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Formulas and Tables
for Essentials of Statistics, by Mario F. Triola

Ch. 2: Descriptive Statistics
x
x
s
s
s

Sx
n
Sf

Å
Å

x2E,m,x1E

Mean

Sf . x

Å

Ch. 6: Confidence Intervals (one population)

Mean (frequency table)

S(x 2 x) 2
n21

Standard deviation

n(Sx2 ) 2 (Sx) 2
n(n 2 1)

Standard deviation
(shortcut)

n3S(f . x2 )4 2 3S(f . x)4 2

variance 

Mean
s
where E 5 za>2
(s known or n  30)
!n
s
or E 5 ta>2
(s unknown and n  30)
!n

n(n 2 1)

Standard deviation
(frequency table)

s2

ˆ E p p
ˆ
E
p

where E 5 za>2
(n 2 1)s

, s2 ,

xR2

Å n

(n 2 1)s2
x L2

Variance

Ch. 6: Sample Size Determination
za>2s

Ch. 3: Probability

n 5  B

P(A or B) 5 P(A) 1 P(B) if A, B are mutually exclusive
P(A or B) 5 P(A) 1 P(B) 2 P(A and B)
if A, B are not mutually exclusive
P(A and B) 5 P(A) . P(B) if A, B are independent
P(A and B) 5 P(A) . P(B 0A) if A, B are dependent

n5
n5

P(A) 5 1 2 P(A) Rule of complements
n!
Permutations (no elements alike)
nPr 5
(n 2 r)!
n!
Permutations (n1 alike, ...)
n1! n2! . . . nk!
n!
Combinations
nCr 5
(n 2 r)! r!

z5

Ch. 4: Probability Distributions

z5 

 x . P(x) Mean (prob. dist.) 
 [x2 . P(x)]  2 Standard deviation (prob. dist.)
n!
. px . qnx Binomial probability
P(x) 
(n  x)! x! 
n.p
Mean (binomial)
2
.
. 
n p q
Variance (binomial) 
 n . p . q

2

Proportion
pˆ qˆ

Standard deviation (binomial)

E
3za>24 2 . 0.25
E2
3za>24 2pˆ qˆ
E2

Mean
Proportion

Proportion (pˆ and qˆ are known)

Ch. 7: Test Statistics (one population)

t5

x2m

Mean—one population
( known or n  30)

s> !n
x2m

Mean—one population
( unknown and n  30)

s> !n

pˆ 2 p

Proportion—one population

pq

Å n
(n 2 1)s2
x2 5
s2

Standard deviation or variance—
one population

Ch. 8: Test Statistics (two populations)
z5

Ch. 5: Normal Distribution
xx
x
z
or
Standard score
s  

x   Central limit theorem

t5  

x  
n

z5

Central limit theorem
(Standard error)

2

R

(x1 2 x2 ) 2 (m1 2 m2 )
s 22
s 12
1
n2
Å n1
d 2 md
sd> !n

Two means—independent
(1, 2 known or
n1  30 and n2  30)

Two means—matched pairs
(df  n  1)

(pˆ 1 2 pˆ 2 ) 2 (p1 2 p2 )
pq pq
1 n
2
Å n1

Two proportions

30 and n2 . . (m1 2 m2 ) . d 1 E (Matched Pairs) sd where E 5 ta>2 (df  n  1) !n Ch. (p1 2 p2 ) . Triola ©2002 by Addison-Wesley. (pˆ 1 2 pˆ 2 ) 1 E F5 pˆ 2qˆ 2 pˆ 1qˆ 1 where E 5 za>2 1 Å n1 n2 F5 Ch. 1 (nk 2 1)s2k SS(total) 5 S(x 2 x) 2 SS(total) 5 SS(treatment) 1 SS(error) . . Ch. (x1 2 x2 ) 1 E s 12 s 22 1 where E 5 za>2 Å n1 n2 Ch. 1 nk (xk 2 x) 2 SS(error) 5 (n1 2 1)s21 1 . 30: 6z b !n 2 1 2 MS(error) 5 ← df  k  1 ← df  N  k SS(treatment) k21 SS(error) N2k MS(total) 5 SS(total) N21 SS(treatment) 5 n1 (x1 2 x) 2 1 .) ‹ x2 5 g x2 5 g (s1. 8: Confidence Intervals (two populations) (x1 2 x2 ) 2 E . 10: Multinomial and Contingency Tables (Indep.Triola Pullout Card Left Mid 4/25/01 11:12 AM Page 1 Formulas and Tables for Essentials of Statistics. den. 30) (O 2 E) 2 Multinomial (df  k  1) E (O 2 E) 2 Contingency table [df  (r  1)(c  1)] E where E 5 (row total) (column total) (grand total) d 2 E . . 10: One-Way Analysis of a Variance (pˆ 1 2 pˆ 2 ) 2 E . df  k  1. md . 9: Linear Correlation/Regression Correlation r 5 b1 5 se 5 "n(Sx ) 2 (Sx) "n(Sy ) 2 (Sy) 2 2 2 n(Sx2 ) 2 (Sx) 2 (Sy) (Sx2 ) 2 (Sx) (Sxy) n(Sx2 ) 2 (Sx) 2 Estimated eq. by Mario F. s2 known or n1 . of regression line explained variation total variation Å S(y 2 yˆ ) 2 n22 or yˆ  E  y  yˆ  E where E  t2se rs 5 1 2 k samples each of size n (num. . df  k(n  1)) MS(treatment) MS(error) nSxy 2 (Sx) (Sy) b0 5 y 2 b1x or b0 5 r2 5 sp2 MS(treatment) 5 nSxy 2 (Sx) (Sy) yˆ 5 b0 1 b1x ns 2x2 6Sd2 n(n2 2 1) Å Sy 2 2 b0Sy 2 b1Sxy  n22 1 1 n(x 0  x)2  n n(x 2)  (x)2 Rank correlation acritical value for n .

Identify the statistic that is relevant to this test. Identify the specific claim or hypothesis to be tested and put it in symbolic form. Restate this previous conclusion in simple. 8. The values of 0. 6. 3. 4. and identify its sampling distribution. 7. Right-tailed Right P-value  twice the area to the right of the test statistic P-value is twice this area. let the null hypothesis H0 be the one that contains the condition of equality. 2. m m Test statistic Test statistic P-value  area to the right of the test statistic P-value m Test statistic . Make a small if the consequences of rejecting a true H0 are severe.01 are very common. FINDING P-VALUES Start What type of test ? Two-tailed Left-tailed Left P-value  area to the left of the test statistic P-value m Test statistic Is the test statistic to the right or left of center ? P-value  twice the area to the left of the test statistic P-value is twice this area. Fail to reject H0: Test statistic is not in the critical region or P-value . a. Determine the test statistic and either the P-value or the critical values.05 and 0.Triola Pullout Card Right Mid 4/25/01 11:13 AM Page 1 HYPOTHESIS TESTING 1. Select the significance level a based on the seriousness of a type I error. Of the two symbolic expressions obtained so far. Reject H0: Test statistic is in the critical region or P-value # a. Give the symbolic form that must be true when the original claim is false. Draw a graph. H1 is the other statement. and the critical region. 5. nontechnical terms.

.3264 .4878 .0040 .0987 .4177 .3621 .4554 .2794 .4975 .4306 .4834 .4918 .3997 .2910 .9 ..4854 .1 1.5 1.4925 .8 1.4983 .8 2. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.4345 .4988 .4726 .2190 .2967 .9 .4962 .4838 .4525 .4985 .4678 .4980 .4535 .4495 .4972 .4857 .4957 .09 0.4989 .4842 .4977 .2 2.4982 .2088 .0517 .4988 .1443 .2224 .0793 . Reading.4929 .4987 .00 .4633 .3849 .4452 .3869 .4934 .4761 .4732 .0080 .1 0.0557 .4956 .4826 .4656 .2852 .4938 .1844 .4192 .3212 .4977 .4207 .4984 .1628 .4875 .4049 .10 and higher .0160 .4744 .2486 .4969 .4406 .4817 .4750 .4990 .0910 . Rourke.0 2.7 2.3770 .4960 .2454 .0359 .1772 .1700 .3413 .4699 .3340 .3554 .4904 .4990 ∗ ∗ .4920 .0319 .0871 .1985 .6 2.4798 .7 0.4147 .2157 .4989 .0636 .4986 .3790 .4979 .2291 .4756 .4963 .0714 .4896 .3907 .4911 .3485 .3686 .3810 .4861 .3023 .4927 .3159 .0 0.1 2.3508 .05 .0832 .4951 .4429 .4803 .7 1.4772 .3962 .4115 .4973 .3 2.2549 .06 .2673 .4131 .2611 .4971 .2389 .1141 .4474 .0753 .Triola Pullout Card Left 4/25/01 11:10 AM Page 2 z 0 TABLE A-2 Standard Normal (z) Distribution z .4319 1.4265 .4884 .4279 .4987 .3944 .4808 .3830 .4949 .4032 .2881 .4767 2.4713 .4382 . Mosteller and Robert E.1255 .3315 .1915 .4649 .4906 .0199 .4582 .1331 .0239 .2054 .5 2.4968 .4868 .1664 .3438 .4236 .4783 .4641 .3461 .2580 .4719 .4015 . use 0.1736 .3577 .6 1.4357 .4332 .4251 .03 .4966 .4945 .3749 . Sturdy Statistics.3925 .3729 .4982 .4946 .4961 .3106 .4778 .4463 .3665 .3238 .4608 .4916 .1879 0.1293 .2422 .4788 .4955 .4940 .4821 .3980 .4394 .4922 .2123 .3708 .4545 .07 .1179 .3289 .4979 .4978 .0120 .4292 .4686 .1368 .1217 .1517 . MA.2642 .4965 .2 0.4793 .4812 .4943 .4671 .0000 .0279 .4984 .3599 .1480 .4441 .4864 .4706 .3133 .6 0.4959 .1406 .0398 .2 1.4850 .1064 .0948 . 1973.3 1.4999 NOTE: For values of z above 3.3531 .02 .2019 .4974 .4484 .4985 .4936 2.0596 .4909 .8 0.3643 .4981 .4901 .1026 .4564 .4986 3.0 1.4913 .1554 . K.2517 . *Use these common values that result from interpolation: z score Area 1.3365 .4082 .3051 .04 .4693 .2734 .645 0.4370 .4931 .4890 .4898 .2357 .3 0.4887 .01 .3888 .4664 .4948 .4881 .4953 . Reprinted with permission of Frederick Mosteller.1103 .4625 .1591 .1808 .4599 .4222 .4974 .2257 .0478 .4418 .4981 .4987 .9 .5 0.4970 .4989 .1950 .4964 .0438 .4967 .4738 .4 .08 .4999 for the area.0 3.4500 2.09.4066 .2995 .4 .2764 .4591 .2704 .4515 .2939 .4616 .4976 .2823 .4573 .4950 From Frederick C.4932 .4871 .4 .4952 .0675 .3078 .4505 .4099 .4893 .2324 .3186 .4830 .3389 1.4846 .4941 .575 0.4162 .

Triola Pullout Card Left Mid 4/25/01 11:12 AM Page 2 Student t distribution.

Right tail Left tail a a Critical t score.

(negative) TABLE A-3 Two tails a/2 a/2 Critical t score.

Critical t score.

Critical t score.

706 1.687 21 22 23 24 25 2.689 .365 12.05 (two tails) .052 2.479 2.686 .650 2.602 2.787 2.356 1.321 1.746 1.771 2.179 2.500 2.372 .533 1.064 2.048 2.718 2.683 .032 31.025 (one tail) .397 1.328 1.575 2.821 2.345 1.779 2.447 2.325 .056 2.355 3.315 1.467 2.721 1.462 2.688 .701 1.262 2.054 3.688 .584 2.711 .761 1.718 .686 .110 2.500 3.771 1.714 1.528 2.764 2.776 2.330 1.821 6.160 2.02 (two tails) .132 1.604 4.765 .700 11 12 13 14 15 3.694 .740 1.250 3.182 2.078 1.645 1.365 2.363 1.697 .282 .540 2.318 1.796 1.508 2.086 1.106 3.896 2.333 1.069 2.313 1.684 .684 .316 .143 2.10 (one tail) .681 2.841 4.729 1.306 2.685 .703 .314 1.706 .01 (one tail) .727 6 7 8 9 10 3.763 2.831 2.10 (two tails) .691 16 17 18 19 20 2.567 2.337 1. (positive) (negative) (positive) t Distribution a Degrees of Freedom .895 1.353 2.657 9.326 2.060 1.878 2.812 1.415 1.228 1.074 2.25 (one tail) .756 2.797 2.440 1.706 4.50 (two tails) 1 2 3 4 5 63.485 2.132 2.571 6.303 3.093 2.320 1.314 2.518 2.169 3.05 (one tail) .886 1.080 2.683 .045 1.708 1.965 4.816 .947 2.819 2.692 .005 (one tail) .747 3.741 .684 26 27 28 29 Large (z) 2.998 2.473 2.807 2.015 3.690 .925 5.833 1.860 1.01 (two tails) .145 2.960 1.675 .350 1.861 2.943 1.707 3.845 2.753 1.20 (two tails) .552 2.323 1.920 2.101 2.921 2.541 3.638 1.625 2.977 2.696 .703 1.711 1.012 2.492 2.782 1.725 1.383 1.000 .476 1.734 1.201 2.717 1.120 2.311 1.699 1.898 2.685 .341 .

009 5.409 34.121 13.773 41.997 21 22 23 24 25 8.362 14.689 12.344 1.314 41.362 23.557 43.425 112.321 128.379 100.299 29.597 12.684 15.390 10.119 27.807 66.312 10. Reading.952 104.345 13.916 39.196 34.722 46.074 3.490 4.758 57.987 12.940 2.769 25.Triola Pullout Card Right Mid 4/25/01 11:13 AM Page 2 Formulas and Tables for Essentials of Statistics.831 0.844 7.589 25.841 5.565 118.791 15.261 5.143 12.848 14.278 49.319 32.908 7.283 10.779 9.700 3.289 41.845 30.247 1.064 1.672 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 20.805 63.473 29.188 51.582 39.851 9.141 30.188 11 12 13 14 15 2.051 37.145 124.260 9.257 14.442 53.886 10.408 7.278 73.231 8.892 6.091 13.675 21.156 38.215 116.461 45.167 2.689 46.554 0.527 96.856 11.578 107.852 34.645 12.10 0.338 13.194 44.757 28.939 19.563 36.337 42.277 15.485 45.542 24.461 13.482 48.169 From Donald B.308 16.588 50.706 4.136 129.505 79.564 8.736 26.475 20.328 22.989 1.928 26 27 28 29 30 11.707 37.629 6.415 37.120 11.236 3.307 14.072 0.659 16. Reprinted with permission of the publisher. Owen.226 5.004 0. Triola ©2002 by Addison-Wesley.741 37.401 13.490 91.591 12.304 7.979 45.240 14.290 49.645 50.483 16.114 18.549 19.879 113.599 35.196 10.848 15.410 28.962 8.420 83.872 1.064 22.142 5.955 23.191 31. by Mario F.587 28.443 23.115 0.688 29.352 0.007 33.020 0.010 0.412 — 0.787 12.578 26.571 4.005 1 2 3 4 5 — 0.646 38.229 3.342 71.275 51.107 4.336 53.342 59.144 31.982 11.498 55.013 17.920 23.026 22.963 48.449 16.768 20.401 42.571 7.690 2.05 0.239 1.168 4.042 14.086 7.087 40.565 14.479 36.053 3.812 6.885 40.764 43.540 61.812 18. TABLE A-4 Chi-Square (x2 ) Distribution Area to the Right of the Critical Value Degrees of Freedom 0.292 18.181 45.. .629 118.000 33.015 7.488 24.459 55.718 37.591 7.075 4.860 16.592 14.542 10.172 59.879 10.520 8.642 46.611 13.646 2.275 18.676 0.404 5.296 27.996 21.207 0.379 16.211 0.897 9.666 23.707 27. ©1962 Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.01 0.638 42.364 40.167 74.116 135.198 12.071 5.975 0.209 18.262 4.329 124.484 0.117 10.651 12.558 1.535 19.047 16.267 35.907 9.561 63.025 0.573 15.995 0.932 40.879 13.172 36.493 17.204 2.298 95.126 77.329 64.584 1.160 11.067 15.534 43.635 9.815 9.001 0.113 41.697 6.042 7.816 4.660 5.524 10.991 35.766 79.357 40.382 32.869 30.024 7.222 26.088 2.291 82.237 1.251 7.754 70.260 6.151 16.95 0.526 32.647 74.989 27.838 14.488 11.358 51.397 85.819 31.733 3. Handbook of Statistical Tables.433 32.566 34.082 90.739 60.691 76.610 2.605 6.434 5.833 6.685 24.671 33.980 44.923 43.672 9.652 35.164 29.507 16.145 0.929 29.578 6.919 18.051 0.781 38.991 7.337 24.412 26.90 0.034 8.633 8.99 0.635 2.758 67.017 13.796 44.531 101.153 65.750 6 7 8 9 10 0.023 106.805 36.299 140.812 21.065 24.156 0.844 14.865 10.559 46.601 3.575 5.833 3.348 11.808 12.725 26.548 20.790 8.509 34.103 0.307 19.217 27.196 67.378 9.297 0.180 2.643 9.076 39.210 11.085 10.993 52.928 17.090 21.708 18.256 38.603 3.170 32.711 1.813 32.191 37.278 21.016 0.615 30.547 17. MA.865 11.565 4.892 48.023 20.265 6.325 3.154 88.954 13.735 2.391 69.204 28.801 16 17 18 19 20 5.924 35.216 0.

576 .798 .878 .765 . by Mario F.456 .505 .468 .305 .794 12 13 14 15 .476 .590 .833 .279 .591 20 25 30 35 .409 . Linear Correlation (Section 9-2) Rank Correlation (Section 9-5) TABLE A-5 TABLE A-6 Critical Values of the Pearson Correlation Coefficient r Critical Values of Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient rs a  .917 .01 4 5 6 7 .608 .361 .400 .625 .377 .683 .335 .220 .294 .754 .689 16 17 18 19 .487 .549 .666 .01 n a  0.576 .780 .Triola Pullout Card Right 4/25/01 11:14 AM Page 2 Formulas and Tables for Essentials of Statistics.648 — — — .602 .392 .430 40 45 50 60 .378 .370 .236 .562 .196 .428 .623 . reject H0 if the absolute value of r is greater than the critical value in the table.834 .786 .286 .450 .361 .526 70 80 90 100 .482 .254 .515 .745 .385 .950 .402 .645 .418 .490 .438 . Triola ©2002 by Addison-Wesley.525 . .463 .684 .462 .735 5 6 7 8 9 10 — .05 a  .881 .330 21 22 23 24 25 .444 .497 .606 .496 .566 .999 .364 .818 .738 .666 .545 .207 .886 .708 .575 16 17 18 19 20 .707 .811 .269 .478 n NOTE: To test H0: r  0 against H1: r  0.875 8 9 10 11 .532 .661 .312 .396 .537 .641 11 12 13 14 15 .507 .514 .505 .716 .959 .256 26 27 28 29 30 .05 a  0.561 .591 .553 .623 .632 .

. . . (original claim). (original claim). (original claim). .” . . .) “There is not sufficient sample evidence to support the claim that .) “There is not sufficient evidence to warrant rejection of the claim that .” (This is the “The sample data only case in support the claim which the that .Triola Pullout Card Right 4/25/01 11:14 AM Page 1 HYPOTHESIS TEST: WORDING OF FINAL CONCLUSION Start Wording of final conclusion Does the original claim contain the condition of equality? Yes (Original claim contains equality and becomes H 0 ) No (Original claim does not contain equality and becomes H 1) Do you reject H 0? Yes (Reject H 0 ) No (Fail to reject H 0 ) Do you reject H 0? Yes (Reject H 0 ) No (Fail to reject H 0 ) “There is sufficient evidence to warrant rejection of the claim that .” (This is the only case in which the original claim is rejected. .” original claim is supported. . (original claim).