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Measurement and analysis of differential work hardening in cold-rolled steel sheet under biaxial tension

Toshihiko Kuwabara *, Satoshi Ikeda, Kensuke Kuroda

Mechanical Systems Engineering, Tokyo Uni6ersity of Agriculture and Technology, 2 -24 -16 Nakacho, Koganei, Tokyo 184 -8588, Japan

Abstract Biaxial tensile tests of cold-rolled steel sheet were carried out using newly designed cruciform specimens. The specimens were deformed under linear loading paths in a servo-controlled biaxial tensile testing machine. The maximum equivalent strain attained was 0.04. Plastic orthotropy remained coaxial with the principal stresses throughout every experiment. However, the successive contours of plastic work in biaxial stress space changed their shapes progressively, exemplifying a phenomenon which has been termed differential work hardening by Hill and Hutchinson (Trans. ASME J. Appl. Mech. 59 (1992) 1) and by Hill et al. (Int. J. Solids Struct. 31 (1994) 2999). The geometry of the entire family of the work contours was compared with the yield loci calculated from several existing yield criteria. Hills quadratic yield criterion overestimated the measured work contours; in particular, in the neighborhood of balanced biaxial tension, the discrepancy was large, while the other yield criteria described the behavior of the work contours well. The only yield criterion that could describe the general trends of the work contours as well as the in-plane r-value distribution with good accuracy was Gotohs biquadratic yield criterion. Moreover, it was observed that the components of an increment of logarithmic plastic strain are proportional to the components of the associated normal to the current work contour in stress space. Accordingly, it appears that the work contours act instantaneously as plastic potentials, at least under linear loading paths. 1998 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Biaxial tensile tests; Cruciform specimen; Linear loading path; Contours of plastic work; Cold-rolled steel sheet; Yield criteria

1. Introduction Predictive calculations of press loads, strain distributions, failure loci and springback in sheet metal forming operations depend on an accurate knowledge of plastic behavior under various stress states. For this reason, the development of a general plasticity theory has been pursued for many years. Rigorous experimental investigation however, is also crucial for ensuring that the constitutive model adequately describes the behavior of the material under a variety of complex loading conditions [1]. Biaxial testing is required to quantify and clarify the yield criteria and constitutive equations of a particular material. The most common method of biaxial testing employs thin-walled cylinder tubes subjected to axial and/or torsional loads and internal pressure. The disadvantage of this method is that it requires the material to be in the form of a circular tube, so it cannot be applied

* Corresponding author. 0924-0136/98/$19.00 1998 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved. PII S0924-0136(98)00155-1

to rolled sheet materials. Two of the most appropriate biaxial tests of rolled sheet materials for use in press-stamping are the biaxial tensile test using cruciform specimens [26] and the biaxial compression test using a metal block made by stacking and gluing metal sheets [7,8]. The disadvantage of the latter is the difculty in obtaining accurate stressstrain relations at small stains, because of the friction between the test piece and pressure plates. However, one of the most important problems encountered in the use of cruciform specimens is that of determining the stresses in the gage section of the specimen [5,6]. In a previous study [9], we carried out biaxial tensile tests of sheet aluminium alloy A5182-O 1 mm thick, using at cruciform specimens. The novelty of the cruciform specimen proposed is that the specimen was made directly from rolled sheet metal by laser cutting and that each arm has seven slits 0.2 mm wide to exclude geometric constraint on the deformation of a 100 100 mm square gage section (after this study, it

518

plastic work [10,11] have been measured under linear loading paths and compared with existing yield criteria in stress space.

2. Experimental

Fig. 1 shows the biaxial tensile testing apparatus used in this study. Opposing hydraulic cylinders are connected to common hydraulic lines so that they are subjected to the same hydraulic pressure. The hydraulic pressure of each pair of opposing hydraulic cylinders is servo-controlled independently. Displacements of opposing hydraulic cylinders are equalized using the pantograph-type link mechanism proposed in [12], so that the center of the cruciform specimen is always maintained at the center of the testing apparatus during biaxial tensile tests. This link mechanism was effective in reducing the production cost of the present testing apparatus. A load cell is included in each loading direction. Biaxial strain components in the gage section of the specimen are measured using biaxial-strain gages (for details see Section 2.3). The outputs of loads and strains are monitored continuously using A/D data acquisition and a personal computer and archived on a disk for future use.

was found that similar types of cruciform specimen have been proposed by a Russian researcher [1].) These slits made in each arm were found to be very effective in making the strain distribution in the gage section almost uniform, allowing the biaxial stress components in the gage section to be easily identied without assuming the effective cross-sectional area. Furthermore, we have veried that the shape of the yield locus of A5182-O, dened as the 0.227 MPa contour of plastic work, is in good agreement with that calculated using Gotohs biquadratic yield criterion. Moreover, it has been found that the work contour can be regarded as coinciding with the plastic potential, at least under linear loading paths, because the measured directions of plastic strain increment vectors are in good agreement with those of the local outward normals to the work contour. The objective of this study is to clarify experimentally the elasticplastic deformation behavior of a coldrolled low-carbon steel sheet under biaxial tension. The geometry of the cruciform specimen proposed in [9] has been improved to obtain uniform strain distribution in the gage section at large strains. Moreover, an inexpensive servo-controlled biaxial tensile testing apparatus has been newly constructed. Successive contours of

The test material is an as-received cold-rolled lowcarbon steel sheet 0.8 mm thick. Its mechanical properties are listed in Table 1. Fig. 2 shows the geometry of the cruciform specimen used in this study. The x- and y-axes are taken parallel to the rolling and transverse directions of the specimen respectively, where the origin of the coordinates is at the center of the specimen. Each arm of the specimen has seven slits 60 mm long and 0.2 mm wide at 7.5 mm intervals, in order to exclude geometric constraint on the deformation of the 6060 mm square gage section. The slits are made by laser cutting.

Table 1 Mechanical properties of cold-rolled low-carbon steel sheet used in this study Cutting direction 0 22.5 45 67.5 90

a b

519

First, uniaxial tensile tests in the rolling direction of the specimen were carried out using JIS 13 B-type specimens and the uniaxial true stresses |0 corresponding to particular values of offset logarithmic plastic strains m p were determined. The values of m p were taken 0 0 to be 0.0005, 0.002, 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04 (0.04 was attained for only equibiaxial tension). The corresponding plastic work W per unit volume was measured for each m p. In the same manner, the uniaxial 0 true stresses |90 in the transverse direction of the specimen were determined at the plastic work equal to W for each m p. In the biaxial tensile tests, the true stress 0 components (|Yx, |Yy ) were determined at the plastic work equal to W for each m p. Finally, contours of 0 plastic work were constructed in stress space by connecting a family of stress points (|0, 0), (|Yx, |Yy ) and (0, |90) for the same plastic work W corresponding to each m p. Hereafter, the true stress components for 0 equibiaxial tension will be denoted by |bi. Table 2 shows the values of plastic work W and |0, |90 and |bi corresponding to each m p. 0

As preliminary experiments, cruciform specimens with ve biaxial strain gages mounted on the x- or y-axis were stretched under linear loading paths and the development of biaxial strain components at the gage section was measured. The results for load ratios of 4:2 and 4:4 (the ratio of tensile loads in the x- and y-directions Fx :Fy ) are shown in Fig. 3. It was found that the degree of scatter of strain components was 9 0.002 at most when m p 50.03 and 9 0.0025 when m p =0.04. 0 0

3. Experimental results

In biaxial tensile tests, the combination of hydraulic pressures corresponding to the x- and y-axes were servo-controlled in order to maintain the tensile loads Fx and Fy in xed proportion; these were taken to be Fx : Fy =4:0, 4:1, 4:2, 4:3, 4:4, 3:4, 2:4, 1:4 and 0:4. Strain rates were (1.6 2.6)10 4 s 1. For the load ratios of 4:0 and 0:4, standard uniaxial tensile specimens (JIS 13 B-type) were used. Normal strain components mx and my, were measured using four biaxial strain gages (Kyowa Dengyo, KFG2-120-D-16-11) mounted on the centerlines of the specimen at (x, y)=(915 mm, 0) and (0, 915 mm). The four values of the measured strains were averaged for each direction and the averaged values were taken to be the actual strain components at the gage section of the cruciform specimen. Normal stress components |x and |y, were determined by dividing the measured tensile loads Fx and Fy by the current cross-sectional area of the gage section, which was determined from the measured values of plastic strain components m p and m p using the condition x y of constant volume. Since m p and m p were measured on x y the centerlines of the specimen, we assumed that |xy = 0.

Fig. 4 shows true stresslogarithmic strain curves for load ratios of 4:0, 4:2 and 4:4, while Fig. 5 shows the experimental data points of (|0, 0), (|Yx, |Yy ) and (0, |90); each symbol represents a contour of plastic work for a particular value of m p. One data point 0 represents the averaged value of (|Yx, |Yy ) measured from three cruciform specimens. The degree of experimental scatter was as large as the size of the data points at most. The short lines attached to these data points in Fig. 5(b) and (c) represent the directions of the instantaneous incremental plastic strain vectors measured from the corresponding biaxial stressstrain curves. Fig. 5(a) shows the data points of (|Yx, |Yy ) normalized by the corresponding values of |0 for each m p. It is 0 apparent that the shapes of successive work contours change progressively; this exemplies a phenomenon which has been termed differential work hardening in [10,11]. In the present case, the degree of expansion of work contours is signicant in the directions from equibiaxial tension through to uniaxial tension in the rolling direction, while little expansion occurs in the transverse direction. At m p = 0.03, however, the contour 0 becomes almost symmetric with respect to the equibiaxial direction.

520

Fig. 3. Development of m p and m p measured on the y-axis of the gage section of cruciform specimens. x y

3.2. Comparison of contours of plastic work with yield loci calculated from existing yield criteria

For the details of each yield criterion, see Appendix A. Fig. 5(a) shows the experimental data points with yield loci calculated using Hills quadratic yield criterion [13] and Logan and Hosfords yield criterion [15], as well as Mises yield criterion for reference. Hills quadratic yield criterion overestimates the work contours for all load ratios, except for 4:0 and 0:4. In particular, in the neighborhood of balanced biaxial tension, the discrepancy is large. However, Logan and Hosfords yield criterion ts the data points well at initial stages of work hardening (m p 50.01). At larger 0 deformations however, it tends to underestimate the data points at all load ratios, as a result of the expansion of work contours. Fig. 5(b) shows the experimental data points with the yield loci calculated using Gotohs biquadratic yield criterion [14]. Gotohs biquadratic yield criterion has a tendency to overestimate the experimental results in the neighborhoods of the load ratio of 4:2 at the initial stages of work hardening (m p 50.01) and of the load 0 ratio of 2:4 over the entire range of m p; nevertheless, the 0 general trends of work contours are well approximated by Gotohs yield criterion. Fig. 5(c) shows the experimental data points with the yield loci calculated using Hills 90 yield criterion [16].

The best ts are obtained with m= 2.22.0 and the degree of coincidence is almost the same as in the case of Gotohs biquadratic yield criterion. Fig. 6 shows the directions of experimental plastic strain increment vectors and those of the local outward normals to each yield criterion. There is no yield criterion that gives an accurate representation of the experimental data over all load ratios; nevertheless, the general trends are well described by the yield criteria, except for Hills quadratic yield criterion.

3.3. Comparison of in-plane r-6alue distribution between experimental results and those predicted using existing yield criteria

Fig. 7 shows the in-plane r-value distribution for experimental values and those predicted using existing yield criteria. Gotohs biquadratic yield criterion gives the best t with the experimental data. Hills 90 yield criterion does not represent the experimental results and gives a more uniform distribution than the experimental data. In a sense, this is expected, because r0, r45, r90 and r22.5, as well as |0, |45 |90 and |22.5, are used in determining the coefcients (A2 A9) of Gotohs biquadratic yield criterion, while only |0, |45 |90 and |bi are used in determining the coefcients of Hills 90 yield criterion, r-values not being used at all. We also calculated the coefcients of Hills 90 yield criterion

T. Kuwabara et al. / Journal of Materials Processing Technology 8081 (1998) 517523 Table 2 Measured values of W, |0, |90 and |bi mp 0 W (MPa) |0 (MPa) |90 (MPa) |bi (MPa) 0.0005 0.07 158 162 163 0.002 0.33 180 184 184 0.005 0.89 196 199 202 0.010 1.92 214 215 225 0.020 4.19 239 238 260 0.030 6.68 258 256 288 0.040 9.33 273 271 310

521

using r0, r45, and r90; however we found that the yield loci thus obtained did not coincide with the experimental work contours.

4. Discussion The contours of plastic work of the present material were found to t well with Logan and Hosfords yield locus at the initial stages of work hardening (m p 50.01; 0 Fig. 5(a)). Considering that Logan and Hosfords yield locus is based on an upper-bound 111 pencil-glide model, Fig. 5(a) seems to support the validity of their crystal plasticity analysis. With large plastic strains, it has been veried by hole-expanding experiments [17], bulge tests [18] and plane-strain tensile tests [19], that the behavior of a cold-rolled low-carbon steel sheet can be well described by Hills quadratic yield criterion. This contradicts the experimental results obtained in the present study, indicating that Hills quadratic yield criterion overestimates the experimental work contours for all load ratios. The reason for this contradiction may be attributed to the difference in the strain ranges imposed on the tested materials. The magnitude of equivalent strain induced in the present cruciform specimens was 3% at most, whereas it is much larger in [17 19]. In contrast, the present experimental data showed the tendency that the work contours in stress space expand in the direction of equibiaxial tension as work hardening progresses.

Therefore, there is a possibility that at larger strains the work contours will eventually coincide with Hills quadratic yield locus, which would correspond with the results in [1719]. It was found that the differential work hardening behavior of the low-carbon steel tested in this study can be described with good accuracy by Gotohs biquadratic (Fig. 5(b)) and Hills 90 yield criteria (Fig. 5(c)). Moreover, the measured directions of plastic strain increment vectors were in good agreement with those of the local outward normals to the yield loci calculated from these yield criteria (Fig. 6). This means that Gotohs biquadratic and Hills 90 yield criteria can be regarded to coincide with plastic potentials, at least under linear loading paths. Furthermore, with regard to the prediction accuracy of the in-plane rvalue distribution, Gotohs biquadratic yield criterion is superior to Hills 90 yield criterion (Fig. 7). Accordingly, Gotohs biquadratic yield criterion is recommended to be used for cold-rolled low-carbon steel sheets, at least under linear loading paths. The differential work hardening phenomenon observed in the present material has also been predicted by the crystal plasticity analysis for sheet aluminium alloy A5182-O [20]; however, the directions of expansion of work contours have been predicted to be in the transverse direction of the material, which is opposite to that observed in the present material. It is hoped that the crystal plasticity analysis for BCC metals will provide a physical explanation for the present experimental results in the near future.

5. Conclusions Biaxial tensile tests of cold-rolled low-carbon steel sheet were carried out using at cruciform specimens with the biaxial loads maintained in xed proportion. Contours of plastic work were determined in stress space under the strain range of m p 5 0.03 and compared 0 with existing yield criteria. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows. (1) The successive contours of plastic work measured for the present material changed their shapes progressively in stress space: the degree of expansion was signicant in the directions from equibiaxial tension

Fig. 4. True stress logarithmic strain curves for different load ratios.

522

Fig. 6. Comparison of measured directions of incremental plastic strain vectors () with those of the local outward normals to each yield criterion.

transverse direction. This seems to exemplify the phenomenon of differential work hardening [10,11]. (2) The general trends of the differential work hardening behavior of the present material were well described by Gotohs biquadratic yield criterion, which also enabled the prediction of the in-plane r-value distribution with good accuracy.

Fig. 5. Comparison of experimental data points (|Yx, |Yy ) with existing yield loci: (a) Hills quadratic, Logan and Hosfords and Mises yield loci; (b) Gotohs biquadratic yield loci; and (c) Hills 90 yield loci. Each symbol corresponds to a contour of plastic work for a particular value of m p. 0

through to uniaxial tension in the rolling direction of the specimen, while there was little expansion in the

Fig. 7. Comparison of in-plane r-value distribution between measured values () and those predicted by Hills quadratic yield criterion, Gotohs biquadratic yield criterion at m p =0.02 and Hills 90 yield 0 criterion at m p =0.02. 0

523

(3) The measured directions of plastic strain increment vectors were in good agreement with those of the local outward normals to the work contours. Hence, it appears that the work contours act instantaneously as plastic potentials, at least for the linear loading paths adopted in the present experiments.

For BCC metals m= 6 is recommended. In the present analysis, we adopted m= 6, r= (r0 + r90 + 2r45)/4= 1.87 and Y= |0.

Acknowledgements The authors wish to acknowledge Nippon Steel Corporation for providing cruciform specimens and Professor M. Kuroda of Ashikaga Institute of Technology for helpful discussion from the viewpoint of crystal plasticity theory. Part of this research was supported by the AMADA Foundation for Metal Working Technology, which is also gratefully acknowledged.

Hills 90 yield criterion [16]: |x + |y m + (| m /~ m)(|x |y )2 + 4| 2 m/2 + | 2 + | 2 bi xy x y + 2| 2 (m/2) 1{ 2a(| 2 | 2)+ b(|x |y )2}= (2|bi)m, xy x y (A.6) where

Appendix A. Yield criteria Hills quadratic yield criterion [13]: References Hills quadratic yield criterion under a plane stress condition is given by (G + H)| 2 2H|x|y +(F +H)| 2 +2N| 2 =1 x y xy where H r0 = , G r45 = 2N F G 2(F + G) and r90 = H F (A.2) (A.1)

[1] W. Szczepinski, Experimental Methods in Mechanics of Solids, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1990. [2] E. Shiratori, K. Ikegami, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 16 (1968) 373. [3] R. Kreiig, J. Schindler, Acta Mech. 65 (1986) 169. [4] W. Muller, K. Pohlandt, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 60 (1996) 643. [5] A. Makinde, L. Thiboddeau, K.W. Neale, Exp. Mech. 32 (1992) 138. [6] S. Demmerle, J.P. Boehler, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 41 (1993) 143. [7] Y. Tozawa, in: D.P. Koistinen, N-M. Wang (Eds.), Mechanics of Sheet Metal Forming, Plenum, New York, 1978, pp. 81. [8] F. Barlat, Y. Maeda, K. Chung, M. Yanagawa, J.C. Brem, Y. Hayashida, D.J. Lege, K. Matsui, S.J. Murtha, S. Hattori, R.C. Becker, S. Makosey, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 45 (1997) 1727. [9] T. Kuwabara, I. Susuki, S. Ikeda, J. Jap. Soc. Technol. Plast. 39 (1998) 56 (in Japanese). [10] R. Hill, J.W. Hutchinson, Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech. 59 (1992) 1. [11] R. Hill, S.S. Hecker, M.G. Stout, Int. J. Solids Struct. 31 (1994) 2999. [12] E. Siratori, K. Ikegami, Zairyo, 16 (1967) 433 (in Japanese). [13] R. Hill, Proc. R. Soc. London A193 (1948) 281. [14] M. Gotoh, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 19 (1977) 505. [15] R.W. Logan, W.F. Hosford, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 22 (1980) 419. [16] R. Hill, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 38 (1990) 405. [17] A. Parmar, P.B. Mellor, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 20 (1978) 385. [18] A.J. Ranta-Eskola, Int. J. Mech. Sci. 21 (1979) 457. [19] R.H. Wagoner, Metall. Trans. A 12A (1981) 877. [20] H. Konishi, H. Kitagawa, A. Nakaya, S. Yasunaga, Zairyo, 46 (1997) 880 (in Japanese).

Gotohs biquadratic yield criterion [14]: A1| 4 + A2| 3 |y + A3| 2 | 2 +A4|x| 3 +A5| 4 x x x y y y + (A6| 2 + A7|x|y + A8| 2)| 2 +A9| 4 =f x y xy xy (A.3)

A2=

4r0 , 1+ r0

A5 =

|0 4 , |90

A4 =

4A5r90 1 +r90

(A.4) In order to determine A6 A9, the r-values and yield stresses in the 45 and either 22.5 or 67.5 directions from the rolling direction of the specimen are required.

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