# Conclusion Activity 60- Gene Squares In the beginning of Activity 60, I thought that I could predict the genotype and phenotype

of specific offspring using a punnett square, by predicting the possible gene/allele contributions from each parent, leading to finding possible offspring genotypes. Using information about dominance, by looking at the offspring genotypes, you could also determine the phenotype shown in an offspring. Now I think the same, except in addition to before, I know more in depth about the steps of predicting an offspring's genotype and phenotype, as well as how to predict an offspring's phenotype and genotype with two traits using a 2-factor square. My evidence is that firstly, it has helped to learn the terms homozygous and heterozygous. Homozygous is when both alleles for a specific characteristic are the same, and heterozygous if when both alleles for a specific characteristic are different. For predicting offspring genotype and phenotype with only one characteristic, you can use a punnett square, and you will need to find out which trait is dominant, and which trait is recessive. Dominant traits are represented with a capital letter, whereas recessive are represented with a lowercase. Secondly, it will be helpful to begin to set up your punnett square. Across the top of the square will be one parent's alleles, and on the other side, going vertically down the square (either on the left or right) will the the other parent's alleles. The punnett square should have a cross section of perpendicular lines, dividing the square into four. Each one of the alleles in the parent's allele combo should go over one box, to help with making the process easier and more organized. After this, it is time to fill in the square. Each offspring will receive a trait from each parent. (Only one out of two of the parent's possible allele contributions.) To determine which one this will be, for each box, you should look directly up the column for one trait, and directly to the side (either left or right) for the second. The offspring's alleles should be written with capitals (or dominant) traits first to avoid confusion. Now that you have found all the possible genotype combinations, you can determine their phenotype. First you will have to know what you are looking for. If looking for the dominant trait, you can look for either a heterozygous trait or a homozygous dominant trait. In other words, any offspring with the dominant trait present at all should carry the trait into their phenotype. If looking for the recessive trait, you will have to search for an allele combo type that is homozygous recessive, or an allele with two copies of the recessive trait (none of the dominant traits present), as this is the only type of allele which will carry the recessive trait into its phenotype. From here, you can calculate the probability of receiving that traits using a fraction. The numerator (top number) of your fraction should be the chances of success over the denominator (bottom number) being the total chances. For example, in in a punnett square, there are three homozygous recessive allele offspring with one heterozygous, and you were trying to determine the chance of an offspring having the recessive trait, the chance of success would

describing their phenotype with two different traits. The main idea/concepts of the activity were how to use a punnett square and what heterozygous and homozygous means. After this. it didn't feel to me that it was too difficult. therefore each parent is also described by two traits in order to describe their possible offspring. yet easy because punnett squares are similar to the method used to factor and multiply polynomials.be 3 (the number of alleles matching the question's description) over 4 (the total number of alleles. . then finally determining probability of an offspring. one parent's combinations going vertically.) This would be translated to a ¾ or 75% chance of the offspring showing the recessive trait. These are similar to punnett squares except over each column of the 4 x 4 box has two traits. This is because 2 factor crosses can predict offspring. Used further predicting genotype and phenotype are 2 factor crosses. I found this activity interesting. These two traits are a possible combination of genes contributed from each parent. the process of determining genotype and phenotype using 2-factor crosses proceeds similarly to that of a punnett square. by deriving alleles from the top and side columns. Since it involves math. Personally. but unlike the punnett square. and one's listed horizontally. described by two traits.