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NovaTerra Connected Cities / february 2007 / 3

Editorial cohesion
Objective 1 Convergence Regions

Objective 1 Phasing-out Regions

Phasing-out (till 31–12–2005) Phasing-in Regions

Phasing-out (till 31–12–2006) Competitiveness and
Employment Regions
Special programme

Objective 2

Objective 2

Objective 2 (partly)

Phasing-out (till 31–12–2005)

Phasing-out (partly)
(till 31–12–2005)

Structural Funds 2004–2006: Areas eligible under Objectives 1 and 2 Structural Funds 2007–2013: Convergence and Regional Competitiveness Objectives

Frank van der Hoeven, TU Delft/ Faculty of Architecture, cohesion of this part of the city, our street was paved with noise
Lead Partner Connected Cities, Photos: Frank van der Hoeven reducing asphalt, two bicycle lanes were added, the pavement was
resurfaced and some trees were planted. In mid September the
The Interreg Community Initiative is an integral part of Europe’s residents held a street party to celebrate the reopening of the street.
regional policy. Interreg’s main objective is to strengthen economic The European flag was prominently displayed as the backdrop for
and social cohesion. In pursuing this objective the European Union the local musicians who entertained the party-goers. I would not
realised that it also has to consider the territorial dimension of even be surprised if the musicians’ fees were eligible for European
cohesion. No clear and precise definition of territorial cohesion has yet funding as part of the dissemination measures for the project.
been made, but as European regional policy focuses mainly on economic
and social disparities, territorial cohesion may follow a similar path. As the lead partner in an Interreg IIIC project, I could disseminate
This would put it on a course for easing the territorial disparities the experience of the renovation of my street by adding a fact sheet
that exist between countries and regions as a way to contribute to to the on-line guide to good practice on the connectedcities.eu
the Lisbon and Gothenburg objectives. What will be the territorial website. This would be appropriate because the renovation of the
consequences of Barroso’s call for a post-industrial revolution? street (part of an Urban II Community Initiative project) clearly

As Interreg III comes to a close many of our partners are looking to the
future. What will the new cross-border, transnational and interregional First and foremost,
cooperation programmes under the Interreg IV ‘European Territorial
Cooperation’ objective bring us? In this editorial we look briefly at these
European regional policy
policy shifts and try to assess how they relate to our current initiatives.
promotes solidarity
the eu in your own street
Not many people know about Interreg IIIC, Interreg III, the combines sustainable mobility and urban development. Having
Community Initiatives, the European Regional Development Funds added this ‘good practice’ to the website I could even claim in our next
(ERDF), or any of the Structural Funds and European regional policy progress report to the Joint Technical Staff of Interreg IIIC West that
in general. These are not easy to explain to outsiders. Most of us we had increased the effects of the Structural Funds programmes by
occasionally come across a construction sign with the blue EU logo identifying another good practice related to the Structural Funds. It
with its fifteen yellow stars signalling an EU financial contribution may sound bizarre, but, in a nutshell, this is basically what European
to the project. I came across one this summer in my own street. regional policy is all about.
I moved to a new home in the Oude Noorden district of Rotterdam.
Apparently, this district is one of the few ‘Objective 2’ pockets in structural funds
the province of Zuid-Holland eligible to receive Structural Funds. First and foremost, European regional policy promotes solidarity.
As part of the programme for improving the economic and social The policy on reducing the disparities between regions and citizens Y

NT_S#january07_DEF.indd 3 26-01-2007 11:00:01

spent on three objectives. Objective 1 helps regions lagging behind in their development. Interreg III will continue as Interreg IV. which have a spatial impact and regional policy more coherent. The result is a complex social cohesion. The concentration of people. It works mainly through In the transition towards the new programming period (2007–2013) four Structural Funds. Development Fund.’2 of cross-border. In policy terms. the objective is to help achieve a more balanced development by reducing existing disparities. such as the Cohesion Fund. with the Lisbon and Gothenburg objectives forming the main criteria During the 2000–2006 period most of the Structural Funds were for assessing projects. Objective 3 is Awareness of a territorial component to European cohesion about modernising training systems and promoting employment. Leader+ and EQUAL. Hamburg. NT_S#january07_DEF. NovaTerra Connected Cities / february 2007 / 4 takes up about a third of the EU budget. Interreg III was financed from the European The concern is also to improve territorial integration and encourage Regional Development Fund and its mission was the development cooperation between regions.’1 its expenditure on R&D. programmes. As a result. Objective 2 supports economic and social territorial imbalances conversion in areas facing structural difficulties. The Structural avoiding territorial imbalances and by making both sectoral policies Funds support four Community Initiatives: Interreg III. but contains over two fifths of its population information exchange and sharing of experience (networks) in a and accounts for almost half of its GDP and even three-quarters of structured way. The eligibility map has been financial instruments. ‘Cooperations Discussion documents on regional policy mention a number of under INTERREG IIIC shall give access to experience of other actors territorial imbalances and the high concentration of economic involved in regional development policy and create synergies activity and population in the core area of the EU. interregional and transnational cooperation. wealth and EU party in a Rotterdam neighbourhood. 2 and 3 and the Cohesion Funds. Besides the Structural Funds there are other competitiveness and cooperation. the area between London. ‘The concept of territorial cohesion extends beyond tapestry of Objective 1 regions and Objective 2 areas. referred to as the between ‘best practice’ projects and the Structural Fund’s mainstream ‘European Pentagon’. The European Pentagon covers less than one fifth regional development policies and instruments through large-scale of the EU15 land area. Interreg IIIC is the interregional strand of the programme. Besides Objectives 1. URBAN II. drastically simplified. one of which is the European Regional three new objectives have taken the stage: convergence. policies has grown over the last six years. territorial Financial assistance from the Structural Funds under such objectives cohesion has emerged as a new objective alongside economic and is restricted to specific regions or areas. and reinforcing it.indd 4 26-01-2007 11:00:05 . Munich. The overall aim is to improve the effectiveness of Milan and Paris. as can be seen the notion of economic and social cohesion by both adding to this on the eligibility map.

the Lisbon and Gothenburg ambitions. At first glance. seems to be well aware of the territorial shortcomings between their home and workplace. Or should we applaud the Stedenbaan initiative. though. revolution. If the aim is to ease the stark differences between the European Pentagon and The European Council of Spatial Planners (ECTP) warns in their on-line the rest of the EU. experience? Or should we point out the territorial differences between French and Spanish cities? The steep hill on which Toledo’s city centre Notes 1 Source: www. are not at all happy about the steep price rises between regions and places.net is located could be one such difference: trams cannot climb the steep 2 Ibid slopes in the centre and would have to bypass it. intra-regional imbalances and regions with geographical it offers. The ECTP constitutes our Quality Team. The EU faces territorial imbalances in the north-west corner of the European Pentagon. located in the cohesion issue. during the rush hour my journey to and from work will take me Sophie Labbouz (EIVP) shows that every self-respecting French town about three times as long as the equivalent journeys made by the is re-embracing the tram in the fight against congestion and pollution. The HafenCity Universität Hamburg. All of these issues should be examined in the light of the speed rail infrastructure outside the South East. To travel home from work I can choose to travel which tries to bring rail mobility to as many citizens as possible in by car. is rather different. that came with it. But the United Kingdom itself is reluctant to build a high handicaps. But again we could question if this is the right approach.indd 5 30-01-2007 15:20:16 .interregc3. And who knows. But what does this mean for our Guide to Good Practice? The mountain town of Covilhã is one of the few partners that clearly suffers from a geographical handicap. is investing much of its distribution of towns and cities. Maybe territorial disparities are not so bad after What do we say to a partner city like Toledo that has set its mind on all. No matter which mode of transport I choose. investments in the European Pentagon is not the only territorial The South East England Development Agency (SEEDA). Rotterdam. Wrong again! Look at the HST network that Spain is building. it would seem to be a sound approach. take the train or use the cycle path in my street subsidised by the province of Zuid-Holland? the European Union. Territorial development strategies HST looks like something that typically belongs to the European and policies have to be aligned to Borraso’s call for a post-industrial Pentagon. Y NT_S#january07_DEFdef. But the discussion paper on territorial cohesion that Europe might become inhabitants of Toledo. so we should take such warnings seriously. citizens of Covilhã. But some doubts creep in here too. marked disparities between and energy in the HST network and the economic and social opportunities within cities. Living in the European Pentagon of the Pentagon. whose regional train service has been replaced a boring place if we try to systematically eradicate the differences by the HST (AVE). the people of Covilhã spend fifteen minutes travelling Pentagon. also rooted in the European On average. the ECTP may be right to make some of their building its own tram system? Should Toledo draw on the French criticisms. NovaTerra Connected Cities / february 2007 / 5 Maybe territorial disparities are not so bad after all Illustration: Mietzeb. The field demonstration of connected cities the cybernetic transportation system organised by IPN would seem Should we listen to the more sceptical view of Henrik Sander? to be a justifiable approach.