Introduction

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History around the world has shown us that women have been relegated to second level citizens in most societies since the beginnings of human civilization. In remote times, the male physical superiority may have been a determinant factor in the battle of sexes and allowed the distinction in power positions for both males and females. Since then, a culture of gender discrimination has been strongly rooted in the minds of people through language, religious practices, family dynamics and labor markets (Filip Spagnoli). After the industrial revolution in the 19th century, many changes in society became imminent; ingenuity and cleverness became the main tools for success and access to power. Even though women fought weakly for the rights before then, the movement became stronger and stronger and, slowly, women has started a fight for equal rights in their private lives and working places. During the first half of the XX century, several feminist movements gained strength and fought for equality in many western countries. Through the Civil Rights Act of 1964, gender discrimination in the employment market was outlawed in the United States, which raised the hopes for a more equalitarian society. The problem with gender discrimination was, however, still very far from being resolved. Gender discrimination of wage was illegal and in theory eliminated. In practice, nevertheless, the problem became less open and harder to fight against it. After the Act of 1964, wage differences persisted for males and females under a concept known as the “glass ceiling”. The term became popular in 1986, when it was included in an article for the Wall Street Journal by Carol Hymowitz and Timothy Schellhardt to describe those invisible barriers that prevent minorities, in this case females, to fully develop their professional careers. David Cotter, from Union College, went one step further in the application of this term and defined the concept more carefully and precisely for the purpose of his paper “The Glass Ceiling Effect”. Cotter continues arguing that the glass ceiling has being use wrongly several times to describe just the differences or inequality in wages or career opportunities. Instead, he claims that glass ceiling is a specific type of inequality given by four specific conditions. (1) "A gender or racial difference that is not explained by other job-relevant characteristics of the employee." (2) "A gender or racial difference that is greater at higher levels of an outcome than at lower levels of an outcome. (3) "A gender or racial inequality in the chances of advancement into higher levels, not merely the proportions of each gender or race currently at those higher levels." (4) "A gender or racial inequality that increases over the course of a career." (Cotter, 2001) Women fight for equal opportunities has gone pretty far by the end of the XX century and the beginning of the 2000s. However, many researchers argue that, even at this point in the present, there is a gender gap that can be attributed to discrimination or unsubstantiated believes of women inferiority. For purpose of simplicity, I will focus

Finally. Cotter argued that the differences in income between females and males. the displacement between female and male condition would help us to make conclusion of whether there is still discrimination. unemployment during the year. education. Furthermore. Cotter identified and increasing rate of difficulty as the income rose. where significant at any level of income. and hours worked. holding constant other variables. it is crucial to understand the importance of a society in which gender and racial differences are irrelevant when all other capacities are prove to be constant. From a moral perspective. or not. including the socio-political field. tenure with employer. this would represent disequilibrium since marginal production would not equal wage. given the model that we would be working with. the income for women in the 50 th percentile was decrease by a coefficient of 0. If fully trained and clever women are not being allocated in the best position due to discriminatory practices. findings about gender discrimination will help us understand a potential problem in the allocation of resources. which could lead us to potential social losses. part time status. Certainly Cotter found evidence of a difference between males and females that could be explain by assuming that discrimination was taking place. from an economical perspective. self employment. Equality in opportunities is an ideal scenario in which humanity would be able to bring unity and promote a more peaceful coexistence among people. The information is organized as a cross sectional dataset that accounts for 9 different variables.specifically in the first condition of Cotter which states that gender differences in wages that cannot be explain by other job-relevant variables such as education or level of experience. metropolitan area. residence in the South. . Findings on the matter of discrimination would serve as a guide point for policy makers to address this issue the best possible way. cohort. Even though wage may not be the only way to measure wealth it is the easiest way to measure differences between genders giving the assumption that other 1 Cotter study control for the following variables: union coverage. Several studies have been done in the matter of discrimination of both race and gender. the moral and even the economic level. towards females even when other job-related characteristics are hold constant. Data: The data that I will be using was acquired from the Current Population Survey conducted by the United States Census Bureau in 1985 and was adopted from Berndt (1991). Therefore. For example.028 while for women in the 75th percentile decreased in 0. Wage (WG) will be our dependable variable that was measured in hourly earnings in US dollars.241**. holding constant other variables such as race1. David Cotter and other researchers did a study about the glass ceiling in 2001 with some interesting findings. The essence of a healthy democracy relies on the capacity of their government to limit the inequality of opportunities for all members of society and to promote inclusion and participation. The question addressed in this paper is relevant for society in many levels.

race (BL) with 1 if non white. 2.2125846 0. the labor union status (UN).16089 0. 0 otherwise.047538 . The independent variables for the model include years of education (ED).3860604 5. 0 otherwise.4549607 0. 0 otherwise.5 528 0.1818182 528 9. coded 1 if labor union.144082 Min 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1. 0 otherwise.4990359 0. Variable educ so bl hp fe ms ex un wage Obs 528 528 528 528 528 Mean 13.655303 528 17.4757201 12. marital status (MS) coded 1 if married. Dev.kinds of compensation would be distributed equally between men and women.1268939 0.75 Max 18 1 1 1 1 1 49 1 44.3331698 0.4621212 Std. and the gender dummy (FE) coded 1 if female and 0 otherwise. with a min of of 0 and a max of 49.2916667 0. and years of potential labor market experience (EX). The rest of the independent variables will be dummy variables such as region of residence (SO) with1 if South. that go from a min of 6 to a max of 18.65909 528 0. Hispanic race (HP) coded 1 if Hispanic.0473485 0.08712 0. Potential years of experience were estimating by subtracting year and additional 6 that accounts for the average age before entering school. The following table 1 will summarize the characteristics of the dataset given by the Census in 1985.489444 0. 0 otherwise.