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From the Estate of

Margaret M. Bouton, '31

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GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE,

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M. C.B. F. ETC. . OXFORD. 1907.esidext of the oxfolid akchiiectup. and op the british akd american abcaeolooical society of rome membre de la socil^te francaise I>'ARCHE0L0GIE honorary member OF THE ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. . Lond. Hox.S. . Keepek of the Ashmolean Museum. Oxox. Oxeoud . vice-pf. LONDON.A.al and historical societt.!£Ditioiu JAMES PARKER AND 31 CO: BEDFORD-STREET. STRAND.A.ABC OF (3otbic Hvcbitccture. AND 27 BROAD-STREET. . Cbirtcciitb . BY THE LATE JOHN HENRY PAEKKR.

OXFORD. /V.\J^T^ ' I ' » Jc^i^n-'sv fKINTEr EV JAMKS I'ARKEK AND CO. CKOWN YARD.4 no .37^^ ^f rdarc^eK.

Study of Gothic Architecture. The same examples are not used. object has been to make it as simple and as easy as possible. rrmS little work is intended to serve as a step- ping-stone to larger and more expensive works on the same to the subject. and has had the peculiar features of each style explained." cal instances. sucli as my "Introduction." and the " Glossary of Architecture. simple and easy seems.ADVERTISEMENT TO FIRST EDITION. except a few well-known histori- My it. and as it may be The as it is really is. knowledge thus acquired.'* my edition of Kickman's "Gothic Architecture. does understand and remember them in a manner that appears astonishing to older people. so that a child may child understand Experience shews that a who has seen many examples. if proper attention . and accurate representations of buildings of each period equally well understood and remembered.

given to will be found useful in after life. not in all parts of Europe also. C. and gotten. the the character of each centurij. but in all The general charactGristic parts of features of each period are the sanie. England only.B. and may also be easily reis membered.VI ADVEIITISEME>^T lO Flli>T EDITTOX. 188L . although the provin^ cial character soraetiracs seems to preponderate. as a matter of fact never for- JOJIX HEXKY PARKER. is same all over Europe. at all events. it. Jt^h/.

d. John.) 175 a.. . a. 1272 — 1300 (Edto PeeII.) . . . 1300 .) . . 1060—1090 The :Xoemax Peeiod..) 83 The Geadcal Chaxge feom the Eaely English Style to the Decoeated.d. ir. 10 31 71 1160 — 1195 1189 . 126 The Decoeated Tvard I. 1090—1160 Period of Teaxsitiox. .d. Style. OxFOED (from the Reign end of the Seventeenth Century) 219 . Henry III. .CONTENTS. 186 Ox the Late. — 1272 .d. A. Gothic Buildings of of Elizabeth to the .. a.1 . Style. to Henry YIII.d. ob Debased. a. c. and III.131 The Gradual Change eeom Decoeated PEXDicuLAE. Inteoductiox .d. . The Eaely English (Ptichard I. a. a.D. a. (Richard II. .d. 1360 latter III. r-ACE The Earta' Noiimax Pkriod. . — 1377 . — 1399 (Richard part of Edward and the 1377 — 1547 The Peependicular Style.

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details of each period. Some persons . many pages of description. B. What is thus understood is also easily remembered. can see and understand the gradual progress and change from one generation to another. we can always remember what we have seen.A. and when so arranged. an accurate repre- sentation of each object better than it. OF GOTHIC APvCHITECTXJRE. or of essays about The arrangement any one to un- made in this little work will enable derstand the general principles of what are called the styles or periods of Gothic Architecture. History can only be understood eye. either by seeing the buildings them- with time to examine the construction and the in chronological order. much better than what we have only heard or read about is . or them arranged by accurate representations of This is what has been attempted in the present work. however ignorant of the subject. IN^TRODUCTIOK AECHITECTUEAL by the selves. any one. C.

in the at first to realize this grand cathedral of . INTRODUCTION-. the designs of the Norman architects. because the earliest complete buildings that we have in this country are of the Norman period. at the end of the eleventh century and the beginning of the twelfth. but the Gothic was so completely developed from the J^or- man.2 object to this name. were on so grand a scale. would be in vain to attempt to change for it is a convenient name. which succeeded to the old Eoman . E. A. the Norman is one of the Eoman- esque styles. it . it is Dr. and . although their apit is difficult entirely altered that for instance. and one of which to be proud rather than ashamed. by the admirers of the Palladian all it but it has been so generally adopted that over Europe for the last century or more. that many of our finest cathedrals are built on the foundations of the church of that period. Strictly speaking. in construction. and a great part of the walls are frequently found to be really pearance Norman is so . which was undoubtedly given ori- ginally in contempt style. which everybody understands as a general term the different styles of medieval architectuee. Ereeman has ingeniously suggested that the architecture of the Gothic nations who conquered the Eoman Empire. that it is impossible to draw a line of distinction between them it is also convenient to be-gin with the Norman.

but are not at all difficult to understand ar remember. and Flamboyant. and every square-headed window which is very far from being the case. that it is now properly considered as one of the earliest examples of the English Perpendicular style of which he was the inventor is . 3 did not rebuild it. arch is as Perpendicular. but had never got into general use. it readily distinguished from any of the Continental styles by the perpendicular lines in the tracery of the . windows with tracery of that style are a few met with in England. century ago. would name of Pointed instead this name was proposed by the Cambridge Camden Society about half-a. The form is of the always dictated by convenience. and is now seldom met ground that it with. "Winchester. and these require some study. in itself no guide the only safe guides are the moldings and details. I always objected to it. but they are quite exceptions. and in the panelling on the walls for that reason they are called in all the foreign styles these lines are flowing or flame-like. who variably consider every round-headed doorway as "Eor- man. windows. when a good series of examples are put be- . on the in- misleads beginners in the study. and to the age or style of a building . use the Some persons who object to the name of Gothic.TNTEODUCTION-. "William of "Wykeham but so entirely altered tbe appearance. this style is entirely confined to England.

and he should always have the credit of being the tablish this. because he trusted too much was to words only. by means of the excellent and accurate woodcuts of Orlando Jewitt." and this is true. The same persons who objected to the name of Gothic. In the present work I have avoided the use of these as called " much as possible. my " Glossary of Architecture" Eickman made easy. as I little INTRODUCTION. on the principle of comparison with well-known dated examples." but rather to serve as a stepping-stone to it. first to es- His work was at first thought rather hard reading. historical additions that I Eickman was the first to reduce chaos into order. and to shew that the age of a building can be ascertained by the construction and the details. rather than to any words to explain them. just as that leads people to want my edition of Eickman's work. and this was natural. and have trusted to the eye in the numerous examples given.4 fore us. with the have made to it. hope will be found by those who use this this is not at all intended to book. objected also to the earliest name of Early . because. English for the Gothic style in England but . I should mention that supersede my '' Introduction to the Study of Gothic Architecture. I was able to explain all the technical words which Eickman was obliged to use.

to which there considerable till resemblaniie. —by the Master of it The infornfed Government series of Chronicles. Hugh himself having died just before the consecration in the latter year. the original MS. this St. the work of "William the Eng- . this 5 was undoubtedly developed from the iNorman.IXTEODUCTIOX. French antiquaries acknowledge in Prance for thirty it that they have nothing like years afterwards. but the Lincoln could not have copied from Dijon. in else. and of it I^odleian Library. earlier than anywhere The world earlies t is St. Of good we have distinct evidence in the life of the bishop (who was called a saint) by his domestic chaplain. England. At the time of the rebuilding of the choir at Canterbury. which is preserved in the has only been published in my time. Hugh's choir which was built between ljj2 and_1200.-%(Itthat church was not consecrated 1230^0 that the Dijon architect might have copied from the Lincoln one. JN"otre_ I)ame they thought was copied from is at Dij on. the change was I making rapid progress. pure and complete Gothic building in th e at Lincoln. in which the transition had beeni going on for half-a-century before. at my the suggestion the assistant Keeper of the Rolls Rolls in the best - — through Sir Duffus Hardy. In England this style is only a natural development | from the Norman.

and there are several churches of the eleventh century that do not belong to the to have been Norman style. unfortunately. In this work I have purposely omitted the remains of Roman villas. is begun by De Cella about Gothic : a. approach very near to Gothic. . as we have said. in 1200. of is which the remains are more generally supposed. and this work was consecrated by S.ee at the mouth of the Humber.6 lishman there is INTRODUCTION. Alban's. who began the rebuilding. of which the chancel and transepts and central tower were rebuilding almost at that time. The Sa xons appe ar fine arts such as more advanced in the . or crypts as they are called. are nearly as much advanced at the same period 1200. which was finished. and of the churches between the Roman and the Norman numerous than period. in Many of the churches of the rich ]!*5'orman Abbeys the south of Yorkshire. Hugh in this was the 1 192^ as recorded by an inscription . William of Sens. are still more Gothic. also of this. considerably in advance of that of his. we have only a few remains.d. 1 finished in 184. very year in which he began rebuilding the ^ choii' at Lincoln. especially the substructures. and north of Lincolnshire. and the pure west end of the great abbey church at St. teacher. The small chur ch of Cj. The eastern transepts and the Cor ona of^ Canterbury.

and were generallyswept away by the Normans as not worth preserving every one of our cathedrals was rebuilt by the !N'ormans. but this style the Erench antiquaries quite correct. the old church being sometimes kept for use whilst the new one was Although these remains are of great interest to the antiquary. the are the The best-informed Norman antiquaries at the time of the revival of the study of Architectural History. made a series of excursions to the sites of all the c astle s of the barons who came over to England with William the Conqueror. and there scarcely any buildings in Normandy earlier than time of the Conquest. is called this by is Anglo-^voeman. and Normandy was then a province of dominions of the King of England. between 1830 and 1840. in search of some masonry of the first half of the eleventh cen- . and not always exactly on the same building.: INTEODTJCTION. and the change_did^not begin til l after the middle of the twelfth centu ry. the remains of his abbey or about a century after the introduction of this style 0« by_Edward_ the Confe ssor : at Westminster are clearly IN'orman. and quite distinct from the Saxon character. site. but their churches were on comparatively a small scale. 7 Sculpture than the Kormans. which is certainly developed fromthe_jsorman. they have nothing to do with the history of Gothic ar chite cture.

the two great abbey churches at Caen were both built after the Conquest. i INTRODUCTIOX. It seemed necessary few words about Normandy. and they are this style with them in and dried. viont." in which I have given a good deal of information on the subject from personal observation. either in to say a wide before the middle of the twelfth century. This is recorded in the Bulletin Monumental of the period. clearly shewing that castles of that period were of earthworks and wood only. their surprise. a mistake to suppose that the Normans brought it began England simultaneously. and the substance of the observations is given in the ABCedaire It is of De Caumont% who was ''readj^ cut their leader. they found n ojniafinnry at all To n any one of them . the stone vaults were not put on until a century after they were built. de Caude France." in Normandy and not at all in advance of similar buildings in England. a Abecedah-e. England or Normandy. fondateur des Congres Scientifiques (Caen. both had originally wooden roofs and ceilings only.) . 8vo. we have no stone vaults over a space of 20 ft. par M. on JRiuliment D^Archeologie. 1850. etc.8 tury. I must refer the reader to '^ my Introduction. but for any fur- ther information about architecture in France or in other parts of Europe. and with English money. there were magnificent earthworks to all of them.

. which are very often the words of Eickman himself. so that one should not be a repetition of the other in the material point. 9 extracts from In the present work I have purposely made long my "Introduction. so that this work is complete in itself for beginners." on the general character of each style. because I could only have said the same thing in other words. they are added. the teaching by the eye and in those examples where I saw that a few words of description would be useful. and this would rather confuse students than assist them.INTRODUCTION. to but those who wish go on further with the subject can do so step by step. go . The only real way of thois to roughly understanding Architectural History. about and see the buildings themselves. I have selected other examples.

The refectory also was begun at the same period. 1065. Of this dor: : mitory the walls and the vaulted substructure remain. usual to consecrate it the nave was called the vesti-l The nave of "Westbule. and many of the buildings were begun in his time. as the monks or canons who had to perform the service in the church must have required a place to sleep in. THE Xorman style was introduced into England .D. N0RMA:N' PERIOD. it was. and it was then consecrated. Of the time of this church he had completed the choir and transepts. As soon as the/ a few days only before his death. but of this church we have no remains. and was not consecrated. in Edward the Confessor the king himself founded the great Abhey of Westminster. The dormitory was in all probability building at the same time. 28. 1060—1090. which were sufficient for the performance of divine service. minster at that time was not built it is probable that a nave was built in the twelfth century. and we have the lower part of the walls.THE EARLY A. choir of a church was ready for Divine Service. Dec. with the arcade .

D. A. The Dark Cloister under the Dormitory. 1066. and Windows of tiie Dormitory.THE EAELr NOEMAN PERIOD. . 11 "Westminster kWoej. now the Schoolroom.

either on the same site or on a new one. which was pulled down piecemeal as the new work progressed. In other instances. These new churches were in all cases on a much larger and more magnificent scale than the old they were also constructed in a much better terbury. and the capitals to be painted or carved afterwards. the opinion here that generally received. with wide-jointed masonry. left plain. manner. sometimes. the . the new church was built near the old one. sulting the history of our cathedral churches. but recent observations seem to shew that the Saxons were more advanced than the Normans There is . the cathedral was removed to a there altogether. and built on a spot where was no church before in other cases. the work is rude and clumsy !N"ormaii. THE EAELY KORMAN PERIOD. Soon after the Norman Conquest a great change took place in the art of building in England. as at Norwich and Peterborough. as at Winchester.12 at the foot. as at York and Can- new church was erected on the site of the old one. which was not pulled down until after the relics had . the Normans being the Saxons * far better masons than \ stated is some doubt on this subject. new town been translated with great pomp from the old church to the new. On we confind that in almost every instance the church was rebuilt from its foundations by the first Korman bishop.

13 Doorway. A. . 1980. Westminster AXibej. Hartford. A.THE EARLY NOEilAN PERIOD.D. Gundulpli. 1066.D.

at Tower. and they used fine-jointed masonry. otherwise during the reign of the Conqueror to execute own much masons' work with their Nor were the Norman monks established to in sufficient at the numbers be able to superintend all the ished. Leonard's. the early !N"orman masonry extremely rude and had.Rubble Masonry. their work was more highly finhad more ornament. many of the towers fell It is down within a few years after their erection^ probable. A. the joints between the stones are often from one inch to two or three inches wide. time of the Conquest. Mailing. construe- "^^^ '""^^^^^^ ^^°''"^''' ^^^^ ^^ existence. while the ings were Normans used wide-jointed. everywhere the cathedrals were rebuilt after the Conquest. howeyer. 1070. as the INormans must hare been much employed hands. but the Norman buildmore substantial. and on a larger scale. called quence of this imperfect tion. ^Notwithstanding this superiority of workmanship to that which had preceded is it. and filled with mortar not always of very good quality. In conse.D. that the workmen employed on too these structures were for the most part Saxons. .J4 THE EARLY NORMAN PERIOD. from Gundulph's St. Kent.

THE EARLY NORM AN PERIOD. A. Arcade of the Refectory. 1066. . now in a Canon's garden.D. 15 Westminster Ahlej.

however. called St. . of M. de Caumont examined the sites of the castles of all the barons who came over to England with William. Soon after this time. Leonard's Tower. and were probably built in the same man- ner as before. works wMcli were going on at this period the cathedrals and large monasteries must have occupied nearlyall their attention. The ordinary parish churches which required rebuilding must have been left to the Saxons themselves. but in advance of the English in the building art: style is little the which we call JS'orman correctly for this country^ called by the French archaeologists Anglo-Noemajt. Bishop of Eochester. The building of his that we have remaining is the keep of his castle at Mailing. was the great architect of the time of first William the Conqueror. in Kent. lier character This is of ear- than any keep in Normandy. and with reason that style was developed as much in England as in Normandy. Their castles had consisted of very fine earthworks and wood only^. de Caumont. which was built about 1070. . Gtjndtjlph. M. with such slight improvements as they might have gleaned from the Norman works. . and he found no masonry of that period in any one of them. Gun»> This is and in the AMcedaire recorded in the Bulletin Monumental of the period.16 THE EAELr N-ORMAN PEEIOD. The I^ormans themselves were.

built ty Gundulpli. Kent. 1070. c .D. A.THE EAELY NORMAIS" rERIOD. 17 Early Iforman KeeD at Mailing.

St. built in the time of William the Conqueror and William Eufus. dulpli built the keep of the castle in London called the White Tower. but there slightest is not the doubt that the church was built from the foundations after 1077. and : shafts other features usually considered Saxon.^°^^- whole work is extremethe construction ly rude. quantities of we find baluster Eoman tiles. is usually rubble. The of this Wide-jointed Masonry. and some remains of the wall of the nave and north transept. partakes of V^e Saxon character in in many parts abundance. the joints are very wide. and the cathedral of Eochester. The materials of an older church are used in it. when the work was commenced by Abbot Paul of Caen. of which we have a part of the crypt. Cliapel in the White '^'^''' ^°^'^°^' ^•^. Alban's Abbey Church. and the of the shafts clumsy. they were probably brought . When capitals of ashlar.18 THE EARLY NORMAN PERIOD. as distinctly recorded by contemporary historians.

and Bishop Remigius having purchased nearly another quarter to build a cathedral and monastery. the Saxon inhabitants were driven old city stands. is character one of those included by Rickman as of the supposed to be Saxon. flat bricks. which they drained. Peter's Gowts ITary (or at the Sluices). land at the foot down the hill on which the and took possession of some swampy of the hill. but the imposts of the window-arches are quite of I^orman character. an important and interesting fact it in the history of architecture. and Wig-ford has retained the tower built at This is this period. The tower of St. St. Michael's Church. and all redeemed from the fens or marshes of which nearly the low country then consisted. 19 which AVe have a strong confirmation of of Lincoln : this in the city the Conqueror having taken possession of about a quarter of the old city to build a castle upon.THE EARLY NOEMAX PERIOD. with the Roman are largely used in the construction. and . One of these. from old Yerulam. as confirms it what was before only a natural supposition. at St. On this new land they built several churches. but list it is now many of the long of churches of the Anglo-Saxon type belong to a period subsequent to the Conquest. Oxford. le remains nearly entire. and fill enables us to up a gap : we appeared to have scarcely any parish churches of the early evident that Gorman period.

generally early. not only were erected. others alto- gether in the new one : this has been called by Pro- fessor Willis ''an overlapping of the styles. mixed character but some build- ings were almost entirely in the old style. but has much of the appearance of the Saxon buildings. that in buildings of a all such periods. Norman period we must bear in mandy was then a province of the same kingdom. just as the last quarter of each of the three following centuries was a period of transition from one style to another . but in a mere rubble wall there nothing to go by as to the date period. although that important event diate effect England from the !N'orman Conquest." nerally lasts from twenty to thirty years. was built after the Conquest. and perhaps the remainder of the eleventh century may be consi- dered as a period of transition. and the tower of St. . Round is towers built of rubble-stone are of several periods. Castle was built The tower of Oxford by Eobert D'Oyly in the time of it "William Eufus. had no ijnmeon the style of Architecture. and that the intercourse between Kent and Normandy was of the and geIn treating mind that Nor- . they may be of any It is customary to date the introduction of the 'Nov- man style into in 1066. Michael's Church is part of the work of his time.20 it THE EARLY NOEMAN PEEIOD. and it may be well to observe.

there no real difference or priority of style in one province over the other. is The earliest I^orman keep existing the one built immediately after the Conquest. Leonard's 1 7]. miscalled St. 21 at least as frequent and as easy as between Yorkshire and Devonshire. and the upper parts of the structure. at [Mailing in by still Gundulph. the present building of wbich is considerably later than the other. the vaults. so that although there are certain is marked provincialisms. to. Stephen at is Caen of the time of the Conqueror. arising from the error of confusing the date of the foundation in common of a mo: nastery with that of the erection of the existing church a small part only of the church of St. It is customary to poiat to the two great abbey churches at Caen. of the The most important buildings of the time Con- queror and of William Rufus were the iN'orman castles or keep-towers. and a still smaller part of that of the Holy Trinity. In both of these fine churches. after the jS'orman power was fully established in England. but this a great degree. were built late in the twelfth cen- tury . as already mentioned [see page There are . a mistake. but most of these were rebuilt in the following century. Kent. tower. advance of I^ormandy over England.THE EARLY ]S^0R5IAX PERIOD. founded and endowed by William and Matilda. as models to be referred and as proving the great is. they had originally wooden roofs only.

with no communication in the lower parts. dividing the keep into two portions. in the earlier examples. and these are commonly rather late Norman. Appleby and Carlisle in Cumberland. Groined stone . up the centre of each of the work. Porchester in Hampshire. and the ckapel. The only parts where any ornament is to be found are usually the entrance. Rochester has been enFrom the uniformity tirely rebuilt on another site.. Norwich and Castle llising in Norfolk. London but Dover and Rochester in Kent. and belong chiefly to the twelfth century . 22 THE EAELY NOEMAN PEEIOD. but most of them. of plan — a massive square tower. Goodrich in Herefordshire. and not vaulted. not all. There is frequently a solid wall in the middle. as some Korman keeps of this period remaining.doorway and staircase. it face —and and a flat buttress the general plainness requires a careful examination of each it of these buildings to ascertain to M-hich period be- longs. Eichmond and Conis- borough in Yorkshire. the central part having been divided by floors only. Hedingham and if Col- chester in Essex. Brougham in Westmoreland. were founded at this early period. are later. Newcastle in Northumberland. Guildford in Surrey. The passages for communication between one part of the building and another are made in the thickness of the wall. with a square turret at each angle of small projection.

were introduced towards the end of the eleventh century in castles as well as churches twelfth. the small portion which remains of this was built work a very valuable specimen of early Iforman. but rib-vaulting of cut stone not before the of churches The number which were commenced in the reign of the Conqueror and his successor was so great. front of Lincoln 1085 — 1092 is : by Bishop Remi.THE EAKLY NOEMAN PERIOD. but some have a little ornament carved upon the abacus and capital. until after 1080 that ciently settled for was not.is much building to be begun. 23 Taults. London. the country was aufS. which stand on the thickness of them also in . though the work Its plan is oblong. one of . The chapel character is in the White Tower. or Remigius. consisting of a aisles well executed. and most of the capitals are plain. of rough stone. apparently some time after the construction was completed. that it is impossible to notice them all it : but few of them were completed until after 1100. the other parts the nave has plain barrel-vaults the pillars are short and thick. being within easy reach. the . The nave and transepts of Ely were erected by Abbot Part of the west Simeon. . nave with narrow the walls : the walls have passages in . the best and most perfect examples of this period its is massive and plain. brother of Bishop "Walkelyn. indeed.

which are thus described by AYilliam of Malmesbury. and therefore confirms the early date of the three loft}' arches under which they are inserted. is extremely interesting. of the capitals and details of these A comparison two periods. while the jointing of the masonry leaves no doubt of the fact that these doorways are insertions. and capitals themselves : the earlier have volutes at the angles. The crypt and site. about fifty years afterwards. transepts of Winchester Cathedral by Bishop "Walkelyn on a new Early in the twelfth century occurred the fall of the tower of this Cathedral. the later capitals are more elongated.24 THE EAllLT ^'OHMAX PEEIOD. placed — . who was living at the time: ''A few countrymen conveyed the body [of the king. thus placed in juxtaposition. celebrated from the are of this period. more so tliat the insertion of later and richer I^orman doorways by Bishop Alexander. The wide-jointing of the masonry and the shallowness of the carving distinguish the old work from the new. as is shewn on careful examination the jointing of the masonry. and sort of Several capitals of the later period are inserted in the older work. enables us to compare early and late Norman work. or Composite foliage. William Rufus]. and have a sort of rude Corinthian. built peculiar circumstances with which it was accompanied. forming a rude Ionic . by by the form of the capitals are short.

1079—1093. 25 Transept. N. and clei cstory. Clear-stcry.TIIK HMUA' >OUMAX PERIOD. T?. Triforium. which C.B. Pier-arehe?.D. but not afterwards. triforium. or Clere-story. A. Winchester Cathedral. A. . or Blind-story. It may b^^ noted that the pier-arches. is frequent in Roman basilicas and in the Normatt style. are all nearly of equal height.

the greater part of both of them belongs to the original work. fell . even though he had never been buried there. lest I should seem to assent too readily to unsupported trifles more especially that tower ." That this was really the case. and a mark by which we can rea- . shew such an amazing waste of labour and material as clearly to prove that it was the work of very unskilful builders. This example respect : is valuable to us also in another the two transepts were only partially injured by the fall of the tower. attended was committed to the by many of the no- but lamented by few. the junction of the old work and the new can be distinctly traced. the building might have fallen through imperfect construction. and here we begin to find a difference of character in the new work.26 on a THE EARLY ^ORMAN PERIOD. The next year [1097] the though I forbear to mention the different opinions on this subject. cart. is still The tower which was rebuilt soon after the fall standing. and the enormous masses of masonry which were piled together to support it. to the cathedral of it all Winchester. Here ground bility. loithin the tower. the blood dripit ping from the way. the building itself affords us abundant evidence. and very imperfectly acquainted with the principles of construction. and proves that even the IS'ormans at this period were still bad masons. and prevent it from falling again.

D. The -window is an insertion of the fourteenth century in the Decorated style. . Wincliester Catliedral. c. 1095.THE EARLY NORMAN TERIOD. A. 27 Bay.

places. new work they often leaving for are comparatively fine. IQdO. the joints be- dily distinguish one from the other: tween the stones in the a great thickness in the old work are wide. masonry. filled with of mortar. Transept. describing the work of his own time. -1'20. ed masonry. scarcely to room more a is than knife: called pass the one '' wide-jointA. Wincliester Cathearal. and with surpassing beauty. — spared no expense towards completing his designs.28 THE EAELY XORMAX PERIOD. courses of stone lemg so correctly laid that the joint deceives the eye.D.D." and this is the best and safest distinction between early and late Korman work . and what he had probably seen himself: "He [Eoger. ." the other ''fine-jointed A. for there he erected extensive at vast cost. the rule is In confirmation of this we may cite another passage from "William of ^Jalmesbury. but more particularly at which may be seen in other Salisbury and at edifices tJie Malmesbury. and almost of universal application. Bishop of Salisbury] was a prelate of great mind. es^Decially in buildings.

of Choir. 1079-109C One Bay A. A.THE E. John's Cliurcli. Chester. 1075—1095. 29 St. .D.UILY NOKMAN PERIOD.D. c. Winchester Cathedral.

and here it will be convenient to features of early St. leads it to imagine that the whole wall is composed The buildings here alluded to were of a single hlock. . 29. into each other. and the rich doorways and windows of Cuddesdon. 11 and 13.^^ 1115 and 1139. is and overlap each other continually there no broad line between them : yet there is a very marked difference between the early Norman of the original parts of "Westminster Abbey. rather which are of the time of Henry II.. and is one of the finest (See p.D. Henry VIII. 45 and 49.) examples of the Early IS'orman style. Norman They run . and describe the characteristic Norman work. and Middleton Stoney. until the time of was built A. John's Church at Chester. which was the seat of the Bishop. or more than a century after those of "Westminster Abbey. at pp. pause in our history. or cathedral.. this may then fairly erected between late be considered as the turning-point between early and Korman work. of the time of Edward the Confessor.so cmd THE EARLY NORMAN PERIOD. No clear line of distinction can be drawn between style is na- the three periods into which the turally divided. shewn at pp. 1075 — 1095. shewn Iffley.

and finished in 1130. a few of the buildknown to have been erected at this time may be its mentioned. Edmund's was commenced in the same year. the late or rich [N'orman characterized chiefly by the abundance of ornament and the is deep cutting. and it was consecrated in 1143. Peterborough Cathedral was begun from dations in 1 1 1 foun- by John de Seez. the absence of which teristic of the chief charac- the earlier period. the porch is an addition . A. 1090—1150. who formed the plan of the whole of it. is The early iNTorraan style has been is already described. The Korman tower at Bury St. but not very rich. which was rigidly carried out by his successors. 7 1117. number of buildings of the rich character which generally distinguishes this style should all have been built in about It is very remarkable that so large a half a century.THE N0RMA:N' period.D. Before ings we proceed to describe it. the work is very good. "We have now arrived at the period of those eich I^OBMAN CHUECHES Tvhich may still be considered as amongst the glories of our land. from 1120 to 1170 or 1180. yet such clearly the case.

32 THE NOEMAN" PERIOD. in the same year so that we need not be surprised at finding more ornament in these two cathedrals than is . neither very early nor very late. all of very simple and easily worked. it sight looks earlier than it is. and gives a good general idea of first a parish church of the twelfth century. quite consistent with the usual character of early IS'or- man work. and part of Rochester. billet. under St. In Canterbury Cathedral. IS'orthamptonshire. was completed in 1130. the ornaments are the hatched. being in continuation of the previous work. Anselm. later. the greater the projection the later . these churches. Norman work. the work of character. the bold projection of the buttresses indicates a later period. and the same ornaments repeated in both St. The small is ISTorman church of Newhaven At in Sussex unusually perfect. Pure ess Abbey was founded in 1127. where Ernulf had become bishop. bears an inscription recording rich its is good. early Norman but- tresses are very flat. the square and the scollop. . Prior Ernulf. and is a good example of plain Norman work. but very little of the original work remains. dedication in 1124: the tower Castor Church. The nave of Norwich was between 1122 and 1145: the work is still very about half a century built plain. Martin's priory at Dover was founded in 1131 the refectory is still standing. shallow.

The side-window an insertion in the Early English style.GENERAL VIEW OF A NORMAN PARISH CHURCH. in this instance the projection of the it buttresses and the ornamental string round shew it to be later. A. 33 Newliaveii CMircli. 1120. c. . Susses. The apse IS is usually an early feature.D.

34
they

THE NOHMAN PERIOD.
are, as a general rule.
is

The

spire is

an early one,

though that

not likely to be Norman.

The
is

belfry-

windows

in the tower, and the corbel-table under the

eaves of the roof, are early.
a later addition.

The porch

evidently

At

Iffley the

tower

is later

;

the original choir

square, with a flat east end, and another square

was bay

has been added eastward at a later period, more in the

Early English

style.

The Augustiniaii priory of Dunstable, in Bedfordshire, was also founded in 1131 the original parts of
;

the west front and of the nave are remarkably fine and
rich

Norman work.
of AYilliani

In the time
the

Rufus the work begun by

Norman

bishops was carried on so vigorously, that,

before the close of this century, every one of the

Saxon

cathedrals was undergoing the same process of destruction, to

be rebuilt on u larger scale and in a better manof the buildings which remain to us of the

ner.

Some

work

of this reign arc the

crypt of AYorcester

;

ihe

crypt, the arches of the nave,

and part of the transepts

of Gloucester;

the choir and transepts of

Durham;
;

the nave and transepts of Christchurch in Hampshire

the choir and transepts of Norwich.

The

history of Canterbury Cathedral has been

so

carefully preserved

by contemporary

records,

and these

THE NOEMAX TEEIOD.
have been
"Willis,

35

so

thoroughly investigated by Professor

and compared with the existing structure, that we may almost put a date upon every stone of this
magnificent fabric;
it is

therefore our best and safest

guide in the study of the architecture of that period
in England.

The work

in the older part of the crypt

agrees exactly with that at Lincoln, and the other early

Norman works above mentioned.
that his church

The crypt
it is

is,

how-

ever, not part of Lanfranc's work, for

remarkable
rebuilt

was

entirely pulled

down and

by

his successor, St.

Anselm, between 1096 and 1110,

under the direction of Priors Emulf and Conrad.
in the time of Gervase, writing in 1170, he says,

Even
''

You
saw

must know, however, good
with any description of
constructed after the
tions,
it:

reader, that I never

the choir of Lanfranc, neither have I been able to meet

Eadmer indeed

describes

the old church, which before the time of Lanfranc was

Koman manner; he

also

men-

but does not describe, the work of Lanfranc,
this

which succeeded
this

old church, and the
St.

choir of

Conrad, constructed in the time of

Anselm."

From

we may

fairly conclude that the

work

of Lanfranc

was of very

inferior character.

It

is

now

said

by some,

that parts of the walls of the present crypt at the west

end belong to
of Lanfranc.

this early period,

''after

the

Koman

mancer;" Willis considered

this to

be of the time

36

THE KORMAN PERIOD.
During the
first fifteen

or twenty years of the twelfth

century, and of the reign of

Henry

I.,

there

was

no perceptible change of style; the numerous great works which had been begun during the preceding

twenty years were carried on, and many of them During this period we have the were completed. which shew that the work was sufficiently dedications,

of Ely, Rochester, forward for the choir to be used, Several new JsTorwich, Canterbury, and some others.

works were commenced
St. Botolph's,
field,

also,

as

Tewkesbury Abbey,
Smith-

Colchester,

St.

Bartholomew's,

Durham, the choir of Peterborough, and Beading Abbey but we do not find any difference between the early parts of these and those which immethe nave of
:

diately preceded them.

There

is

no difference whaterected on

ever between those built on the sites of the Saxon
cathedrals,

and those which were now
sites.

first

entirely

new

We
very

find in early

ITorman work that the

chisel

was

little

used; most of the ornaments are such as

could be readily worked with the axe, and whatever
is appears to have been executed afterwas a general practice to execute sculpture after the stones were placed, as is evident in the early work at Westminster :\ some of the capitals

sculpture there

wards, for

it

in the crypt of Canterbury are

only half finished to

THE IsORMAX PEBIOD.
this day, the

37

work

of carv-

ing

having

probably
1174.
early

gone

on

until it "was stopped
fire

by
If
is
is

the great

in
is

the sculpture

it

very rude, and the work
shallow.

But shallowness

of

carving depends partly on the

nature of the material to be
carved; from this cause buildings of a hard stone, such as
granite,

often

appear

much

older than they really are.

Baptismal fonts especially are
frequently
or

made

of hard stone of

marble, which admit
,

shallow sculpture
]S'orman

and rich
shallow

work

cut

may

be found as late as the

time of

Henry

II.

Although the roofs of the aisles at Canterbury had been vaulted, the choir itself had a flat boarded ceiling, painted
like

Crypt, Canterbury, A.D. 1110.

that

still

remaining at

Peterborough

The vault

of

Norman capital, with carving' commenced and left unfinishetl.

o8
the
choir

THE ^-OEMAX TEEIOD.
of

the

cathedral

of

Sens,

from M-hence

came William, the
bury,

architect of the

choir of Canter-

is also an addition of later date. The same change was made in many other churches of that

period.

The

builders of the early 2S'orman period did
;

not Tcnture to erect a vault over so large a space

we

do not find any early vault over a space above twenty
feet wide,

and few of

so

wide a span.

Many

of our

Korman

cathedrals

still

have timber roofs over the

large spaces, and the aisles vaulted.

vaults were

€ven at this
for

In TTormandy more frequently used than in England, early period and this was still more the
;

case in subsequent times, for the fine open timber roofs

unknown
church
is

which some parts of England are distinguished are in Xormandy, where almost every village
vaulted over.
it

may be well to mention, that down to the Korman period the eastern limb of a cruciform church, or the chancel of a plain oblong plan, was
Here
early

always short, rarely more than a single square, or at
the utmost two squares, in length, and was frequently

Imterminated by a round east end called an apse. mediately after this period the custom of lengthening
the eastern limb of the church became so general, that

the original dimensions have been almost lost sight of. The history of nearly every one of our cathedrals gives the same result
:

first,

the choir

was lengthened by the

THE NO r:\ian pkuiod.chapel. The best and safest test is the widein Ground-plan of Cassington Ctiurcli. still 39 and further afterwards \a lady. Gervase and William of Malmesbury have us. wide- jointed masonry. but some cases the joints . namely. jointed masonry. and shallow sculpture executed chiefly with the axe instead of the chisel. addition of a presbytery. furnished as we have seen. by adding which did not come into fashion nntil quite the end of the twelfth century. with a clue by which early to distin- guish the work of the JN'orman period from that of a later age. where it is found.

but not of much variety in section. called the tym- panum. but not so abundantly as is the dripstone is frequently orna. such as of parish churches. door is The head of the it. and the edges are either square. High Doorways form one of the most important Norman work. is used. found in the early parts of Peter- borough. numerous. generally square with a round arch over and the intermediate space under the arch. The examples given from Cuddesdon and Middleton Stoney are good orfeatures of late dinary specimens. and not of marked cha- racter either way. may be found in scores They are generally round-headed. very deeply recessed. can hardly be said to be either wide or fine. con- . or have a plain round molding cut upon them the zigzag ornament at a later period . sometimes preserved from an earlier building. 40 THE XORMAN" PERIOD. and frequently have shafts in the jambs. is The arch generally at first not recessed at all. is either left plain. and perhaps not before 1100. rich sculpture. mented with what billet is called the hatched molding the also used. afterwards only once recessed.. cuted as The tympanum is frequently filled with which becomes deeper and better exeThe moldings are the style advances. it is but sparingly. but not in the later parts. they are of a moderate width. or ornamented with shallow sculpture of rude character.

.

as well as the jambs and shafts. zig-zag Iffley. and other moldings. not only the very fine one at the west end. and sometimes with sculpture other examples have shafts in the jambs carrying the . perhaps several times. These sisting cUefly of but all preserving a general square outline. but sometimes of two lights divided by a shaft. in rich buildings they are frequently ornamented in the same manner as the doorways. quite itself. proand few features of duces great richness of effect . though of a peculiar and somewhat rude character. as at Oxfordshire. that they have often been as fine preserved when the church has been rebuilt. much so as in I^or- The examples in England are quite and as numerous in proportion as in Normandy. The doorways of Ifiley among the richest that Ave have Church are anywhere . but the north and south doors. which. with recessed arches.. more especially in belfries . included under one arch. which arc very abundant in as many parts of the country. churches are more generally admired than these rich Norman mandy doorways. T^OEMAiiT "Windows are in general long and rather nar- row round-headed openings. however. round and quarter-round members. 42 THE NOEMAN TERIOD. moldings. and these doorways were so much admired for their rich character. are frequently entirely overlaid with ornament.

Handborougli.D.D. 1100. A. 1120. A. c. Oxon. c. Oio». Interior.Belfry "Winclow. tiiiilliiiii- llillig. A. Ifortlileigli. Oxon. . o. J^iterior. Window.D. Bucknell. 1150.

. pening within to a are window.. ^^ window side of triple has r ^^"" St. ^^ €hrist Church Ca. secting with interarcades on ^^ each side. A. Oxford. is a very rich late ex- ample.moldings. T^orfolk. Stephen's. 1160. Essex. This is a common arrangement of Korman clerestory windows at St. c. a smaller blind arch on each it. there is only one sub: arch to each light instead of two. ornamentmolding. ^ ham Abbej'. and others ore quite plain. Caen.Xthedral.D. Hampshire.. arch. Devizes. «tory clere. and v-^ very many other the ex- amples.44 THK NORMAN PERIOD. At Castle Rising. and the shafts of this triple opening made to carry small shafts to the upper arches. but this arises from the arrangement of the sexpartite vaulting. making a siijglo oJohn. ed chiefly with the lozenge In Romsey Ahbey. "Walt- .

or eye the building. and Assisi. is a good ex- James. is a singu- lar one. These large round windows are much more common on the Continent than St. so often the glory of the French churches. Bristol. as at Toscanella. also appear to havefor this Perugia. having frequently been destroyed to make room for those of later styles . Barfreston. In Italy there are many fine examples. probably for the purpose of introducing the painted glass of those periods. The Trench always had a particular fondness kind of win- dow. James. which was called the of ociilus. in There of was frequently one the centre the west front. in Kent.KOIIMAX WINDOWS. fine circular windows with wheel-like : divisions "belong to this period St. 45- The ample. the effect of which is rich and good. which . which in the later styles becomes the magnificent rose-window. Bristol. in England. Norman windows are far less common than the door- ways.

. r • 1 Iffley. ' A. 11 Norman '^ The walls being very is 4. * c.D. as at ^ Windows lights divided of two by a mul- J^) lion were not introduced -^ until after the period.. but not so frequently. John's. ' Oxon. this ornament is also carried f 'J down Iffley. 'i 44 . as in the clerestory of Southwell Minster. 4C THE NOEMAN PERIOD. the jambs. The zigzag molding is fre- quently used in the arches of windows. the opening wall. did not suit well with the circular also a Small openings are common feature. as at Po St. early windows. the opering of the splay on the inner side of the wall is three feet wide. aw^^"^ generally thick. Devizes. occasionally. 1166. and so that is small and narrow on the outside of the very widely splayed to admit more light is less while the glass than a foot wide.

In the later part much plainer.XOEMAN. sometimes doubly recessed. p. the "White of Winchester.ARCHES. 47 The Arches are generally round-headed: in earlywork they are plain and square-edged. work at Westminster. still with- out any other change. facing the spectator towards the altar. with or without a recess at the angle. quite plain and In this manner the pointed arch occurs at a later quite as early as 1150. and the transept sometimes molded. where there often are transepts. or even earlier. as in that instance. In the later period they are more . . period they become much more common. and still square-edged. are frequently pointed. and the western side. richly molded than in the early part of the style the chancel-arch especially is very much enriched." but the pointed arch alone does not make a change of style. which some call the "first pointed style. is generally side. and of the Norman style. London. when looking much more orna: mented than the eastern Iffley is one of the richest and best examples The chancel-arch at where there is a central tower. with plain 27 . and are gra- dually developed into the Early English style. as in the early p. the side-arches. round moldings. both the tower-arches across the church are usually ornamented in the same manner. Tower. they are square-edged. 11.

sometimes they are divided by two sub-arches. The arches of the triforium are generally wide and low. In the apse in the White Tower the stilted to arches are accommodate them to their position." At Canterbury. unless there was some reason for changing partly . The small Arcades which any separate character shorter in proportion inside . that whoever as if the constructed them. To . and for sedilia. "It appears for nearly a round and pointed arches were century used indiscriminately. or was most consonant the builder's ideas. and he adds. The form of the arch was at all periods dictated by convenience. an ornamental arcade of intersecting arches occurs both on the inside- and outside of the wall in St. as to the necessities of the work.Anselm's tower. constructed pointed arches. now called the triforium. it. except that the shafts are smaller and : in rich work they are used both and outside of the walls. are frequently used as decorations of the walls.48 THE N-ORMAN" PERIOD. have scarcely they are diminutives of the larger arches. and Rickman observes. as well as on the inside in front of the blind-story. and that form was usually followed at each period. Intersecting arches occur in these arcades from a very early period . and is not to be relied on as a guide to the date or style but there was a prevailing fashion. and frequently on the outside of the clerestory. which is generally obvious if we look for it.

^ 2 o p .

pure Norman character. 1115 work of — 1139. which is of open as windows. has pointed arches. and in of as other respects early character. bishop of Salisbury. founded by Henry de left Blois in 1136. . taken by itself. is The work frequently quite as massive. with the intervals tains To these may be added. founded in 1132: pointed arches occur in the early part of the work. vious to the period of transition. is therefore no proof of the change of style. with the pointed arch as with the round one. FounAbbey.d. The pointed arch. apparently Eoger. these sometimes require to The but even be qualified by comparison with other all parts. without any other apparent difference of character from the rest of the work. here the work is of later All these are precharacter. and appears to have been built before the fire in 1140. — and Kirkstall Abbey. nor even of late work. and the triforium has intersecting arcades. and have not transitional moldings. Church.50 THE NORMAN PEEIOD. but still pure I^orman. judge of the age of any building we must look at the general character of the work. Yorkshire. built between 1152 and 1182. they occur in in the Malmesbury Abbey Church. near Winchester. Cross St. moldings are generally the safest guide. a. and not seize upon some particular feature to ground any rule upon.

Durham. or they are plain round massive pillars. and these are sometimes banded.NORMAN PIERS. but it in the early part of the crypt at Canterbury. pillars are The round sometimes ornamented with a kind of fluting. Peter's. masses with the lower angles rounded forming a rude cushion shape. London. but often with capitals. as at St. Nicholas. and are frequently ornamented with small as well as the pillars shafts. and Lindisfarne. at St. sometimes with a rude and shallow zig-zag pattern. Northampton. or recessed at the angles. in early The Capitals sort of work are either plain cubical off. work. Caen. and in the centre of each face a plain square block in the form of the Tau cross is left projecting. as at Winchester. 51 The Piers solid in the earlier period are either square masses of masonry. and other early has never been observed in late work. or they have a sort of rude volute. In the later period the pillars are in general not so massive as in the early part of the style. apparently in imitation of the Ionic. cut upon the angles. as at "Waltham Abbey. as in the crypt at Canterbury. with frequently only an impost of very simple character. . in the same manner as the arches. as if to be afterwards carved: this remarkable feature is found in the chapel of the White Tower.

Northamptonshire. groups of figures. . with the lower part chamfered by a plain line or a slight curve it but as the style advanced that of it is difficult had other moldings added. 37). 13).. and does not occur before the time of Henry I. Norman either capital when other parts are Its section is a square off. The capitals were frequently carved where some of the at a period sub« sequent to their erection. In later Norman work the capitals arc frequently ornamented with foliage. &c. but never executed. as at Stourbridge. with carved at all. and others not In the early work at Westminster two sides blank. others half. animals. . is At Castle Ashby. capitals are finished. Malmesbury.finished. as in the crypt at Canterbury (p. is The abacus throughout the style frequently the most characteristic member. and will distinguish a doubtful. this is equally evident. in endless variety. (p. 62 THE NOllMAN PERIOD. The scolloped capital belongs to rather a later period than the plain cushion or the rude Ionic. This form of capital was perhaps the most common of all in the first half of the twelfth century. before mentioned. and continued in use to the end of the Norman style. with the the jamb of a Norman doorway with scratched upon it the pattern for the sculptor chisel. and the whole are frequently so overlaid with ornament to distinguish the section (or profile) its moldings.. and Kirkstall.

. 1178. A. A. c. 1178. Canterbury.D.KORMAN CAPITALS. A.D. ill Canterbury. Grafton Qndemroocl.D. c. A. Woodford. 1160. 1180.D.

or as the style a chamfer and a quarter-round : advanced they became more enriched. or base these increase in richness and boldness as advances. consisting merely then of two quarter. of u quarter -round molding. Attic base. some time in the subsequent . or two and a chamfer or else of a round. rounds. Gloucestershire. the later appear to be imitated from the Caiiterl)ury Cathedral. and their use was continued for style.. Bases are at first The very simple. or pillar. and stand They always follow the form of the shaft upon a square pedestal or plinth filled the angles of this square plinth being frequently up with some ornament. Stoke Orcliard. ornaments the style : called foot-ornaments. and the number of memthe earlier examples resemble bers more numerous : the Tuscan. 54 THE NOKMAN PEEIOD.

XOr. we Niclie with the Figure.MAlS" NICHES. 55 or Tabernacles. but becomes deeper as the style advances. At Dorchester have St. The most usual figure is that of Christ. to re- These figures executed in "being low ^ere ures relief upon the liable surface of the stone. resting on cushioncapitals to bases. dis- tinguished cruciform by the nimbus. with molded the key. rally retain the fig- ures which they were constructed ceive. Oxon. . and gene- The IN'iCHES. under a semicircular arch. frequently much enriched they are chiefly placed oyer the doorways. Dorcliester. are carved on separate stones and inserted. are small shallow round arches. less to fig- injury than the of the -which later styles. is This at first example is from the font. Peter with twisted shafts. The sculpture very shallow. recesses Mith .

third century. or the impost of the pier. freely employed on all other pier. \ the most com- mon is the Norman is Cliamfer. or over arches.. under it another is merely chamfered off above and below. wall arcades. where they are most abundantly however. &c.arches. and frequently also as horizontal strings or tablets. . or zig-zag. and this used more and more abundantly the as work all gets later. One of the most usual and characteristic iN'orman strings exactly resembles the abacus of the capital. already mentioned in de- used . the Chevron. The Moldings have been scribing the doorways. and probably but in all early work it is used . they are. of . . chevron. even in Iloman work J. jSTorman ori naments are of endless variety.56 THE xoii:max period. or zig-zag. witli Beads. whether the windows. forming a semi -hexagonal projection. earlier. it is found at periods. with a hollow chamfer .

as in this example. the small medallions with figures. It is somesquare. Suffolk. and it seems to have been the forerunner of the toothornament. times more frequently rounded. The beak- ^^" ^°''^^'^^^ ^^^'^ ^^^ head. London. and the profusion with late which used in work is one of the most ready marks by which to distinguish that The the work is late. the chapel of the White Tower.l^OEilAN MOLDTXGS. but discontinued in the later work. Tte Star. 57 it is sparingly. and does not often occur in late work. sunk star is a very favourite ornament throughout the style . the cat's-head. used in the early part of Peterborough. it occurs on the abacus of the capitals in „. and at Herringfleet. . Thebillet is 'W^~ ^^^^^^'^.

all belong to the later In the later Norman moldings a mixture of Byzantine character is seen on the ornaments. which of a skilful not a bad tool in the hands workman. and such as could very well be executed is with the axe. as at Durham. and that we do not find on any buildings The chisel was used of ascertained date before 1120. Sculptured ornament made progress great dur- ing the twelfth century. -which was built between 1096 and 1130. have seen by the testimony of Gervase that the chisel was not used in the " glorious choir of Conrad " at Canterbury. and an examination of the old all work proves the exactness of his state- ment. . iN'orman period. and the signs of the zodiac. is the sculptured ornament on the old work shallow. We Abacus and String. it is plain that they all had their ornaments executed in the same manner: the chisel is only required for deep-cutting and especially undercutting. and is still commonly used in many parts of England and France. On comparing this early work at Canterbury with other early Norman buildings.58 THE NOKMAX PERIOD.

Capital. returned. that in the sculpture of the period of the late Norman style there is frequently a certain mixture of the Byzantine Greek character. Ill. . It has been observed. 59 and the south of France than in England. and the profusion of is rich ISTorman sculptured ornament in the latter half of the twelfth century quite wonderful. who had This is also one of the characteristics of the period of Transition.KOllMAN MOLDINGS. Gloucsstershire. and revelled in it. for carving in stone in Italy at an earlier period. GloucestersMre. Stoke OrcIiarJ. the workmen seem to have it.' If Broclrwortli. MOLDINGS AlfD CAPITALS. brought home from the east by the Crusaders. After but not in Normandy nor the earlier north of France this usage much gloried in was introduced.

like the Anglo and < Saxon are arches. this has or never been done . grotesque masks. usually they are beads. Corbel-tables under the caves of the roof are very abundant in is are often proof that the walls are and Transitional work. at Homaey. They and are frequently square blocks of stone only. when this not otherwise evident. carved. as at Iffley. but in general.60 THE ^'ORMAN PERIOD. TnE Corbel-tables are at first very plain. and the small arcs The buttresses are usually flat and plain in early examples. with small arcs between them. carrying the beam on flat stones which supor port the roof. when more as convenient. or merely rude triangles. as if intended to be carved subsequently. these sometimes continued in late work. the corbels are or less enriched. later windows having been late ISTorman inserted. but have moldings on the angles in late examples. and Norman. in late work Norman Corbel. . consisting merely of square blocks at intervals.

^ > B P pj o i. w 6 .

ribs are quite plain. vaults over a wide space is was The absence of a proof that the is Norman was not a continuation of Ptoman work. as in the chapel of the White Tower. bishop of Salisbury. aisles narrow spaces. and horse-shoe arches. or the begin- ning of the twelfth. a. The ITorman architects did not venture to throw a vault over a wide space until very near the end of the style.d. and they gradually change their form until they almost imperceptibly assume the character of Early English work. such as stilted arches. then molded. as at Sherborne Castle. are often contempora- neous with the barrel vaults. at a later period ribs are introduced. flat In the next stage they have transverse arches only. but that there was always an interval of at least a century in which there were no masons. before the difficulty solved by the use of the pointed arch. 1117 — 1143. and generally belong to the latter half of the eleventh century. and various contrivances vrere necessary for vaulting over spaces of unequal wadth. A. they are then groined. The earliest Norman Vaults London.62 THE NOKMAN PERIOD. as sometimes assumed. . at first square. but : still without over these plain groined vaults or other without ribs.D. and of the barrel form. as in Peterborough Cathedral. 1115 — 1139. built by Ptoger. then plain half-rounds.

NOEMAX TURRETS. sometimes. thej^ die into the tower below the corbeltable . from the top of wall to the side the St. Alban's period they are frequent as stair-turrets. At ter. but there at a later examples at St. as at Iffley. St. in other instances. is Winches- there a remarka- ble example. it. but have generally lost the original roof or capping. and even above . Cross. andChristchurch. as at Bishop's Cleeve are and Bredon. Hampshire. they are sometimes round and sometimes square. 63 Early !N'orman Turrets are very rarely to be are good met with. Winchester. they carried up and above the parapet terminate in pinnacles. Cross.. level of the front of the gables. something between rising a turret and a large square pinnacle.

resembling in appearance those which we find in some parts of Norstone. as rally remarkably at Deerhurst. already described. mandy of the same period. remarkable that so Norman towers are more massive and not lofty as the early ones. and the skill of on account of the abundance of the material.. &c. Towers of the pre-Norman period are genein late tall. sometimes diminishing by stages. there executed in worked. belfry. Jarrow. They are comparatively low and heavy. but at the west end. has frequently been added belfry Norman times upon the earlier towers. shewn by the weather-table on the being only just below the parapet. and divided by a shaft. covered by low wooden pyramidal roofs. somemuch. one of the best dated examples.64 THE KOEMAN PERIOD. as face of the tower. The windows are generally double. as at Lincoln. the ridge of the original roof. These towers were intended to be. . or The upper storey. more than a square above the roof. the facility with which it is the workmen. and without doubt originally were. and having buttresses of little projection on the lower parts. NoEMAN Centeal Towers seldoin rising times not so are very low and massive. "When the towers the later are not placed over the centre of it is the church.

65 The Eound Towers which some may be earlier. that to say to it is what age they The towers themselves flint. The same cause accounts for the frequent and long-continued use in the same districts of flat bricks or tiles for turning the arches Norman Round Norwicli. . NORMAN EOUND TOWERS. and to save the ex- pense of the cut stone quoins square foi* the corners which are necessary for towers. are so abundant in Nor- folk and Suffolk are frequently of the Norman period and others are certainly later they are often impossible belong. Tower. . and which often may not have been easy to procure in districts where building-stone has all to be imported. are com- monly. good authorities think that the bricks or tiles Eoman form was long imitated p in England.. built of sometimes of rough stone rubble. which are either of Roman maSome of flat nufacture. or an imitation of the same form. and are built round to suit the material. but not always. so entirely devoid of all ornament or character. over the doors and windows.

it was and are not part of the original work. in late work there inserted is a recess at the angle. even when it is against a tower at an angle. the strings are sometimes continued round the buttresses and sometimes stop short at them. and these are sometimes continued in late work.. but in general. a flat buttress is placed on each side. in which a small shaft is . 66 THE NOEMAN^ PEEIOD. . also have the Flat or shafts flat at buttresses Norman Buttress. The Buttresses of this style were at first merely flat projections wholly devoid of or- nament. These square buttresses the moldings angles that the . but in the latter case the buttresses to have generally been added strengthen the wall after erected. and consequently have a much greater projection than the early flat buttresses. have not an early Norman buttress never goes higher than the ground-floor. nearly close to it. In late J^orman buildings the buttresses are some- times square.

but the thickness of the wall allows the doorways to be deeply recessed. The small At Iffley the original chancel was like that of . or pediment. the usual characteristic the apse is of the Anglo-Norman a rare feature style compara- England. set-ofF. In the diocese of Laon in the north of France. they are sometimes terminated by a gable. Kent. however.THE X0R3IAX PERIOD. frequently the projection ends in a plain case the appearance flat buttress. under the influence of an English bishop. a few porches which have as great a projection as those of the succeeding styles. and the sides of these are usually ornamented : with arcades racter as the outer archway other doorways. in general very little projec- sometimes only a few inches. man there in the early part of the twelfth parish church of Cassington. be called either a door- way with a pediment over or a shallow porch. has a jS'orman chancel with a IS'orman vault also. Margaret-at-Cliffe. is in More which broad that of a doorway set in a There are. is of the same chaAt Sherborne and at Southwell Minster there are good examples of these porches. But the square tively east end in is . where the pro- slight that it may it. Oxon. 67 NoEMAN Porches have tion. who was a leading century. the cathedral and a large number of the churches have square east ends. as at jection is so St.

and arcades. particularly the west fronts of !N'orman churches. but either merely under windows in a flat wall. and at J^un-Monkton. the places which were afterwards continued in the same situations. the church are and the lower part of the tower. all covered with a profusion of ornament in the later period. having generally deeply-recessed doorways. windows. The thick abacus shews this corbel Norman Cortel. anois ther bay eastward of this of the Early English style vaulted.PEEIOD. being. to be of quite early IS'orman characterc Cassington. as at Ifflcy. — one square bay. and is at the east ends of the chancel and its aisles. but the belfry -storey and the spire are of the Decorated style. and are sometimes erroneously described as doorways.68 Cassington THE NOEMAN. and on the east side of the transepts. are frequently of very fine composition. . in fact. The Eeonts. it is more found frequently used in early than in late work. or under arched recesses which frequently remain in the transept wall. The Apse has been already mentioned as a cha- racteristic of the Norman style. for altars. 73. In England p. the whole of the walls of lITorman. both bays are At Cassington. .

(See the plan of this church at . p. 69 Cassington.THE NORMAN" PEEIOD. a small parish church. -with a Norman chancel vaulted. 39. in the Decorated style of the fourteenth century.) The spire is an addition. This is . Oxon. remaining- perfect the walls of the nave ar^ also Norman.

A. The custom whicii has been mentioned of length- ening the churches eastwards. c. KriH?AKUR DEI Interior of a Korman Apse. which commenced in the latter half of the twelfth century. 1160. there is an apse at the end of each of not in the large central part. At Komsey the aisles. .70 PEEIOD OF TEANSITIOX. Romsey Al)l)ey. was carried on vigorously in the thirteenth.D. Hants.

and the difficulty of vaulting spaces of unequal span. and fre- a little later it is .D. it being one of the characteristics of a good workman not to waste his material.PEEIOD OF TEANSITIOIT. very wide. and the workmen were fast discovering the various modes of economizing their as at material. and that the art of building consequently gress. to make the work . may is be clearly traced. the made rapid prowork becoming every year better executed. The custom of vaulting over large spaces. when introduced. more highly and of lighter character. A. The istic. molded. In the early Norman period the to masonry was very bad. secure.molding quently only chamfered . and. This practice. and to facilitate its ready and rapid adoption. 11 GO — 1195. 71 "We have seen that during the half-century which intervened between 1125 and 1175 an immense num-i her of churches were built or rebuilt in England. in the generality of cases. great masses of material were used but at the period which we have now arrived the masonry is as good any subsequent period. which was now being comover monly adopted. finished. in combination with other causes. capitals of the period are also very character- and the gradual change at first the abacus . also without doubt contributed largely to the use of the pointed arch. tended greatly to introduce the change of style.

of Nun-Monkis in Yorkshire.shafts are a singular mixture of the two styles. ment. -svay The rich doorby itself would be late Gorman. The square tresses at the angles are late !N"onnan.72 PERIOD OF TRANSITION. whereas the niches it. The heads of the windows in the tower are of the form sometimes arch. a very curious and fine example of this great period of Transition. The church ton. the details are very boldly and well executed. called the shouldered- The capitals of the window. west are quite English. and there is a Base of Niche-sliaft. on each side of three and the Early but- lancet -windows in the front. TORKSHIRB. with the tooth-orna- NUN-MONKTON. hollow molding by the side of the shaft. the capital itself is well -molded Early English. . and the small square tower on the point of the gable has ISTorman corbel-tables.

73 Nun-Monkton. 1220. Yorkshire. c.D.PERIOD OF TRANSITION. A. .

but oblong. — all the accessories are undergoing The moldings. is Canterbury. at Fountains Abbey already mentioned. Canterbury Cathedral is an excellent example. but is accompanied by a general change of style. as has been pointed out. : pointed arches towards the choir and a range of and the same on each side. however. But although this may account for the use of the pointed arch. and thus we have a succession of semicircular aisle. The triforium. and the width of the aisle being greater than the space between the pillars.74 In the work PERIOD OF TEANSITIOX. and foliage in the capitals. : arches down the length of the aisle. it is still quite distinct from the Gothic style . Here.arcade of a rapid change. in the work of William of Sens after the fire. the sculpture. with the arches pointed and recessed. the earliest . of the vault was not square. we have it at Fountains in pure JN'orman work half-a-century before we have the same arrangement again at Canterbury. abacus well-molded. it the aisles are vaulted. the ornaments. the greater length being across the to carry the vault. and all other details are of a more highly finished and a lighter style. follows that each compartment. it we have not only the pointed arch. the where we have the semicircular arch or arch-ribs narrower space being from pillar we have there the pointed to pillar towards the choir arch. or bay.

capitals of foliage.PEKIOD OF TRAXSITIOX. 1178. 75 A. recessed. Triforium Arcade. CanterMry Cathedral.D. -while the resting on coupled are pointed. on square plmths. In this example the general arch it arches under shafts with two subis semicircular. and square-edged. and molded bases .

between 1165 and 1191. England which we and it .arcade of St.ornament sufficient to say that the ' man work. enables us it to fix a precise date to this great change serves as carried a type for very many others which were being on simultaneously. and the tooth-orna- ment down each side of the shafts.authenticated example of the change of possess. is an excellent specimen of transitional work. are almost of pure Early lish character. the tooth-ornament is freely introduced the windows are round-headed within and pointed without. and need not here be repeated. and more like French work than the usual English character . : ' 76 and the style in PERIOD OF TKAJ^SITION. Rutlandshire. The triforium . and that the peculiar ornament known by the name of the tooth. best. is also an excellent example. Shrewsbury. the arches are pointed. with good shafts in the jambs. occurs abundantly in the new work: the moldings. or soon after. The contrast drawn by Gervase between the old church and the new one has been already quoted in describing the earlier N'orIt will be masonry and the sculpture in the new work are both excellent. It retains a great deal of the Norman character. Engby The hall of Oakham Castle. Mary's. but late and rich the capitals are very similar to some of those at Canter- bury. . built Walkelin de Ferrers.. especially of the bases.

PERIOD OP TEAXSITION.D. Erideswide Church. while the capitals have good foliage and a square abacus molded. of the charters granting the Saxon monastery of Erides- . It was con- secrated in 1180. is a fine late example of Norman and transitional work of early character. Mary's. A. Slirewsbury. about twenty : years previously the confirmation. it is is pierced with an open qua- al- so square -edged only. Christ now Church Cathedral. 1180. St. St. only English Pope). c. and in the spandrel between the two lower arches trefoil. Oxford. by Pope Hadrian the IV. (Breakspeare. and was probably building for St. 77 but square-edged only.

rich and good. and that none of it is earlier than about 1160. a subsequent work carried over the older work the case. giving the idea of . which are carried up over the actual arches and the triforium. 78 wide lo the PERIOD OF TEANSITIOX. called <!lanutus. and wdthout doubt on a larger scale than before. Under his superintendence the church was entirely rebuilt from the foundations.. which is then u mark of is late. the nave and choir being wider than the transepts. In this church. work the clerestory transition. as the Saxon church does not appear to have been destroyed until this period. and consequently the east and west arches are round-headed. and windows of the nave are pointed without any necessity for it. IS'orman monks was not obtained was secured. and it is not probable that they began to rebuild their church until their property The Prior at this period was Robert of Cricklade. until 1158. while the north and south are pointed of the : this would not in itself be any proof of transition. but the whole character though ver}. The design of the present structure is very remarkable the lofty arched recesses. . some of whose writings were in existence in the time of Leland. the central tower not square. that but an is examination of the construction shews that this it not was is all built at one time. a man of considerable eminence.

Romsey Abbey. 79 In this example. Rich moiaings from tlie original cliureli. if taken separately.D.\:NSITIOi. The tooth-ornament here shewn Westminster Abbey.PERIOD OF TR. c. c. 1160. the foliage of the capitals and the molding of the abacus are quite Early English. A. while the zigzag molding of the arch. would be Norman. in the dripstone is usually a feature of the Early English style. 1180.r. . A.D.

Bedfordshire. The is. again. The same mixture of the features that usually belong either to the I^orman or to the Early English occur in all the details of the moldings. and under on a smaller the actual tooth -ornament occurs. it so boldly detached. almost becomes the tooth-omament scale. the same mixture occurs the dripstone is the Early EngHsh round molding . of the fine west doorway. and very 'be seen in other places : similar ones may lofty arched recesses occur in Dunstable Priory Church. under it . where the tooth-ornament of the Early English and we haye mixed the chevron or zigzag of the I^orman style curiously together. square-edged. standing out that that. Thomas' Church. as at Canterbury. in the molding . and the foliage against the bell of the ca- pital has the leaves curling over in the fashion. Winwith a round molding Early English chester. but the original design was the same. At Cuddesdon. then comes the chevron. . capital from St. where Perpendicular windows have been inserted in the triforium.80 r-ERTOD OF TRANS ITIOX. . Precisely the same design occurs in a part of Romsey Abbey Church. is equally curious the abacus of a circular capital in fact. Hampshire. .

is This an interesting specimen of Transition. "Winchester. 81 Moldings. but retains the sqi. Thomas' Church.D. c. not quite developed.D. . These are good examples of the mixture of the chevron or zigzag tooth-ornament. the latest abacus. Canterbuiy Cathedral. A. -with the St.are-edged Ozon. A. almost Early English.I'EKIOD OF TRANSITION-. 1180. 1167.

called the Jew's House. now converted into At Appleton and Sutton Courtney. are houses which have belonged to nastic establishments.at "Warnford. are the foundations of a hall of this period and in !Farnham Castle. At Lincoln there of St. ty. was the house Boothby Pagnel. on the hill. one called the King's House. the other in a low part of the town. Xorman hall remains. in the lower town.. are rare. are remains of manor-houses of this period at Canter- bury there are considerable remains of the monastic buildings of this century. and at the Priory of Christchurch.82 Examples but we have are PERIOD OF TRAXSITIOIfo of Domestic buildings of the houses of the twelfth century. several remaining. Suffolk. and at . . was probably the house of a wealthy Jew in the twelfth century. the house called Moyses' : Hall. . Edmund's. at Foimtains Abbey. fi^rmerly Guild. in Lincolnshire. in the still Norman style. now used as the Bridewell. there are extensive re- mains of the domestic buildings of pure JNTorman style at Bury St. the custom-house. in the mosame coun. attached to the remains of the town wall. Yorkshire. is a manor-house of this style at Southampton are ruins of two houses. the other. Mary's two . the servants' in Berkshire. in Hampshire. at Minster. among which is a line external staircase with open arcades on each side . part of the great hall. also in Hampshire. in the Isle of Thanet. one.

eastern tranof St. The present vaults choir.y IIL a. great rapidity with which a decided change in incredible if it the style and character of the work was taking place at this period. 1189— 1272. Hugh of Burgundy. also called St. which comprises his choir and the sept. was appointed bishop of Lincoln. and immediately began to rebuild his cathedral. and confirmed by Professor AYillis. work was in proby Gervase. an eye-witness. . Hexf. EichardL The Jonx. It is therefore plain that this portion of the building was completed before 1200. and a careful examination enables us to distin- guish clearly the work completed in the time of Bishop Hugh. Canterbury was completed m 1184. and especially carefully noticing the great change by the well-authenticated account of Canterbury.THE EARLY ENGLISH STYLE.d. Hugh's and of both the transepts. we shall not be much surprised to find some examples of pure Gothic work as recorded in the following ten years. After which took place there during the ten years that the gress. which occurred in 1240. with its chapels. were introduced subsefall of quent to the the tower. would appear almost so were not proved by many instances. Hugh of Grenoble. and in 1185 St.

St.04 THE EAELY ENGLISH STYLE. free from any mixture of the Romanesque. The architecture in the north of Lincolnshire. beauty of of St. and little the south of Yorkshire. rising from the ring . of the time Hugh. down to a later period than the choir of Lincoln. of the same free and beautiful style as the additions of his successors. for nothing of the kind existed there at that period. JSTothing can well exceed the freedom. St. though they helped to lead to Gothic has a strong mixture of it The French the Eomanesque with it. The Oriental styles are Gothic. technically by the name of because there are stiff stalks to the leaves. in the time of its build- Henry II. in whose time this is this style was developed. Hugh's choir at Lincoln is the earliest building of the pure Gothic style. of England and of Anjou. appears to have been a in advance of any other in Europe St. Grenoble (the place from which Hugh was was quite brought half-a- to England) and its neighbourhood century behind England in the character of ings. work the original arcade. The foliage of the ca- and though distinguished stiff-leaf foliage. delicacy. that has been hitherto found in Eunot rope or in the world. Hugh of Lincoln certainly did not bring the Gothic style with him from his own country. and . pitals is exquisitely beautiful. at that period. or from the Grande Chartreuse where he was educated. Dauphiny.

A. 'with the original ornaments.EAELY ENGLISH AECHES. pure Gothic. South Aisle. . 1195. 85 St. Hugh's Choir. free from Romanesque or Norman. Lincoln.D. This is of the earliest building of an unusually perfect example.

a re- markable and not a common feaBeverley Minster.86 THE EAKLY ENGLISH SXrEE. the work of . which seems to have been in use for a few years only . ture. Bishop Jocelyn. the leaves themselves curl over in tho most graceful manner. . of the capital. it occurs also in the west front of "Wells Cathedral. and there not ISTor- a vestige of man character rein maining any part of the work. TorksMre. of this at Lincoln or Hugh de Wells. a few years after perhaps under him. The crockets ar- ranged vertically one over the other behind tached the de- marble are shafts of the pillars. at any as The as moldings are also bold and is deep as possible. with a freedom and elegance not exceeded period.

A.THE EAELY ENGLISH STYLE. 1230. still Lincoln they are clear- two in pe- though the same style. existence.D. 87 Beverley (page 86) Possibly the double arcade at originated in the same man- ner as that at Lincoln. and at the same time. c. At Glasgow Cathedral. . in St. Yorksliire. original At ly of riods. Hugh's cessity wall to it choir. a reluctance to hide cade the in ar- the wall. the work was commenced by Bishop Joceline in 1195. which has one of the finest crypts in Beverley Minster. from the nefor thickening the make carry a stone vault.

and there daughter is great resemblance in style between Eochester and the later work at Canterbury. were and are a very beau- and remarkable example of Early English. fall from the A young man architect at and completed the work there. but sometimes round-headed. trefoil. The tiful choir and transepts of Rochester Cathedral also building soon after this time. The was William de Hoo. is or the shoul- This form of opening its frequently called being so generally used but it is often of earlier date. Canterbury in 1185. and the the corbelled lintel. then prior. or The rather was given to it is not an arch at all. and there is some reason to believe that he is the same person as "William the young Englishman. and in small doorways frequently fiat-headed. ' happy name of the strictly shouldered arch speaking. though also continued in use for a long period. first sacristan. architect Avho assisted William of Sens after his scaffold at Canterbury. from in that castle it . it shouldered lintel. with the angles corbelled in the form called the square-headed dered arch. OO THE EARLY ENGLISH STYLE.. the Carnarvon arch. would per' haps be more correct. The Dooeways are generally pointed or trefoiled. the on his may very own account well have become of the church of liochester in 1201 — 1227. . able to carry on and complete such a work.

D. A very ricli and rather late example of tliis style.THE EAliLY EXGLISU STILE. 1250. Westminster Abtey. . 89 Tlie Dean's Door in tlie Cloister. A.

Ircliester.90 THE ElKLY ENGLISH STYLE. they are commonly early in the style. but by no means always so : segmental arches also occur. this style. H'orlliants. Trefoil-arches are characteristic of The Priest's Door. The round-arched doorways may readily be distinguished by their moldings. .

- 91 The chapel . The west itself being' "West Door and shallow Porcli of tli3 Ciapel of the Bishop's Palace.THE EAI:LT ENGLISH STYLE. but much altered and partly rebuilt towards the end of it. the arch cinquefoiled. of the Bishop's Palace at Wells is alto- gether a remarkable example of the latter part of this style it was originally built by Bishop Jocelyn in the early part of the thirteenth century. Wells. . with a semicircular dripstone. doorway is a very remarkable one.

p. these . A. One of '^ triple Stanton Harcourt. their boldly projecting buttresses and pinnacles. The Porches are frequently shallow. lancet- pointed wdndows. Northamptonshire. The outer doorways are often much enriched with mold- ings and shafts of great depth. and roof. East End. but there are many jBine porches of the usual projection . c. their narrow. as at Barnack. 1250. period by their comparative lightness. as in the exam- ple from Wells. the acute pitch of the Internally. / •carried up to the springing . these have sometimes very lofty gables. shaped. " Early English Buildings are readily distin- guished from those of the Norman long. with Chancel-window.D. 91.S2 THE EARLY ENGLISH STYLE. shafts is frequently ^ good example of the east front of a parish church of the earlier v-^^^ of this style. frequently formed of a number of shafts connected at intervals by bands. we have pointed which are arches supported on slender and lofty pillars. and the walls are ornamented on the inside with arcades and tracery.

and the complete character of the change.an to come into fashion. in some degree. of the . New seem to have been given to architecture.d. when the Decorated style bec.d. At no period has ''the principle of verti- cality" been so completely carried out as in the Early style. and from that time to 1260 or 1270. which was developed as fully in some of the earliest buildings of the new style as in the latest. and the builders appear to have revelled in it even to exuberance and excess. The A.THE EAELY ENGLISH STYLE. and it was necessary afterwards. The whole character of the buildchanged. to soften down and ideas and a life new subdue English ples of it. and even in some of the earliest exam- it. which have now lost the heaviness of the Norman period and are become light ing is and elegant. characteristic of lancet-windows applies only to the early part of the style. and instead of the heavy masses and horizontal lines of the Norman style. from a. 1230. we have light and graceful forms and vertical lines.D. and the circles became foliated by about a. where it 9S ramifies in various directions to form the ribs of the vaulting. 1190 to about after that time circles in the head windows of two or more lights came in. 1220 or 1230. of the roof." The rapidity with which the change of style took place has been pointed out.

near Oxford. Soiitli-east View of Co-wley Clmrcli. in the earlier examples are plain. all uncommon in more especially in houses. Oxon. when . and generally narrow.94 THE EAULY EXGLTSIT STYLE. they frequently church of the central occur also in churches. but frequently have nothing hut a plain chamfer outside and a wide SDlay within. as at Stanwick sometimes they are richly molded within and without. as in the small Cowley. lancet-shaped. Sometimes. The "Windows and Bakewell . Square-headed windows are not at this style.

EAELT EI^GLTSH Wnn)OWS.__ijjiiliiiyi Stanwick. Northants. An unusually narrow lancet-window. and coupled shafts in the inner arch. Bake-well. 1220. . with A good example of the hood-mold very wide splay. over the inner arch (or scoinsonarch). DerbysMre. 95 ^''\ .:. c. A.D.

as at RingBut this arch over the square head frequently wanting. is up with ornament. there is an arch or a dripit. called fact. as at "Winchester and Romsey. At first the windows have merely openings pierced through the solid masonry of the head. but almost invariably in the form of is circles. : being. and do not form continuations of the mullions until we arrive at This kind of tracery was real Decorated tracery. The more usual kind of tracery. it is in a plate of stone pierced with holes exten- sively used in Early French work. . by Professor Willis plate tracery. In the Early English is style we have. !N"orthants. is called by Professor Willis har tracery. the solid portions thus ally left graduuntil becoming smaller and the openings larger. and these simple square-headed windows of the thirteenth century. stone in the form of an arch over with the space tympanum filled stead. are often mistaken for Perpendicular work of the fifteenth. either plain or foliated. especially in castles. These terms are so expressive and convenient that they are now generally adopted. tracery in the heads of the windows. in the later it examples. the solid parts are reduced to nearly the same thickness as the muUions but they are not molded. to distinguish it from the earlier kind. and constructed in a different manner from genuine Decorated tracery. which are very common. . square-headed.96 opening or is THE EAELT ENGLISH STYLE.

the -window. Jolin's. St. "Wincliester. 97 ^. c.THE EAKLr ENGLISH STYLE. and shafts to the inner arch. 1250. . 126 A tiful foliage very rich example. and This belongs to the later division of the style. -with foliated circles in the tracery of shafts to that and to the muUions.D.D. A. c. A. wuroows.•'?J1WiPP^^^^^^^ I'l'l'"!' ntiiiliUiiiiiJllUliUii""'^* Eomsey Al^liey. -with beauon the inner arch.

yet they were built bj* Sir Richard "VVhittington. . It has been already observed that the form of the arch is never a safe guide to the date or it style of a building — venience than anything else depended much more on conthe moldings are the . but not always. but upon as a rule flat. merely recessed and chamfered. when the convenience of the construction calls for flat arches. as in the Lady Chapel of Oxford Cathedral. as in W^estminster more important buildings are geneAbbey. as the arches at York Minster. and their moldof "Westminster are of the Abbey ings belong distinctly to that period. an Early Eng- arch is sometimes very being made within an existing to Norman one. most safe guide : for instance. The Aeches are frequently. either with or without the tooth-ornament. which was semicircular. and in the rally richly molded. or perhaps in the hoodmolds. (better known by the story of his cat). and similar examples are not uncommon. Very acute arches this cannot be relied lish are generally the earliest.98 THE EAELY ENGLISH STYLE. owing some change of plan. acutely pointed. the only character being in the capitals and bases. in the fifteenth century. . In plain parish churches the arches are frequently without moldings. the arches of the nave same form as those of the choir and transepts. though these also are sometimes wanting.

99 Wall Arcade in Chapel of Choir.D. Westminster Abbey.TFE EAULY ENGLISH SIYLE. 1260. A. .

Another peculiarity differs considerably consists of the Foliage. as These bands are sometimes rings for holding together the in the choir of Worcester Cathedral. and only connected with the central shaft by or without one the capital and base. while in this original. . of copper gilt. to Avhich it places. trefoil leaf. : which it from the iN'orman in the latter has more or less the appearance of being imitated from that of the Classic orders. are usually but the pillar most characteristic of the style is the one with detached which are ge- nerally of Purbeck marble. the bosses of groining. it is entirely Its essential is form seems to be that of a varied in such a but this number of It is ways that the greatest variety is produced. and these not unfrequently alternate clustered. pitals is The foliage technically called "Stiff-leaf foliage. Pillars are of various forms The — round or octa- gonal in small and plain churches. which rises from the ring of the capital. the foliage . with or two bands at intervals. and were sometimes necessary slender shafts of Purbeck marble." but this alludes only to the stiff stem or stalk of the leaf.100 THE EARLY ENGLISH STYLE. in richer work they shafts. the moldings of windows and doorways. frequently very long and slender. but gives a peculiar of these ca- and distinctive character. and various other particularly in capitals. used in cornices.

1250. "with fuse foliage . stiff The stalk is. roll-molding. A beautiful foliage curling over. . however. Beverley.D. with the abacus. 1260. Yorkshire. a ready mark to distinguish the Early English capital from that of the succeeding style.THE EARLY ENGLISH STYLE. A. Westminster Abfeey. itself is 101 frequently as far removed from stiffness as any can be. example of the stiflF-leaf and with a molded An unusually rich example. A. as for instance in the capitals of Lincoln. c.D. pro- also an abacus.

have their capitals formed of a plain bell reversed. however.102 THE EAKLr ENGLISH STYLE. "We must bear in mind. many of our finest buildings. with moldings round the abacus it.D 1250. Capital at the North-west Angle of the Cloister. A. that foliage is by no means an essential feature of the Early English style . such as "West- minster Abbey. Wkstminstkh Akuky. . G A P J Capital cf Sliaft. like rings put upon and round the neck.

Corona. A. 1220. BASES.D. Yorksliire. Selby. 1184. A. 103 '^i %- Choir. 1178. .D.D. Canterkuy. Beverley Minster.D. A. A.THE EARLY ENGLISH STTLE. 1260. Canterbury.

or wavy-line molding. in other instances some foliage. both frequently terbury. with an ornamental molding upon it. .104 THE EAELY ENGLISH STYLE.moldings of the separate shafts of the cluster of four. as in the choir at Canis terbury. because it is not not easy to decide whether a particular base will hold water or not. which the earliest example of the style. that is is is. or round. and this sometimes called it is one of the characteristics of the style. in addition to the base . The deeply-cut moldings in bases of this style will is frequently hold water. as at Beverley. This stilted part. that form the piers. ogee They frequently attic base. and chiefly is transitional. generally consist The Bases of two rounds. or six. five. found. These bases the principal molding floor. : this is generally in the earlier examples in other cases it is* polygonal. the filleted. as Rickman observed with his usual accuracy. as at Can- but in later examples this hollow p. is place being filled up with another round molding. Canterbury. again. and Selby. or plinth. 103. sometimes square. are frequently stilted. going round the whole pier. ap- proach in contour to the Grecian is and the sometimes employed. as at Selby. its with not a deep hollow between placed horizontally. but a good one. in some instances an additional is molding introduced . raised a foot or two from the and the space sometimes plain. lower one the largest.

work of the same period. as has been One of the chief characteristics of the Early English which differ essentially from these of the Norman.. 105 pure Early English work..^.THE EARLY ENGLISH 111 STYLE. Generally. also... this Classic a strong argument in favour of the greater purity of English Gothic. with a hollow between them.ii are frequently in- '' creased in numAbacus with round and ber and filleted. abacus is and as there can be no doubt that the round more consistent with pure Gothic work. or with the angles chamfered off. but in later exam_ . in the Early English style consists in the Moldings. . in the earlier examples. simply of two rounds. the upper member of the capital. and consists. with equally bold and . the abacus is generally . for while those consisted chiefly of squares with round moldings on the angles.:-i^. the belonging more properly to the circumstance is square one styles. square . called the Abacus. The general use of the circular abacus is peculiar to England and Normandy even in the best early French work. the moldings are much more numerous and much in foreign richer in English work than said. the upper one the largest. pies the moldings l!. is circular. they are chiefly bold rounds.„.. Mlow molding. of the Royal Domain.

thus different though still beautiful character to them . or sometimes three being cut on a single molding. and often considered one of fillet the marks of that style. as in the choir giving a very of the Temple Church. separated up into rich suites of mold- only by deep hollows. deeply cut hollows. Norman arch re- and the moldings are cut chiefly on the angles. or slop- ing surface. rect term. the whole being worked ings. and the moldings appear to be cut on a chamfer. or Decorated style. is used . next Throughout the Early English period there ornament used in the hollow moldings wliich =" is an as is Sometimes called the ssroll molding. Northants. is but as the style advances this squareness lost. . produce a strong effect of light and shade. but this always shews a tendency of transition to the style.106 THE EAELY ENGLISH STTLE. which. . as at Little Addington and Denford. two. but o-oll is the corfrom the close resemblance to a roll of parchment with the edge overlapping. and none of the plain square masonry remains. London. and it was still more used in the succeedis ing. In many of the earlier examples is the square profile of the recessed tained. The was now used profusely on the rounds fillets one. In the later examples a peculiar molding called the roll^ molding.

Haseley. STYLE* 107 Little Addington. llcrttants. c.D.iii.. Oxon.":^l^ Cliancel-arcli. A. 1250. *?^Mi^i:|!:.THE EAELT ENGLISH MOLDIITGS. .iii:i!i:||^l5::i.

and from this it has been called the '' dog- by some the shark' s-tooth ornament." It is used with the greatest profusion on arches. as in Chester Cathedral. style as the characteristic of this zigzag is of the Norman.108 THE EAELY EXGLISH STYLE. and indeed in every place where tooth ornament. but separate below. this consists of a small pyramid. and seen in profile. it may be ima- gined to have somewhat the appearance of a row of dog's-teeth." or . Chester Cathedral. more or less acute. piscinas. windows. on the architraves and jambs of doors. cut into four leaves or petals meeting in the point. When very acute. between clustered shafts. more commonly the "tooth-orxament.

as in St. for it. and begins quite at the style. that account both exterior and interior. as gitudinal rib. mencement of the Lincoln.ornament may sidered to belong exclusively to the Early English. but in a cheaper manner. still the genuine tooth. are almost unknown in France they developed more rapidly than we did. not quite equal to ours. as at Salisbury. and their buildings are. taking into suites The profuse : common in English doorways and some things arches. but in the moldings they were behind us. more complicated. a later period the vaulting becomes at Westminster. The natural use and the profusion of moldings in the English buildings of the thirteenth century is considered as one of the proofs of the English origin of the Gothic style. such ornament can be introduced. and a There is a lon- cross rib along the ridge of the .THE EARLY ENGLISK STYLE. on the whole. teristic 109 It is very charac- of this style. The French imitated it rapidly. The Yadxts their are distinguished from the Norman by styles greater boldness. In the earlier examples there are ribs on the angles of the at groins only. comHugh's work at though in the ItTorman we find an apbe con- proach to it in the Decorated various modifications of occur . of moldings so is. and from succeeding by their greater simplicity.

and at Warmington. the chapel of St. and the is cloisters at Lincoln. in fact. in is to some con- a marked distinction in the construction of Gothic vaults in England and France. as applied to vaults. as York llinster. cut to fit each stone is its France the stones are cut square or rather oblong. but also far more the French system is infinitely more economical . a ceiling. having always an outer roof over it. Kickman. Blaise. In England. word 'roof by Mr. for its being of stone. although it obviously better that should usually be a security against which was the chief motive It generally is for the introduction of stone vaults. as in the walls. There from the place. : in Early English vaults are sometimes of wood only. more abundant afterwards well worked and enriched with foliage. A vault is. earliest period.110 cross vaults. in "Westis an excellent example The rather incorrect use of the little known. minster Abbey. so. and so. has led fusion of ideas on this subject. as there it is no necessity fire. The English system costly . and only wedged out by the thickness of the mortar at the back in the joints. THE EAELY ENGLISH STTLEo and frequently also an intermediate rib on the surface of the vault. is far more scientific. The bosses are rare at they are generally first. or the old revestry. Northampton- shire.

1250.D. A. Wesiminster Attey. HI Chapel of St.THE EARLY ENGLISH STYLE. . Blaise.

1220. they were originally cider-cellars hall. as c. the vaulted chambers of these 113] are now used as the dining-room of the bishop's family and their guest-chamber. a beautiful plaster-ceiling fine by Bishop Bagot in 1850. Hugh. and from the it served as a passage to the bishop's chapel from the other offices also. early as in the cloister of Lincoln. though in a very neglected state. separated by is a wall. and finished under his immeGrand chambers as these now appear to us. and part of them. and consequently of expense. From this cause stone vaults are far more in England. . where the vault is fit of wood. a modern alteration. is common in France than From this cause also fan-tracery vaulting it peculiar to England. and had which still exists. as some have supposed part of the house. in principle. which was very lofty. not . alterations of various periods to be left visible. The beautiful vaulted chambers in the Bishop's Palace at "Wells are part of the original work.d. and cut to the ribs of the wooden vault. a. is the entrance-halL This latter feature an original arrangement.112 THE EAJILY ENGLISH STYLE. Jocelyn. and begins. and too much dilapidated by under the great a wooden roof only. but the springings are of stone. diate successor. of labour. It was concealed by cellars [see p. begun in the time of St.

.THE EAKLY ENGLISH STYLE.

Hugh's work.114 TnE EAELY EXGLISn STYLE. "Walter Grey. are They same found in the position also in the beautiful work of the west of AYells. name of The name taken from the shep- herd's crook. and are there used in the un- usual position of being in a vertical line between the detached shafts. York Cathedral. styles. A. and they continued in use in the subsequent with the style. as in the very beautiful tomb of Archbishop "Walter Grey. from the face of the work or the in outer surface of the molding.D. in St. the earliest example of this style. adopted by the bishops as emblematical of their office. although their form and character gradually change . front After- wards ihey were used entirely on the outside of Crockets. pediments. They occur at Lincoln. or in similar situations. 1255. projecting York Cathedral. lomb of Abp. so The ornaments Crockets were is first well known by the introduced in this style.

EARLY ENGLISH ORNAMENTS GABLE CROSSES. Cranford Et. 115 Warktou. JoIid Panel and Cusp. . Raunds.

Buttresses. mere strips of masonry slightly projecting from the wall. terminating either in a pedimental head. a prominent It is often found in Nortri- man work. or in a plain sloping set-off. The pinnacles terminating the buttresses are at first sometimes square. sometimes supporting small arches. instead of being. as at Eishop's Cleevc. p. they are either round or octagonal. but concealed under the roof of the . 4 The Elting Butteess now becomes feature in large buildings. with shafts at the angles. afterwards. and often consist merely of an octagonal shaft with a pyra- midal capping . and sometimes orna- mented with shafts. 123. On towers the buttresses are frequently carried up to the second storey.116 THE EAELY ENGLISH STYLE. as at Eavensthorpe. as in the last The style. Gloucesterthey shire. The angles are frequently broadly chamfered. or gable. have now a very bold projection. as at "Wrington. and generally diminish upwards by stages. the lower part of those at Higham Eerrars. either solid or detached. particularly in large build- ings. which is of transitional Norman character : are not very numerous in the Early English style. as in IS'orthants. and ter- minating in a plain conical capping ending in a bunch of foliage or other ornament as a finial as at Peter- borough.

c. 1230. A. 117 Wrington. A.D.tiJiLY KXGLISli JJLTXitESyES. c.L. Higliam Ferrars. . 1230.

and the roof of the obliquely altogether external. the English are far more elegant large French buildings often appear as if they were scaff'olding of stone. surrounded by a The Eroxts of Early English buildings before the introduction of tracery. of the same time . but in this style carried up higher. the thrust of the whole over the cloister to the ground. at Stanton Harcourt. have a very peculiar appearance.118 THE EARLY EXGLISH STYLE. Oxon. or two with a but- . as styles. and carrying the weight and and so to consequent thrust of the vault over the central space down to the external buttresses. before- is mentioned as the earliest example of this style. and consequently before the use of large windows. as in Hugh's choir at Lincoln. the triforium. forium. which supports the vaults of aisles. and the and carries this period. and fine many it is other Norman buildings is . the ground. the choir. as at Durham. spanning over aisle. But they did not become common until after There is a marked difference between the tresses of English buildings flying but- and those of French work . very diA'crent from those of the preceding or succeeding In small churches a common arrangement is to have either three lancet windows in the west front. p. 92. St. There a very fine example of a compound flying buttress at AVestminster Abbey. Winchester.

but in both cases there is frequently over Soutli-west View of Elsfield Cliurcli. as at Elsfield. them a or quatrefoil or small circular window foliated. tress 119 between them at the west end. Oxon. and a rich in the gable above.THE EAELY EXGLISn STYLE. sunk panels of the same form. two three In large buildings there are frequently tiers of lancet windows. Oxon. circular window . but not pierced or as windows.

but spire. are sometimes inserted at the angles. some of the arches of which are pierced for windows. as at Ilton. especially in JN'orthamptonshire. are in general Eakly English Towees their buttresses. and produce spire is generally a very fine feature of . jS'orthants. and are readily distinguished by which have a greater an arcade is projection. . and are frequently very fine compositions. a very good effects an Early some great architects have gone so far as to say that a tower is never complete without There 7nay have heen one. does not rise a parapet. Somerset. we have no evidence of there are no squiiiches to carry a spire. towers are terminated by original parathese probably had wooden spires rising within Pinnacles the parapet.Gorman. the earlier examples frequently carried round the upper storey. as at Middleton Stoney. but that is going too far. from within terminates in a Spire. wooden spires on such towers as those of Middleton The English church Stoney and Eavensthorpe. Oxon. and are a good feature. which in some districts. The tower generally Eavensthorpe. of is of the form usually called a broach varieties.120 THE EAELY ENGLISH STYLE. more lofty In than the . but it . which there are several In other districts the pets . but as at in later buildings the windows are more often double. which occasionally but rarely remain.

Nortliants. 1260. 1240. Ravenstliorpe.D. 121 Middleton Stoney.-I:aELY ENGLISH TOWERS. c. A. A. Oxon.D. c. .

especially as the style advanced. is The East Exd almost invariably square in Earlyp. Beverley Minster. wc have a few examples of the apsidal termination. and these become more enriched and les& bold. an elegant little structure. near Pangbourne. English work. as in "West- minster Abbey.122 THE EARLY ENGLISH STYLE. until. and much ingenuity displayed in . this feature is altogether merged in the cornice moldings. the roof*of which has been carefully restored. In the latter part of this style great liberty was allowed to the carvers. generally a half-octagon. parapet. as at Cowley. small trefoil arches are introduced between the corbels. consist. in the succeeding style. but more commonly. pro- jecting course of stone which carries the front of the i!ff"''itfL^-) ^ IF Cortel-taWe. and several other large churches. as in the ear- merely of blocks supporting a straight.hexagon. Oxon. the small parish churches this form is very rare i In an example occurs at Tidmarsh. The Coebel-Taeles sometimes lier period. Berks. 94. or half. . although.

ornament. was introduced although Eor instance. there are is called the tooth. in the description of ornament which goes by the general name of " toothalways conventional. Norfolk. 3 Binham Priory. there is a singular 12 Varieties of tlie Tootli-ornament. much resemblance though all ele- Odo has the knobs on the foliage (2) characteristic is of the early part of the style." for want of a better. bearing gant. 123 . three varieties of what even in the church of Binham alone. them. ornament. and approaches very closely to the Decorated . variety . not to each other.THE EARLY ENGLISH the variety of ornament that STYLE. another entirely without (3).

are well-known examples of this period. and was buried in the choir. and consecrated in 1258. general appearance of Early English buildings The is magnificent and rich. immediately be filled and leave the nave is in afterwards. The church was finished by Bishop Giles de Bridport. The chapter-house at Christ Church. from the circumstance of its being less mixed than any other building of the same importance. the presbytery of Ely. who died in 1237. by Bishop Eichard Poore. a considerable part of Fountains Abbey. the choir of Worcester Cathedral. but the carefully executed. Salisbury Cathedral usually considered as the type of the Early English style. in the smaller build- much simplicity of appearance. . the choir of the and the same part of FounTemple Church. In those buildings where is very long windows are used there a grandeur arising from the height of the divisions ings there is . the choir of Eochester. the nine altars of Durham at the east end. and the nave of Lincoln.124 THE EARLY EXGLISH STYLE. Oxford. the first half of the thirteenth century. tains Abbey. front to work all appears well designed and It was usual to build the west after the choir. which was therefore completed at that time. rather from the number of parts than from the details. the south transept of York. It was commenced in 1220 on a new site. London.

This practice whole of that was by no means peculiar to York. This completes an outline of the Architectural history of the principal known buildings of the Early English style. . Peter at "Westminster to be enlarged. we are indebted for the glorious fabric. always doing some- thing every year. and the same families were usually continued generation after gene- ration to their continued labour. with the tower and transepts. King Henry the Third. ordered the chnrch of St. The north transept of York Minster was built between 1250 and 1260. treasurer of the church. by John the Roman. The records of this cathedral clearly prove that it was the regular practice of the chapter to keep a gang of the workmen number : in their pay as part of the establishment varied from twenty to fifty. but still work is of the pure Early English. 125 ** In the year 1245.. Ed- ward the Confessor. but appears to have been the usual custom." These portions . own charges the most subthe both English and foreign. mindful of the devotion which he had towards being St. to rebuild first collected at his them in a more elegant style. and the eastern part of the walls. THE EAELY ENGLISH STYLE. being pulled down. of the church are the choir and apse richest character. who afterwards became Archbishop of York. he began having tle artificers.

Geddington remain. counts. as appears by the builders' accounts. A. They were The cross at alL executed between 1291 and 1294. 1272—1300. espe. begins. The change from rated style to "svas the Early English to the Decoit so very gradual.THE GEADUAL CHANGE ERO^vI THE EAELY ENGLISH STYLE TO THE DECORATED. and the free and graceful. though at the same figure is remarkable for the ease time ricli. cross to plainly a memorial Queen Eleanor as cither of the others. and those on the crosses erected to her cially those memory are almost equally fine. that is impossible draw any line where one style ceases and the other The time of Edward I. folds of the drapery. was that of the change. on the Northampton cross those at AYalt- ham have been mutilated and restored.D. which are still extant. but is perhaps the most perfect of those which is This not mentioned in the executors' ac- probably only because that part of the it is as accounts has been lost. In the early Decorated the sculpture of the human and chasteness of the attitudes. Ecw figures can sur- pass in simplicity and beauty the eflSgy of Queen Elea- nor in Westminster Abbey. and some of our most beautiful examples belong to that period. .

. 127 Eleanor Cross. A. GedcLmgton. 13G0. Eeverley. c. A D. 1295.CHAXGE rUOAI EAiiLr EA'GLiSH 10 DKCOKAIED.D.

the farm of the moldings is that of a roll of parchment. and this form is more usually of the Decorated style. these terms. and the moldings are deeply undercut. the pointed one. were used by Eickman himself. and the roll-molding may be either Early English or Decorated. . Bat these two divisions are so frequently contemporaneous. and some of these have the abacus octagonal. -which is another mark of that style. if taken by would be Early English. and are usefal. ITorthants. although. which is more usual in French than in English work. but the deep undercutting of the abacus would rather belong to the Early English. the capital next. would be considered as belonging to the Decorated style . three arclies of the sedilia and the small one The of the piscina at Ilarleston. Some of the capitals are molded only. as sub-divisions. may also be considered as transitional.128 '^UAXGE FROM EAIiLY ENGLISH TO DECORATED. On the other hand. with natural foliage stand- ing out quite free on the bell of the capital. and they contain some of the most beautiful work that can be found anyits where . The transepts of "Westminster Abbey are recorded to have been built in his time. but here is the distinction not sufficiently broad to constitute two distinct styles. Some have proposed into to divide the Decorated style two —the geometrical and the flowing. without foliage. the trefoil arch used under itself.

Nortliants. .D. 129 Sedilia and Piscina. c. A.CHANGE FROil EAULY EXGLISH TO DECOEITED. Harleston Cliurcli. 1280.

but are usually reckoned as early examples of the Decorated style. but Geddington not included. where she was buried.130 CHAN^GE PEOM EAULT ENGLISH TO DECORATED. the residence of the Prince Regent. all bethis time of change. and the received names for them. but very convenient in practice. The on its beautiful crosses erected by Edward I. to "Westminster long to Abbey. that it is and run into each other impossible to separate almost them in practice : the windows may indeed be distinguished. to continue to use the received divisions of styles. others with flowing tracery in the same building. that for many records were kept in the stables of Carlton House. so much so. though even in these we often find windows with geometrical tracery and . where she died. There is no broad line of distinction and of division in medieval buildings. wliich was long much negyears the valuable lected . the divisions are arbitrary. so continually. prolost or mis- bably only because that account had been laid in the Record Office. Lincolnshire. for preserving these are for the The accounts most part among the is Public Eecords. it was one continual progress or decline. there- fore. . It is better. at all the places where the body of Queen Eleanor had rested way from Grantham. with the same moldings and details and no distinction can be drawn in doorways and buttresses. afterwards George lY.

IL. not monastic. . Ozon. A. 1320. Stanton St. axd III. Ciancel. A.THE DECOIIATED STYLE.D. Edward I. Jolin. an excellent example of the Decorated style. The choir of this church is east window.D. especially the It is merely a parish church. c. 1300—1377..

of the The name Edwardian style is sometimes given to this second Gothic style. There is frequently a staircase at the corner of the porch next the church. but rarely. sometimes with windows or open arcades at the though rarely. and rare in others. sides. but does not apply anywhere else. which is the objection to its general use. Berkshire. although that is not one of the districts in which they are commonly met with. and is convenient for England. . there are remains of a wooden gallery in that position. to ascend to the room over. and.132 THE DECOEATED STYLE. districts. These wooden porches are common in some Essex. There are good examples at Einfield and Long "Wittenham. of The name The Poeches are sometimes shallow. as in Herefordshire. supposed to have been for the choir-boys to stand when part of the marriage-ceremony was performed in the porch. frequently a niche over the outer doors. There is door into the church from the porch this was for the patron-saint. as at Aldham. also with a room over: there are many fine timber porches of this style. others have a very bold projection. Eickman Edwardian implies the reigns of the three Edwards. distinguished by the moldiDgs and barge = boards. which justly called Decorated. Occasionally. as at Kidlington. or .

c. A. . Oxon.D. and the niche over for the figure of the patron-saint. 1350.DECOKATED POECKES. 133 Kidlington. This porch is a good typical example of the outer doorway with the ballit flower ornament in the hollow molding.

of this style are frequently large. but in small churches they are as fre- quently plain. Forthants. A. with crockets and finials. 1320.D. which generally a bi- king and a is shop. merely the a dripstone over roll- molding often minated are ter- by two small heads. and have a rich canopy over them. and have them.134 THE DECOEATED STTLE. as at Crick. The Doorways and very richly sculptured. c. JS'orthants . not 60 deeply re- . but in general they are Crick. distinguish It is often not easy to the plain doorways of this style from those of the pre- ceding one. this the case also with the windows.

and not inserted as separate shafts of stone or marble. In ordinary parish churches the old wooden door. 135 A few doorways of this style are double. with the original iron-work upon it. . and it is frequently not easy to distinguish one from the other.D. A. Oxon. as in the Early English. and have ornamental iron- work upon them. The wooden doors are sometimes ornamented with panelling of a better description than that which is common in the next style. is often preserved longer than any other ornament. is also This the case Dorcliester. Oxon. even the nail-heads are made ornamental. 1320. and as at Dorchester. "When there are shafts in the jamhs they are worked on the same stones.DECORATED DOOEWAYS. in the Early English style. c. they were originally painted in colours like the interior of the often churches. there being very little difference be- tween them.

trefoils. as at Dorchester. a point in which it differs from the other styles. however.D. Nortli Aisle. struction. is also tial decoration of tra- m^^u^ Oxon. TTW A. In small there are country churches. 1300. perpendicu- its ornaments are numerous and strictly faithful very delicately carved. c. more to nature and more es- sentially parts of the structure than in any other style. and other geometrical figures. and the tracery either in flowing lines. The ornament part of the con- East Window. the winessen- dows have the cery. a Decorated cusp cannot be inserted in the tracery. The Decorated Style is distinguished by its large windows divided by mullions. perhaps more of very plain churches of this style than still any other. and not running larly . Dorchester. .136 THE DECOEATED STYLE. or forming circles.

DECOEATED AVTNDOWS.

137

There is a very fine window, with reticulated tracery and richly molded, in the south walk of the cloisters at Westminster. No rule whatever is followed in the

Cloisters,

"Westminster

Al)l3ey,

A.D. 1360.

form of the arch over windows in

this style

;

some are
is

very obtuse, others very acute, and the ogee arch

not

uncommon. (See

p. 141.)

;

138

THE DECOBATED STYLE,
is

Decorated tracery
general classes

usually

divided

into

three

— geometrical, flowing, and flamboyant
so great, that
all

the variety

is

many

sub-divisions

may

be made, but they were
a considerable period.

used simultaneously for

The

earliest

Decorated windows have geometrical
is,

tracery;

Exeter Cathedral

perhaps, on the whole,

the best typical example of the early part of this
style.

The

fabric rolls are preserved,

and

it

is

now

evident that the existing windows are, for the most
part, of the time of

Bishop Quivil, from 1279 to 1291.

The windows
Chapel,

all

have geometrical patterns, and some

of these are identical with those of

Oxford,

Merton College The chancel of Haseley Church,
of the

Oxon,
of

is

a good example of the early Decorated style
I.

Edward

One

windows
and the

in the cloisters of
aisles of the choir
p. 136,

Westminster Abbey,
of Dorchester
excellent examples.

p. 137,

Abbey Church, Oxon,

are also

The

buildings of the time of

Edward the
still

First have

geometrical tracery in the windows.
lege Chapel the side

In Merton Col-

windows

retain the original

painted glass, with the kneeling figure of the donor
several times repeated,

with the inscription ''Magister

Henricus de Mannesfeld," recorded by "Wood as of
A.D. 1283.

DECORATED WINDOWS.

139

Many windows
of

of this style, especially in the time

have the rear -arch ornamented with cusps, with a hollow space over the head of the window in the thickness of the wall, between the rear arch and

Edward

I^,

the outer arch.

Windows with flowing
and
in the church of

tracery, as at Great Milton,

the Austin Friars;
also those

with

reti-

culated, or net-like

forms, are in general

somewhat

later

than the geometrical
patterns;
at least,

they do not seem
to

have been introso early;

duced quite

but they are very
frequently contemporaneous, and both
classes

may often

be

found side by side
in the

same buildGreat Milton, Oxon,
c.

ing, evidently erect-

ed at the same time.

A.D, 1350.

An

early instance of this occurs at Stoke

Golding, in

140

THE DECORATED STYLE.
between 1275 and 1290,
as ap-

Leicestershire, built

pears by an

inscription still remaining: the

windows

flowing.

have mostly geometrical tracery, but several have The same mixture occurs at Selby Abbey,

and St. Mary's, Beverley. with geometrical
tracery have the

In some instances windows
,

r

moldings and the
mullions covered

with

the

ball-

flower ornament in great
sion,

profuto

even

excess: these examples occur
chiefly in Herefordshire,

as

at

Leominster; and
in

Gloucester-

shire, as in the

south

aisle

of

the nave of the

Cathedral

at
iWHiiiiliii^

Oloucester : they
are for the most
,

.

«

.

The Au^istinian or Austin Friars, London,
c.

part, if not entirely, of

A.D. 1350.

the time of

Edward

lie

DECOEATED WINDOWS,

141

Finedon, and Higham Ferrars, ^N'orthants, are good examples of the ogee form of arch, and the manner in

'jf'^^'-^'

Finedon,

c.

A.D. 1350.

Higliani Ferrars,

c.

A.D, 1360.

which the tracery
is

is

made

to harmonise

with the arch

very pleasing

to the eye,

and not very common.

although a great deal of in the Georgian era. said to One of the side windows. large parish in is The is roof now have used at St. about the middle of the fourteenth century. from is general resemblance to a fisherman's net. of are valuable. of It has been carefully restored in the time Queen Victoria. at the expense of a gentleman of is Eeading. which the remains it was destroyed from the neglect that was usual at that period. or rear-arch. very characteristic of this style at its best period. "What its the net-like character of tracery. Mary's Church in Eeading originally belonged to this chapel. arch. is frequently of a dif- and proportion to the outer one: there sometimes a series of open cusps hanging from called hanging foliation. and now used which it as a chapel-of-ease for the situated. is the most usual characteristic of this and begins in the time of Edward II. There are good examples of this period in the south aisles of the churches of St. of which there a very fine example in the west is window of the Pran- ciscan Friary at Eeading. 143. p. is also a very good example of the style. Mary Magdalene and St. The inner ferent shape is also it. with a segmental head of the same period. Aldate's Oxford. .142 TilE is called DECORATED STYLE. This kind of tracery style.

.' DECORATED TN'INDOWS. 143 --. c AD 1350.^I'liiil West Wrnaow. Pranciscan Friary Reading.

This foliated inner is arch not a very common feature. Oson. as at Ardley. .headed windows are very style in common in this many parts of the and in Oxford- country. off the wet. the is There ample of this inner arch in Broughton Church. and the Ardley. as at Stonesfield. more common in some parts of the country : than in others this feature seems to have taken the place of the inner plane of decoration.144 It is THE DECORATED STYLE. Oxfordshire. and in it disappears alto- gether style. with tracery shafts. especially in Leicestershire shire. or projecting molding over the window to throw times omitted. Win- dows with a arch are flat segmental frequently also used in this style. is some- which has also an elegant detached shaft in the interior. Square . dripstone. of the and Early English succeeding a good ex- style.

Interior c.D. 1320.DECOEATED WINDOWS. Nortli Windo-w. and Exterior. 145 Stonesfield. A. Oxon. L .

founder of the college in that parish. and either circular or quatrefoils. small clere-storey windows of the Decorated style. These are called sound-holes. to throw down the light. The storey under this. Clere-storey windows of this style are often small. In some parts of the country.n. are not uncommon. and the windows of this storey are also peculiar. where the bells are. The clever manner which these windows are splayed within. should be which forms an elegant window. along with the roof.146 THE DECOEATED STYLE. the country there is pierced stonework for keeping out the birds. "Windows in towers are usually different from those In the upper storey. — where it is part of the work of Pyal. with quatrefoil cusps. the A. as at Great Milton and Garsington. . but more usually they are of wood only. but more usually the churches have been rebuilt in the Perpendicular style. there is no glass in some parts of . as in Oxfordshire. or trefoils or the spherical triangle with cusps. in noticed. where the ringers stand. is also commonly called the belfry. 1388. when the church has been raised. sometimes richly ornamented as at Irthlingborough. in other parts of the church. and especially below.

.D. ^nU Interior. A. A.DECORATED WINDOWS OF CLERE-STOEEYS. 147 I'l'iiS/Si'^'f'ilflilllll'M. 1320..D. c. Great Milton. L . Oxon. Oxon. 1350. Exterior.i-^^ Garsington. c.

The most important nave and aisles . the moldings are never of the true Flamboyant cha- which is quite distinct both from the Decorated and the Perpendicular it coincided in time with the latter. of this form occurs one on the side of at "Westwell. and therefore does not properly belong to our racter. and the forms approaching to generally indicate a late date. The arch is sometimes cinquefoiled. with crockets and bunches of foliage for and tall with pinnacles arch is also. . . are not so and are commonly vided into two in the same space as the one below. The ogee arch is frequently used in small arcades and in the heads of windows. present subject. Oxon. and are frequently enriched with crockets and finials. where this that of a canopy over a tomb. forms of tracery approaching to it are not uncommon. as in Beverley Minster. or at the west A rare instance of an east window fine end in small ones. are naturally those between the those of the triforium.148 Circular style. stones or hoodmolds are generally supported The dripby heads. THE DECORATED STYLE. and a a transept at Cheltenham. between two piers of a lofty arch. if there is one. Flamhoyant tracery. although it. "We have no instance of real Flamboyant work in this country. windows are also a fine at the feature of this chiefly used ends of the transepts in large churches. and ornamented finials. di- as at Beverley. tall.

149 Beverley. c. A.D. . 1350.J)ECORATED AKCHES. Torkslure.

forming as perfect if tabernacles. Yoriisliire- . more common canopies > ]y they have on the same plane with the seats. have pro- jecting canopies over J J them.160 THE BECOEATED STYLE. Beverley Miaster. for n images . do not differ The Aeches effect very materially in general from the Early English. or seats for the officiating clergy by the side of the altar. are very characteristic features of the style. The Arcades -which ornament the walls in rich buildings. but are distin- y guished by the moldings and capitals as before described. and those over the sedilia. In some instances the sedilia.

Northants. and the ornamented with foliage of a different character from that which preceded it. this done in a parish for coiiyenience. Nortliaiits. but convenient as shewing begin ners all the parts belonging to a pillar. with separate molded one capitals and bases to ITasebi. the shafts that are united in pillar. as at Naseby. sionally. the arch-raolding restPedestal ing upon the capital. even in genuine work of the fourteenth ceuis tury. 151 The Pillars have no capitals are longer detached shafts. the base of the pillar is stilted upon a lofty plinth. . and the pillar itself consisting of a clus- ter of shafts. church merely to raise the base above the level of the backs of the seats. though not very frequently.DECORATED PILLARS. Occaas has been mentioned. and the base resting upon a pediment. is is This an exceptional example. In a few instances.

and has in general a capital. there only. is as at Somerset. more frequently of moldings though the foliage obviously decoration. to the is united. c.152 THE DECORATED STYLE. More usually what is called a stilted base The example here given from is an extremely good one of a clustered pillar. When there is foliage on the ca- Exeter Cathedral pital. York Minster.D. there not always any pediment. Exeter Cathedral. the capi- only. or several shafts smaller that are capitals. and often have the hood-molding over them. is. though there sometimes Prome. gives much more A. and is no very perceptible difference at first sight. 1300. In richer churches the pillars are clustered and the arches richly molded. pillars In ordinary parish churches the there and arches are frequently as plain as in the Early English. . The pillar is usually much more lofty than the one at Naseby (p. but notwithstanding tals are its name. with molded capitals and stilted base. it is usually longer. as in in this style. 151).

1320. each leaf being accurately copied from nature. as at Eeverley stances each leaf is (1). but by no means and having almost 1 2 c. the Capitals are ornamented with beautiful foliage. arranged flat. A large pier sometimes a cluster .D. 153 In the richer examples of this style. as good an effect as when ranged upon is stalks. as well as the best modern artist could do as to encircle the pillar.DECORATED CAPITALS. as at Beverley (2). Beverley Minster. These were arranged so sometimes by means of a stalk it. round the bell of the capital. lorteliire. A. In other in- separate. forming a branch.

quently a pier consists of four shafts only. It frequently happens that four shafts are arranged diamond. . as at Beverothers a series of moldings only. of from the height of the base. be taken but in richer churches the piers consist of a number of shafts clustered together. the pillars or piers are simply round or octagonal. it frequently happens that a new pavement of a church has raised the level several inches. as at there is EngIn other instances no hollow. and stand upon a plinth. There is sometimes a fillet on the shaft. capital. some of under a molded abacus. with a series of moldings for the capital. both of these occur in the same pillar at Beverley. each -with its separate capital. which add much to the effect. and the arches that rest upon them are sometimes molded and sometimes not course. which must. the height of which varies very much. The Bases are usually molded only. from the bell of the of it. Sometimes the hollows are rather deep.wise. though not so deep as in the Early lish. In small country churches. the upper or abacus being usually the roll-molding. More frefoliage of six shafts.. but the molding stands out clear Beverley and Stanwick. 154 THE DECORATED STYLE. which have ley (3). with u small hollow between them. or the shaft is pear-shaped . as at Irthlingborough. with a ring at the foot as at Irthlingborough.

c. 1320.D. YorisMre. . A.DECORATED CAPITALS. Beverley. 155 J£i^ Capital and Base.

156

THE DECORATED STYLE.
is

Sometimes there
Minster (3)
;

a

fillet

on the edge, as at Beverleyis

in other instances the edge

brought to
but this

a point, as in the same example. These clustered pillars

add very much
of

to the effect of the building

;

is

not always noticed until they are drawn, and a section

them

is

shewn, and then the done to
arches.

skill of

the medieval
are

architect has justice
chiefly

it.

The moldings

shewn on the

The Moldings
so deeply cut,

of this style differ from the Early-

English chiefly in having the rounds and hollows not

and more generally

filleted:

the roll-

molding, and the quarter round, are very
the abacus of the capital
is

much used

in general a roll or filleted

round, and the base

is
:

formed of round moldings withas the style advances, the

out the deep hollow

mold-

ings become, generally, more shallow and feeble.

The

roll-molding

is

perhaps the most cha-

^.^,__^,

racteristic of the style,

though

it

is i'||lii|

f^^^^^
..^^^

used occasionally in Early English

work

also.

A
;

bold quarter-round

is

frequently used on arches without

The roll-molding,
all styles,

any other

the plain chamfer

is

used in

but

in Decorated

work

it is

frequently sunk so as to leave
to the angles of

a small square edge at each angle, thus varying the
light

and shade, and giving a precision

DECOEATED

MOLDlIirGS.

157

Eaunds, Nortliauts,
'"'
I''"'

c.

A.D. 1320.

Kidlingtou, Oxon,

c.

A.D. 1350,

i,|l,

I'LIH,,.

in""",

Kidlington, Oxon,

c.

A.D. 1350.

Dorcliester, Oxon,

c.

A.D. 1320.

158

THE DECORATED STYLE.
effect, as at

the chamfer which has a very good
ter, p.

Dorches-

157.

In

late

examples

this is varied

by a gentle
sculptures

swelling in the middle, foraiing a kind of shallow ogee

molding, as at Kidlington.

The ornamental

in the hollow moldings are numerous, but there are

two

which require more particular notice
is

;

they are nearly

as characteristic of the Decorated style as the zig-zag of the ISTorman, or the tooth-ornament of the Early

English,

The

first is

the ball-flower, which

is

a glo-

bular flower half opened, and shewing, within, a small

round

ball.

It

is

used with the utmost profusion in

the moldings of windows, door-

ways, canopies, cornices, arches,
&c., as at

Baunds, Kidlington,
(p. 157),
effect,

and Dorchester
rally

gene-

with good

but someof

times in such excess as almost
to

destroy

the

effect

the
The
ball-flower.

moldings; but at the same time
it

gives great

richness to the

The ball-flowers are general efi'ect of the windows. sometimes placed at intervals, and connected by a stem
with or without foliage. The other ornament is the four-leaved flower.
it is

This

has a raised centre, and four petals cut in high relief;
frequently

much

varied, but

may

be distinguished

;

DECOEATED MOLDIXGS.

159
its

by

its

being cut distinctly into four petals, and by
it is

boldness:

sometimes used
not quite

abundantly, though

so profusely as the ball-flower.

In some instances the centre
II

,

is

sunk instead of being

raised.

|

The battlement
of buildings
it is
is

as

anorna-

^~"''''
'

mental feature in the interior

THe four-leayed flow,

frequently used in this style, although

more common in the Perpendicular.

Decorated

battlements

may

generally be

distinguished

by the

horizontal molding being cut oif at each opening, and

not continued vertically
in the later styles
;

down

the sides of

it,

as is usual

and

this applies to the actual bat-

tlement on the parapet, as well as to the merely ornamental battlement in the interior. It occurs on the
top of a screen, or of a piscina or other niche;
also

on the transom, and sometimes on the sill of a window in all which situations it is more common and more
conspicuous in the Perpendicular style.

The use
a window,
that

of the battlement as an ornament in the
sill

interior of a building, often on the edge of the
is

of
in

a singular caprice, but very
it is

common

English buildings;
is

one of the English features
the French architectural an-

much quizzed by

tiquaries.

160

THE DECORATED STYLE.
foliage in this style is

The

more

faithfully copied

from nature than in any other: the yine-leaf, the maple, and the oak with the acorn, are the most usual. The surface of the wall is often covered with flat foliage, arranged

in

small squares

called

diaper -work,

which

is

believed to have originated in an imitation

of the rich hangings then in general use, and which

bore the same name.

These diaper patterns were

ori-

ginally coloured in imitation of the silks from which

they were copied, and which at an early period came

by the European manufacturers
ment was used

from the East, though they were afterwards imitated in Belgium and France,
particularly at Ypres and Rheims.

This kind of orna-

in the Early English style, as in the

belongs to the Decorated style.

it more commonly The colouring of the ornaments to make them more effective was far more common in mediaeval Gothic work than is generally

choir of "Westminster Abbey, but

supposed, because

it

has been so universally whitePuritans, or during the bad

washed

over, either

by the

taste of the Georgian era.

This colouring frequently

comes to light during modern restorations, when the whitewash is scraped off, and sometimes good pictures
of scriptural subjects have been

whitewashed over in

the same imorant manner.

Geddington Cross. c. . 161 Canterbury Cathedral.BECOKATED DliPEE-'WOIlK. Nortliamptonsliire. 1320. c. 1295.

. They usually have pediments. Buttresses in this style have great variety of The forms and of degrees of richness. and often terminate in pinnacles. as at Irthlingborough. Oxon. Oxford. according to the richness of the building. l^^.. groups of pinnacles round the base of the spire effect. and canopies. ei ther under the cornice. John. or ornamental water-spout. quite plain. Leicestershire. or merely have the angles chamfered and terminated by a slope. In There are sometimes as at large buildings there are fine arch-buttresses spanning over the also aisles. but "^^ ^""""'" " ^^'^*°'' rarely. which have a very rich St. in this style. ent of it. In other instances the buttress terminates in a pe- diment or gablet. or independ- as at Stanton St. are left) . Mary's. and are frequently enriched on the face with niches for figures (which sometimes. Sometimes they are off. Over each buttress there is frequently ^^ a gurgoyle. as at Raunds. as ^^'^'''^ at Gadsby. either with or without crockets and a iinial. as at Howden.162 THE DECORATED STYLE.

DECOEATED BUTTRESSES.

163

-->^^;-,v'.if.'t^^

^

(h

Irtlilinglwrougli, Nortliants,
c.

Eaunds, Nortliants,
A.D. 1250.

A.D. 1220.

;

164

THE DECOEATED STYLE.

These groups of pinnacles are among the most ornamental features of the style
those at the east end of

Howcele-

den are among the most
brated.

The

buttresses of this

style are almost invariably di-

vided into stages with a set-off

between each, and sometimes have a succession of niches with
erocketed canopies over them.

Our

eyes are so
to

much

accusin this

tomed

empty niches

country that they do not offend us, but an empty niche
is

in fact an

unmeaning thing,

a niche was originally intended
to contain an image, and the

canopy over

it

was

to protect

^'!iriK

the head of the image.

The

flat surfaces

in niches

Howden,Torksliire.c.A.D.1350.

and monuments, on screens, and in other situations, are covered with delicately-carved patterns, called diaperwork, representing foliage and flowers among which are introduced birds and insects, and sometimes dogs or
;

other animals, all executed with much care and accuracy,

and proving that the artists of that time drew largely from nature, the fountain-head of all perfection in art.

DECORATED SEDTLIA.

165

Sedilia, Cliesterton,

Oxon,

c.

1320.

The

sedilia, or seats for

the officiating ministers on

the east side of the

altar, are frequently

the most ornaas

mental feature in the choir of a parish church;
at Chesterton,

Oxon, in which they are very elegant,

with light shafts and the ball- flower molding. These, with the piscinas, are frequently the only ornamental
features in a country church,

which

is

in other respects

quite plain
to

name Decorated is sometimes objected on this ground, but the name has special reference to
;

the

166

THE DECOEATED

STITLE.

the window-tracery, which in the Decorated is a necesnot the case in sary part of the construction this is
;

the Early English style.

The
nacles

Piscinas, or water- drains, and niches, or taberfor images, are often very rich, with canopies

and open tracery.

These objects commonly shew the

are always on the chief beauties of this style; they of the altar, the locker or ambry for keepsouth side

ing the chalice, &c.,

is

usually on the north side.
is

The
in

pediment, or straight- sided canopy,
this style over doors, sedilia, piscinas,

much used

and monuments.

The Geoined Eoofs, oe Vaults, are distinguished addifrom those of the preceding style chiefly by an foliage on the tional number of ribs, and by the natural
bosses.

Many

fine

examples of these remain, as in the

Cathedral of Exeter, and at York in the chapter-house; the vault is at Norwich in the cloisters; at Chester ^
are a few instances of wood, with stone springers. There of very stone roofs of this style over narrow spaces of supported by open-work, as if in imitation

high pitch, Camof wood-work, as on the vestry of Willingham, porch of Middleton Cheney, Oxbridgeshire, and the
fordshire.'

wer& b The wooden groined vaults of Chester Cathedral effect, and in carefully restored in 1871-72, with excellent
very good
taste.

.
DECOllATED PISCFNAS.

167

'OfU

.Ifir:

_
c.

..

Enford A/Its,

c

AD

1350

RiisMen, ITorthants,

A.D. 13j.X

Ti,-

Ambry,

or Locker, witli tlie Door.
c.

Eushden. Northants,

A.D, 1350.

Piscina, Tackley. Oxon.

and several others in that neighbourhood. There are. Eerkshire. Timber Eoofs although they are more common than is usually supposed but it is lamentable to observe how fast they . are disappearing: that finest of the hall of the abbey of Great Malvern. It should be observed that what are called open timber roofs are. was wantonly decountry. Oxfordshire. as at Adderbury. the example that existed in this in any other. near Chippen- ham. is wood only. Eaunds. inner roofs or ceil- ings for ornament only. which are. however. a fine example. : Eradenstoke Priory. with an outer roof. These in- ner roofs or wooden ceilings. very frequently. Oxfordshire.168 THE DECOKATED STYLE. ceilings of another kind. or was. are sometimes of precisely the same form as stone vaults. The timber roofs of churches of this style are not generally so fine as those of halls. is. in fact. or probably stroyed it was a wooden ceiling. as at Sparsholt. of this period are comparatively scarce. At KidAt Kid- a good example of a Decorated timber-roof of an ordinary parish church. many very good specimens of Decorated roofs remaining in churches. with a plain substantial outer roof over them. or Clack Abbey. HS'orth- amptonshire. . AVinchester Cathedral are also of dington. The wooden vaults of War- mington and the cloisters of Lincoln have been already mentioned those of the nave of York Minster and . in l(Viltshire.

DECORATED ROOFS. there is also timber-roof to the south aisle of the nave. them ornamental also. lington.D. These were intro- . c. Ceilings are very useful and often necessary. which has been carried too far. 1350. and the proper thing to-be considered is how best to i make liA^iii Kiddington. The Puritan fashion of plain whitewashed plaster ceilings caused a natural prejudice against ceilings altogether. A. Oxon. as they were formerly. in the 169 a Decorated same county.

and bands of figures in colour. although in some of the . The open timber-roofs of the Victorian Gothic archiwhether in what are miscalled restorations or in churches. Oxfordshire. tects. in modern glass. duced in the seventeenth century. this was notably the case in half of the nineteenth. bright colours are put in the backgrounds. and destroy the effect of the figures. which are thus well seen. had there been introduced in the time of George This church was the first to be restored by the Oxford Architectural in Society.170 THE DECORATED STYLE. the plaster ceiling the Third. the fine church of Haseley. and ' first In some instances these flat plaster ceilings entirely concealed the upper part of fine Decorated windows. is painted glass of the Decorated style good. real restorations the work is is so well perienced eyes are frequently deceived. and continued during the ignorant and apathetic eighteenth. with grey backgrounds. and the first which open-seats were restored in the diocese of Oxford. The roofs are also generally a bad imitation of the old work. have quite a distinct character of their new own. . painted glass this done that inexIn roofs and the English generally very nevtr the case. a general imitation of the time of Edward the First or Second but no one with eyes in his head can mistake these for old work.

is of the The cornice also generally richer. and windows. Northants. Eng- but of course with the doorways. Somebut times there appears to have been a wooden this is spire.DECOHATED TOWEES. with a panbattlement. and pinnacles at the angles. Moulton. where the lower part of the pinnacles only remain. . elled and with gurgoyles projecting from it at the corners. 171 style The Towees of the Decorated are usually placed at the west end. by no means always the case. as at Moulton. and other features characteristic style. and follow very much the same ge- neral appearance as in the Early lish. Northants.

c. Nortliaiits. excepting that there are generally more of the spire-lights. Wollaston. 1310.172 THE DECORATED STYLE.1350. . c.D. AJ). as at Wollas- ton and Eingstead. Spires of the Decorated style differ but slightly The from those of the Early English. small windows at the bases and on the sides of the spire. Eingstead. I^orthants. Iforthants. A.

Oxfordshire. The south fronts of Howden . but there are frequently two narrow windows. are among the finest examples. flanked of a church of this style most comat consists of one large window at the end of the by tall buttresses. The interior of the choir at one of the finest examples of the general efiect of a Decorated interior. are good ex- amples.storey. . Lichfield Cathedral has the great advantage of having its three spires perfect. with the addition of a doorway. under the central window. and on a smaller scale the choirs of Hull. and on this account perhaps gives us the best idea of the eff'ect intended to be produced by the exterior of a perfect church of this style: there can be no doubt that the same arrangement was contemplated in many other instances. with a buttress between them carrying a bell-cot. or doorways. . in small country churches of The east ends of Carlisle and Selby. and ends than at with us it is commore often found in the transept the west end. On the Continent the large rose-window is almost always a principal feature of the west front paratively rare. this style. and Selby are also fine examples of the arrangement of clere. and a smaller one the end of each aisle the west front usually has the same arrangement. with large win- dows both Selby is to the aisle and the by buttresses with pinnacles. and the west end of Howden. and of Dorchester.DECORATED FBONTS. 173 The East Front monly choir. separated the side of a large building of this style.

which is trifo- now rather a part of the clere-storey opening than a distinct member of the division. becomes an object of more attention. and the easy flow of the lines of tracery. In the interior of large buildings we find great breadth.— 174 'j^'HE DECORATED STYLE. and an enlargement of the clere. and magnificent from the size of the windows. with a corresponding diminution of the rium. be omitted in this mention of some of the leading ex- amples of the Decorated the general character of : which is thus ably summed up by Mr. ple. from the simplicity of the design. The from the increased richness of the groining. yet there which is peculiarly pleasing. uncommon grandeur and exama simis certainly the finest nowhere spared. ornament plicity is is On the whole. the nave of York. The lantern of Ely and the nave of York must not style.'* .story win- dows. simple from the small number of parts. roofing. Eickman is *'The General Appeahaistce of Decorated buildings at once simple and magnificent.

is was much more so than commonly supposed. AND THE LATTER PART OF EdWARD III. be easy to improve upon them. from the rudest Romanesque to perfection in the Decorated style. EROii^. so distinct one from the other as to require a different fairly considered as a distinct style. and to To call the Pei-pendicular style of England by the same name as the Flamboyant style of Erance. . chiefly . it to trace its decline. but during the the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. can only cause needless conand the received names for these styles are so expressive of their general character that it would not . though not equally gradual. traced Hayikg now its the gradual development of only remains Gothic architecture. with some exceptions period of its decline. Up to the time of its perfection the progress appears to have been nearly simultaneous throughout the northern part of Europe. name.THE GRADUAL CHANGE PROM DECORATED TO PERPENDICULAR. fusion and the Low Countries. which. RiCHAED II. Germany. it assumed a be different form in each country. 1360 TO 1399.

though more common some districts than in others. pendicular style has been less generally noticed than but though less apparent at first may be as clearly traced. Professor "Willis has demonstrated that this change began to shew teenth century. in the choir and transepts of tra- Gloucester Cathedral. to the in changing the Norman Perpendicular style in .76 CHANGE FROM DECORATED TO PERPENDICULAR.1. face. are almost equally numerous : and examples of it they occur in most parts in of the country. Norman church were not but cased with panelling over the inner suras to give the effect of the latter style to the This was just the same process as was afterat wards followed Winchester by "William of Wykeham. In this work of alteration the walls and arches of the rebuilt. so interior. the Decorated to the Per- The gradual change from the earlier transitions sight. much the appearance of the Perpendicular to style that they have been rebuilt or altered at a but the vaultevidently ing and the moldings are pure Decorated. before the middle of the four- The panelling and the window have been commonly supposed late period . it . cery have so itself. especially in Norfolk. and the painted glass of the fourteenth century is made for the places which it occupies in the heads of the windows with Perpendicular tracery: it must therefore be considered as the earliest known example of this great change of style.

1362 1386.. built between 1350 and 1356. body having been reCastle for that purpose was buried in this church. in his ster Gleanings from Westmin- Abbey.CHANGE FROM DECORATED TO PEEPENDICULAE. at Exeter. and some other work recorded to have been built by Abbot Litlington. and the doorway to of this are among the was '* period. are in a style of trans- — ition. least a but with Decorated moldings. . Sir G. or at mixture of them. richest pieces of The vault work of the porch it. by a careful comparison of the building with the fabric rolls. belonging rather to the Perpendicular than the Decorated." has also shewn that part of the cloisters. G. who. as still appears by the builder's accounts extant in the Public Eecord The style is Perpendicular. under the ^rary or treasury. and carried on for a The work num- ber of years. that the greater part of that fine Cathedral was also altered from the to the Decorated style without rebuilding. as is well known. Norman The Dean's surrounding it Cloister of "Windsor with the buildings was Ofiice. the tomb of King The funds were procured by offerings at Edward II. Scott. 177 was begun as early as 1337. It has been ascertained by Archdeacon Ereeman. It originally the porch of the chapter-house of the Order of the Garter. the moved fiom Eerkeley by the Abbot Thokey. appearance without any actual rebuilding.

d. necting Great Deans Window of tlie Hall of tlie A¥bot's House. of all the canonical residences run- The substructure ning southward from the Deanery. . (itself the Abbot's house of old. in the length of this substructure. con' . 178 CHANGE FEOir DECOEATED TO PERPEKDICTJLAE. with here and there a win- dow that of the period to still remaining the testify whole was the completed. before tasteless alterations of subsequent destroyed centuries the workthey to ap- manship which were as unable preciate as to imitate. a. Two archways still re- main. 1376— 1386. though perhaps a close consideration of their details (such as the cavetto and double ogee moldings) They are would assign . Westminster. it. Yard with the of the style to courts to the eastward of which their known date them..) displays a range of vaulting of simple and elegant character. now the Scholars' Hall.

but less lished: as the distinction similar period was not fully estabmarked than in the styles. The whole period . is commonly of transition but a similar period exists equally beon. l79 would lead tics. and for the use of beginners in the study. and therefore that . a gradual change was always going One of the earliest authenticated examples of this . but the same overlapping of styles occurs at this period as in the similar transition between the others. to the conclusion that those charaeteris-^^ hitherto assigned to the fifteenth century. This is more marked and called the period prominent between the J^orman and the Early English styles. it between each of the other has been commonly overlooked. The latter part of the fourteenth cen- tury was the period when is the Perpendicular style was coming into general use.CHANGE FEOM DECOEATED TO FEEPENDICrLAR. of Abbot Litlingtou's work is in a style of transition between the Decorated and Perpendicular it is almost impossible to say to which of these received styles the moldings and details can be referred. are here found in one of the earliest examples of their application. arranged for general convenience. As the divisions of the styles of Gothic Architecture are entirely arbitrary. it is perfectly natural that this sort of mixture should take place for a certain period between each of the great changes. tween each.

1376—1386. A. Part of tlie Vaulting of the Cloisters over tlie Lavatory. . Westminster AXihej.D. Atbot Litlington's "Work.180 CHAKGE FROM DECORATED TO PERPENDICULAR.

and Tinder the arch is Perpendicular panelling over the heads of the two doors: is the same curious mixture observable in the moldings. Edington. with two windows on the north side and one on the south : the change in the character of the work is very distinctly marked. transition is 181 the church of Edington. "Wiltshire. segmental arch common in Decorated work over this . but a very remarkable mixThe tracery of the ture of the two styles throughout. is uniform character. Bishop Edington's work at Winchester was executed at a later period than that at as might be expected. he died in 1366. and the work was in continued by William of his will Wykeham. who mentions that Edington had finished the west end. and the church was dediall of cated in 1361. windows looks at first sight like Decorated. is This example stance that it the more valuable from the circumwas Bishop Edington who commenced the alteration of Winchester Cathedral into the Per- pendicular style. but on looking more closely the introduction of Perpendicular The west doorway has the features is very evident. and that character neither Deco- rated nor Perpendicular. It is a fine cruciform church. the new . Bishop fii'st the stone was laid in 1352. and. and in all the details. is the usual square label of the Perpendicular. built of Winchester: by William de Edington.CHANGE FROM DECOEATED TO PERPENDICULAR.

and in covering the surface of the wall with panelling of the same kind. character with as of precisely the : same might have been expected they are both excellent specimens for the study of the Perpendicular style. perhaps building erected from the foundations entirely . in 1386. in the Perpendicular style style does not exist. is more fully developed. The next the first. certainly one of the earliest. Oxford. and a first finer specimen of the laid in 1380. but on a comparison east between the west window of Winchester and the window of Edington. and it sub-arches springing from on each side : it may be observed that whenever this arrangement of the subarches occurs in Decorated work. Before the death of Bishop Edington the great principles of the Perpendicular were fully established. Another very remarkable and valuable ex- . These chiefly consist of the Perpendicular lines through the head of the win- dow. built is immediately after !N'ew College. or as they well could be. it is a sign that the work style is late in the style. it will at once be seen that the is principle of construction division carried the same . work of Wykeham was Chapel.182 idea CnAXGE FROM DECORATED TO PERPEXDICULAE. distinctly ) These features are as marked great at "Winchester as in any subsequent JS'ew College building. The stone was and it was dedicated it. there is a central up to the head of the window. Winchester College.

. second Earl of "Warwick. ^ .^. ^__ J but the moldings are quite of mixed character. c. John de Thoresby in 1361. Oxon. 1380. ample of the transition from Decorated is 183 to Perpendicular the choir of York Minster. and completed in 1408 the general appearance of this magnificent work is Perpendicular. the perpendicular line of the molding is carried on straight through the flowing lines of the ^ tracery to the arch. deserves notice as a specimen of this transition. but there is great mixture in all the details. Northamptonsliire. . rebuilt by Thomas Beauchamp. between 1370 and 1391. being coyer ed with panelling like Winchester. as atCharlton- on-Otmoor. ^ . Charlton-on-Otmoor. In some in- stances. has more of the Perpendicular. The chancel of St. East Wmdo-w. commenced by Archbishop .CHANGE FROM DECORATED TO PEEPENDICULAK. Mary's Church at Warwick. . King's Sutton Church.

This church almost entirely of transitional character. is The gatehouse of Thornton another splendid example of Abbey. Yorkshire . Chipping-Camden Church. Gloucestershire. Lincolnshire. Wardour Castle. of Donnington Castle. but the Per- pendicular style was then so fully established that there are scarcely any signs of transition. 1397-99. and there a fine brass to their is memory . but are partly of earlier date Wressel Castle. Wiltshire. The roof and the walls of "Westminster Hall belong also to the close of this century. he died in 1401. and very fine examples of early casing of the Perpendicular work. The cloisters of Gloucester Cathedral are decided Perpendicular in the fan-tracery of the and character. and Bolton is Castle. was rebuilt by William Greville. and vaults. The glorious chapter-house of Howden. Berkshire. another fine ex- . are of this period. is the case with a part of Warwick Castle. transepts of Canterbury Cathe- The nave and western dral were rebuilt between 1378 and 1411. in Yorkshire. this transition. Houses and castles of the time of Richard II.184 CHANGE FEOM DECOEATED TO PEEPEXDICULAE. are rather numerous and fine. in the more northern part of Yorkshire. a rich wool-stapler. and Gisburne Priory Church. and have frequently such a mixture of the Decorated and Perpendicular styles This that it is difficult to say to which they belong. is who is buried in the chancel with his wife.

ample.arch. is another remarkable example of this . ratber a fortified l85 It is a very lofty and house than a castle in- tended for military purposes all . and remarkably well perfect. there are so. The original parts of the Vicar's Close at "Wells are of the same character and period. one house is earlier. more decidedly Edwardian. The chancel of the fine church at Warwick it is an excellent example of this change. fine building. style. and the towers are perfect. and belongs to the later . but are sometimes said to belong to the one style and sometimes to the other. or nearly It belongs to the time of Richard II. it. with extensive farm-buildings attached to original All the windows are of four lights. two courts. Oxford. the remains of the Vicar's Close at Lincoln are in part also of this character. of is it. earlier style. has sometimes been described as of the writers as of the later. period and character it is a manor-house not fortified. Dartington Hall. and remarkably perfect. this important transitional period having been very commonly overlooked. near Totnes. and by other The chapel on the south side with the celebrated tomb of the Earl of "Warwick. Host of these buildings are known and have often been described. with arches of the form called the shouldered. Devonshire. which has been adopted in the modern Gothic front of Balliol College. an addition.CHANGE FROM DECOEATED TO PERPENDICULAE.

. distinction of the Perpendicular style lies in . BiCHAED II. filled We have no longer the head of the window supplied with the gracefully flowing lines of the Decorated but their place is tracery. 1377—1547. A. TO Heney VIII. by the rigid lines which are carried through to the architrave moldings. The broad the form of the tracery in the head of the windows and in fully developed examples the distinction is sufficiently obvious. the spaces between being frequently divided and subdivided by similar Perpendicular lines of the mullions. never found on the Continent. It remains to describe its characteristic features. and it has the advantage of being more economical in execution than the earlier styles. so that Perpeiidicularity is so clearly the characteristic of these windows. Having thus taken a rapid historical survey of the it introduction of the Perpendicular style. should be it is mentioned that this style is exclusively English.D. The same character prevails through- . THE PEEPEI^DICULAE STYLE. that no other word could have been found which would at once so well express the predo- minating feature.

Fortliants. 1435. A remarkable example of a Perpendicular church. the contract for building -which has been preserved. A.D. 187 -^ -^^o Fotliering]iay.Hartshorne for the Oxford Architectural Society in 1841.THE perpe:s^diculae style. . and was published by Mr.

The general form of the tracery is frequently Decorated. for now forms an important though it of the style.work. and perpendicular lines in various ways introduced. Panelling. styles. and every part of the flat surface.188 THE TERPENDICULAH STYLE. a mixture of the two styles. near the end of this style. and to such an excess is this carried that the windows frequently appear to be only openings in the panel. : out the buildings of this period the whole surface of a building. in vrhich the Perpendicular line clearly predominates. In the earlier or transitional examples we find. Win- chester Cathedral. A very common form of transition is the changing of the flowing lines of a two-light Decorated window into a straight-sided figure by the introduction of perpendicular lines from the points of the sub-arches. as has been mentioned. and was of very styles different character.work. basements. but the lines of the mullions are carried through them. the plain surfaces in those being relieved chiefly by diaper. and in the exterior of the Divinity The towers in of Boston in Lincolnshire. it was used in the earlier was not to the same extent. Oxford. and Evesham Worcesfeature tershire. including its buttresses. is frequently covered with panelling. are also fine examples of exterior panelling. This is equally apparent at the beginning. as at . indeed. parapets. in the interior of the west end of School.

and for this reafires made under such chimneys never smoke. and carries the smoke down the chimney. but frequently the features of both styles are intimately blended. instead of letting it float away freely with the wind. excepting the is which faced with stone. and the tall brick chimneys of this style are both ornamental and convenient. There are a large number of palaces and houses of this style remaining. such as nearly all the colleges of Ox- ford and Cambridge in brickwork. Oxfordshire. and produce a very good effect. Haseley. and the wind blowing over a high-pitched roof naturally descends on the other side. In many districts is the difi'erence of expense between brick and stone enormous.THE PERrENDlCULAE STYLE. . they are usually built in the outer wall. 189 Sometimes we have Decorated moldings. is This peculiarly English style found far more con- venient for domestic buildings than the earlier styles. . it can also be very well executed Some we have remaining of the finest mediaeval houses that are of brick. College chapel. builders have greatly neglected this precau- Modern tion. and carried son the up above the level of the roof. with Perpendicular tracery. The old Romans were quite aware of this. is Eton almost entirely built of brick. No one who has seen the fine brick buildings of the time of Heniy the Seventh can despise them.

and in the latter part of the but in the earlier portion they In this instance there is also first are similar to the previous style. become very flat. which looks at sight fre- like Decorated.' The different forms of the windows of the aisle never a safe guide to the date of a building. comparatively blind-storey. but tinued for the first is often con- half of the Perpendicular period. The arches style of this style are not usually so acute as in the earlier periods. far and used brick willing to do. a deep hollow molding. prove that the form of the arch is clear. .190 THE PEEPEXDICULAll STYLE. is more expedient perhaps be but for beginners clere is may necessary to explain that * the old spelling of two arches of the and of the clere-storey in this dated example. with the old spelling [as clerestorie] : it to observe it. to fix a date. The French have therefore it adopted the English name of clear-storey. various details have often to be considered. by William of Worcester. or The arch is of the clere-storey flat. and beginners in the study are it quently misled by this feature. as it is called writing in the fifteenth century. as in the compart- ment of Fotheringhay. more than modern builders are even for their imperial palaces and magnificent aqueducts. window over the former The name of clere-storey is usually continued even when there is no triforium.

1435.THE rERPENDICULAE STYLE.D. 191 Compartment of Fotlierjigjiay Ctiurcli. . A.

of the fifteenth century. Oxon. Oxon.192 It is THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE. Here "Waterperry. as at Waterperry. Arch over a tomb of a knight in plate arraour. not always easy to distinguish at first sight the arch over a tomb of early Perpendicular from one in the Decorated style. .

this kind. The capitals and bases of columns in this style can introduced. are more like the Decorated style. 1460. Wincliester. c.PEEPEKDICTJLAE COLUMNS. is in is the Lady-chapel at Winchester.D. A. sometimes panelling is one of ^=?SsSg^ Lady-cliapel. if used. and not so good as in the Decorated. generally be distinguished by the shallowness of the moldings. . gene- rally shallow. with the base stilted and molded. 193 the battlement on the top of the wall at the back. and the plate-armour of the knight. Foliage. and the crockets on the ogee arch.

Fotlieriiigliay. . 1435. A. Section of tlie Capital of Pier. is a particularly valuable exfor all parts of it. especially in plain parish churches. but there are no bases in if many instances. there are any. are frequently so The columns themselves much like those of the Decorated style. that they can hardly be distinguished ex- cepting by the moldings on the capitals and bases. for they are called by aU three names. Pier. which columns. have a great resemblance to the Decorated style. At Fotheringhay.194 THE PJcEPENDICULAR STYLK.D. pillars. ample as having a given date the or piers.

Mer- which is of three lights.^j^^^ cinquefoiied (five foUed). PEEPENDICULAH WINDOWS. while in ton. is and perfect PerpenThey are both what sub-arcuated. used to excess. but called in is New College the window of four lights. and all the mullions are carWilliam of WykeJiain. . later Both these forms In many these examples sub- arches are entirely disused. In the later examples the arches of the windows are . are very frequent. and the side lights only are sub-ar- cuated. the mullions are carried up to the architrave. Oxford. hnt out if It TP-nQ was offprwnrrlQ atterwaras ^^^^^^ Perpendicular tracery. A.. 195 The "Windows of Merton of ^ew College and the ante-chapel College.D. 1386. Oxford. ried through the transom this is the case at iN'eW ColIpff-p lege • New College. so as greatly to injure the effect of the windows. and tHe sub-arches rise from the centre mullion. with sub-arches and a transom. the ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ j. afford perhaps as fine exam- ples as are to be found of early dicular.

was gradually depressed. quently great width in proportion to their height. and the four-centred arch. c. as at Haseley. and were placed so near together. 1480. windows had . . A. the arches being little more fre- than two straight lines rounded at the angle of juncThese late tion with the jambs.!||l|^itIli'iWP"JJ"""^ lil'fllf Haseley. until all beauty of proportion was lost. much lower than they were in the earlier period.D. Oxon.196 THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE. which began now to be extensively used.

A little that is later in the style.PEKPENDICULAR WINDOWS. which a very . that the strength of the building entirely 197 depended on the buttresses. York. one of the best examples is anywhere to be found the Presbytery at Presbytery. A. 1460 York. in the central division the mul- lions are carried straight through the arch. in which the windows are very large and divided into five lights . and two is horizontal transoms are introduced. c.D.

the one glazed. and the effect . These windows having painted glass. Oxfordshire. over the chancel-arch. glazed.198 THE PEBPENDICFLAE STYLE. Square- headed. a fine specimen of this kind of window : in this instance the outer plane is glazed. all cestershire. tially to exclude which was intended to soften and parThe church of Fairford. are In rich churches there is some- times a double plane of tracery. thus offering a complete contrast to the small and distant openings so frequently found in Eai'ly English and Decorated work. in Glouit. all been originally filled with we have rarely an . opportunity of judging of the proper effect of them the glare of light which we now complain of having been caused by the destruction of that material. The In the choir of York the inner one is east window of the nave of Chippingis Korton Church. frequent in this style. segmental. The clere-storeys also are frequently almost a sheet of glass merely divided by lighter or heavier muUions. there are also transoms across the side lights on each side. and other flat-arched windows. the other not. affords a rare instance of the painted glass having been preserved in is the windows. and there are two of them. which seldom the case with modern painted glass. unusual arrangement. solemn and calm— very far from glaring and it is re- markable that they impede the light so little that a is book may be read in any part of the church. .

c. which a depressed arch within a square frame. A.D. The priest's door. and over this a label.PERPENDICULAR DOORWAYS. York. Crux. as in the church of S. S. on the south . Crux. Fine examples of panelled wooden doors of this style are also met with occasionally. but have is generally one prevailing form. 199 The Doorways are frequently very rich. at York. 1420.

is This place for the stoup frequently found just inside the door. good of Dripstone termination. although the walls may - bo Early English or Decorated. which has the it. and of this style. This door is protected is by a porch. probably.200 side of the THE PERrENDICIJLAR STYLE. this occurs at Beckley Church. shafts. it the advantage of not requiring a porch to protect but was originally painted or gilt in some instances. with which the people sprinkled themselves as they went into the church. . Eusliden. that of the Early English or Decorated. The iron. of the usual square-head and dripstone over stone terminations donors. The quently label filled molding with is fre- foliage. with the dripwhich are heads.work of this style is not so good as has it. Oxon. with the original iron-work. with filled ornamented and the spandrels with shields and foliage. and in the corner next the door the niche for a stoup of holy- water. and the space round the arch panelled. a frequently instance remains. but often very good. the jambs It has been mentioned that the old wooden door. is often an insertion of a later is period than the building. Norttants. instead of outside. and is still it is frequently preserved. chancel.

PERPENDICULAR DOORWAYS.D. and foliated circles in the spandrels. with the wellmolded square head over it. 1435. the molded arch with shafts in the jambs and shields. West Doorway. Fotheringhay. . A. 201 The west doorway of the church of Fotheringhay is a very good example of this style.

"Wolsey. pinnacles. having four or five storeys of large windows with rich canopies. and held tradition gives the Bursar is . Brislington. Taun- ton.. however. Oxford.windows^ the parapet. of Henry YIII. few which. can rival that of Magdalen College. having small flying or hanging pinnacles attached. with pinnacles and crocketed turrets at the corners. all the ornament being reserved for the belfry. and pinnacles . These very gorgeous towers are chiefly found in Somersetshire. as at "Wrington. there is no better authority a great builder. In that example the lower storeys are extremely plain. to. There are. double buttresses at the angles. the buildings which as a campanile.to wer been erected on two sides of it are of a subsehave quent period. thus a solemnity and a repose which are not at- by the more gorgeous specimens before referred This tower was originally intended to stand alone. &c. by this judicious arrange- ment the eye giving to tained it takes in the whole subject at once. him the credit of the design.202 • THE PEKPEITDICULAR STYLE. Dundry. was office of a Fellow of this College. and rich deep open parapets. At the time it was building. for this but it probably true he was . afterwards the celebrated Cardinal and Prime Minister . or belfry. for beauty of proportion and chasteness of composition. and tabernacles. The Towees in this style are frequently extremely rich and elaborately ornamented.

203 -i"!K^fe^-^>-^ Dimdry. 1493.D. c. Oxford. 1520.PEKPEITDICULAE TOWEKS. Bristol. A. A.D. . c. Magdalen College.

with the late of the vaulting being cut to M. In France this is never done. good French architects. where it is out of sight. with a stone vault. and in the interior sometimes a richly-groined vault.work below. which peculiar to this style. but it is always less scientific and often less beautiful.harmonizes finely with the elaborate ornament of the tabernacle. flanking the window or the outer arch. light The and elegant is style of vaulting known as fan- tracery ^. windows. Oxon. . The Porches are in general very fine. This church had been partly rebuilt in the Geoi-gian era. and is only made to curve over in a vault by the mortar between the joints. and highly enriched with panel-work. and pinnacles. There are frequently very good porches of this style of a more ordinary kind in the parish churches. with its delicate pendants and lace-like ornaments. each stone fit its place. the principle of it began with the earliest English Gothic style. but at the back and at the end. and Dorsetshire. Somersetshire. each block of stone is oblong. much admired the English vaulting. and therefore much more abundant in France than in England. Yery fine examples of these porches are found in Korfolk. Devonshire. This had the effect of making vaulting much cheaper to construct. on the side next the street. buttresses. open parapets. VioUet-le-Duc.204 THE PEEPEXDICULAE STYLE. in the style of that period. as in those for the walls. as at the west end of Woodstock. as in the cloisters of Lincoln Cathedral. « It should be noticed that fan-tracery vaulting is peculiarly English. and tabernacles with figures.

Woodstock. West Porcli. In later examples we find ornament used to such an the building excess as completely to overpower the usual characteristic features of . occupied An example of this may be seen in the exterior of Henry the Seventh's Chapel.PERPENDICTJLAB. 1500.D. but every portion with panelling or other ornament. 205 the old work has been preserved in the complete restoration of this church in the time of Queen Yictoria. c. Oxon. no large space is is left on which the eye can rest. . which has more the appearance of a piece of wood-carving than of a building of stone but in the interior of the same building this very richness has a wonderfully fine effect. A. . ORNAMENT.

!N'o. Henry tlie Seventli's Cliapel. This called the ''Tudor -flower. It generally consists of dification of the fleur-de-lis. There style. or boutell . is an ornament which was introduced in this is and which is very characteristic. used at that period. that is. grotesque figures. as in Haseley." not because it was introduced in the time of the Tudors. or animals and foliage. shallow molding. it but because so was much Tudor Flower. round. These are frequently inferior both in conception and execution. a a fillet. which replace the four-leaved or flow^er and the ball-flower of the Decorated style . used in the jambs of windows and They are in general they have more breadth and doorways. 1 . much from the less more shallow. alternately some mowith a small . a shallow ogee . The wdde molding of cornices is sometimes filled up at intervals with large paterae.206 THE PEKrEXDICULAR STYLE. round. a kind of hollow quarter2. depth than Those in most use are a wide and the earlier ones. with heads. Ko. to the earlier styles. as in Haseley. and a double ogee. of this style differ The Moldings preceding ones.

D.l!Pl 207 lllKiiw^^^^^^ Haseley.. li!l'llll'!liii.rERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. A. c. Oxon. . 1480.

niches. capitals. square forms in the windows. often a wreath of flowers twisted round the top of the pillar. in which the fidelity to nature is one of the characteristic features. 208 trefoil or ball. square foliage. square crockets finials. and this may probably have been the idea of is the sculptors. on fonts. as the custom of decorating churches with flowers at certain seasons it is a very ancient one probable also that the sculpture was originally is coloured after nature. the introduction of so many transoms. and in almost all places where such ornament can be used. Indeed. There comparatively a square- ness about the Perpendicular foliage which takes from the freshness and beauty which distinguished that of the Decorated style. . In Devonshire the resembling foliage of the capitals is peculiar. THE PEKPENDICTJLAE STYLE. the use of square and angular forms is one of the characteristics of the style we have and square panels. The foliage of this style is frequently very beautifully executed.. —caused by — and an ap- proach to squareness in the depressed and low pitch of the roofs in late examples. and is mucli used as a crest for screens. almost as faithful to nature as in the Decorated style.

and they have a positive date. yet if these are compared with either of the earlier styles the difference is very evident. but this is in general because people Doorway.D.rERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. Fotteringliay. It is 209 distinguish frequently said that it is not eas}. the projection not these are the usual characteristics. so bold. 1435. do rot pay attention to them. Northants. A. The hol- lows are more shallow. and . The moldings of Fother- inghay are particularly good.to the moldings of the Perpendicular style from those of the earlier styles.

one on either side of the corner. Sometimes there is a half-arch through the lower part of the buttress. and this is quite distinct from the flying buttress. but the triangular heads to the different stages are less frequently used. or for a shield of arms only. the ob- ject of which usually is to support the wall of the by carrying the pressure across the roof of the aisle on to the outer wall. differ materially The Buttresses of this style do not from those of the Decorated. nacles are placed over each buttress. as at Fotheringhay. the set-offs are more frequently plain slopes only. a buttress of this style is Sometimes very thin.210 THE PERPENDICULAR STYLE. either for an image. which seldom remains. or there are two. there is frequently a niche on the face of the buttress. when there are com- monly three stages. and on these pinclere-storey. to counteract the . as at Gloucester. and has two diagonal faces . especially in those that have to support towers. the direct out- ward weight of the pinnacle serving side pressure. sometimes more. The projection of buttresses of this style is usually greater than in any of the previous styles. and they are often placed diagonally at the corners. and this more often remains.

Nortliants. 211 ^: -i Flying Buttresses. and so conveys the pressure to the outer wall. 1435. A. Fotlieringliay. BUTTRESSES.D. There is also a massive part of the buttress against the lower wall. In this excellent example it will at once be seen that the upper end of each of the arch-buttresses must catch the lower end of the timbers of the roof. where again the weight of the vertical pinnacle helps to counteract the side pressure of the arch-buttress.PERPENMCULAE. .

c. one in the tower of believed Mary Magdalen is Church. The figure of the of the patron saint over the outer door porch of a parish S. Oxford. 1500. are very abundant in this but it is rare to find the figure left in the niches that were made for it .212 THE PEEPENDICTJLAE STYLE. very good S. is as of the time of Henry VIII. Mary Magdalen. and are sometimes almost as good as those of the preThere is a ceding style. church has frequently been preserved . . Oxford.D. which to have been that brought from the ruins of Osney tower Abbey. they do occur occasionally. niches for images Empty style. occasionally still the figures in the niches of a churchyard cross remain. A.

or shep- RusMen. 1500.D. . In the this in- stance instruis ment carried one a Corbel. J^orthants. 213 The frequent use of figures. sometimes herd's pipes.PERrENDICTJLAE COEBELS. so as to make up a heavenly choir. The figure used is generally that of an angel. A. is a good characteristic late of the Perpendicular . is and each angel as sometimes reprecarrying different sented a musical instrument. style they are genethe rally of the time of Henry Seventh or Eighth. called mouth-organ. c. simply as corbels between the windows of the elere-storey to carry the roof. as at Eush- den.

to imagine that a church of the twelfth or thirteenth century has been newly furnished sixteenth. Norwich. however. under the tower. belong almost entirely to this style. the screens and lofts across the chancel-arch. as at St. with their canopies. which are the glory of the eastern counties. there are also In Norfolk there are several fine examples remaining of galleries and screens. nearly the whole of the is me- dieval style. and it is easy it. as at "Winchester. so that there a . E. also belong to it in fact. and the richly carved bench -ends for which the "West . and this in still is churches where the roodloft. properly so called. of England is so justly celebrated. some very beautiful stalls examples of Decorated woodwork in screens. and a few wooden tombs of that period.214 THE PEEPEXDICULAE STYLE. woodwork which we have remaining and It of this this material appears to be peculiarly adapted for may reasonably be doubted whether the modern attempts to revive the woodwork of the iJ^Torman and Early English styles are not altogether a Nothing can well exceed the richness and mistake. Stephen's The splendid Open Timber Church. and across the tower-arch. beauty of the Perpendicular woodwork. and often across the aisles also.oofs. in the fifteenth or We have. remains across the chancel-arch. commonly called roodlofts. being used at the west end of the church also.

c.PEErENDICULAE OPJ:X TIMBER ROOFS. . Norwich.D. 215 St.1500. A. Steplien'8 Qhvach.

. as may be The seen by the remains of the staircases for them. the tomb of Abbot "Wheathampstead. The to . and part of the choir of St. and IS'orthants. the west front and south porch of Gloucester Cathedral. London. extending over the eastern bay of the nave and occasionally over the western bay of the chancel also. Whiston Church. But a few more specimens of the later period of this style can hardly be passed over. vrhich feature in the is often the finest seem have been used for choristers to stand upon the lessons were also read from them. "Windsor. Bristol. George's Chapel. with style. roodloft-galleries church. the Savoy Chapel. Westminster. which not necessary to enumerate. very beautiful panelled ceiling. Alban's Abbey Church. Eedcliffe Church. but the western loft has generally been destroyed in consequence of the barbarous custom of blocking up the tower-arch. There is no quasi-roodloft at each end of the nave. and good specimens of the years Within the next twenty it is we have a crowd of examples. and of the very latest before the change of style. with its in the Strand. Bath Abbey Church. doubt that this custom prevailed in many other counties also. Cambridge. and Henry the Seventh's Chapel. such as St.216 THE rERPEXEICULAH STYLE. They are sometimes very large. King's College Chapel. are also of this period.

the latter long had the reputation of ''being able to cut the finest line of any one in the trade. His woodcuts differ from any others in this respect. Jewitt. Henry Jewitt. where the lines have to be left standing to be printed. to be engraved .THE GRADUAL DECAY OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. in 1850." and in wood-engraving. Orlando Jewitt. and proved by his admirable woodcuts of these buildings. Gothic Architecture 217 come This to an is is usually considered to have end in England in the time of Henry YIII. finest finest lines necessarily woodcuts. another century ." what foolishly called the Queen Anne All . any more than style. lingered on in many dis- tricts for this was especially the case in Oxford. but the facts speak for themselves. read at the meeting of the Royal Archaeological Institute at Oxford. but are drawn on the wood by himself from the objects. it only partially true. and the other parts to become white surface. the produce the style. and I have much pleasure in republishing an excellent memoir on this subject by the late Mr. cut away. and then handed to his brother. artist. really no style at '' Some people but this is talk of the Elizabethan and Jacobean is all. and has been quite forgotten. He was a thorough and an enthusiastic lover of the subject of Gothic Architecture. and are clearly stated by Mr. It has never been much circulated. they are not made from drawings.

and the same extent of walls and of ornament." in the time of Charles the Second. was not in this mongrel style. nor Grecian. was as good as the generality of modern Gothic of the Victorian school. is thoroughly good Gothic. The Gothic Architecture it of Oxford. and in some other districts the English people were not willing to give up their preference for this their . will cost the same whatever the style may be . if any work to they must ex- pose themselves to the ridicule of the next generation. as in a mediseval chapter- house. the same amount of space to be covered. to which various names are given for convenience. but can only be called with truth a mongrel mixture of styles. nor Italian. that is a matter of . an from London. nor Koman. The fan-tracery vault over the staircase of the hall of Christ Church. The idea that they are cheaper on this account is entirely a delusion . although the only record that we have artificer of it is that it was built by "one Smith. they are neither Gothic. about which it is needless to dispute people are so blind as to prefer this mongrel a genuine style there is no help for it. own national style to any other. even as late as the seventeenth century. taste only. carried on a central pillar. of these are jumbles of yarious styles. In the county of Somerset also there are some excellent examples of very late Gothic. .218 JACOBEAN GOXfllC. for instance.

But in the succeeding century. a gradual decline took place : everything was molded to suit a preconceived idea. GOTHIC BUILDINGS OP OXFORD. Gothic Atichitectdke seems to have attained period everything belonging to it its ultimate perfection in the fourteenth century. EnoAr TUF. OR DEBASED. and was molded into something of the arches were depressed. and it seems to have been rightly and truly considered that the fittest monuments for the House of God were faithful copies of His works. Reign of Elizabeth to the end of thr Seventeenth Centuky. a rectangular form. so long did Gothic Architecture remain pure. the foliage lost its I'reshness. at which executed in a free and bold was conceived and the forms were graceful and natural.ox THE LATE. under the later Henries and Edwards. all so long as this principle continued to be acted on. the flowing curves of the tracery . the windows lowered. and all the details of foliage and other sculptures were copied from living types. with a skill and truth of drawing which has never been surpassed. and spirit. Conventional forms were in a great measure abandoned.

the work. and there was a great mixture still of Italian ideas predominated. Heaviness or clum- — siness of form. when applied to domestic buildwas highly picturesque. ings. and the square form everywhere introduced. In the time of Henry VIII.220 ON THE LATE.. converted into straight panelling profusely used. but the Gothic became debased. of which the Hall of Christ as a proof. tail. though in an impure and much degraded form. The mixture of the two styles first appears in the time of Henry VII. a period in which (though remarkable for the beauty and delicacy of its details) the grand conceptions of form and proportion of the previous century seem to have been lost. Church may be adduced In the reign of Elizabeth the mixture of the two and though the details was more complete were frequently incongruous. combined with exquisite beauty of dedetails are the characteristics of this era. and occasionally progi-eat richness of effect ^. union a style which. and there are some good examples of this date remaining. OE DEBASED. duced a curious example of Elizabethan work occurs at Sunningwell Church. lines. there resulted from the styles . until at length the prevalence of the horizontal line led easily and naturally to the renaissance of the classic styles. where there is A . within a few miles of Oxford.

as the number To point out and to give the most remarkable the historical facts of of buildings of this period will testify. and in order to undera singular polygonal porch at the west end. however. GOTHIC BUTLBINGS OF OXFORD.. of Ionic . the peculiarities. That feature. being a mixture columns and Gothic windows. which are taken chiefly from Dr. Ingram's " Memorials of Oxford. love w^hich was still felt During place all this period of decline. The first building of this period which claims attention is the Bodleian Library. There is also some good woodwork of the same period. and on which at all namely. the window. The church was chiefly rebuilt by Bishop Jewel. until at length swallowed up by racteristic of its rival. points of the history of these buildings. and thus evincing the lingering for the ancient forms. . depart lost. and in no^ more successfully than in Oxford." and from Anthony a "Wood. however^ which was always the most important and most chaGothic architecture. frequent attempts were made to stay its progress. 22! continued all was- In the succeeding period the decline feature after feature still was lost. was the last to periods the distinctions of the styles chiefly depended. will be the subject of the present paper. for when every other trace of the style was we find the windows still retaining either their Gothic form or their Gothic tracery.

and about the same time the University re- solved to erect a separate School for Divinity on a large scale. for room or "solar" them by Bishop Cobham in 1320. after va- removed there in 1409. ^. about the year 1480. and that they remained either locked up in chests or chained to desks in the old Congregation-house. that the University had at this time fallen into great irregularity. Duke of Gloucester. Mary's Church. it will stand the history of a little be necessary to go farther back. Mary's Church.222 ox THE LATE. too." . this. on the north side of the chancel of St. son Henry IV. This led to the erection of a building for that purpose . of and especially by Humphrey. until a having been built rious disputes. in a central situation near the other schools. the old Congregation-house. It seems that various donations different individuals in the of books had been made by thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Libe- ral contributions having been made by various persons. and suffered great inconvenience from the want of public authorised schools. they were enabled. it not only to complete the Divinity School as b now a curious coincidence. It seems.. has been By converted into the " Chapel for the Unattached Students. OR DEBASED. the various professors using for that purpose apartments in private houses in various parts of the in 1439 city. but that no proper depository had been provided for them. and in the various chapels of St. over the old Congregation -house they were.

Bodleian Lilirary.GOTHIC BITTLDTNGS OP OXFORJ).D. . inserted in the older panelling.i fi East Windo-w. A. 223 ' I i J 1 =~J-. 1610.

he styled the founder. is name. under the direction of William of Waynfleet. the schools appear for some years to have been almost deserted and in ruins. stands. it will be found that the outer moldings have been cut down even with the wall it . both in his lifetime and at his death. Into this and the Library was called by hi& Library the books from St. On examination. until. . * but were restored again in consequence of a petition from the University. and that this was removed to make way for the covered walk. except that a doorway was made by on the north Sir Christopher Wren. THe Divinity School yet remains state as much the same when built. and from the marks on the wall. and were called away from Oxford under a royal mandate. and that at the east end the doorway has been altered externally.224 ox THE LATE. but to build the room over it for a library. at The workmen employed were the same as were eraployed Eton and Windsor. After the Keformation. when the Eodleian Library was built. or Proscholium. Mary's in were removed ^. and from the circumstance of the Duke being the principal donor. under one of the windows side for the convenience of processions to the Theatre. and of his bequeathing a number of valuable manuscripts. OR DEBASED. seems probable that there was a groined porch pro- jecting in this direction.

" and restore the place to the use of students.) resolved. a gentleman of a Devonshire family. who had been (and educated in the University. and afterwards. Sir Thomas Bodley.do or at Oxford. who had afterwards travelled through most parts of Europe. in 1610. and been employed by in Queen Elizabeth ters. which he repaired and refitted. year the restoration of Duke Humphrey's Library. and to which he added a new roof. as tells '' manyimportant mathe us himself. He comsame Imposts. commenced building the Library which now bears his . in the year 225 1597. menced the ProscMium of tlie Divinity Scliool. in the reign of Elizabeth.GOTHIC BUILDINGS OF OXFORD. to set up his staff at the Library.

Ambulachrum do or sue after.226 ON THE LATE. who died in 1613 and afterwards J. new building he placed at the east end transversely to. popularly known as Of this "Wood says. but erroneous belief that the candidates were compelled to walk an hour in the Pig-market. He died in 1624. But though ths belief was not correct. It was necessary. can receive a degree. it being a rule that no candidate against whom an action for debt is pending in the University court. who died . Acroid. who built likewise the new buildings of Merton. and leaving in front of the or covered east door the Proscholium the *' Pig-market." The reason of this being. but which he did not This see finished of. Bentlej-. «. in order to allow the tradesmen to whom they were indebted *" to recognise them. and the Divinity School. * The architect employed was Thomas Holt of York. that any requisite questions might be put to them previous to granting the degrees. who was likewise employed over several of the other buildings in Oxford at the same period. their graces to the Begents sitting in the Congregation House adjoining." walk already mentioned. live to name. a practice which was discontinued when the system of public examinations was introduced^. the north-east and south-east buttresses being built into the new wall. and was buried in Holywell Churchyard. it was until a comparatively . From this arose the popular. and M. Bentley. and obtain payment of their debts.. J. OR DEBASED. — in 1618. The builders were first. "In which stand such that are candidates for.

Some of the bosses are of good design and execution. GOTHIC BUILDINGS OF OXFOED. 1 and 4. with bi sses at the intersections. ingly. Argent. to retain this and the present groined room was formed accordIt is lighted by a window at each end. one of is which not. Argent five martlets saltier-wise sable on a chief azure. but others are of late character. . The gene- recent period the custora for tradesmen to attend at those times for the purpose mentioned. nor has ever been intended to be. in space. with the arms of the founders. three ducal coronets. two bars wavy.—^o^ZZey. 2 and 3. It has a vaulted ceiling.—Hore. glazed Bosses. a crescent for difference. e Quarterly.. between three billets ssihle. therefore. Or. the alternate ones being shields. 227 making the new building. Prosclioliuin of tlie Diviiiity School.

particularly the moldings. and from other marks on the wall. are of very debased character. This forms the west side of the Schools' Quadrangle ^% and is diff'erent in character from the rest of the buildof the quadrangle of the schools is ings. but the details. . it is but on the east end . carried forward on the face of the wall as far as the point from which the porch seems to have projected . so that the panelling is visible on both sides. On the north end this panelling seems to have been subsequently cut away. In Williams's Oxonia Depicta it is shewn completely panelled. as has been mentioned before.228 ral effect is ox THE LATE. that this porch mnst have been groined. OR DEBASED. It seems to have been the wish of Bodley to have his new building to agree in character with the old. and he therefore had the whole of his building panelled in the same manner as the Divinity School. good. The buttresses of the Divinity School are panelled the greater part of their height. The width greater tlian the length of the front of the Bodleian. and forms part of Bodley's new wall. from the remains of the shafts which have been cut away. feet had to be added at each end This may be seen inside these stair- *^ nelled to The two staircases were added afterwards. and one of these. so that nothing but the small arches remain attached to the under side of the strings. and it is tolerably evident. and therefore a few of Bodley's work. but were pamatch the rest of the work. is built in.

. 229 fitaii'case and Doorways of tlie Bodleian Litrary and Picture Gallery.GOTHIC BUILDEN'GS OF OXFORD. Shewing the junction of Bodley's work with the older panelling.

forms a complete quadrangle. and tracery of different forms. and everything was settled for carrying the plan into execution live to see it . and the day after stone of the new Schools was the building of which occupied the next six years.230 ON THE LATE. This window is a curious combination of mullions. and another opposite the old library. shortly before his death. Sir The rest of the windows had Thomas Bodley. OR DETiASED. which. to the Bodwhere the old work is panelled. in first that year. and buried in Merton College Chapel on the 29th of March the funeral the laid. its is plain. are small. and has a corbel-table the of the front. his body was brought to Oxford. transoms. He died at his house in London in 1613. but he did not commenced. particularly between the entrances leian and the Picture Gallery. This building. with the Bodleian Library for its west side. and is lighted by a largo window at each end. conceived and matured the plan of a new building for the Public Schools of the University. The upper storey of this building joins Duke Humphrey's Library. but the same as the rest new work is plain. and little has been displayed in giving either variety of . skill and heavy in general appearance. poor. cases.

GOTHIC BUILDINGS OF OXFOED. Gateway of the Schools. AD. . 1610. 231 HiffiHS Groining.

intermixed with the national emblems. which afforded an opportunity for this.232 ox THE LATE. and the whole surmounted Avith a parapet of open scroll-work enclosing the royal arms. however. The oriel. OR DEBASED. tame and The whole mass is square. The Gateway-tower on the east side. These this were originally is gilt. but merely rises above the parapet on the same plane. In the fourth storey is is a figure of James figures I. the plinths.. which might have given poor. Taken altogether. more pains have been taken. and is a curious example. is not distinguished by any profurther increased jection from the flat wall. This plainness is still outline or of light and shade. Gothic turret and pinnacle which rise above The archway is groined. and which are still retained in those in the tower. In the inner front of the Tower. of one of the five and the shafts. &c. composition a favourable specimen of the style of it that time. by the removal of the transoms with which the windows were originally furnished. the bosses being all more or less of Elizabethan design. the five storeys into which it is divided are or each ornamented with columns classic orders. without buttresses any other projection to relieve it. though does not harmonise with the it. . being covered with the peculiar Arabesque of the period. effect. is over the doorway. for a third of their length. friezes. too.

the panels being filled with the arms of the various colleges as late as "Wad- ham. . that being then newly-erected.GOTHIC BUILDINGS OF OXPOED. 233 The wooden door is panelled. Central Boss. Gateway of tlie ScLools.

: : — DEBASED. beside the vault or entrance. : wherein are contained. Corinthian. HzE MUSIS . and giving with his right hand a book to the picture or emblem of Fame. is the chief entrance from Cat Street into this new fabric . Ionic. OPTIMO. cut very curiously in stone. represented in effigie. of Thuscan.EC HABEO QUiE SCBIPSI. Peace and Plenty. with this inscription on the cover also his left "With "h. and harmonises so completely with his subject. is beheld the rise of five stories of pillars (equal to every storey of the tower). the third. or quadrangle. and Composite work. the muniments and registers of the University. Jacobo Eegum Doctissimo MUNIFICENTISSniO. Oil a "Wood's description of this gateway is so good in its way. the second is part of the gallery. viz. and' the is King's head. which his motto also most admirably cut in pacifici. this inscription in golden letters "Eegnante D. On tho outside of the said tower. and underneath all. kneeling to the King. four rooms. Doric. with this inscription on the cover "h. doth serve for astronomy uses. Between the upper storey of pillars saving one is the effigies of King James I. that here given complete " But between the geometry and metapliysic.. and astronomy and logic schools. hand he reacheth out another book to our mother. "On the verge of the canopy over the throne. having over it an eminent and stately tower. is "Beati " Over that also are emblems of Justice.EC HABEO QU^ DEDI. the University of Oxford. which is the uppermost. next to the area. the first is the mathematical libraxy for the use of the Saviliau professors. stone. : : 234 Anthony it is ox THE LATE. sitting on a throne. and the fourth.

The general character of the buildings of the quadrangle is the same as that of the Schools. and the upper part an ad- dition to the library for containing the books of the learned Selden.ecunque adhuc deerant ad splendorem ACADEMI/E FELICITEU TENTATA. but when K. and oriel. 235 Et "All which Pictures and Emblems were at first with great and splendour double gilt . the lower part of which the Convocation House. 1634 to 1640.ed. and is called by his name. extruct. It was founded by Sir Nicholas and Dame Dorothy Wadham.) but way . which was commenced in 1610. were completed in 1613. which hath since so continu. having a tower-gateway. could behold them) to be whited over. 793.window in the same situof the hall. The building was commenced in 1610. esjjecially when the sun shines. the hall and chapel. James came from Woodstock to see this quadrangular pile.e moles." cost Vol. COEPTA ABSOLUTA. p. iii. An is addition was made at the west end of the Di- vinity School.— GOTHIC EUILDINGS OF OXFORD. commanded them (being so glorious and splendid that none. and the whole of the quadrangle. and finished in 1613. the year in which the Schools were commenced. congesta bibliotheca. qu. SoLI DeO GLORIA. (whose effigies appear over the door- was not begun until after the death of Sir Mcholas in 1609. and adorned with ordinary colours. The next building in order of time is Wadhani College.

cutting through the sub-arches .236 ON THE LATE. but another rises from the second and fourth lights. which would not have occurred in the best period of Perpendicular. the windows have good Perpendicular tracery and moldings. not being equally distributed over the space. and are also an imi. tation of those in JS'ew College. and ante-chapel are of somewhat having debased tracery in the win- dows formed of scroll-work. OR DEBASED. But the most singular part is the chapel. ation. which is totally different in style from the rest of the buildings. and of which the large window of the hall is a very curious example. been copied from those of New College. though the window has evidently. The other two mullions are not carried through. side. however. The two mullions of the centre light are carried through the head and on each side in the sub-arches. and which are of the same character. which divide the ante-chapel from the transept. produces an awkward The effect. there is in the subordination of the tracery. but not skilfully. little though of rather to late character. except the upper moldings of the buttresses. but the hall different character. and there is distinguish it from a pure Perpendicular a singularity building.windows are of three lights with transoms. The rest of the ante- . In the east window. and are good in all their details and there are in the interior two lofty arches. and by this means the primary tracery.

237 Arclie3 of tlie AatG-chapel. 1610-13. A.GOTHIC BUILDINGS OF OXPOED.D. Wadliam Coll9S3. .

It is composed of scroll-work in elliptic forms. the produces one uniform front towards the quadrangle. These striking differences have naturally induced . racter of this part is The cha- totally different to that of the chapel. but that of the other is of a kind unknown to Gothic. one not differing much from sections. is very striking. hall. Wadham College. the usual section of a Perpendicular descript. The tracery of is good Perpendicular. too.238 ON THE LATE. as will be seen window.D. and the contrast of the two (shewn in the the one woodcut on p. are totally different. so that it chapel corresponds with. and with a kind of flat bosses at the intersections. The moldings. 1610-13. 239). and the other non- from the J| iliL M 'III ii iif r'^iiiiiiir Sections of Windows of the Cliapel and Ante-Cliapel. OR DEBASED. A.

A.GOTHIC BUILDINGS OF OXFORD 239 Windows of tlie Chapel and Ante-ctapel.D. Wadliam College. 1610-ia .

while the rest are merely called "labourers. a belief that the chapel was either a prior erection. [but great allowance of must be made for the change in the value money . whose valuable paper on the subject gives the accounts referred to. Griffith. J. It is curi- ous. to find that the three statues over the entrance to the hall and chapel were cut by one of the free masons (William Blackshaw) employed on the other parts of the building. Griffith. while those of the hall were 31. 18s. and are curious and interesting. Sub-Warden [now. but by the investigations of the Eev. it seems shewn by the accounts that I (for an opportunity of examining which indebted to the Eev. shewn that the building of the The foundress seems to have had a proper idea that a building used for Divine service should have a different character from those which were intended for domestic uses. with the name of the workman. too. it is probable that each Bhilling . the Warden]). OR DEBASED.240 ox THE LATE. in 1881. am being 61. and therefore. had been used up again ." The cost of each window. J. the price of a chapel window * In these accounts. or that the old materials of the Augustine convent. is put down separately. The following prices and terms also appear. it is clearly two parts was carried on simultaneously. the masons who worked the stone for building are called Free masons. For each statue he was paid the sum of 31. and as the it is masons employed were brought to Oxford from a distance. as the regular masons at that period could not have been much used ^ to church-work. on the site of which the college was built. each. or Freestone Masons (which is probably the true meaning of the term).

Ad. per foot. per foot. 3s. Grass table. each. 2d.d. and it is and late pro- bable that the style might continue later there than in other places. having in the centre the arms of the founder and foundress impaled. Pillar stone. 4. Window table. The large of Jacobean tracery. 4d. therefore. 241 of work. probable that she brought. richi own county of workmen who had been used to this kind The churches of Somersetshire are mostlj* of Perpendicular character. or tun stufi Tounel stones. while the Gothic form was retained. was equivalent to at least ten shillings in the time of Queen Victoria] Lodgement. j R .?. The Hall of Wadhara has an open timber roof. from her Somerset.— GOTHIC BUILDINGS OF OXFORD. per foot. chimney shafts. per foot. : "Window lights. 4. as shewing how. the details were altered to suit the taste of the times. at 16d. which is curious. be a curious subject any churches were built so late as that on which these masons might have been employed. Cornish. 41-?. to inquire if It w^ould. Gorgel table Gargill \ Gurgul Gurgoll J at _. stone. or tunnel stones Tun ") stones for &c. per foot. window is a remarkable example The entrance under the principal gateway is groined. with fan-vaulting. of the time of Jaraes T. per foot.

Jesus College Chapel. The Hall of Trinity College. one of the builders of is the Schools. with their dates. and the gateway into the gardens an evident imitation of that of the Schools. built in 1 624 [since The rebuilt]. and the east window of the chapel. built in 1618 to 1620. built in 1621. but the effect is poor and flat. The buildings of this period in Oxford are very numerous. but it will not be necessary to do much more than enumerate the most favourable examples. tracery of the windows seems to have been copied from all . has good Perpendicular windows. which faces Merton. The is. are much better than might have been expected at the period. was a better specimen than the last. external front of this part. indeed there are few colleges which have not some additions of this time. a very good composition. which was added in 1636.242 ox THE LATE. and the spaces between are filled with Gothic panelling. Bentley. which springs from the same fillet. The inner quadrangle have been built by of Merton College is stated to J. The Chapel of Exeter College. It has four of the orders. and embowered as it is with old trees. but there is no subordination of tracery. has quite the character of one of the fine mansions of the Elizabethan or Jacobean period. however. OE DEBASED.

243 East Window.GOTHIC BriLDINGS OF OXFOKD. AD 1 Co . Jesus College.

here The quadrangle is on two sides supported on Doric columns and arches. however. and the subbrdination preserved. though detail. Mary Hall were built between the years 1632 and 1644. is corapletely of Jacobean character. the hall occupying the lower storey. springs from the chamfer . with intersecting tracery. it is seems well suited for the purpose for which employed. and the effect of the garden front is highly picturesque. The windows of the hall are square-headed. John's. which was by Archbishop Laud between 1631 and 1636. OE. The arrangement is curious and unusual. which assumes some- thing of a Flamboyant form. it will not bear examination in highly pleasing produces in the mass an it it and harmonising so well as it is does with the foliage by which surrounded. is New College. The door. and the chapel the upper. the spandrels of which are filled with heads. . The Hall and Chapel of St. The fiUing-up of the heads of the The tracery. DEBASED. built The second quadrangle of St. but those of the chapel on the north and south sides are round-headed. and different from anything else in Oxford. and the combination of the Gothic forms with Elizabethan details skilfully managed. and with emblems of the sciences and of the moral virtues. lights is singular.244 ON- THE LATE. is is remarkable. It by Inigo Jones. effect This mixture of styles.

D.D. . 1634 [in A. 245 Entrance to the Chapel. Exeter CoUege. 1861].GOTHIC BUTLDrXGS OF OXFOPwD. A.

the whole exhibiting a good example of that commingling of preceding styles which is so fre- quently found in late Gothic structures. lights. but the Hall and Chapel were begun in 1637.D. and its fillets do not touch in the middle. and finished in 1642. A. Lincoln College Chapel. and of five with a mixture of intersecting and Perpendi- cular tracery. Fillet. subordination of the tracery is preserved. 1631- grooved down the centre n Grooved with a rather deep channel. The character of the building is poor and clumsy. The east window is pointed. Th(^ tracery is of very late character. as is found likewise at Oriel places. except one peculiarity. Oriel College was built about 1620. OE DEBASED. and other the is This is. and Section oi" "Windo-w.— 246 in the ON THE LATE. This has the efiect of dividing the fillet into two lines. manner of a cusp. and produces a clumsy appearance. and the mold- ings are good. The Chapel and is of Lincoln College was built in 1631. one of the best exthe amples of the period. and it has the grooved . fillet is left broad. which seems to it belong to this period.

247 East Window. A.GOTHIC BUILDINGS OF OXFOEI). are better than -was usual at that late period. . 1644. and the arrangement of the tracery. In this instance the form of the arch of the 'window.D. the character of the moldings. St Mary Hall.

and which was founded by Henry VI. are much like The east window of the chapel is parthose of Oriel. is windows is inserted between the The tracery of rather early form. Both colleges are built with fractable ticularly bad. in 1435. which was built between 1656 and 1666. which formerly stood in the Com llarket. The windows In the Chapel of Brasenose College. all traces of Gothic. its This kind of vaulting seems to have retained be the windows. used in Oxford under gateways and other small spaces. seem to have vanished. was brought from the chapel of St. gablets. The roof of the chapel. The entrance to the chapel is under a bay-window. east and west windows even the tracery and the oval form introduced. exterior is Corinthian. llary's College. above mentioned.248 fillet OJf THE LATE. except The the windows and roof. It is extensively hold longer than any other feature of the Gothic unless it styles. College. which is a kind of hammer-beam with fan-vaulting above. . is In the altered. OR DEBASED. and the whole a very incongruous mixture. so that this may be taken as one of the last and most curious examples of the decline of Gothic before its extinction. with pointed pilasters. which has an op'en parapet of scroll-work. of the Hall and Chapel of University which were built about 1640.

249 Side Window. In this example the debased character usual at that period comes cut distinctly than in the previous example. A.D.GOTHIC BUILDINGS OF OXFOED. the arch of the •window has entirely lost any point. more . 1640. and the tracery is very confused and irregular. Mary Hall. St.

as this design .. to find was erected so late as 1640 but it is stated by Peshall to have been built by Dean Fell. it is as at "Waclham. therefore. or whether he executed any other works beside this. St. an artificer of London. ''by the help of of Smith. are of sey's time. was left unfinished by Wolsey. belong to his building. the details and the boldness of the to work shew them therefore. Its chief fault is a want of boldnessin the ribs." "Who Smith London may have been. The steps were not completed. and that it remarkable . and the vaulting which it supports. but this flatness was a fault of the time.. This part. but it will be evident on examination that the two . OE DEBASED. ought to rescue his name from oblivion. and it was not roofed. all Wolparts. it seems. It is. John's. and parapets. open doorways opposite the Hall-door. but the specimen of the beautiful staircase to the it is Hall of Christ Church.250 ON THE LATE. which he did not overcome. It has been generally considered that the whole of the work outside of the Hall was of this date. possible. finest &c. as well as the arches and doorways under the landing. The which Smith executed were the central pillar. does not seem to have been ascertained but certainly this work alone. the steps. University. executed at a time when Gothic Architecture everywhere else was sunk in utter debasement.

seeing. The plan consists of a nave and chancel. divided by There are no windows on the a chancel-arch and screen. and open seats being the as when first put in. state. able. though late. and to this is "Water Eaton.'s reign. pulpit. ornamented with pillars and pilasters. it stands as one of the most beautiful things in Oxford. but whoever was the designer. scarcely any mixture of the later style. a house which appears to have been built in the I. that the original drawings might have been preserved. have been the a farm-house. a large court-yard. and the building. having a yard on remark- the south side. and having diagonal buttresses at all the angles. and one which no visitor should omit The buildings all hitherto described or mentioned are is in Oxford. 251 harmonises so well with the rest of the building. with a detached building for on each side of the gateway in is front. the screen.GOTHIC BUILDINGS OF OXFOED. On the north side of the court-yard is the chapel. as it It this building which is remains almost in the same state as when same has built. It is now but remains in a perfect and almost unaltered The house has transomed windows and a projecting It has offices porch. but there is another in its immediate neighbourhood which beginning of James worth notice. residence of Lord Lovelace. and the present staircase built from them. .

the lights are foliated and carried up to the head without tracery. . but on the south the nave has two. and quite of the genuine mediaeval or Gothic character. better than many roofs of the Victorian era. The construction of this roof is The east lights each. Oil DEBASED. and a door on the south side. but slightly pointed. and the others three The moldings are of late character. very good. but : not debased the bell-cot and cross are modern. Oson. ON THE LATE. and the . The arches of the windows are chancel one much depressed. Water Eaton. Roof of Cliapel. and there are an east and west window. The doorway is pointed under a square label. window has five lights.252 north side.

The pulpit is a good specimen of this same style.arch semi- circular. is The standards of the open seats are. It was. the chancel. -without moldings. however. more or less successful. the whole carved with Elizabethan ornaments. though very imperfectly it has been intended to shew by the build- ings of Oxford. is This building as at interesting from shewing that here» Wadhara College before mentioned. interior is very plain . not only the gradual decline of Gothic Architecture. doomed to In the buildings here been of the period following that which has . rude. The roof is a copy of an early form. for a time perish. but producing a good effect. executed. this is hut has a screen closed with in the taste of the times. In the foregoing remarks. though the it house was built in the revived manner. and is formed of semicircular arches. very plain and simple. could save it. but also the attempts. that being considered even then as exclusively ecclesiastical. the poppies being in imitation of the more ancient fleur-de-lis. as usual at this period. and consists of principals. and massive.S GOTHIC BUILDINGS OF OXFORD. 25 is The doors . clumsy. which were made from time and no efforts to time to stay its progress. supported by small pillars. was still thought necessary to keep the chapel in the old style. collar and curved braces.

as it were. as if to shew that some faint recollections of the once.254 spoken ON DEBASED GOTHIC BUILDINGS. it is it either wholly laid aside. . and in this history no mean place would be assigned to the Architectural Society of Oxford. or the only remains of are to be found in the accidental inser- tion.honoured forms still lingered' in the minds of the architects. of. until we have at length a more glorious renaissance of the Gothic styles than we ever had of the Classic. &C. of a traceried window or a pointed door. and caused them involuntarily to record their respect for it. It would be an interesting investigation to trace the gradual awakening of the style from the deep slumber into which it had fallen. and to trace its gradual unfolding. step by step.

Chapel of Exeter College built. 8. of St. Hall of Jesus College 1620. Hall of Trinity College finished. Jas.— LATE GOTHIC EUILDIXGS IN OXFOED. 1613. Wadham College laid. West side of the lesser quadrangle of Lincoln College built. 1610. 1612. Great or main quadrangle July 31. First stone of the Schools laid. March 30. St. Alban Hall built. Ch. 1628. April 20. I. 1596. and added the new roof. 1600. Front Nov. Aldate's. . Library of Jesus College built. built. "Wadham College opened. Library. 255 The following list will form an useful appendix to the foregoing account of buildings in Oxford: XiATE Gothic Buildings in Oxford. 1602. 1610. 1571. May 1624. First stone of of Merton built. Duke Humphrey's Library publicly re-opened after the repairs. from the Eeign op Elizabeth to the End of the Seventeenth Century. 1613. 1621. Chapel of Jesus College consecrated. July 16. and Proscholium laid. built. First stone of the Bodleian Library 1610. I. The Sir old buildings of Jesus College commenced. 1617. 28. Front of the house in St. Eliz. Jolin's College. Thomas Bodley commenced the repairs of Duke Humphrey's Library. 1597. 1626. known as "Bishop King's House." built.

Edmund June 19. First stone of the Garden front and lesser quadrangle of St. 1640. June or July. Hall of University College commenced in 1657. Chapel of Lincoln College consecrated. 1639. Front of University College com« 1637. 1634. 1635. Library of Brasenose College opened. Mary Hall Chapel and Hall Church Hall built. Library of University College opened. 1640. West West side of University College built. 1663. . finished in 1639-40. Chapel of University College conChapel of Brasenose College conse- secrated. stone laid . crated. 1665. Nov. July 26. first June 26. 1631. Staircase of Christ built. 1656. March 30. Hall built. finished in 1666. Oriel College quadrangle and hall built. St. 1665. . menced. side of St. Chapel of Brasenose College. John's College laid. 17. 1635. Sept.256 LATE GOTHIC BTTILBINGS 1631. Chapel of University commenced. 1666. 1669. Oriel College Chapel consecrated. finished 1642. 15. rN" OXFORD.

95. Anglo-Saxon type. Windsor. 158. arch*. Norman.. James. Signify woodcuts. 49. 227. . 16. 87. 150 . Early English capital*. Binham Priory. Norfolk. 18. Norman win- Bakewell. 101—103 . Appleton.usually molded only. dow*. Ball-flower*. 122 . 59. 86 arch*. 149. 19. Decorated. 223. Beverley Minster. porch. Angel Corbel*. 153. 58 English*. Brockworth. perpendicular tower. ^^foliated inner arch. 98. Bishop's Cleeve. Abbey. capitals. ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 188. Early Abacus*. lancet-window*. chapter-house. dow*. 127 . Sason character of the early part. Bolton Castle. Peterborough. east win- Arches. 144. Arcade of Triforium*. 184. Alban's. arches*. — Bosses in the Proscholium*. 43. ib. Oxford. 48 round or pointed. . 48. Little. earliest example of plate-tracery. Oxon. over porch of . Eushden. square-headed . window*. Norman capitals*. Beverley Minster. manor-house. . Oxon. windows. 213. Bases. St. decorated ornament. Yorkshire. porch. belfry window*. 116. 33. Broughton. Decorated niche. pinnacles. 105. 132. round-headed. Addington. S . new called triforium. St. Aldham. ^rary. 47 form of arch dictated by convenience. form of never a safe guide to date. Early English molding*. 144.. Norman. 82. 132. Binfield. Bodleian Library. 154. 45. toothornaments*. Lincolnshire. St. Bucknell. 177. Boston. arcade*. Mary's. Berks. Essex. Oxon. 155. Norman. Blind-storey. 82. manor-house. cinquefoiled. corbeltable*. Boothby Pagnel. Ardley. 123. 140 Anglo-Norman style. 107. molded cap and base*. Apse*. Bristol.

Xorman to^er. monastic build. Clere-storey.Botolph'sChurch. Decorated. 60. Crockets*. Northants. Dartington Hall. John. to from Decorated to Perpendicular.St. toothornament.— Moyses' Hall. York Cathedral. Norman capitals*. 101.32 records. 108. 190 Perpendicular. Buttress*. doorway*. rich Northants. tlie Canterbury. . arcade of intersecting arches*. Decorated diaper-work. 115. 103. . circular window at. Debased Gothic of Oxford. Edmund's. Oxon. 198. John's. 81. work of Ernulf. 48. crypt. 82. 13. Chesterton. 193. Norman St. moldings. 44. — — — Chester. 169. Cusp*. Ceilings. Decorated Norman. flying*. Cranford 115. Clack Abbey. 115. 37 . Decorated . St. French for clear-storey^ Decorated. Oxon. 29 Cathedral. tower spire*. 153. 219. Early Enghsh. 184. . 189. 80. ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 53. Oxon. doorway*. nave and transepts. transi75 tional. Colchester. bay of choir*. 53 Norman base*. Cuddesdon. 81. 103 . 101 . Priory. 183. Devon. 39 . Norman doorway*. Dartford. 21. of Queen Eleanor. — — — Colouring of ornaments. 168. 115. 114. Norman. Perpendicular. Chipping-Camden Church. Caen. 31. Stephen's. Perpendicular. timber roof. 148. Christchurch. 61. Cheltenham. sedilia. ings. Norman. Crosses on gables. 165. and moldings*. Crick. Carnarvon arch. Cassington.84 Norman capital*. triforium arcade*. Charlton-on-Otmoor. and Castle Ashby. Hants. Norman. 66. Cowley Church*. Oxon. 122. St. 126. 211. Eaunds. abbey churclies. Early. Early English*. Decorated*. 160. 34. dripstone. 36. 134. Colleges of Oxford and Cambridge. Early ground chancel EngUsh. 09. at Geddington. Capitals*. 54. Castor Church. gable cross*. Northants. 82. 94. . common in mediaeval Gothic. 07 . Corbel -tables. east "window*. Change from Early English Decorated. 147. - . 130. 184. 82 . English. 41. 88. . plan*. and vault. Early English bases of choir* . Norman clerestorey windows. transepts. Decorated. windows of. 52. corbel*. chiefly Perpendicular.— 258 Bury St. 32. 175. 117. 131.

. 132. 64. moldings. diaperwork*. Early English. pecuUhall. . nave. ib. ib. 119.83. 115 . 82. geometrical and flowing. York Minster. Elsfield Church*.. 174. Dripstone*. Edington Chmch.orna122 ment*. lantern. ALPHABETICAL INDEX. Edwardian stjde. abacus*. Domestic buildings of twelfth century. 130. Henry flying buttresses. —refectory. College. Early English. tower*. Decorated. difl'ers from in capitals it gives a peculiar and distinctive character. . 114. painted glass. 220. Decorated niches*. 161 buttresses*. towers*. second Gothic Doorways. 171 cal. sometimes of wood. detached shafts. tower at. Eleanor. Wilts. Ely. crockets*. window*. built of brick. clustered. vaults have ribs. transepts. Castle. 167. gable crosses*.. rare. Castle. Norman. 177. 174. 204. choir and II. Worcestershire. bases*. 110. Queen. 124. as sub-divisions. cular. 1131. 55. St. . Enford. 138 pUlar*.Gloucestershire.. 100. 94. 34. Oxon. 118 I. 116 . at Geddington. Elizabethan mixture of styles. . windows. type. Perpendicular. . Lincoln. appearance. buttresses have very bold projection*. Fairford. foliage. 128. ib. presbytery. 173. 200. arhj English. 101 . 167 towers*. pillars. corbel- fronts. Dorchester*. . general 259 Early English. as in Decorated style. Dundry. Dover. Evesham. 124 . Dm-ham. 127. Decorated buildings. Bedfordshire. priory.131. 109. Wilts. door- winways. 34. fronts. Norman to Decorated. 198. . 36 nine altars. Berks. capitals*. Perpendicular tower. 88. Bristol. 157. arches. 188. Martin's priory. and cloisters. ball-flower*. 124. 162 piscinas*. geometri138. 136. windows. 105. 103 .. altered from Early English Style. Norman Finedon. 203. Warmington. tooth . Deerhurst. porches. Eton 189. Decorated doorway*. Oxon. ib. Decorated 141. Dsn stable Wilham . 118. window*. Fan-tracery vaulting. crosses. 199. Donnington 184. Farnham 82. Norman. 135. 120. . Exeter Cathedral. Perpendicular ter- mination of. 123. 98. 152. change from Decorated to Perpenditables*. 92 dows*. 32. or Decorated. 181. Decorated piscina*. tracery.

Norman. Groining of gateway* of the Schools at Oxford. Intersecting arches. priest's door. 124. 50. Oxon. . 160 Perpendicular. a. fine Early Gloucester Cathedral. : Norman 140 crj-pt. Norman Gai'sington. Early EngUsh moldings*. Howden. 36. . Perpendicular church. capitals*. Four-leaved flower. . or vaults. 107. I. Fountains Abbey has pointed arches of pure Norman character. moldings of doorway*. 138 . or Jacobean. 1435. 32. Gundulph. no change of style in this reign. Higham Ferrars. English sedilia*. 43. cloisters. 34 67 Norman window*. 141. 218. tenq^ William the Conquerer. early Decorated style. 209 . Grenoble. comparatively square. 120. 17. Somerset. 161. did not bring Go- 164 . Foliage. 187 partment* of. Bishop of Lincoln. Decorated pinnacle. at Mailing. — . 148. 196. late. pier*. wooden spire. 220. or his choir in Grenoble. Northants. Early Henry French Gothic has a mixture of Romanesque. west doorway*. 208. Northants. Norman Chartreuse.. 46 . . square. Oxon. ings. 201. Gisbourne Church.. 194. 87. Perpendicular -^-indow*. 16. 139 clere-storey window*. Oxon. thic style or Grande from Dauphiny. 207. English style in parts. 166. Fotheringhay*. mixture of Italian introduced. 191. Grafton Underwood. faithfully copied from nature. 130. 129. Harleston. Furness Abbey. Decorated window*. 84 Lincoln Cathedral. Irchester.d. of Glasgow Cathedral. Yorkshire. 184. 117. . 90. 231. moldings*. window*. ball-flower. Nortbants. 14. 184. 184. 84.1070. great architect.arch. 147. 48. . 's Tower or keep. 260 ALPHABETICAL INDEX. lish buttresses*. Haseley. Decorated. Great Milton. English crypt. VIII. Handborough. original choir. Decorated diaper*. chancel. Flamboyant tracery indicates late date. Ilton. Groined roofs. clere-storey*. 34 . Iffley. Decorated. Kent. Gothic. Decorated. 83. Hugh chapter-house. early Perpendicular. a dated comexample. 147. 211. domestic buildEarly 82 . 53. Early EngDeco- rated window*. rubble masonry of*. 159. Geddington Cross. flying buttresses*. 47.

churches have square east ends. 57. most . Mailing.32. 157. ib. scol- Masonry. cliisel little used. 261 Middleton Stoney. 31 rich churches. . windows. 155 . star*. 42. 51 . 50. wide-jointed*. Mary's Guild. Margaret-at-CHfl'e. terminated London. rich doorways*. Great. 41. keep. 82. . sculptm-e . 54.Norman. Northants. ib. moldings*. Kent. early buttresses very flat. 67. castles or keep-towers. shallow porch. . niches. 49 pointed arches no proof of change of 38 . loped capitals. Newhaven*. Saxons (?). Kiddington. Norman period.ib. Minster. ball . Jacobean Gothic. 32 . 139. Sussex. in early . Winchester. ib. or zig-zag. . mans better masons than . the Norman period. 52 abacus the characteristic member. porch. 56. Leominster. ib. pillar*. 36 in early period' eastern limb always short. Oxon. style. . 185. billet*. masonry in Tower of. . tympanum. decorations of walla and for sediHa*. . Norman. 159 . 169. choir. bases*. but little in advance of English. 83 St. by round east end apse. the aisles vaulted. . . 24. earliest Norman 16. Northants. from Gundulph's Tower. time of change from Early Eng. 124 Vicar's Close. Moulton. with beads*. ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 12. fall of tower in A. 14 rubble*. earliest building of pure Gothic. capitals*. 133. ib. 218. ib. 118 nave. Jew's House. 207. Moldings.ib. Norman doorways at. arch. early. Deco124 . . to Decorated. Long Wittenham. Laon diocese. Hugh's choir.. . Kirkstall Abbey. or tabernacles*. . 163. the chevi"on. cathedrals have timber roofs over large spaces. Oxon. 151. 10 Nor. the chamfer* 56 . tress*.. Decorated porch*. 171. 56.. 28. ib. 50 . doorway. . Irthlingborough. 93. Debutcorated capital*. Perpendicular.flower — in profusion. 140. billet and lozenge*. Malmesbury Abbey. Naseby. Lancet-windows in first part of Early English style. 140. 98 profusion in Early English buildings. 40. in Thanet. Kidlington. 1240.D. tower*. called an rated window* . 84 arcade* 85 flying buttresses. 82 St. transept*. 109 Decorated. 132. Austin Friars. early. transitional. 18.Northants. Norman. 21 . St. late Norman work at. Decorated ceiling*. . 18 Temple Church. . moldings. . Lincoln. the most safe guide. Milton. Early English. Decorated.. 55. 67. . small arcades. 50. 16 Nor- man . ..

32 choir and transepts. 51. hall. St. east window. Decoratkd. clere. Devonshire. . Norwich. . 199 towers in Somersetshire. 72 west front*. Taunton. Cassington. 188 New College. . 227. - lege. second quadrangle. tower* . Bodleian. tower built l>y Ilobert D'Oyly. used in small ar. . 229 Schools. south aisle. entrance to ola chapel*. at Wrington. 182 Divinity School. Eaely Eng124. 203 porches very fine. Ogee arch.. staircase*. imposts of. 186 doorwaj's. moldings*. vaults more fre- quent than in England. open timber roof *. . ^ . ib. 214. buildings. 70. . 225 .Norwich. . 244 Lincoln. 44. window*. . 233 "Wadham Col . in Norfolk. . 212 St. 246. 64 later towers more massive and not so round lofty as earlier oneSjib. 205. 206 . Normandy.Dundry. cades. ib. 222. — — . 66 porches. and Dorsetshire. banded-shafts. 243 . 43. foliage beautifully executed. early Nor- or Saxon (?) belfry window*. Exeter. Magdalen College. 38. William II. window. list of. Michael's Church. the Oxford earliest are quite plain. St. 249 late Gothic of.. 34. 73. exclusively English. 148. . . and of the barrel form. .. .storey — . ib. central towers low . &c. Cathedral. Mary Magdalene Church. tower of St. Divinity School. ALPHABETICAL INDEX. apse*. 195. Hants. John's. . Northampton. 237 . Perpendicular. — . 142. Stephen's. 62 .. .2. Oxford Normax. east window. an important feature of Perpendicular stylo. 224 Proscholium. tower*. nave. fan-tracery vault at. ai-ches* Northleigh. Somersetshire. St. 68 west fronts. transitional capital and base*. 20. . 188. 215. 207 . Open timber roofs. 77. 60 early. 255. 220 . section of window*. Oriental styles not Gothic. ante-chapel.Brislington. Tudor- flower*. 238. .6o. New College Chapel. 12 . Norwich Cathedral removed to man (?) present site.— 262 NoBMAN corbels*. turrets. Aldate's. 203 Christ Church. 247 side window. Romsey. lish. Peter's. St. and economical in execution. buttress* flat. . 245. . 208.235 Jesus Chapel. 84. Nun-Monkton. Overlapping of the stjies. Perpendicular style. 63 . Mary Hall. bosses of. Old Congregation house. . Oxon. Panelling. Oriel. Yorkshire. .35 . 67 corbel*. 19 castle. 142 niche. are and massive. 186 218. vaults. Convocation House. central boss of gateway*. chapter -house. 239 sections of the same. 20. St. windows of chapel. 218 hall of. — .

142 Franciscan Friary. 88 . . base*. Eochester. 79 period of transition. choir of. clerestorey. roof of. 38. Decorated. Piers. King's House.d. vaults at. Perpendicular buttresses*. Sedilia*. tower*. 156. St. 172. 120. Henry I. 82. 67. 124. Pinnacles. . at Kidlington*. ib. Chesterton. 263 — Eushden. Shrewsbm-y. 36. terminate buttresses. Eaunds. Norman clerestorey window*. Harleston. Decorated.. Piscinas*. 167. EoU-molding*. 210 open timber roof. temp. Early English window*. Decorated spire. 92. 103 window. apse comparatively rare. Mary's. choir and transepts. 77. arcade*. 132. 165. 96 . Smithfield. Sherborne Castle^ built by Bp. I. or water . Oxon. Eomsey Abbey. Eeading Abbey. . . Eingstead. a fine feature of Early Enghsh. styles. Salisbury Cathedi'al. Southampton. Early English. ib. Eavensthorpe. a. 31 temi). Decorated Selby. window*. Decorated moldings*. ALPHABETICAL INDEX. 36 St. 140. 44.drains. Peterborough Cathedral. Mary's. Eenaissance of classic 220. 61 tooth-ornament*. re- Normans 12. 49. Henry I. 1117—1143. •. Bartholomew's. Perpendicular. in construction (?). Decorated piscina*. locker*. Northants. Spire. . Southwell Minster. Sculptured ornament in Norman work is shallow. trifo- rium arcade*. the type of Early English. 116. Porches. 19. 129 Decorated. Eoger. and could be executed with the axe. at Woodstock. choh-. buttress*. Stanton Harcourt*. choir. 46 Norman . . Sens Cathedral. Eemigius' Cathedral at Lincoln. cessed or plain round massive. 1G3. Square east end characteristic of Anglo-Norman style.. 124. 205. porch. 62. 167 . 157. 51. Norman. east end. 214. Sculpture in late Norman style has frequently a mixture of Byzantine Greek in the period of Transition. 80 .d. 58. zigzag molding. 1117. begun by John de Seez. dripstone over lancet-window. 59. Decorated .. Norman porch. tables*. corbeltransitional. Saxons more advanced than Henry 36. 121. . square or at angles. Early English. a. St. 143. 97. 67. tern}). 67..

11. arcade wall*. chancel*. 113. Castle. 192. Henry the Seventh's Chapel. ib. Suuningwell. 206. . 171 with sphes. . roof. ALPHA LEXICAL INDEX. 184. Decorated. Decorated window. 118 church rebuilt in 1245. 99 ca89 pitals*.storey by 48 . of cha- pel*. . Sutton Courtney. 5-4 Norman capital*. . 185. 64. 59. 178. as in cloister of Lincoln. Norman base*. Gothic. 95 Decorated capital*. .36. Waterperry. gatehouse. 172. Wilts. house. 120 in others. Berks. Decorated window*. . 264 Stanton rated St. Oxon. Vaulting of fan-tracery peculiar to England in principle. Vicar's . Early English. Warnford Hall. — . arcade of refectory*. 185.. Transitional period. piscina*. James I.44. west door Timber roofs. Water Eaton. Tooth-ornament*. Wells. 168. rated to Perpendicular. 71. Binham Priory. Stanwick. 102. pre-Norman period.clere-storey. some districts Early English sim-es are of the form called a broach. . Waltham Abbey. . a marked distinction in construction in England and France. called blind. Oxon. Tudor-flower*. Oxford. . sometimes divided. 203. where terminated by j^arapets. 112. chapel of St. Blaise. Wardour Castle. Stiff-leaf foliage. arch over tomb*. 33 in . 184 chancel of church change from Deco. 145. vaulting of his work*. hall. 184. 15 rich Norman moldings*. 179. . piers*. Elizabethan porch. Close. — . 220. 123. 252. 128. early Norman dark cloister* and win- — generally terminate in Newhaven. sometimes had wooden spires.D. 167. Stoke Orchard. dows*. Chester. 100. markably a spire. the Dean's door*. 110. . John. 122. Deco131 but. 155. 251 roof . Henry I. 162.. Oxon*. Decorated. 13. 148. A. Warkton. east end. gable-cross*. Vaults. ib. Towers. tress*. 101. Perpendicular. 125 transepts. Tidmarsh. 1397—99. 79. Perpendicular. Tackley. 111 very fine flying buttress. William of "Worcester. lancet-window*. 108 of chapel of Bishop's Palace* 91 vaulted chambers*. miscalled the abbey. 112. Triforium arches generally wide and low. Manor-house. Oxon. Thornton. as Westminster Abbey. . Warwick.. Lincolnshire. 82. 184. 190. 137 window of Abbot Litlington's hall*. retall. Stonesfield. transition between Decorated and . 82. Tewkesbury Abbey.

132. 184. 27. a.d. W^ressell Castle. crypt wooden porch. 80. north molded*. a remarkable example of a Norman turret* 63 St. Long. Berks. 34. c.— St. built after Kew College. — — transept. j 265 Windsor. continued by Wyke. . John's Church. Cathedral. Northants. 174 Perpendicular window in. . Decorated. choir. St. Walkelyn. Norman church built near old one. Saxon cathedrals WiNCHESTEK. every one of the rebuilt in his time. .— St. 1250—1260. ©rintea bv Barnes ^arfter an5 Co.d. WiUiam II. Berks. as at Binfield and Long Wittenham. 124 . 168 Edington commenced the change into Perpendicular before a. 25 towerrebuilt after fall. crypt.. Early English. Wittenham. 81. 12 . 1095. 29 . 97. 124. Oxon. window*. Crown iBarb. . south transept of Mins- Worcester j)ital ham. 168 presbytery. by Bishop transept*. . 197. Yorkshire. 199. 34 .. caand base stilted and . Norman capital*. Wrington. 1079—1093. Wooden porches. and transepts . or previously. 53. 177. 181 Lady-chapel. 205. York. moldings*. Woodstock. . 193 . 24 Woodford. 125 Nave has wooden vaults. Wollaston. 172. Early EngHsh buttresses*. ©rfprt. Early EngHsh. ter. . Decorated spire*. a. bay*. ALPHABETICAL INDEX. Perpendicucular porch*.p. 117.. Thomas' Church. Crux. 132. Oxon. 148. 118 wooden roof at. "William Rufus. pier*. 26. Cross.— college. panelled wooden door. 1366. Dean's cloister.d. a. flying buttress. 1079— 1093. circular window. Westwell. 182 .

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.3 5002 03117 7921 Art NA 440 Parker^ 1884. P25 1907 1806 John Henry. ABC of gothic architecture .