
= ω τ


∞ −
π
ωτ
π
d c ,
which implies that ( )
τ
π
= ω


∞ −
π
ωτ
2
sin
2
d c . By changing variables, we obtain:
( )
1
sin c t dt σ
σ

−∞
=



Applying the above identity, the integral is simplified as:
( )
0 0
lim sinc lim 1
t
I dt
ε ε ε π
π π π ε
ε ε

→ →
−∞
= = × =


Solutions 29
confirming that Equation (1.43b) is also satisfied.
(iv) Equation 1.43(a) is satisfied as
( )
( )
. 0 provided 0 lim exp lim
2
exp
0
2 2
1
0
2
2
2
2
2
≠ = = −
π ε

→ ε
ε π ε
→ ε
ε
t
t
t

Integrating ( ) ( ) 1 exp lim exp lim
2
2
2
2
2 2
1
0
2 2
1
0
= − = − =
∫ ∫

∞ −
ε π ε
→ ε

∞ −
ε π ε
→ ε
dt I
t t
,
confirming that Equation (1.43b) is also satisfied. The last result is observed by noting that a
normal distribution is being integrated, which must equal 1. ▌
Problem 1.24:
(a) The waveforms for signals x(t – 3), x(−2t – 3), and x(−0.75t – 3) are shown in Fig. S1.24.
(b) The analytical expressions, directly from the x(t) definition, are obtained below.
( 3) 2 2 3 1 1 1 2
1 1 3 1 1 2 4
( 3)
( 3) 2 1 3 2 5 4 5
0 elsewhere 0 elsewhere.
t t t t
t t
x t
t t t t
− + − ≤ − ≤ − − ≤ ≤ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
− ≤ − ≤ ≤ ≤
¦ ¦
− = =
´ ´
− − + ≤ − ≤ − + ≤ ≤
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¹ ¹

(2 3) 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1/ 2 1
1 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 4 1 1 2
(2 3)
(2 3) 2 1 2 3 2 2 5 4 2 5 2 5 2 5/ 2
0 elsewhere 0 elsewhere 0 elsewhere.
t t t t t t
t t t
x t
t t t t t t
− + − ≤ − ≤ − − ≤ ≤ − ≤ ≤ ¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦
− ≤ − ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤
¦ ¦ ¦
− = = =
´ ´ ´
− − + ≤ − ≤ − + ≤ ≤ − + ≤ ≤
¦ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦ ¦
¹ ¹ ¹
( 2 3) 2 2 2 3 1 2 1 1 2 2
1 1 2 3 1 1 2 2 4
( 2 3)
( 2 3) 2 1 2 3 2 2 5 4 2 5
0 elsewhere 0 elsewhere
2 1 1 1/ 2
1 2 1
2 5 5/ 2 2
0 elsewhere.
t t t t
t t
x t
t t t t
t t
t
t t
− − + − ≤ − − ≤ − − − ≤ − ≤ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
− ≤ − − ≤ ≤ − ≤
¦ ¦
− − = =
´ ´
− − − + ≤ − − ≤ + ≤ − ≤
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¹ ¹
− − − ≤ ≤ − ¦
¦
− ≤ ≤ −
¦
=
´
+ − ≤ ≤ −
¦
¦
¹

30 Chapter 1

( 0.75 3) 2 2 0.75 3 1 0.75 1 1 0.75 2
1 1 0.75 3 1 1 2 0.75 4
( 0.75 3)
( 0.75 3) 2 1 0.75 3 2 0.75 5 4 0.75 5
0 elsewhere 0 elsewhere
0.75 1 8/ 3 4/ 3
1 16/ 3 8/ 3
0.75 5 2
t t t t
t t
x t
t t t t
t t
t
t
− − + − ≤ − − ≤ − − − ≤ − ≤ ¦ ¦
¦ ¦
− ≤ − − ≤ ≤ − ≤
¦ ¦
− − = =
´ ´
− − − + ≤ − − ≤ + ≤ − ≤
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
¹ ¹
− − − ≤ ≤ −
− ≤ ≤ −
=
+ − 0/ 3 16/ 3
0 elsewhere.
t
¦
¦
¦
´
≤ ≤ −
¦
¦
¹

It is observed that the plots in Fig. S1.24 match with the analytical expressions obtained. ▌

t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x(t)
1
t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x(t)
1

t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x(t − 3)
1
t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x(t − 3)
1
t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x(t − 3)
1

t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x(2t − 3)
1
t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x(2t − 3)
1

t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x(−2t − 3)
1
t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x(−2t − 3)
1

t
−4 −3 −2
0 1 2 3 4 5
1
−1
−5 −6
3
8

3
4

3
16

3
20

) 3 (
4
3
− − t x
t
−4 −3 −2
0 1 2 3 4 5
1
−1
−5 −6
3
8

3
4

3
16

3
20

) 3 (
4
3
− − t x

Solutions 31
Figure S1.24: Waveforms for the shifted and scaled signals specified in Problem 1.24.


Problem 1.25:

(i) To obtain the waveform for g(t) from f(t), one possible order of transformations is:
) 3 9 ( ) 9 ( )) 9 ( ( ) ( ) (
3 9
t f t f t f t f t f
of factor a by scale by left the to shift axis y about reflect
− ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ − = − − ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷ − ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ → ÷

.
The final waveform for g(t) = f(–3t+9) is sketched in Fig. S1.25.

t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
f (t)
2
−3
(−t – 3) (5t/3 – 3)
t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
f (t)
2
−3
t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
f (t)
2
−3
(−t – 3) (5t/3 – 3)

t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
f (9 – 3t)
2
−3
(3t – 12)
(−5t +12)
t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
f (9 – 3t)
2
−3
t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
f (9 – 3t)
2
−3
(3t – 12)
(−5t +12)


Figure S1.25: Waveform for Problem 1.25.
(ii) Since f(t) is a finite duration signal, it is an energy signal. The average power in f(t) is 0, while its
total energy is given by
0 3 0 3
2 2 2 2 2
5 25
3 9
3 0 3 0
0 3
3 2 3 2
25 1
3 27
3 0
( ) ( 3) ( 3) ( 6 9) ( 10 9)
3 9 5 9 ( 9 27 27) (25 45 27) 9 7
16.
f
E f t dt t dt t dt t t dt t t dt
t t t t t t

−∞ − −

= = + + − = + + + − +
( ( = + + + − + = − − + − + − + = +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
=
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

(iii) The function g(t) can be represented as
5 12 2 3
( )
3 12 3 4
t t
g t
t t
− + ≤ ≤ ¦
=
´
− ≤ ≤
¹

Since g(t) is a finite duration signal, it is an energy signal. The average power in g(t) is 0, while its
total energy is given by

3 4 3 4
2 2 2 2 2
2 3 2 3
3 4
3 2 3 2
25
3
2 3
( ) ( 5 12) (3 12) (25 120 144) (9 72 144)
16
60 144 3 36 144
3
g
E g t dt t dt t dt t t dt t t dt
t t t t t t

−∞
= = − + + − = − + + − +
( ( = − + + − + =
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

32 Chapter 1



Problem 1.26:
(i) The function g(t) = f(-2t+6) is shown in Fig. S1.26.
(ii) The end and odd components of f(t) are also shown in Fig. S1.26. ▌


t
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
1
−3
f (t)
t
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
1
−3
t
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
1
−3
f (t)

t
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1
−3
f (−t)
t
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1
−3
f (−t)

f (−2t + 6)
t
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
1
−3
f (−2t + 6)
t
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
1
−3

t
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1
−3
f
even
(t)
−3/2
t
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1
−3
f
even
(t)
−3/2

t
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1
−3
f
odd
(t)
−3/2
t
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1
−3
f
odd
(t)
−3/2


Figure S1.26: Waveforms for Problem 1.26.

Solutions 33

Problem 1.27:
The waveforms for g(t) and g(2t) are plotted in Fig. S1.27. ▌

t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
f (t)
1
t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
f (t)
1

t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
f (t + 2) − f (t + 2)
1
t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
f (t + 2) − f (t + 2)
1

t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
g(t) = t [f (t + 2) − f (t + 2)]
1
t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
g(t) = t [f (t + 2) − f (t + 2)]
1

t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
g(2t)
1
t
−4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
g(2t)
1


Fig. P1.27: Waveforms for Problem 1.27.

Problem 1.28:

The values for x1[k] and x2[k] for (−6 ≤ k ≤ 5) are shown in Table S1.28.
Table S1.28: Values of x1[k] and x2[k] in Problem 1.28.
k −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
x1 0 0 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 0 0
x2 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0

The sketch of x1[k] and x2[k] is shown in Fig. S1.28. The remaining figures are obtained by applying
translation, inversion and scaling procedures, and are also shown in Fig. S1.28. Note that all functions,
34 Chapter 1

except x1[k/2] are uniquely defined. The function x1[k/2] is not uniquely defined when k is odd. Here, we
have used linear interpolation, defined as follows, to calculate the odd samples.
{ }
1 1 1
2 2 2 2
1 1 1
k k k
x x x
− +
= + ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
when 1, 3, 5,.... k = ± ± ± ▌

x
1
[k]
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
k
x
1
[k]
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
k
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
k

x
2
[k]
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
k
x
2
[k]
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
k

(i) ] [
1
k x (ii) ] [
2
k x
x
1
[3 − k]
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
k
x
1
[3 − k]
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
k

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
x
1
[6 − 2k]
k
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
x
1
[6 − 2k]
k

(iii) | | k x − 3
1
(iv) | | k x 2 6
1

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
x
1
[2k]
k
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
x
1
[2k]
k

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
x
2
[3k]
k
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
x
2
[3k]
k

(v) | | k x 2
1

(vi) | | k x 3
2

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
k
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
k


x
1
[2k] + x
2
[3k]
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
k
x
1
[2k] + x
2
[3k]
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
k

(vii) ] 2 / [
1
k x (viii) | | | | k x k x 3 2
2 1
+
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
x
1
[3 − k] · x
2
[6 − 2k]
k
8

−8

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
x
1
[3 − k] · x
2
[6 − 2k]
k
8

−8

x
1
[3 − k] · x
2
[6 − 2k]
k
8

8

−8

−8


0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
x
1
[2k]· x
2
[−k]·
k
8

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2
−4
4
x
1
[2k]· x
2
[−k]·
k
8


Solutions 35
(ix) | | | | k x k x 2 6 3
2 1
− − (x) | | | | k x k x −
2 1
2
Fig. S1.28: Waveforms for Problem 1.28.

Program 1.28: MATLAB Program
% clear figure
clf
% signal defined in part (i)
k1 =-6:6 ;
x1 = [0 0 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 0 0 0];
subplot(2,2,1), stem(k1, x1, 'filled'), grid on
xlabel('k') % Label of X-axis
ylabel('x1[k]') % Label of Y-axis
axis([-6, 6, 0, 5]) ;

% signal defined in part (iii)
x1flip = fliplr(x1) ; % inverted x1
subplot(2,2,2), stem(k1+5, x1flip, 'filled'), grid on
xlabel('k') % Label of X-axis
ylabel('x1[3-k]') % Label of Y-axis
axis([-1, 11, 0, 5]) ;

% signal defined in part (v)
x1_compress = x1(1:2:length(x1)); % decimated by 2
subplot(2,2,3), stem([-3:3], x1_compress, 'filled'), grid on
xlabel('k') % Label of X-axis
ylabel('x1[2k]') % Label of Y-axis
axis([-3, 3, 0, 5]) ;

% signal defined in part (vii)
k4 = [-12:12] ;
x1_expand = [0 0 0 2 4 3.5 3 2.5 2
subplot(2,2,4), stem(k4, x1_expand, 'filled'), grid on
xlabel('k') % Label of X-axis
ylabel('x1[2k]') % Label of Y-axis
axis([-12, 10, 0, 5]) ;
print -dtiff plot.tiff % Save the figure as a TIFF file

Problem 1.29
The classification of the ECG signal is explained below.
Continuous-time vs discrete-time: The signal generated by heart is continuous-time in nature. However,
the ECG signal produced by the ECG instrument can be CT or DT, depending on the instrument type. In
the older days, the signals were typically CT. However, with advances in digital technology, the modern
ECG instruments are generally discrete-time. However, when a discrete time signal is generated with a
high sampling rate, and plotted, the plot looks continuous-time (your eyes are fooled).
Analog vs. Digital: The signal can be CT or DT depending on the instrument type.
36 Chapter 1

Deterministic vs Random: The heartbeat of a person is generally random in nature (otherwise you could
predict heart attack).
Periodic vs. Aperiodic: The ECG signals looks like a periodic signal where the pattern repeats itself
roughly every 0.4-1 second (i.e., once in every heart beat). However, the heart beat rate is not constant.
During sleep, it is the lowest, and during exercise, it is the highest. Therefore, it is not periodic in strict
mathematical sense.
Power vs. Energy signal: The ECG signal corresponding to a person is a bounded (the amplitude does
not exceed a few milli-volt) and time-limited. Therefore, it is an energy signal.
Even or Odd: A random signal is generally neither even nor odd. Also, how do you define t=0 point for
an ECG signal? Even if you look at just one pattern, it does not look like an even or odd function.
Therefore, the ECG signal is neither even nor odd. ▌
Problem 1.30:
Recall that the ramp function
0
( ) ( )
0 0
t t
r t tu t
t
≥ ¦
¦
= =
´
<
¦
¹

Therefore, f(t) can be expressed as

| | | | ) ( ) 6 ( ) ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
2
1
t u t u t r t u t u t r t f − + × − − − − × = . ▌

Problem 1.31:
The MATLAB code is given in Program S1.31. The plots are shown in Fig. S1.31. ▌
Program S1.31: MATLAB code for Problem 1.31.
% Problem 1.31 from Mandal and Asif text
% part (i)
t = -1:0.001:1;
x = exp(-2*t).*sin(10*pi*t);
subplot(5,1,1)
plot(t,x);
xlabel('t');
title('(i) exp(-2t) sin(10\pit)');
grid on
axis tight
%
% part (ii)
t = -10:0.001:15;
x = sawtooth(2*pi*t/5);
subplot(5,1,2)
plot(t,x);
xlabel('t');
title('(ii) Sawtooth wave with a period of 5s');
grid on
axis tight
%
% part (iii)
t = -10:0.001:10;
x = 0.5*(1 + sign(t));
subplot(5,1,3)
Solutions 37
plot(t,x);
xlabel('t');
title('(iii) u(t)');
grid on
axis([-10 10 -0.1 1.1]);
%
% part (iv)
t = -10:0.001:10;
unit_step1 = 0.5*(1 + sign(t + 5));
unit_step2 = 0.5*(1 + sign(t - 5));
x = unit_step1 - unit_step2;
subplot(5,1,4)
plot(t,x);
xlabel('t');
title('(iv) rect(t/10)');
grid on
axis([-10 10 -0.1 1.1]);
%
% part (v)
t = -12:0.001:12;
x = 3*square(2*pi*(t+1)/6,100/3);
subplot(5,1,5)
plot(t,x);
xlabel('t');
title('(v) Square wave');
grid on
axis([-10 10 -3.1 3.1]);

38 Chapter 1

-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-5
0
5
t
(i) exp(-2t) sin(10πt)
-10 -5 0 5 10 15
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
t
(ii) Sawtooth wave with a period of 5s
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
0.5
1
t
(iii) u(t)
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0
0.5
1
t
(iv) rect(t/10)
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
-2
0
2
t
(v) Square wave

Figure S1.31: Plots for Problem 1.31.

Problem 1.32:

The MATLAB function mydecimate is given in Program S1.32. ▌

Program S1.32: MATLAB code for Problem 1.32.
function [y] = mydecimate(x, N)
% MYSCALE: computes y[k] = x[k/N]
% where
% x is a column vector containing the DT input signal
% N is the scaling factor greater than 1
% y is a column vector containing the DT output signal time expanded by N

y = x(1:N:length(x));
y = y';
end

Problem 1.33:

Solutions 39
The MATLAB function myinterpolate is given in Program S1.33. ▌

Program S1.33: MATLAB code for Problem 1.33.
function [y] = myinterpolate(x, N)
% MYINTERPOLATE: computes y[k] = x[k/N]
% where
% x is a column vector containing the DT input signal
% N is the scaling factor greater than 1
% y is a column vector containing the DT output signal time expanded by N

all_but_last = x(1:length(x)-1);
all_but_first = x(2:length(x));

y = all_but_last;
for i = 2:N,
y(:,i) = y(:,1) + (i-1)/N * (all_but_first - all_but_last);
% linear interpolation is used to predict the unknown values.
end

y = y';
y = y(:);
y(length(y)+1) = x(length(x));
end

Problem 1.34:
The MATLAB code is given in Program S1.34. The plots are shown in Fig. S1.34.
Program S1.34: MATLAB code for Problem 1.34.
% Problem 1.34 from Mandal and Asif text

% Define the signal
k = 0:120;
x = (1 - exp(-0.003*k)).*cos(pi*k/10);
x = x';

% part (i) -- plot the signal
subplot(311);
stem(k,x);
xlabel('k');
ylabel('x[k]');
title('x[k] = (1 - exp(-0.003k)) cos(\pik/20)');

% part (ii) -- Decimation followed by interpolation
z1 = myinterpolate(mydecimate(x,5),5);
subplot(312);
stem(k,z1);
xlabel('k');
ylabel('z_1[k]');
title('z_1[k] = y[5k] where y[k] = x[k/5]');

% part (iii) -- Interpolation followed by decimation
z2 = mydecimate(myinterpolate(x,5),5);
subplot(313);
stem(k,z2);
xlabel('k');
40 Chapter 1

ylabel('z_2[k]');
title('z_2[k] = y[k/5] where y[k] = x[5k]');

0 20 40 60 80 100 120
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
k
x
[
k
]
x[k] = (1 - exp(-0.003k)) cos(πk/20)
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
k
z
1
[
k
]
z
1
[k] = y[5k] where y[k] = x[k/5]
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
k
z
2
[
k
]
z
2
[k] = y[k/5] where y[k] = x[5k]

Fig. 1.34: Output for Problem 1.34.

Note that decimation followed by interpolation distorts the signal such that the reconstructed signal is
different from the original signal. By doing decimation first, we lose 4 out of every 5 samples.
Interpolation can only reconstruct the lost samples approximately.
On the other hand, interpolation followed by decimation reconstructs the signal exactly. Interpolation
introduces 5 additional samples in between every two neighboring samples. Decimation removes the
interpolated values so the original signal is not affected. ▌

2

Chapter 1

% MATLAB code for Problem 1.2 clf % signal defined in part (i) t1 =-1:0.01:2 ; x1 = cos(3*pi*t1/4+pi/8) ; subplot(3,2,1), plot(t1, x1), grid on; xlabel('t'); ylabel('x1(t)'); title('cos(3\pi t/4 + \pi/8)'); % signal defined in part (ii) t2 =-1:0.01:2 ; x2 = sin(-3*pi*t2/8+pi/2) ; subplot(3,2,2), plot(t2, x2), grid on; xlabel('t'); ylabel('x_2(t)'); title('sin(-3\pi t/8 + \pi/2)'); % signal defined in part (iii) t3 =-2:0.01:2 ; x3 = 5*t3+ 3*exp(-t3); subplot(3,2,3), plot(t3, x3), grid on xlabel('t'); ylabel('x_3(t)'); title('5t + 3exp(-t)'); % signal defined in part (iv) t4 =-1:0.01:2; x4 = sin(3*pi*t4/4+pi/8); x4 =x4.*x4; subplot(3,2,4), plot(t4, x4), grid on; xlabel('t'); ylabel('x_4(t)'); title('(sin(3\pi t/4+\pi/8))^2'); % signal defined in part (v) t5 =-2:0.01:3 ; x5 = cos(3*pi*t5/4) + sin(pi*t5/2); subplot(3,2,5), plot(t5, x5), grid on; xlabel('t'); ylabel('x_5(t)'); title('cos(3\pi t/4) + sin(\pi t/2)'); % signal defined in part (vi) t6 =-2:0.01:3 ; x6 = t6.*exp(-2*t6) ; subplot(3,2,6), plot(t6, x6), grid on; xlabel('t');

% clear figure

% Label of X-axis % Label of Y-axis % Title

% Label of X-axis % Label of Y-axis % Title

% Label of X-axis % Label of Y-axis % Title

% Label of X-axis % Label of Y-axis % Title

% Label of X-axis % Label of Y-axis % Title

% Label of X-axis

Solutions

3

ylabel('x_6(t)'); title('t exp(-2t)'); print -dtiff plot.tiff;

% Label of Y-axis % Title % Save the figure as a TIFF file

Problem 1.3: (i) The value of x1[k] for −5 ≤ k ≤ 5 is shown in the following table. k x1[k] −5 0.38 −4 −0.92 −3 0.92 −2 −0.38 −1 −0.38 0 0.92 1 −0.92 2 0.38 3 0.38 4 −0.92 5 0.92

The sketch of x1[k] is shown in the top left figure in Fig. S1.3. The other functions can be plotted in a similar way. However, we use MATLAB to plot the six DT. Fig. S1.3 contains the subplots for these sequences followed by the MATLAB code used to generate them. ▌
1 cos(3π k/4 + π/8) 1 sin(-3π k/8 + π/2)

0.5 x 1[k] x 2[k] -4 -3 -2 -1 0 k 5k + 3-k 250 200 150 x 3[k] 100 50 0 -50 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 k 1 2 3 4 5 x 4[k] 1 2 3 4 5

0.5

0

0

-0.5

-0.5

-1 -5

-1 -10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0 k

2

4

6

8

10

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -6

|sin(3π k/4 + π/8)|

-4

-2

0

2 k k 4-|k|

4

6

8

10

2

cos(3π k/4) + sin(π k/2)

0.4

1 x 5[k] x 6[k] -8 -6 -4 -2 0 k 2 4 6 8 10

0.2

0

0

-1

-0.2

-2 -10

-0.4 -10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0 k

2

4

6

8

10

Fig S1.3: DT signals for P1.3 % MATLAB code for Problem 1.3 clf % signal defined in part (i) k1 =-5:5 ; % clear figure

4

Chapter 1

x1 = cos(3*pi*k1/4+pi/8); subplot(3,2,1), stem(k1, x1, 'filled'), % Label of X-axis grid on; % Label of Y-axis xlabel('k'); % Title ylabel('x_1[k]'); title(' cos(3\pi k/4 + \pi/8)'); % signal defined in part (ii) k2 =-10:10 ; x2 = sin(-3*pi*k2/8+pi/2); subplot(3,2,2), stem(k2, x2, 'filled'), % Label of X-axis % Label of Y-axis grid on; % Title xlabel('k'); ylabel('x_2[k]'); title('sin(-3\pi k/8 + \pi/2)'); % signal defined in part (iii) k3 =-5:5 ; % Label of X-axis x3 = 5*k3+ 3.^(-k3); subplot(3,2,3), stem(k3, x3, 'filled'), % Label of Y-axis % Title grid on; xlabel('k'); ylabel('x_3[k]'); title('5k + 3^{-k}'); % signal defined in part (iv) % Label of X-axis k4 =-6:10 ; % Label of Y-axis x4 = abs(sin(3*pi*k4/4+pi/8)) ; subplot(3,2,4), stem(k4, x4, 'filled'), % Title grid on; xlabel('k'); ylabel('x_4[k]'); title('|sin(3\pi k/4 + \pi/8)|'); axis([-6 10 0 1]); % Label of X-axis % Label of Y-axis % signal defined in part (v) % Title k5 =-10:10 ; x5 = cos(3*pi*k5/4) + sin(pi*k5/2) ; subplot(3,2,5), stem(k5, x5, 'filled'), grid on; xlabel('k'); ylabel('x_5[k]'); title('cos(3\pi k/4) + sin(\pi k/2)'); % signal defined in part (vi) k6 =-10:10 ; x6 = k6.*4.^(-abs(k6)) ; subplot(3,2,6), stem(k6, x6, 'filled'), grid; % Label of X-axis % Label of Y-axis % Title

x2(t) is periodic with T2 = 8/5. T2 10π / 3 10π (iv) All CT complex exponentials are periodic. g (t + nT1 ) = ax1 (t + nT1 ) + bx2 (t + nT1 ) = ax1 (t + nT1 ) + bx2 (t + mT2 ) = ax1 (t ) + bx2 (t ) = g (t ). x1 (t ) = x1 (t + T1 ) and x2 (t ) = x2 (t + T2 ) . The function x1(t) can be simplified as follows: x1(t ) = sin ( −5π t 8 + π 2 ) = sin (π 2 −5π t 8 ) = cos ( 5π t / 8 ) = cos (ω0t ) . title('k 4^{-|k|}'). ω0 = 5π / 8 . we obtain. 2π ω0 = 2π 5π / 8 = 16 . ylabel('x_6[k]'). Problem 1.Solutions 5 xlabel('k'). Problem 1. and x2 (t ) has a fundamental period of T2 .4: Because x1 (t ) has a fundamental period of T1 . Evaluating the g (t + nT1 ) . x3 (t ) is not a periodic signal. 5 The signal x2(t + T) can be simplified as follows: x 2(t + T ) = cos(5π t / 8 + 5π T / 8) = cos(5π t / 8) = x 2(t ) if 5π T / 8 = π or if T = 8 / 5 In other words. Therefore x 4(t ) = exp ( j ( 5t + π 4 ) ) is also periodic with fundamental period T4 = (v) Looking at the individual terms 2π 5 . which proves that g (t ) is periodic with period nT1 .5: (i) All CT sinusoidal signals are periodic. (iii) Looking at the individual terms x 3(t ) = sin ( 6π t 7 ) + 2 cos ( 3t 5 ) periodic 2 T1 = 6 ππ/ 7 = 7 3 periodic 2 T2 = 3 /π5 = 10 π 3 Because T1 = 7 / 3 = 7 ≠ rational number . Therefore. . x1(t) is periodic with fundamental period T1 = (ii) x 2(t ) = sin( −5π t / 8 + π 2) = cos(5π t / 8) .

1 constant + sin 20t + cos(30t + π / 3) periodic π T1 = 2π = 10 20 periodic π T2 = 2π = 15 30 Since T1 π 15 3 = × = = rational number . (vi) The function x6(t) can be simplified as follows π x 6(t ) = 2 cos ( 4π t ) * sin 2 ( 16t ) = 2 cos ( 45 t ) × 1 (1 − cos ( 32 t ) ) 5 3 2 3 π π 1 = cos ( 4π t ) − cos ( 4π t ) cos ( 32 t ) = cos ( 45 t ) − 2  cos ( 45π − 32 ) t + cos ( 45 + 5 5 3 3  − + = cos ( 4π t ) − 1 cos ( 12π15160 t ) − 1 cos ( 12π15160 t ) 5 2 2 32 3 ) t  periodic 5 T1 = 2 periodic 30 T2 = 12π −π 160 periodic 30 T3 = 12π +π 160 x6(t) will be periodic if all possible combinations T1 / T2. Ω 7π / 4 7 periodic signal with K =8 2π Ω 2 π = 3 /π4 = 83 ≠ rational . (ii) Considering the two terms separately in x2[k]. x1[k] is periodic with a period of K1 = 2mπ/ω0 = 2 by setting m = 1. Signal x2[k] is. 5 Problem 1.6: (i) x1[k ] = 5 × (−1) k = 5e jπk . Hence.6 Chapter 1 x5(t ) = exp ( j 3π t 8 ) + exp (π t 86 ) periodic 2 T1 = 3ππ/ 8 = 16 3 not periodic We observe that the second term is not periodic. Ω 3π / 4 3 periodic signal with K =8 . x3[k ] = exp ( j ( 7π k 4 ) ) + exp ( j ( 3π k 4 ) ) 2 π = 2 π = 8 = rational . and T2 / T3 are rational numbers. (iii) Considering the two terms separately in x3[k]. which is a rational number. The fundamental period of x7(t) is 2T1 = 3T2 = π . T1 / T3. 2π/ω0 = 2. not periodic. aperiodic signal we note that the 2nd complex exponential term exp(j(3k/4)) is not periodic. For the complex exponential term. therefore. T2 10 π 2 x7(t) is periodic. (vii) x 7(t ) = 40 3π ≠ rational number . the overall function x5(t) is not periodic. Since T1 5 12π −160 12π −160 = × 30π = 12π = 1 − T2 2 x6(t) is not a periodic signal. Ω 7π / 4 7 periodic signal with K =8 2 π = 2 π = 8 = rational . ▌ x 2[k ] = exp ( j ( 7π k 4 ) ) + exp ( j ( 3k 4 ) ) 2 π = 2 π = 8 = rational . Therefore.

10. Since periodic signals are always power signals. Signal x3[k] is. which equals 56 by setting n = 7 and m = 8. Ω 3π / 8 3 periodic signal with K =16 + cos ( 63π k 64 ) 2 π = 2 π = 128 = rational . therefore. a rational number. x4[k] is a periodic signal. x5[k ] = exp ( j ( 7π k 4 ) ) + cos ( 4π k 7 + π ) 2π Ω 2 = 7 ππ/ 4 = 8 = rational . (v) Considering the two terms separately in x5[k]. ] .Solutions 7 we note that both complex exponential terms are periodic with the same period K = 8.7: (i) x1(t ) = cos(πt ) sin(3πt ) = 1 2 sin( 4πt ) + 1 2 sin( 2πt ) perioidic with T0 =1 / 2 perioidic with T0 =1 We note that x1(t) is periodic with the fundamental period T = 1. 2 periodic signal with K = 7 we note that both complex exponential terms are periodic with two different period of 8 and 7. x4 [ k ] = sin ( 3π k 8 ) 2 π = 2 π = 16 = rational . Based on Problem 1. The fundamental period is given by 16n = 128m. Since the ratio of the two periods is 1/8. the total energy and average power are given by Total Energy: Ex 2 = T 1 T → ∞ 2T −∞ ∫ ∞ e−4 t dt = − 1  e−4t  4   ∞ −∞ = 1 e4 ∞ = ∞ 4 = lim 1 T → ∞ 8T Average Power: Px 2 = lim −T ∫ e − 4t dt = lim T 1 e −4 t T → ∞ 2T ( −4 ) −T [ ] [e 4T − e − 4T . periodic with an overall period of 128. The fundamental period is given by 8n = 7m. The average power in x1(t) is. x6[k ] = sin (3πk / 8) cos(63πk / 64 ) = 1 sin 2 (87πk / 64) − 1 sin 2 (39πk / 64) 2 π / Ω1 =128 / 87⇒ rational periodic signal with K =128 2 π / Ω 2 =128 / 39⇒ rational periodic signal with K =128 we note that both complex exponential terms are periodic with the same period K = 128. Ω 63π / 64 63 periodic signal with K =128 we note that both complex exponential terms are periodic with two different period of 16 and 128. (iv) Considering the two terms separately in x4[k]. ▌ Problem 1. (vi) Considering the two terms separately in x6[k]. therefore. 7 periodic signal with K =8 2π Ω 2 = 4 ππ/ 7 = 7 = rational . x5[k] is a periodic signal. periodic with an overall period of 8. (ii) For the CT signal x 2 ( t ) = exp ( −2t ) . Since the ratio of the two periods is 8/7. given by 1/8 + 1/8 = 1/4. The total energy Ex1 in x1(t) is infinite. x1(t) is a power signal. a rational number. therefore. therefore. Signal x6[k] is. which equals 128 by setting n = 8 and m = 1. the average power in a sinusoidal signal x(t) = A1 sin(ω1t + φ1) + A2 sin(ω2t + φ2) is given by (A1)2/2 + (A2)2/2 if ω1 ≠ ω2. therefore.

Based on Problem 1. the average power is given by Px1 = 1/4 + 1/4 = 1/2.8: (i) x1[k ] = cos(πk / 4) sin(3πk / 8) = 1 sin(5πk 2 / 8) + 1 sin( πk 2 / 8) perioidic with N 0 =16 perioidic with N 0 =16 We note that x1[k] is periodic with an overall period of N0 = 16. the signal is neither an energy signal nor a power signal. it must be an energy signal. 2 2 The average power is zero and x4(t) is an energy signal. x1[k] is a power signal. Problem 1. it is an energy signal. The total energy Ex1 in x1[t] is infinite. The total energy in x6(t) is given by Ex 6 = ∫ t dt + ∫ (4 − t )2 dt = t3 − (4 −3t ) 2 3 2 4 2 3 4 2 0 2 0 = 8 − 0 − 8  = 16 . .8 Chapter 1 Applying the L’Hopital’s rule Px 2 = lim 1 T →∞ 8 [4e 4T + 4e −4T = ∞ . (iv) The energy in x4(t) is finite and given by ∞ Ex4 = −∞ ∫ e − 2t u (t )dt = (e−2) −2 t [ ] ∞ 0 = − 1 [0 − 1] = 1 . (vi) Since x6(t) is a finite duration signal with finite magnitude. The total energy in x5(t) is given by E x 5 = ∫ cos2 (3π t )dt = 1 2 −3 3 −3 ∫ [1 + cos(6π t )] dt = 3 1 2 t +  1 6π sin(6π t )  −3 = 3. Since periodic signals are always power signals.10. and hence is an energy signal. (iii) Since x3(t) is a complex signal. ] Since the signal has infinite energy and infinite power. Average power Px5 in x5(t) is zero. 3 3 3  ▌ Since x6(t) has finite energy. it must be an energy signal. the total energy and average power are given by ∞ ∞ Energy: T E x3 = −∞ ∫e − j 2t dt = 1 dt = ∞ . (v) Since x5(t) is a finite duration signal with finite magnitude. −∞ T ∫ Power: Px3 = lim 1 T → ∞ 2T −T ∫ e − j 2t dt = lim 1 T → ∞ 2T −T ∫ 1 dt = = Tlim∞ 21T [T − (−T )] = 1 . → The signal x3(t) is a power signal.  3 The signal x5(t) has finite (non-zero) energy. Average power Px6 in x6(t) is zero. the average power in a sinusoidal sequence x[k] = A1 sin(ω1k + φ1) + A2 sin(ω2k + φ2) is given by (A1)2/2 + (A2)2/2 if ω1 ≠ ω2.

therefore. The total energy is. (iii) x 3 [ k ] = ( −1) k = 1 . The total energy in x2[k] is calculated as follows.1344 . (2 − 1) ▌ The average power Px5 in x5[k] is zero. The total energy in x5[k] is given by Ex 5 = ∑ 2k + ∑ 1 = k =0 k =11 10 15 (211 − 1) + 5 = 2052. The average power Px2 in x2[k] is zero.3244 − j 0. . Its average power is calculated as follows: 1 Px = T 0 T0 ∫ x(t ) T0 0 2 dt = 2 T0 A2 T0 T0 ∫ sin (ω t + θ )dt = 2AT ∫ [1 − cos(2ω t + 2θ )] dt 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 A2 2T0 T0 ∵ sin 2 θ = 1 {1 − cos(2θ )} 2   T = = = A2 2T0 A2 2T0 A2 2 ∫ dt − 2AT ∫ cos(2ω t + 2θ )dt = 0 0 1 × [T0 − 0] − 2AT0 × 2ω [sin(2ω0t + 2θ )]00 2 0 × T0 − 2 0 A2 4ω0T0 × [sin(2ω0T0 + 2θ ) − sin(2θ )] = A2 2 A2 2 A − 4ω T × [sin(4π + 2θ ) − sin(2θ )] 2 0 0 ∵ T0 =  2π ω0 . (iv) x 4 [ k ] = exp ( j (π k 2 + π 8 ) ) = 1 .1622 = 5. We note that the signal x3[k] is a power signal with an average power of 1. it must be an energy signal.6622.1344 and k = −10 ∑ e − j 3πk / 8 = = 0. ω0T0 = 2π   A − 4ωT × [sin(2θ ) − sin(2θ )] = . we obtain k = −10 ∑ 0 0 e j 3πk / 8 = e − j 30 π / 8 (1 − e j 33π / 8 ) (1 − e j 3π / 8 ) e j 30 π / 8 (1 − e − j 33π / 8 ) (1 − e − j 3π / 8 ) = 0.Solutions 9 (ii) Since x2[k] is a finite duration signal of length 11 with finite magnitude. Problem 1.3244 + j 0. We note that the signal x4[k] is a power signal with an average power of 1.5 + 0.9: The CT signal x(t) = A sin(ω0t + θ) is periodic with the fundamental period T0 = 2π/ω0. Ex2 = k =−10 ∑ 0 cos 2 (3πk / 16) = 0 = 11 + 1 2 4 k =−10 ∑ e j3πk / 8 + ∑ 1 + cos(3πk / 8) 2 k =−10 0 1 e − j 3πk / 8 4 k =−10 ∑ 0 = k = −10 ∑ 0 1 2 + k =−10 ∑ cos(32πk / 8) 0 Using the GP series. it must be an energy signal. (v) Since x5[k] is a finite duration signal of length 16 with finite magnitude. The total energy Ex3 in x3[k] is infinite. given by Ex2 = 5. The total energy Ex4 in x4[k] is infinite.

Based on Problem 1.10 Chapter 1 which proves the result. both integrals result in finite values giving P3 = lim A1 A2 T → ∞ 2T × (finite value # 1) + lim A1 A2 T → ∞ 2T (finite value # 2) = 0 .11: A12 2 A 2 2 2 + 2 A2 2 ω1 ≠ ω2 + A1 A2 cos(φ1 − φ2 ) ω1 = ω2 . Case ω1 ≠ ω2: In such a case. ▌ The power of the CT signal x(t) is calculated as follows: Px = x(t ) = x(t ) x* (t ) = De jω0t which proves the result. The first integral P1 represents the power of a periodic signal A1 sin(ω1t + φ1). we obtain T P3 = lim T →∞ A1 A2 2T × (finite value # 1) + lim A1 A2 2T T →∞ A1 A2 2T −T ∫ cos[(φ − φ )]dt 1 2 = 0 + lim T →∞ 2T cos[(φ1 − φ2 )] = A1 A2 cos[(φ1 − φ2 )]. Case ω1 = ω2: In such a case. Problem 1. The third integral is evaluated by substituting 2 sin(ω1t + φ1 ) sin(ω1t + φ1 ) = cos(ω1t + φ1 + ω2t + φ2 ) − cos(ω1t + φ1 − ω2t − φ2 ) to get P3 = lim A1 A2 T → ∞ 2T T T −T ∫ cos[(ω1 + ω2 )t + (φ1 + φ 2 )]dt + lim A1 A2 T → ∞ 2T −T ∫ cos[(ω1 − ω2 )t + (φ1 − φ2 )]dt . where y(t) is not necessarily periodic. Py = lim 21 T T →∞ −T ∫ ∫ T T y (t ) dt = lim 21 T T →∞ 2 −T ∫ T A1 sin(ω1t + φ1 ) + A2 sin(ω 2t + φ2 ) dt 2 = lim 21 T T →∞ −T A12 sin 2 (ω1t + φ1 )dt + lim 21 T T →∞ =P 1 −T = P2 ∫ T A 2 A2 sin 2 (ω 2t + φ2 )dt + lim 2 21 A2 T T →∞ −T ∫ sin(ω t + φ )sin(ω t + φ )dt 1 1 2 2 = P3 T The right hand side of the above equation includes three integrals.9. It is periodic only when ω1/ω2 is a rational number. Combining the above results. we will use the general formula to evaluate the power in the signal. Similarly. To consider the general case. the average power P1 is given by (A1)2/2. Note that the power of a sinusoid does not depend on its initial phase θ. Problem 1.12 2 ( )( D e * − jω0t ) = DD * = D . the secong integral P2 = (A2)2/2.10: ▌ The CT signal y(t) = A1 sin(ω1t + φ1) + A2 sin(ω2t + φ2) is the sum of two sinusoids and may not be always periodic. ▌ 2 The average power of the CT signal x(t) is given by . we obtain   Py =  2 A  21 +  Problem 1.

5T ∫ 1 dt = Tlim∞ T1 × T = 1 → [2 j sin(0.5T .5T dt 1 = lim T T →∞ − 0.5T n =1 m =1 ∫ ∑∑ D D e n j ( ωn −ωm ) t dt Changing the order of the integral and summation.13: ▌ Note that the energy of the signal in one period (T = 1) is given by 2  ∞ 2  ∞ 2 E x = ∫ x (t ) dt = ∑  ∫ x (t ) dt  = ∑  ∫ 1 dt  = ∑  2 −2 m − 2 −2 m−1     m=0  −2 m −1  m =0  m =0  2−2 m −1 0  2  ∞ ∞ ∞ 1 2 = ∑ (1/ 4) m − 0.5T 0. Problem 1. 1 1− 4 3 m =0 m =0 m =0 1 2 ∞ −2 m −2 m Therefore.5T   * 1 Dn Dm  lim T e j ( ω n − ω m )t dt   T →∞  m =1 n =1 − 0.5T Px = lim = lim T →∞ 1 T −0. T →∞ −0.5T N N 1 T ∫ x (t ) dt = lim * m 2 0.5∑ (1/ 4) m = 0.Solutions 11 0.5∑ (1/ 4) m = 0. the average power is given by. 0.5T T →∞ = lim T →∞ 1 j ( ωn −ωm ) T = lim (ωn −2 m )T × [finite value] = 0 ω T →∞ Combining the two cases.5T Case I (ωn = ωm): Case II (ωn ≠ ωm): 0.5 × = .5T   ∑∑ N N ∫ The above integral has two different sets of values for ωn = ωm and ωn ≠ ωm.5T −0.14: ▌ (i)   x1( t ) = 2 sin ( 2π t )  2 + cos ( 4π t )    = odd = even   = even = odd .5T ∫ 1 e j (ωn −ωm ) t dt = lim T  ej (ωnn −ωmm )    j ( ω −ω ) t 0. m =1 which proves the result.5T T →∞ lim 1 T →∞ T − 0. Problem 1. we obtain Px = 0. Px = 2 / 3 (as period=1).5T ∫e j (ωn − ωm )t 0.5T ∫ x (t ) x (t )dt = lim * T →∞ 1 T  N  N *  ∑ Dn e jωnt   ∑1 Dme− jωmt  dt ∫ T  n=1   m=  −0.5T T →∞ 1 T −0. Px = * * ∑ ∑ Dn Dm (1) + ∑ ∑ Dn Dm (0) = ∑ Dm n =1 n =1 n=m m =1 n≠m m =1 N N N N N 2 .5  0. we obtain.5(ωn − ωm )T )] lim 1 T −0.

Overall.2 0.8 -0. an even function.2 0.4 -0.2 0 time (t) x3(-t) = -exp(3t) × sin(3π t) 0. therefore.2 0 time (t) 0. we evaluate x 3 ( −t ) = e3t sin ( −3π t ) = − e3t sin ( 3π t ) . Overall.14. 5 0 x3(t) -5 -10 -15 -1 x3(t) = exp(-3t) × sin(3π t) -0.6 0. (ii) x 2 ( t ) = t 2 + cos ( 3t ) = even = even = even We note that x2(t) is a sum of two even terms.4 0.8 -0.6 0. ) Odd Component: x 3odd (t ) = 1  x 3 ( t ) − x 3 ( −t )  = 1  e−3t sin ( 3π t ) + e3t sin ( 3π t )  = 2   2  1 2 − 3t + e3t sin ( 3π t ) . therefore.4 0.6 -0.6 -0.4 -0.4 0. Overall.8 1 x3odd(t) = 0.6 0.4 0. x2(t) is.odd odd ≠ even .6 -0.12 Chapter 1 We note that x1(t) is a product of an odd term with an even term.8 1 0 time (t) -3t 3t 0.6 0. x1(t) is. ) The even and odd components of x3(t) are shown in Fig.8 -0. To evaluate the even and off components of x3(t).5(e x3(t): Even Component 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -1 -0.2 5 0 x3(-t) -5 -10 -15 -1 -0.2 0.1.8 1 x3even(t) = 0. therefore.8 1 . a neither-even-nor-odd function. x3(t) is.6 -0.8 -0.5(e-3t + e3t) sin(3π t) x3(t): Odd Component 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -1 -0. (iii) x 3 ( t ) = e−3t sin ( 3π t ) ≠ even .odd We note that x3(t) is a product of a neither-even-nor-odd term with an odd term.2 + e ) sin(3π t) 0 time (t) 0.4 -0.4 -0.2 0. an odd function. The even and odd components are given by Even Component: x 3even (t ) = 1  x 3 ( t ) + x 3 ( −t )  = 1  e−3t sin ( 3π t ) − e3t sin ( 3π t )  = 2   2  1 2 (e (e −3t − e3t sin ( 3π t ) . S1.

14. a neither-even-nor-odd function. 2 2 2 The even and odd components for x5(t) are plotted in Fig. (v) x5 ( t ) = t = odd u (t ) ≠ even . Overall. an even function. therefore. x5(t) is. x4(t) is. its reflection x3(−t).Solutions 13 Fig.2 within the range (−1 ≤ t ≤ 1).odd ≠ even . we evaluate x5(−t ) = −tu (−t ) . 2 2 2 x5odd (t ) = 1 2 [x5(t ) − x5(−t )] = 1 tu (t ) + 1 tu (−t ) = 1 t . Only the range between (−1 ≤ t ≤ 1) is plotted. . S1. and its even and odd components for Problem 1. odd We note that x5(t) is a product of an odd term with a neither-even-nor-odd term. To evaluate the even and off components of x5(t).14(iii). (iv) x 4 ( t ) = t sin ( 5t ) = odd = odd = even We note that x4(t) is a product of two odd terms.1: CT functions x3(t). Overall. therefore.14. The even and odd components of x5(t) are given by Even Component: Odd Component: x5even (t ) = 1 2 [x5(t ) + x5(−t )] = 1 tu (t ) − 1 tu (−t ) = 1 t . S1.

6 -0.5 -1 -1 -0.2: CT functions x5(t).2 0.4 -0.14. its reflection x5(−t).2 0 time (t) 0.4 -0.6 -0.6 0.5 x5(-t) 0 -0.2 0 time (t) x5even(t) = 0.4 0.4 -0.14 Chapter 1 x5(t) = t u(t) 1 0.6 -0.6 0.5 x5(t) 0 -0.8 -0.  The even and odd components of x6(t) are given by .5×|t| 0.5 -1 -1 -0.5 -1 -1 -0.5 -1 -1 -0.14(v). and its even and odd components for Problem 1.2 0.8 1 Fig.6 0. S1. we evaluate  −3t  6  x 6( −t ) =  3(t + 6)  0  Even Component: −2 ≤ t ≤ 0 0 ≤ −t ≤ 2  −3t  6 2 ≤ −t ≤ 4  −4 ≤ t ≤ − 2 = 4 ≤ −t ≤ 6 3(t + 6) −6 ≤ t ≤ −4 elsewhere  0 elsewhere.4 0.8 -0.4 0.4 -0.2 0 time (t) x5odd(t) = 0. Only the range between (−1 ≤ t ≤ 1) is plotted.8 1 x5(t): Even Component 1 0. To evaluate the even and off components of x6(t).8 1 x5(t): Odd Component 1 0.4 0.6 -0.6 0.5×t 0.5 0 -0. (vi) The function x6(t) is a neither-even-nor-odd function.8 1 1 0.5 0 -0.2 0.2 0.8 -0.8 -0.2 0 time (t) x5(-t) = -t u(-t) 0.

S1.3: CT functions x6(t).14. its reflection x6(−t).  Odd Component:  −3(t + 6) −6 ≤ t ≤ −4  −6 −4 ≤ t ≤ − 2  0 ≤ t ≤ 2  −3t −2 ≤ t ≤ 0    3t  3t −2 ≤ t ≤ 0   6 2≤t≤4  6 − 4 ≤ t ≤ −2  1   1  x 6odd (t ) = 2  − =  3t 0≤t≤2  3( −t + 6) 4 ≤ t ≤ 6 3(t + 6) −6 ≤ t ≤ −4  2  6 2≤t≤4    0 elsewhere  0 elsewhere    4≤t≤6 3( −t + 6)  0 elsewhere.14(vi). S1.14.3 within the range (−6 ≤ t ≤ 6). .  The even and odd components for x6(t) are plotted in Fig. and its even and odd components for Problem 1. Only the range between (−6 ≤ t ≤ 6) is plotted.Solutions 15  3(t + 6) −6 ≤ t ≤ −4  −4 ≤ t ≤ −2 6  −2 ≤ t ≤ 0  0 ≤ t ≤ 2  −3t   3t  −3t −2 ≤ t ≤ 0   6 2≤t≤4  6 −4 ≤ t ≤ − 2  1    x 6even (t ) = 1   + =  3t 0≤t≤2 2  3( −t + 6) 4 ≤ t ≤ 6 3(t + 6) −6 ≤ t ≤ −4  2  6 2≤t≤4    0 elsewhere  0 elsewhere     4≤t≤6 3( −t + 6)  0 elsewhere. x6(t) 6 4 2 x6(t) 0 -2 -4 -6 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 time (t) x6(-t) 1 2 3 4 5 6 ▌ 6 4 2 x6(-t) 0 -2 -4 -6 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 time (t) X6even(t) 1 2 3 4 5 6 x6(t): Even Component 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 time (t) X6odd(t) 1 2 3 4 5 6 x6(t): Odd Component 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 time (t) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fig.

. S1.1. stem(k1. therefore. -2. 1 2 x1odd [k ] = { x1[k ] − x1[−k ]} = sin(4k ). grid on xlabel('k'). Overall.16 Chapter 1 Problem 1. a neither-even-nor-odd function.15(i) for (−20 ≤ k ≤ 20). x1 = sin(4*k1) + cos(2*pi*k1/3).1: Odd and Even components of x1[k] in Problem 1.15(i) % clear figure clf % signal defined in part (i) k1 =-20:20.1 followed by the Matlab code used to generate the two components. The even and odd components of x1[k] are given by Even component: Odd component: x1even [k ] = 1 2 { x1[k ] + x1[−k ]} = cos(2π k / 3). x1. The even and odd components are plotted in Fig. subplot(3.15: (i) x1[ k ] = sin(4k ) + cos(2π k / 3) = odd = even We note that the DT signal x1[k] is a sum of an odd term with an even term. 20. S1. 'filled').15. % MATLAB code for Problem 1.1).15. x1[k] is. 2]) . % Label of X-axis ylabel('x1[k] ') % Label of Y-axis axis([-20. 2 1 x1[k] 0 -1 -2 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 k 5 10 15 20 2 x1[k]: Even Component 1 0 -1 -2 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 k 5 10 15 20 2 x1[k]: Odd Component 1 0 -1 -2 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 k 5 10 15 20 Fig.

20. x1_even = cos(2*pi*k1/3).1.3). -2. x1_odd.15. -2. Therefore. stem(k1.Solutions 17 % k1 =-20:20. print -dtiff plot. % signal defined in part (i) x1_odd = sin(4*k1).2). 2 1 x2[k] 0 -1 -2 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 k 5 10 15 20 2 x2[k]: Even Component 1 0 -1 -2 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 k 5 10 15 20 2 x2[k]: Odd Component 1 0 -1 -2 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 k 5 10 15 20 . subplot(3. S1. stem(k1.tiff . 2]) . 'filled').2. subplot(3. 1 2 {x 2[ k ] − x 2[ − k ]} = sin(π k / 3000). the DT signal is neither even nor odd. % Label of X-axis ylabel('x1[k]: Even Component') % Label of Y-axis axis([-20. This is because sin(πk/3000) ≈ sin(0) = 0 for (−20 ≤ k ≤ 20). 20. x1_even. % Save the figure as a TIFF file (ii) x 2 [ k ] = sin (π k 3000 ) + cos ( 2π k 3) = odd = even We note that x2[k] is the sum of an even with an odd component. Note that the odd component is close to 0 for the plotted values of k. grid on xlabel('k'). 'filled'). The even and odd components of x2[k] are given by Even component: x 2even [ k ] = Odd component: x 2odd [ k ] = 1 2 { x 2[ k ] + x 2[ −k ]} = cos(2π k / 3). The even and odd components are plotted in Fig. % Label of X-axis ylabel('x1[k]: Odd Component ') % Label of Y-axis axis([-20. grid on xlabel('k').1. 2]) .

This is the reason why the even component of x3[k] is the same as its real component and the odd component is the same as the imaginary component.18 Chapter 1 Fig. (iii) x 3[k ] = exp( j 7π k / 4) + cos(4π k / 7 + π ) = cos(7π k / 4) + j sin(7π k / 4) − cos(4π k / 7) = cos(7π k / 4) − cos(4π k / 7) + j sin(7π k / 4) = even =odd Therefore.15.3. S1. iv) x 4[k ] = sin(3π k / 8) cos(63π k / 64) = odd = odd = even .15. x3[k] is neither-even-nor-odd.15(ii) for (−20 ≤ k ≤ 20). S1. Although the real component of x3[k] is even and the imaginary component is odd. S1.3: Odd and Even components of x3[k] in Problem 1. {x 3[ k ] − x 3[− k ]} = The even and odd components are plotted in Fig. the DT signal is neither even nor odd.2: Odd and Even components of x2[k] in Problem 1.15(iii) for (−20 ≤ k ≤ 20). we plot the real and imaginary components of x3[k] separately. Since x3[k] is complex. x3real[k] = cos(7πk/4)-cos(4πk/7) x3[k]: Real Component 2 1 0 -1 -2 -20 -15 -10 -5 x3[k]: Imaginary Component 0 k x3imag[k] = sin(7πk/4) 5 10 15 20 2 1 0 -1 -2 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 k x3even[k] = cos(7πk/4)-cos(4πk/7) 5 10 15 20 x3[k]: Even Component 2 1 0 -1 -2 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 k x3odd[k] = sin(7πk/4) 5 10 15 20 x3[k]: Odd Component 2 1 0 -1 -2 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 k 5 10 15 20 Fig.15. j sin(7π k / 4). The even and odd components of x3[k] are given by Even component: Odd component: x 3even [ k ] = x 3odd [ k ] = 1 2 1 2 {x 3[ k ] + x 3[ − k ]} = cos(7π k / 4) − cos(4π k / 7).

Solutions 19 We note that x4[k] is a product of an odd function with an even function.5 x5[k] 0 -0. The even and odd components of x5[k] are given by ( −1)k  Even component: x5 [ k ] = 1 { x5[ k ] + x5[ − k ]} = 1  2 even 2 2  k ( −1)  k <0 k =0 k >0   1 = k  1 ( −1) 2 k =0 k ≠0 Odd component: − (−1) k  x5 odd [k ] = 1 {x5[k ] − x5[−k ]} =  0 2  (−1) k  k <0 k =0 k > 0.5 -1 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 k 5 10 15 20 1 x5[k]: Even Component 0.5 -1 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 k 5 10 15 20 1 x5[k]: Odd Component 0. the DT signal x5[k] is neither-even-nor-odd.5 0 -0.15. v) Computing the time reversed form of ( −1)k x5[ k ] =   0 k ≥0 k <0 we obtain ( −1)− k  x5[ − k ] =   0  −k ≥ 0 ( −1)k = −k < 0  0  0 = k k > 0 ( −1) k ≤0 k >0 . Therefore. S1. ▌ The even and odd components are plotted in Fig. k ≤0 Since x5[k] ≠ ± x5[−k].5 0 -0.5 -1 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 k 5 10 15 20 .4. the DT signal x4[k] is odd. 1 0.

5t u (t ) dt = e 0 ) 2 ∫ −3t  e −3t  1 dt = −  = .5)]/1 = 6. we obtain 3sin ( 2π t 5 − 2π5To = − 3sin − 2π t − 2π5To = 3sin 5 x ( −t ) ) ( ) ( 2π t 5 + 2π5To ) x(t ) or. periodic signal with period 3. with m ∈ Z+.20 Chapter 1 Fig.5) + 52 × (0.5) = 25 and Power = 0.4: Odd and Even components of x5[k] in Problem 1. (b) Odd signal. aperiodic. Using x(t) = x(−t). aperiodic. . Using x(t) = −x(−t). ) The above expression implies that − or. and power signal. . S1. we get 3 sin ( 2 πt 5 − 2 πTe 5 ) = 3 sin(− 2 πTe 5 2 πt 5 − 2 πTe 5 ) = −3 sin( 2 πt 5 + 2 πTe 5 ) x (t ) x ( −t ) or.25 and Energy = ∞. Energy = 52 × (0. Problem 1.16: (a) Assume x(t) to be an even function for T = Te. Problem 1. (c) Neither-even-nor-odd. Power = [2. periodic signal with period 1. and energy signal.17: To = 5m 2 (a) Neither-even-nor-odd.52 × (0. ) The above expression implies that − 2mπ . Te = 5( 2 m +1) 4 (b) Assume x(t) to be an odd function for T = To.15. and power signal. E x3 = −∞ ∫ (e −1. ∞ ∞ ∞ Energy: Power = 0. and energy signal. 3 sin ( 2 πt 5 − ) = 3 sin( = 2 πTe 5 2 πt 5 + 2 πTe 5 + (2m + 1)π .5) + 2.  3 0 3   (d) Odd signal. 2 πTe 5 + ( 2m + 1)π . or. 3sin ( 2π t 5 − 2π5To = 3sin − 2π5To = 2π To 5 ) ( 2π t 5 + 2π5To − 2mπ . with m ∈ Z+.52 × (0.15(v) for (−20 ≤ k ≤ 20).

Solutions 21 Power: Energy = ∞. ▌ 3 2 1 −12 −10 −8 0 −4 −1 −2 −3 4 8 12 16 2u(t − 3) u(t) t −u(t − 9) −2u(t − 6) 3 2 1 x1(t) t −12 −10 −8 −4 0 4 8 12 16 (i) x1( t ) = u ( t ) + 2u ( t − 3) − 2u ( t − 6 ) − u ( t − 9 ) sin (πt ) 1 −8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8 t u[sin (πt )] 1 −8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8 t (ii) x 2 ( t ) = u ( sin (π t ) ) 3 2 rect(t / 6) rect(t / 4) rect(t / 2) 1 t −8 −6 −4 −2 3 2 1 0 2 x3(t ) 4 6 8 −8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8 t (iii) x 3 ( t ) = rect ( t 6 ) + rect ( t 4 ) + rect ( t 2 ) .5)2 dt = 3 =  2. Problem 1.5)3  = 3   12 0 3 3 3(5 / 3) 0 15 3 ▌ The waveforms of the signals are shown in Fig. S1.18: 1 3 1 ( 5 t − 2. P = ∫ ( 5 t − 2.53 − ( −2.5)3 1 25 .18. where the individual components are plotted in the top subplot followed by the overall signal.

18 (i) – (iii).22 Chapter 1 Figure S1.19: (i) Expressing e j 2 πt + 3 = e 3 (cos(2πt ) + j sin( 2πt ) ) gives the real and imaginary components as .): Waveforms for CT signals specified in Problem 1. 3 2 1 r(t) t −8 −6 −4 −2 −1 −2 −3 0 2 4 6 8 −2u(t − 4) −r(t − 2) 3 2 1 t −8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8 x4(t) (iv) x 4 ( t ) = r (t ) − r(t − 2) − 2u(t − 4) 1 e−t u(t) e−3t u(t) t −2 −1 0 1 2 1 x5(t) t −2 −1 0 1 2 (v) x5 ( t ) = ( exp ( −t ) − exp ( −3t ) ) u(t ) 3 2 2δ(t + 1) −8 −6 −4 −2 1 t 0 2 −1 −2 −3 4 6 8 −3δ(t − 3) x6(t) 3sgn(t) · rect(t/4) (vi) x6 ( t ) = 3sgn(t ) ⋅ rect (t / 4) + 2δ (t + 1) − 3δ (t − 3) Figure S1.18 (iv) – (vi).18 (contd.18: Waveforms for CT signals specified in Problem 1. Problem 1.

5 0 time (t) 0. where we note that the fundamental period is 1 s. The fundamental frequency is. .5 2 x1(t) = exp(j2 π t +3) Fig. S1. 40 Real Component 20 0 −20 −40 −2 40 Imaginary Component 20 0 −20 −40 −2 −1. given by f0 = 1 − 3/(2π) Hz.5 1 1. S1. therefore. 600 Real Component 400 200 0 -200 -1 100 Imaginary Component 0 −100 −200 −300 −1 −0.19.5 −1 −0.5 0 0.5 time (t) 1 1. (ii) Expressing e j 2 πt + 3t = e3t (cos(2πt ) + j sin(2πt ) ) gives the real and imaginary components as x 2 real (t ) = e3t cos(2πt ) and x 2imag (t ) = e3t sin( 2πt ) .The fundamental frequency is.2: Real and imaginary components of x 2(t ) = e j 2πt + 3t .5 2 -0. The real and imaginary components are plotted separately in Fig.19. where we note that x2(t) is not periodic but is instead a rising exponential modulated with a sine wave.5 1 1. gives the real and imaginary components as The real and imaginary components are plotted separately in Fig.2. given by f0 = 1 Hz. therefore.1: Real and imaginary components of x1(t ) = e j 2 πt + 3 .5 time (t) 1 1.19.5 0 0.19.19. S1. (iii) Expressing e − j 2 πt + j 3t = cos(3t − 2πt ) + j sin(3t − 2πt ) x3real (t ) = cos(3t − 2πt ) and x3imag (t ) = sin(3t − 2πt ) .Solutions 23 x1real (t ) = e 3 cos(2πt ) and x1imag (t ) = e 3 sin(2πt ) .1.1. The real and imaginary components are plotted separately in Fig. S1.5 2 Fig.5 0 time (t) 0.5 2 −1. S1.5 −1 −0.

5 0 0. and x6(t) has the fundamental period of 2 s.5 time (t) 1 1.7sin(3πt + 2) -4 -3 -2 -1 0 time (t) 1 2 3 4 5 Fig.24 Chapter 1 x3(t) = exp(−j2πt + 3t) 1 Real Component 0. x5(t).19.4: Signals x4(t). S1.19.5 time (t) 1 1.4.5 x4(t) 0 -0.5 -1 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 time (t) 1 2 3 4 5 2 x5(t) = cos(2πt + 3) + sin(3πt + 2) 1 x5(t) 0 -1 -2 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 time (t) 1 2 3 4 5 15 10 5 x6(t) 0 -5 -10 -5 x6(t) = 2 + 4cos(2πt + 3) .20: .3: Real and imaginary components of x3(t ) = e − j 2 πt + 3t .19. S1. x5(t) has the fundamental period of 2 s. (iv) – (vi) The remaining three signals are all sinusoidal signals. 1/2. The three waveforms are plotted in Fig. and x6(t) for Problem 1.5 0 -0. Problem 1.5 0 -0. x5(t).5 −1 −0. ▌ 1 x4(t) = cos(2πt + 3) 0. The fundamental frequencies are 1. and x6(t).5 0 −0. x4(t) has the fundamental period of 1s.19. S1.5 2 0. respectively.5 2 Fig. and 1/2 Hz for x4(t).5 -1 -1 1 Imaginary Component 0.

6 0.2 1 3000 0. S1.6 0.4 1000 0.6 1.2 1. S1.4 1.4 1.20: Values of x1[k] and x3[k] for −3 ≤ k ≤ 8 in Problem 1.8 0.u[k-7] 3 2 1. ▌ Table S1. and are shown in Fig. The waveforms for the remaining signals are plotted in a similar way.2 -2 -1 0 1 2 k 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 k k (ii) (iv) x4[k] = u(cos(πk/8)) 6000 4000 2000 0 -3 0 k 5 10 15 20 25 (iii) (v) x5[k]= ku[k] 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -4 -2 0 2 k 4 6 8 10 0 -8 -6 -4 -2 2 3 5 6 (iv) (vi) x6[k]= |k| (u[k+4] .2 0 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 k 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 -2 -1 0 1 (ii) x[k] = Σ δ[k-m] for m ≥ 0 2 0. The corresponding waveforms for the above signals are shown in Fig.8 1 0.20.5 1.Solutions 25 The value of x1[k] and x3[k] for −3 ≤ k ≤ 8 is shown in Table.20.4 0.20 k −3 x1[k] 0 x3[k] 0 −2 0 0 −1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 5 3 2 19 4 2 65 5 1 211 6 1 665 7 0 8 0 2059 6305 (i) x1[k] = u[k] + u[k-3] -u[k-5] .5 2 3 k 4 5 6 7 8 9 (i) (iii) x3[k] = (3 .8 1.5 1 0.8 2.u[k-4]) 4 1 0 k 2 4 6 8 (v) (vi) .6 5000 1.2 )u[k] 7000 2 1.

21: % Save the figure as a TIFF file (i) Using the impulse function property f(t) δ(t − t0) = f(t0) δ(t − t0). 0. Problem 1. subplot(2.1. 8. 25 + 2 27 ▌ Problem 1. grid on xlabel('k') % Label of X-axis ylabel('x3[k]') % Label of Y-axis axis([-2. stem(k1.^k3-2. we obtain   sin(t ) 1 sin(t ) 1 sin(t )  δ (t ) = ⋅ δ (t ) = lim δ (t ) = 1 δ (t ) 2 2t 2 t t =0 2 t →0 t    =1   where the L’Hopital’s rule is applied to evaluate the value of sin(t)/t at t = 0. 'filled'). 8. x3 = (3.1).20.2). we obtain 5 + 2t + t 2 7 + t2 + t4 δ(t − 1) = 5 + 2t + t 2 7 + t2 + t4 t =1 δ(t − 1) = 5 + 2(1) + 12 7 + 12 + 14 δ(t − 1) = 8 δ(t − 1).20. 0. 7000]) . print -dtiff plot. x1. Program 1.^k3). % signal defined in part (iii) k3 = -2:8 . −∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ .26 Chapter 1 Figure S1. grid on xlabel('k') % Label of X-axis ylabel('x1[k]') % Label of Y-axis axis([-2.tiff .*(k3>=0) .20 (i) and (iii) % clear figure clf % signal defined in part (i) k1 =-2:8 . stem(k3.1. (iii) Using the impulse function property f(t) δ(t − t0) = f(t0) δ(t − t0). MATLAB Program for generating subplots (i) and (iii) % MATLAB code for Problem 1. subplot(2. we obtain ω 3 −1 ω2 +2 ω − δ (ω − 5 ) = ω +1 2 3 2 ω =5 δ (ω − 5) = 125 − 1 124 δ (ω − 5) = δ (ω − 5) . 9 (ii) Using the impulse function property f(t) δ(t − t0) = f(t0) δ(t − t0).22: (i) −∞ ∫ ( t − 1) δ ( t − 5 ) dt = ∫ 4 δ ( t − 5) dt = 4 ∫ δ ( t − 5) dt = 4 .20: Waveforms for DT signals specified in Problem 1. 3]) . x3. x1 = [0 0 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 0 0]. 'filled').

23: (i) Equation 1. −∞ ∞ −∞ 6 6 6 (iii) (iv) ∞ ∫ ( t − 1) δ ( t − 5) dt = ∫ 4 δ ( t − 5) dt = 4∫ δ ( t − 5) dt = 0 . t = −15 (m = −3). t = 5 (m = 1). t = −10 (m = −2). the integral reduces to I= 21  ∞   4   tδ(t − 5m) dt =  tδ(t − 5m) dt . and t = 20 (m = 4) lie within the integration range of (−21 ≤ t ≤ 21). −∞ −∞ ∫ ∞ sin ( 3π t 4 ) + e−2 t +1  δ ( −(t + 1) ) dt =   −∞ ∫ sin ( 3π t 4 ) + e  ∞ −2 t +1  δ ( t + 1) dt = sin ( 3π t 4 ) + e−2t +1     t =−1 which simplifies to = sin ( −3π 4 ) + e3 = e3 − sin ( 3π 4 ) = e3 − 1 2 .       − 21  m = −∞ − 21  m = −4 21 ∫ ∑ ∫ ∑ Changing the order of summation and integration. we obtain I= ∑ ∫ m = −4 4 21 tδ(t − 5m)dt = − 21 m = −4 ∑ 5m = 5(− 4 − 3 − 2 − 1 + 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4) = 0.Solutions 27 (ii) −∞ ∫ ( t − 1) δ ( t − 5 ) dt = ∫ 4 δ ( t − 5) dt = 4 ∫ δ ( t − 5) dt = 4 .   ∞ t =5 which simplifies to (viii) By noting that only the impulses located at t = −20 (m = −4). t = 0 (m = 0). 6 6 6 −∞ 9 9 ∫ ( 2t / 3 − 5) δ ( 3t / 4 − 5 / 6 ) dt = ∫ ( 23 t − 5) δ ( 43 (t − 10 )) dt = 43 ∫ ( 23 t − 5) δ (t − 10 ) dt −∞ −∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ which simplifies to = 4 3   9 9 ∫  23 × 10 − 5  δ (t − 10 ) dt =   −∞  ≈−115/ 27  ∞ −460 81 −∞ ∫ δ (t − ) dt = 10 9 ∞ −460 81 . t = −5 (m = −1). (vii) −∞ ∫ u ( t − 6 ) − u ( t − 10 ) sin ( 3π t 4 ) δ ( t − 5 ) dt = u ( t − 6 ) − u ( t − 10 ) sin ( 3π t 4 )     = u ( 5 − 6 ) − u ( 5 − 10 )  sin ( 3π 5 4 ) = [0 − 0] sin (15π 4 ) = 0 . t = 10 (m = 2). (v) −∞ ∫ ∞ exp ( t − 1) sin (π ( t + 5 ) 4 ) δ (1 − t )dt = −∞ ∫ exp ( t − 1) sin (π ( t + 5 ) 4 ) δ (t − 1)dt ∞ ∞ which simplifies to = (vi) −∞ ∫ ∞ exp ( 0 ) sin (π 6 4 ) δ (t − 1)dt = sin (π 6 4 ) ∫ δ (t − 1)dt = sin ( 3π 2 ) = −1 . 4 ▌ Problem 1. t = 15 (m = 3).43(a) is satisfied as .

43b) is also satisfied.43(a) is satisfied as lim 1 ε → 0 πt ∞ sin (εt ) = 0 provided t ≠ 0.28 Chapter 1 lim 2ε 2 ε → 0 π(t + ε ) Integrating lim 2ε 2 ε → 0 π(t + ε ) −∞ ∞ = lim ∞ ε 2 ε → 0 πt = 0 provided t ≠ 0. By changing variables. Using the CTFT pairs discussed in Chapter 5. it can be shown that (see below) ∞ −∞ ∫ sin c (σ t ) dt = σ . we know: rect (τt ) = 21π ∫ τ sin c(ωτ )e jωt dω .43(a) is satisfied as lim 2 22ε 2 ε → 0 4π t + ε ∞ = lim 2ε 2 2 ε → 0 4π t = 0 provided t ≠ 0. 2π which implies that −∞ ∞ ∫ sin c(ωτ )dω = 2π 2π . sin( εt ) πt ε →0 −∞ ∞ Integrating I= 1 ε → 0 πt −∞ ∫ lim sin (εt )dt = lim ∫ dt = lim ε ε →0 π ∞ −∞ ∫ sinc(επt )dt . the integral is simplified as: ∞ ε I = lim π ε →0 −∞ ∫ sinc ( πε ) dt = lim πε × πε = 1 ε t →0 .43b) is also satisfied. we obtain: τ −∞ ∫ sin c (σ t ) dt = σ 1 Applying the above identity. 2π −∞ ∞ 1 2π −∞ ∞ Substituting t = 0 in both side.2. (iii) Equation 1. we obtain ∞ ∫ τ sin c(ωτ )dω = 1 . ∞ Integrating I= 2ε 2 2 2 ε → 0 4π t + ε −∞ ∫ lim dt = lim ε →0 −∞ ∞ ∫ 4π t2ε+ ε 2 2 2 dt . ] ∞ −∞ confirming that Equation (1. 1 From Table 5. (ii) Equation 1. ∞ Substituting x = 2πt gives I = lim ε→0 −∞ ∫ 2ε dx x 2 + ε 2 2π = 1 lim π ε→0 −∞ ∫ x 2+εε 2 2 dx = 1 confirming that Equation (1. −1 ∫ dt = lim ε 1 dt = π [tan ε → 0 ∫ π(t + ε ) 2 2 (ε ) − ∞ = 1 .

Problem 1. exp − ∞ Integrating I= lim 1 ε →0 ε 2π −∞ ∫ exp − ( ) = lim ∫ 1 ε 2π ε →0 −∞ ( t2 2ε 2 ) dt = 1 .Solutions confirming that Equation (1. S1. x(−2t – 3).43(a) is satisfied as 1 ε →0 ε 2π 29 lim exp − ( t2 2ε 2 ) = lim t2 2ε 2 exp − ( ) 2 ε2 t2 ε →0 ε 2π ∞ = 0 provided t ≠ 0. The last result is observed by noting that a normal distribution is being integrated.     (−2t − 3) + 2 −2 ≤ −2t − 3 ≤ −1 −2t − 1 1 ≤ −2t ≤ 2  −1 ≤ −2t − 3 ≤ 1  1 1 2 ≤ −2t ≤ 4   = x(−2t − 3) =  −(−2t − 3) + 2 1 ≤ −2t − 3 ≤ 2  2t + 5 4 ≤ −2t ≤ 5   0 0 elsewhere elsewhere   −2t − 1 −1 ≤ t ≤ −1/ 2  1 −2 ≤ t ≤ −1  =  2t + 5 −5 / 2 ≤ t ≤ −2  0 elsewhere.  .43b) is also satisfied.75t – 3) are shown in Fig. (b) The analytical expressions.24: (a) The waveforms for signals x(t – 3). are obtained below. ▌ confirming that Equation (1. 1≤ t ≤ 2  (t − 3) + 2 −2 ≤ t − 3 ≤ −1  t − 1   1 1 2≤t ≤4 −1 ≤ t − 3 ≤ 1   x(t − 3) =  = −(t − 3) + 2 1 ≤ t − 3 ≤ 2  −t + 5 4 ≤ t ≤ 5   0 0 elsewhere elsewhere.43b) is also satisfied.    (2t − 3) + 2 −2 ≤ 2t − 3 ≤ −1  2t − 1 1 ≤ 2t ≤ 2  2t − 1 1/ 2 ≤ t ≤ 1  1 2 ≤ 2t ≤ 4  1 1≤ t ≤ 2 −1 ≤ 2t − 3 ≤ 1  1    x(2t − 3) =  = = −(2t − 3) + 2 1 ≤ 2t − 3 ≤ 2 −2t + 5 4 ≤ 2t ≤ 5 −2t + 5 2 ≤ t ≤ 5 / 2   0 0 elsewhere elsewhere  0 elsewhere. which must equal 1. and x(−0.24. directly from the x(t) definition. (iv) Equation 1.

75t + 5 4 ≤ −0.75t − 3) + 2 −2 ≤ −0.75t ≤ 5   0 elsewhere 0 elsewhere    −0.  It is observed that the plots in Fig. S1.75t − 3 ≤ −1 −0.75t − 3) =  =  −(−0. ▌ x(t) 1 t −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x(t − 3) 1 t −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x(2t − 3) 1 t −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 x(−2t − 3) 1 t −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 x(− 3 t − 3) 4 −6 −5 −4 − 20 3 − 16 3 −3 −2 −1 −8 3 −4 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 t .75t − 3 ≤ 1   x(−0.30 Chapter 1  (−0.75t − 3 ≤ 2  0.75t ≤ 4 −1 ≤ −0.75t − 1 −8 / 3 ≤ t ≤ −4 / 3  1 −16 / 3 ≤ t ≤ −8 / 3  =  0.75t + 5 −20 / 3 ≤ t ≤ −16 / 3  0 elsewhere.75t − 1 1 ≤ −0.75t − 3) + 2 1 ≤ −0.24 match with the analytical expressions obtained.75t ≤ 2   1 1 2 ≤ −0.

f (t) 2 −4 −3 −2 −1 (−t – 3) 0 −3 1 2 3 4 5 t (5t/3 – 3) f (9 – 3t) 2 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 −3 1 2 (−5t +12) 3 4 5 t (3t – 12) Figure S1. (ii) Since f(t) is a finite duration signal.    y − axis   to     a factor of  The final waveform for g(t) = f(–3t+9) is sketched in Fig.25. Problem 1. it is an energy signal. one possible order of transformations is: f (t ) reflect about  → f (−t ) shiftthe left by 9 → f (−(t − 9)) = f (9 − t ) scale by    3→ f (9 − 3t ) . while its total energy is given by ∞ Ef = −∞ ∫ f (t ) dt = ∫ (t + 3) dt + ∫ ( t − 3) dt = ∫ (t + 6t + 9) dt + ∫ ( 25 t 2 − 10t + 9) dt 9 2 2 5 3 2 2 −3 0 −3 0 2 0 25 3 27 2 3 0 3 0 3 =  t + 3t + 9t  +  t − 5t + 9t  = − (−9 + 27 − 27) + (25 − 45 + 27) = 9 + 7   −3  0 = 16.24: Waveforms for the shifted and scaled signals specified in Problem 1. The average power in f(t) is 0. The average power in g(t) is 0.25.25: Waveform for Problem 1.25: 31 (i) To obtain the waveform for g(t) from f(t). while its total energy is given by ∞ Eg = −∞ ∫ g 2 (t ) dt = ∫ ( −5t + 12) 2 dt + ∫ (3t − 12) 2 dt = ∫ (25t 2 − 120t + 144) dt + ∫ (9t 2 − 72t + 144) dt 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 4 16 =  25 t 3 − 60t 2 + 144t  + 3t 3 − 36t 2 + 144t  = 3 2  3 3 . it is an energy signal. S1. 1 3 3  −5t + 12 2 ≤ t ≤ 3 (iii) The function g(t) can be represented as g (t ) =   3t − 12 3 ≤ t ≤ 4 Since g(t) is a finite duration signal.Solutions Figure S1.24.

S1.26. (ii) The end and odd components of f(t) are also shown in Fig. . ▌ f (t) 1 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 −3 2 3 4 5 t f (−t) 1 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 −3 f (−2t + 6) 2 3 4 5 6 t 1 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 −3 1 2 3 4 5 t feven (t) 1 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 −3/2 −3 fodd(t) 2 3 4 5 6 t 1 −6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 −3/2 −3 2 3 4 5 6 t Figure S1.26: (i) The function g(t) = f(-2t+6) is shown in Fig.32 Chapter 1 ▌ Problem 1. S1.26: Waveforms for Problem 1.26.26.

Note that all functions.28: The values for x1[k] and x2[k] for (−6 ≤ k ≤ 5) are shown in Table S1. P1. S1. and are also shown in Fig.28.27. S1. f (t) 1 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 t ▌ f (t + 2) − f (t + 2) 1 t −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 g(t) = t [f (t + 2) − f (t + 2)] 1 t −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 g(2t) 1 t −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5 Fig. S1. .Solutions 33 Problem 1.28.28. Problem 1. k x1 x2 −6 0 0 −5 0 1 −4 4 1 −3 3 1 −2 2 1 −1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 1 4 0 1 5 0 0 The sketch of x1[k] and x2[k] is shown in Fig. The remaining figures are obtained by applying translation. inversion and scaling procedures. Table S1.27: Waveforms for Problem 1.27: The waveforms for g(t) and g(2t) are plotted in Fig.27.28.28: Values of x1[k] and x2[k] in Problem 1.

.34 Chapter 1 except x1[k/2] are uniquely defined. ±5. we have used linear interpolation. 2  2     ▌ x1[k] 4 x2[k] 4 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 −4 k 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 −4 k 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 (i) x1 [k ] x1[3 − k] 4 (ii) x 2 [ k ] x1[6 − 2k] 4 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 −4 k 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 −4 k 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 (iii) x1 [3 − k ] x1[2k] 4 (iv) x1 [6 − 2k ] x2[3k] 4 k −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 −4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 −4 k 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 (v) x1 [2k ] 4 (vi) x 2 [3k ] x1[2k] + x2[3k] 4 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 −4 k 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 −4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 k (vii) x1[k / 2] 8 4 x1[3 − k] · x2[6 − 2k] (viii) x1 [2k ] + x2 [3k ] 8 ≈ 0 ≈ k 2 4 6 8 10 12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 x1[2k]· x2[−k]· 4 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 −4 k 0 −4 2 4 6 8 10 12 ≈ −8 . ±3. The function x1[k/2] is not uniquely defined when k is odd. defined as follows. − + x1 k  = 1 { x1 k 2 1  + x1 k 2 1 } when k = ±1... Here.. to calculate the odd samples.

In the older days. Analog vs. 3. 5]) .2. However. x1_expand.5 3 2. x1.29 The classification of the ECG signal is explained below. Digital: The signal can be CT or DT depending on the instrument type. 'filled'). 6. 'filled'). with advances in digital technology. 5]) . S1.Solutions 35 (ix) x1 [3 − k ] x2 [6 − 2k ] Fig. % signal defined in part (iii) x1flip = fliplr(x1) .2).28. 0. 0. x1 = [0 0 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 0 0 0].5 2 subplot(2. grid on xlabel('k') % Label of X-axis ylabel('x1[2k]') % Label of Y-axis axis([-12. grid on xlabel('k') % Label of X-axis ylabel('x1[3-k]') % Label of Y-axis axis([-1. 0. 11. x1flip. stem([-3:3]. grid on xlabel('k') % Label of X-axis ylabel('x1[2k]') % Label of Y-axis axis([-3.3). 'filled'). x1_expand = [0 0 0 2 4 3. % signal defined in part (v) x1_compress = x1(1:2:length(x1)).28: MATLAB Program % clear figure clf % signal defined in part (i) k1 =-6:6 . subplot(2. depending on the instrument type. 5]) . Continuous-time vs discrete-time: The signal generated by heart is continuous-time in nature. when a discrete time signal is generated with a high sampling rate.1).2. 5]) . the plot looks continuous-time (your eyes are fooled). 'filled').tiff % Save the figure as a TIFF file Problem 1. . the signals were typically CT. stem(k1+5.2. (x) x1 [2k ] x 2 [− k ] Program 1. % inverted x1 subplot(2. 10. % signal defined in part (vii) k4 = [-12:12] . stem(k1.4). the modern ECG instruments are generally discrete-time.28: Waveforms for Problem 1. x1_compress.2. 0. and plotted. However. grid on xlabel('k') % Label of X-axis ylabel('x1[k]') % Label of Y-axis axis([-6. % decimated by 2 subplot(2. the ECG signal produced by the ECG instrument can be CT or DT. However. stem(k4. print -dtiff plot.

Energy signal: The ECG signal corresponding to a person is a bounded (the amplitude does not exceed a few milli-volt) and time-limited.31: ▌ The MATLAB code is given in Program S1. once in every heart beat).1.x). the ECG signal is neither even nor odd. Periodic vs. it is the highest.e.3) ▌ .001:1. subplot(5. However. The plots are shown in Fig. it is the lowest. grid on axis tight % % part (ii) t = -10:0.x).001:10. Even or Odd: A random signal is generally neither even nor odd. Program S1.1.4-1 second (i. title('(i) exp(-2t) sin(10\pit)').*sin(10*pi*t). Therefore. grid on axis tight % % part (iii) t = -10:0. S1.5*(1 + sign(t)).30: Recall that the ramp function Therefore.1.001:15. the heart beat rate is not constant. and during exercise.31. Aperiodic: The ECG signals looks like a periodic signal where the pattern repeats itself roughly every 0. it is an energy signal. xlabel('t'). it does not look like an even or odd function. Therefore. title('(ii) Sawtooth wave with a period of 5s').36 Chapter 1 Deterministic vs Random: The heartbeat of a person is generally random in nature (otherwise you could predict heart attack). f(t) can be expressed as t  r(t ) = tu(t ) =  0  t ≥0 t <0 f (t ) = 1 r (t ) × [u (t ) − u (t − 2)] − 1 r (−t ) × [u (t + 6) − u (t )] .31: MATLAB code for Problem 1. subplot(5.1) plot(t. Power vs. 2 2 Problem 1.31. Therefore. During sleep. xlabel('t'). how do you define t=0 point for an ECG signal? Even if you look at just one pattern. ▌ Problem 1. x = sawtooth(2*pi*t/5). x = 0. it is not periodic in strict mathematical sense. % Problem 1.31 from Mandal and Asif text % part (i) t = -1:0.2) plot(t. subplot(5.. x = exp(-2*t). Also.31.

grid on axis([-10 10 -3. subplot(5. grid on axis([-10 10 -0.1. unit_step2 = 0. xlabel('t').5*(1 + sign(t + 5)).Solutions 37 plot(t. title('(iii) u(t)').001:10. grid on axis([-10 10 -0.5)).1 3.1 1.unit_step2. xlabel('t').1]). x = unit_step1 . unit_step1 = 0.x).1. title('(iv) rect(t/10)').1]). % % part (v) t = -12:0.100/3).x).1 1. x = 3*square(2*pi*(t+1)/6. % % part (iv) t = -10:0. title('(v) Square wave').001:12.1]).x).4) plot(t.5) plot(t. xlabel('t').5*(1 + sign(t . . subplot(5.

8 1 0.5 0 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 t (v) Square wave 2 4 6 8 10 2 0 -2 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 t 2 4 6 8 10 Figure S1.6 0.32. ▌ function [y] = mydecimate(x. end Problem 1.2 0 0.5 0 -0.8 -0.5 -1 -10 -5 0 t (iii) u(t) 1 0.32: The MATLAB function mydecimate is given in Program S1.2 t (ii) Sawtooth wave with a period of 5s 0.32: MATLAB code for Problem 1.32.33: .31: Plots for Problem 1.6 -0. Problem 1.5 0 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 t (iv) rect(t/10) 2 4 6 8 10 5 10 15 1 0. y = y'. Program S1. N) % MYSCALE: computes y[k] = x[k/N] % where % x is a column vector containing the DT input signal % N is the scaling factor greater than 1 % y is a column vector containing the DT output signal time expanded by N y = x(1:N:length(x)).4 0.4 -0.38 Chapter 1 (i) exp(-2t) sin(10πt) 5 0 -5 -1 -0.31.

33.34.5).all_but_last). % part (iii) -. stem(k.5). for i = 2:N. y = y(:). % part (ii) -.Decimation followed by interpolation z1 = myinterpolate(mydecimate(x.34: The MATLAB code is given in Program S1. . xlabel('k').plot the signal subplot(311). % linear interpolation is used to predict the unknown values. function [y] = myinterpolate(x. ylabel('x[k]').Solutions 39 The MATLAB function myinterpolate is given in Program S1.z2). y(:.exp(-0.003*k)).34. % part (i) -.5). xlabel('k'). Program S1. y = all_but_last.34. title('x[k] = (1 .i) = y(:.003k)) cos(\pik/20)'). subplot(312). Program S1.x). xlabel('k'). y(length(y)+1) = x(length(x)). % Problem 1. ylabel('z_1[k]'). stem(k.33.34 from Mandal and Asif text % k x x Define the signal = 0:120.exp(-0.33: MATLAB code for Problem 1. N) % MYINTERPOLATE: computes y[k] = x[k/N] % where % x is a column vector containing the DT input signal % N is the scaling factor greater than 1 % y is a column vector containing the DT output signal time expanded by N all_but_last = x(1:length(x)-1). S1.5). = x'.z1). subplot(313).*cos(pi*k/10). end ▌ Problem 1.34: MATLAB code for Problem 1. The plots are shown in Fig. end y = y'. stem(k.1) + (i-1)/N * (all_but_first . all_but_first = x(2:length(x)). title('z_1[k] = y[5k] where y[k] = x[k/5]'). = (1 .Interpolation followed by decimation z2 = mydecimate(myinterpolate(x.

4 0. Note that decimation followed by interpolation distorts the signal such that the reconstructed signal is different from the original signal.003k)) cos(πk/20) 0.2 z 2[k] 0 -0. Interpolation can only reconstruct the lost samples approximately.34: Output for Problem 1.4 0. Interpolation introduces 5 additional samples in between every two neighboring samples.4 0 20 40 60 k z 2[k] = y[k/5] where y[k] = x[5k] 80 100 120 0.4 0. interpolation followed by decimation reconstructs the signal exactly. title('z_2[k] = y[k/5] where y[k] = x[5k]'). ▌ . we lose 4 out of every 5 samples. On the other hand.2 -0.2 z 1[k] 0 -0. Decimation removes the interpolated values so the original signal is not affected.4 0 20 40 60 k z 1[k] = y[5k] where y[k] = x[k/5] 80 100 120 0.2 x[k] 0 -0.2 -0. x[k] = (1 . By doing decimation first.exp(-0.2 -0.40 Chapter 1 ylabel('z_2[k]').34.4 0 20 40 60 k 80 100 120 Fig. 1.