Introduction: Advantages of Using the Interview 1) It provides an opportunity for the organization to recruit good candidates and educate

them about the job 2) It is an efficient and practical method for measuring a number of different KSAs of an applicant 3) It can help an employer make either an early screening decision about an applicant’s acceptability or a later selection decision. Recruiting the Applicant to the Organization 1) Providing Job Information: Consider the Alternatives A) Dual interview focus: recruitment and selection a) Providing written job description to applicants conveys much of the information usually transmitted in the interview and helps applicants’ recall b) Too much focus on recruitment reduces the amount and quality of selection decision information obtained 2) Effect on Applicants: Recruiting Outcomes A) Recruiters with the “right” qualities have a significant, though modest, effect on applicants Measuring Applicant KSAs 1) More Is Not Better a) Interviewers do poorly when attempting to assess multiple applicant characteristics during an interview, resulting the collection of superficial data of limited value 2) Appropriate KSAs b) Applicant characteristics assessed by interviews: A) Personality, Applied social skills , Mental ability, Knowledge and skills Making a Selection Decision 1) Structured versus Unstructured Interviews a) Using an unstructured (as opposed to structured) get-acquainted interview results in subjective, global evaluations that are not very useful, although the interviewer believes they are b) Structured interviews rely on a disciplined method for collecting job-relevant information, including the use of a job analysis that identifies questions aimed at attitudes, behaviors, knowledge, and skills that differentiate high performers for a particular job. Model of Interview Structure 1) Evaluation Standardization: Includes scoring each item, relying on anchored rating scales, and summing scores across multiple dimensions 2) Question Sophistication: Is focusing on job-related behaviors, including the use of follow-up probes 3) Question Consistency: Asking all applicants the same questions derived from a job analysis, using the same interviewer(s) 4) Rapport Building: Involves getting to know each other through casual conversation at the beginning of the interview Screening and Selection Interviews 1) Screening Interview- Questions to check credentials and licensure requirements and the evaluation of an applicant’s minimum work requirements and experiences needed for the job 2) Selection Interview - Questions concerning job-related knowledge, interpersonal skills, problem-solving skills, and other workrelated experiences and behaviors Developing Screening Interview Questions 1) Use job analysis information to identify general or fundamental KSAs that an applicant must possess and for which the organization does not provide training. 2) Use “job experts” to identify the most important of these characteristics. 3) Use a modified Critical-Incidents Technique to identify questions. Conclusions about the Use of the Interview 1) Do not use a significant portion of a selection interview to engage in recruiting activities that detract from its primary purpose—evaluating characteristics of applicants. 2) Limit the number of applicant characteristics considered to improve the validity of the interview. 3) The structured interview is the best format to use for identifying the best candidate. Evaluating Interviews as Predictors 1) Structured interviews are more reliable than unstructured interviews 2) The use of multiple independent raters increases the reliability of the interview 3) Both behavior description interviews and situational interviews have produced good results 4) The behavior-type interview added to the prediction of job performance beyond that provided by the situational interview 5) Both interview types were perceived as equally fair to candidates 6) Coaching of interviewees can significantly improve candidate performance in the situational interview 7) While reviews of validity of the interview have focused on criterion-related validity, a content validity strategy is also a relevant approach 8) The courts have accepted the job-relatedness of structured interviews, and this has proven to be an effective defense against discrimination lawsuits Primarily a function of two factors 1) The information developed from the job analysis 2) The time available for each applicant Discrimination and the Interview 1) Problems with Discrimination in Interviews a) Decisions of the selection interview can lead, or assist in leading to, disparate treatment or a pattern of disparate impact b) Interviews cannot be defended regarding job relatedness if inappropriate and/or non-job related questions asked of applicants Research Findings on Discrimination 1) Direct (main) effects due to candidate race, sex, age and other demographic characteristics on interviewer ratings generally are small and inconsistent. 2) Demographic similarity between employee and interviewer results in mixed or small effects on interviewer evaluations. 3) Applicant disclosure of non-obvious disabilities tends to increase the likelihood of obtaining a hiring recommendation from the interviewer. 4) The use of structured interviews and experienced interviewers appears to reduce the influence of demographic variables and biases. Validity of the Interview 1) Interview Validity a) Is increased using a standardized process for gathering, recording, and interpreting applicant suitability information b) Is increased either by standardizing the interview, or by relying on multiple interviewers arriving at independent evaluations for each candidate. c) Is affected by the complexity of the job— using hypothetical questions (i.e., situational interviews) is not as appropriate as using questions about what the candidate has done in actual situations (i.e., behavioral description interviews Developing Interview Questions 1) The Situational Interview a) Conduct a job analysis using the Critical Incidents Technique to identify examples of good and poor job performance b) Sort incidents into groups of similar behaviors

and attitudes. and operations) specific to the job. fit with unique organizational culture or climate. and dates) and procedural knowledge (i. Job Knowledge and Skills 10% Declarative information (i. agreeableness. Organizational Fit 3% Match between candidate and the organization’s values. actions. openness to experience. Physical Attributes 4% Evaluation of stamina and agility. like an evaluation of physical appearance. application of mental ability for solving problems.. and general characteristics. ability to effectively plan and organize work. Train the Interviewer 1) Critical Interviewer Skills A) Accurately receiving information a) Hearing what the respondent said b) Observing the applicant’s behavior c) Remembering the information received B) Avoiding errors in evaluating information received a) The halo effect b) Distributional rating errors of central tendency and leniency c) The similar-to-me effect d) The contrast effect e) The first-impressions error C) Regulating behavior in delivering questions a) Not talking excessively b) Not interacting differently due to interviewer similarity to applicant c) Maintaining control of the interview 2) Results of Interviewer Training a) Reduces common rater errors b) Enhances reliability of interviewer judgments c) Fosters more sophisticated questioning strategies 3) Components of an Interviewer Training Program a) Identify specific behavioral objectives b) Have interviewer trainees demonstrate and review their skills c) Evaluate trainees and offer suggestions for change d) Have interviewers attend training sessions on a regular to acquire.. Personality 35% Long-term disposition to act in certain ways. goals. skills.e. interest in certain topics or subjects. Interviewee Knowledge structures Validity generalization Cues Interviewer Screening Selection Job Content Method Critical Incidents Sign . names.(behavioral dimensions) c) Select the most appropriate incidents and write related interview questions d) Develop response scales for each question e) Applicant scores are derived by summing their ratings on each scale 2) The Behavior Description Interview a) Conduct a job analysis using the Critical Incidents Technique to identify examples of good and poor job performance b) Sort incidents into groups of similar behaviors (behavioral dimensions) c) Identify each dimension as describing either maximum or typical performance of the individual d) Develop questions and probes (followup questions) for both experienced and inexperienced applicants e) Score applicants by rank-ordering them on each dimension. technical knowledge. extraversion. leadership. then total individual scores. General Intelligence 16% Ability to learn and evaluate information quickly. includes interpersonal skills. refresh. values. preference for certain work environments or a particular type of work or profession. emotional stability.e. Interests and Preferences 4% Tendency toward certain activities. and persuasiveness. reflection of habitual behavior with regard to five dimensions: conscientiousness. norms. and maintain interviewer skills Behavioral Dimensions Frequently Measured in the Structured Interview Applied Social Skills 28% Ability to function effectively in social situations. terms. oral communication skills.

d) Lack of trained personnel in administering. 1) Characteristics . or sentence stems that provide insights into an individual’s personality. 4) High conscientiousness and agreeableness scores indicate less likelihood of deviant behavior. openness to experience. feel. Use of Personality in Selection Arguments for Use in Selection 1) There is evidence that personality characteristics can be grouped into five broad dimensions. b) Agreeableness. openness to experience and emotional stability. 3) All Big Five traits except openness to experience predict success either as an expatriate or an entrepreneur. say. Personality Traits 1) Trait. and some that appear to be cognitive measures b) Measures the candidate’s selfawareness and self-regulation. and past experiences. 2) Conscientiousness. physical environment. and job performance. it contributes incremental validity to the prediction of success at work. Personality Characteristics Inventory (PCI) 1) 150 multiple choice items 2) Each item has three possible responses 3) Requires 30-45 minutes to complete 4) Measures the Big Five personality dimensions a) Extraversion b) Stability c) Agreeableness d) Conscientiousness e) Openness to experience Validity of Projective Techniques 1) Issues Affecting Usefulness in Selection a) The reliability of measures of an individual’s responses at two different times b) The impact on an individual’s score due to the total number of responses given. locus of control. 2) Contingent (Niche) Predictors a) Extraversion . and includes nearly all non-cognitive predictors. 3) Meta-analytic data show these traits can be relevant predictors of work performance 4) Because personality is not highly correlated to other useful selection tools.). and need for achievement 2) Core Self Evaluations (CSEs) Consist of four traits: self-esteem. the rate of promotions. . and emotional stability are associated with effective leaders. The Appropriate Use of the Interview 1) Limit the scope of the interview a) Do not attempt to assess the complete personality b) Limit the number of personality traits to be judged and identify more carefully the ones that are assessed.Includes both human and nonhuman elements (organizational demands.Valid predictors of overall work performance over all studies examined. and these attributes are combined distinctly in each person. b) Projective TechniquesRequire verbal responses to intentionally ambiguous inkblots.Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability . 2) Concentrate on previous behaviors.Use the Behavior Description Interview to assess previous instances of applicant behavior The Validity of Self-Report Inventories 1) Universal (or Generalizable) Predictors. d) Represents a larger construct than the Big Five Personality Measurement Methods 1) Inventories in Personality Measurement: Use the written responses of an individual as the information for determining personality 2) Major Types of Inventories a) Self-Report Questionnaires. generalized self-efficacy.Definition of Personality: The unique set of characteristics that define an individual and determine that person’s pattern of interaction with the environment. and to a lesser extent. pictures.Consist of a series of brief items asking the respondents to use a multiple-choice answer format to indicate personal information about thoughts. 2) Environment . a) Interviewers tend to attribute others’ behavior to personality rather than to situational causes b) Raters often interpret even small amounts of behavior as signs of underlying traits and motives c) Unstructured interviews can increase the accuracy of the rater’s assessment of an applicant’s personality. 2) Managers intuitively believe personality traits matter at work.What people habitually want. independence. scoring. and emotional stability 3) Emotional intelligence (EI): a) A broad construct composed of attributes beyond those of personality. etc. and agreeableness predict teamwork and performance in jobs involving interpersonal interactions. The Interview in Personality Management 1) Traits are the most frequently assessed constructs in the employment interview.Valid predictor for some occupational groups and specific criteria. c) The quantity and complexity of responses make scoring difficult.Valid predictor for teamwork c) Openness to Experience -Valid predictor for training performance When Specific Traits are Useful 1) Extraversion. entrepreneurial intentions. Examples: sociability. emotional stability. as well as social awareness and relationship management. and interpreting data from projective tests. use of transformational leadership. 2) Interviewer ratings of applicant personality are moderately related to job performance. or believe.A continuous dimension on which consistent individual differences in reactions to the same situation may be measured (or explained) by the amount of the characteristic the individual exhibits. work conditions. do. 4) Proactive Personality a) Is a dispositional approach toward taking initiative at work and effecting environmental changes b) Has been shown to predict salary. 5) Motivation is the means through which personality operates. c) Has been shown to relate to conscientiousness and extraversion. 5) Little to no adverse impact—means scores are quite comparable across racial or ethnic groups or between men and women.Conscientiousness is the most frequently measured. emotions.

Using Personality Data 1) The Nature of Job Performance a) How predetermined or fluid is the work context?.emotional stability. 6) Conclusions a) Traits vary greatly in the extent to which they influence behavior b) The situation has an important influence on individual behavior c) Specific personality traits predict valued behaviors at work only in relevant situations. and job performance. .Powerful aspects of the situation influence an individual’s behavior more than the individual’s traits. Using Personality Data 1) Legal Issues in the Use of Personality Tests a) Compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act . commitment. and conscientiousness support job satisfaction.Is the test administered by a health care professional? Are the results interpreted by a health care professional? Is the test designed to reveal an impairment of physical or mental health? 2) The privacy rights of individuals 3) Define personality traits in term of job behaviors. a) Are the traits to be measured important job-related KSAs? b) Are the traits specifically defined? Task approach. PAQ).The importance and diversity of personality traits increases as jobs become less structured. 5) Implications a) Personality is less important in powerful situations than in weak situations b) Personality characteristics are more important for selection devices and job assignments in weak situations than in powerful ones. Personality-Related Position Requirements Form (PPRF) Interaction of Traits and Situations 1) Powerful Situations a) Cause individuals to interpret events in the same way b) Create uniform expectancies of appropriate behavior c) Provide incentives for the performance of a behavior d) Require commonplace skills 2) Weak Situations a) Cause individuals to not uniformly interpret events in the same way b) Do not create uniform expectations of desired behavior c) Do not offer incentives for one type of behavior d) Require a variety of skills 3) Effect of Powerful Situations.g. knowledgebased and teamwork oriented. 4) Effect of Weak SituationsSituational uncertainty causes an individual to act in accordance with personal traits.. Job analysis methods (e. extraversion.

2) Verbal Tests . and scoring can be standardized.Require the physical manipulation of things—operating a machine. installing a piece of equipment. materials. materials. 3) Instructions. which provides data about the applicant’s ability to learn on the job. 4) Test results are immediately available to both the applicant and the selection specialist. Applicants must indicate what action is to be taken regarding memos in the basket and are interviewed about their decisions b) Leaderless Group Discussion (LGD) – A small group of applicants are each assigned roles and charged with resolving either a competitive or a cooperative scenario. Adverse Impact and Performance Tests 1) Research Findings a) There are no differences between demographic groups of incumbents in either average scores on performance tests or on the percentage of applicants selected b) Performance tests may have an adverse impact on applicants.Selection tests that are indirect indicators of an individual’s predisposition to behave in certain ways. 5) Applicants learn job activities while completing the test. jargon.Require the use of spoken or written messages or interpersonal interaction if the problem situation is primarily language or people oriented. or other testing elements that have only a minor influence on job performance do not interfere with or limit the test performance of applicants not familiar with these elements Determining the Importance of KSAs 1) The relative time spent on the task compared to all others 2) The relative difficulty of the task compared to all others 3) The the criticality of the task if incorrect performance results in negative consequences 4) The necessity for new employees to possess the KSA 5) The extent to which trouble is likely to occur if the KSA is ignored in selection 6) The extent to which the KSA distinguishes between superior and average workers. 6) Tests can serve as realistic job previews that help reduce turnover. 3) Trainability Tests . Other Results of Using Performance Tests 1) There are few complaints about their appropriateness. Specifying Testing Procedures 1) Standardizing Testing Procedures a) Develop a set of instructions for applicants b) Provide the same or identical testing conditions to all applicants c) Inform applicants of what will be scored d) Develop rules for consistent grading/scoring e) Train all scorers in the interpretation of scoring rules Developing Testing Procedures 1) Establish Independent Test Sections . 2) Eliminate Contaminating Factors . The Effectiveness of Performance Tests 1) Research Findings a) The results of using performance tests in selection have been universally positive in affirming that the tests added to the prediction of job performance b) Performance tests can provide adequate prediction such that use of additional tests does not improve predictability c) Motor performance tests were found to be valid while paper-and-pencil tests weren’t for the same subjects. Assessment Centers 1) What Is an Assessment Center (AC). 2) Samples . Steps in the Development of Performance Tests 1) Perform job analysis 2) Identify important tasks to be tested 3) Develop testing procedures 4) Develop scoring procedures 5) Train judges Developing Testing Procedures 1) Considerations in Selecting Tasks to Make Most Efficient Use of Testing Time a) The total time required to perform the task must be reasonable b) Tasks that either most or few applicants can do are of little help in sorting good and poor applicants c) Choose the less expensive task if there is a choice among two (approximately) equal tasks d) Standardized operations and products or readily definable verbal/interaction tasks are easier and less expensive to develop and score.Performance Tests 1) What Performance Tests Do a) Ask the applicant to do a representative part of the job for which he or she is being evaluated b) Provide direct evidence of the applicant’s ability and skill to work on the job.A procedure for measuring KSAs in groups of individuals (usually 12 to 24) that uses a series of devices (exercises). The group must produce a written report that specifies the action to be taken by the company relative to the scenario .A paper-and-pencil test designed to replicate administrative tasks of the job under consideration.Develop the test to ensure that apparatus. 2) Uses of ACs a) Selection— identifying participants who demonstrate behaviors necessary for the position considered b) Career development—determining those behaviors each participant does well and those in which each is deficient. and equipment required to develop and administer performance tests Consistency of Behavior 1) Signs . 2) Test administrators’ time is minimized. many of which are verbal performance tests.Develop the test such that an applicant’s performance on one part of the test is not closely tied to another part of the test. or making a product. Assessment Devices Used in ACs 1) Performance (Simulation) Tests a) In-Basket . 2) Limitations of Performance Tests a) Creating work samples representative of job activities b) Relying on the assumption that applicants already possess KSAs to complete the job behavior c) Costs of time.Are most often used for jobs that do not presently exist and specialized jobs for which extensive training is necessary. 3) Types of Samples a) Information to determine whether applicant has ever demonstrated the necessary behaviors b) Work sample tests and simulations to determine whether the job behavior of interest can be completed Examples of Performance Tests 1) Motor Tests .Selection tests that gather information about behaviors that are consistent with the job behaviors being predicted.

render judgments. 1 Very little of the dimension was shown. monitoring and regulating job activities and responsibilities.An AC is usually very expensive to develop and maintain and. responsibilities. tasks. 3 A moderate amount of the dimension was shown (average). allocating decision making and other responsibilities to the appropriate subordinates Initiative: Actively attempting to influence events to achieve goals. if selection among applicants is its only use. group who provided alternative responses to the item j) If possible. b) AC exercises that are intended to measure the same dimension(s) are too dissimilar to actually do so c) ACs contain too many dimensions for assessors to successfully distinguish d) Exercises—not dimensions—are important components of ACs which assessors rate rather than rating dimension behaviors Situational Judgment Tests 1) “Low-fidelity” a) simulations that present a series of written descriptions of work situations and multiple responses to each situation b) The participant indicates one of the responses for each situation as being the one that the participant endorses 2) Developing SJTs a) Collect stories from job incumbents or supervisors about situations encountered on the job that are important for successful performance b) Review the situations that are described to identify item stems c) Edit the situations into item stems d) Drop in appropriate situations or those that may raise legal concerns e) Perform a job analysis including gathering ratings of the importance of and time spent on specific tasks f) Assemble the chosen items into a survey g) Administer survey to sample of SME h) The test developer reviews the offered responses to each situation and prepares an edited list of potential responses to each situation i) The list of situations and alternative responses is circulated to the same. or this dimension was not shown at all (poor). showing self-starting actions rather than passive acceptance. there might be alternative methods that are much less expensive. Adaptability: Maintaining effectiveness in varying environments. 3) Possible Reasons for ACs’ Lack of Validity a) Cognitive ability and personality traits underlie participants’ performance in ACs. or commit oneself Delegation: Utilizing subordinates effectively.Types of Abilities To Be Developed in Training Assessors 1) Understanding the behavioral dimensions 2) Observing the behavior of participants 3) Categorizing participant behavior as to appropriate behavioral dimensions 4) Judging the quality of participant behavior 5) Determining the rating of participants on each behavioral dimension across the exercises 6) Determining the overall evaluation of participants across all behavioral dimensions Rating Dimensions of Behavior in ACs 5 A great deal of the dimension was shown (excellent).If publicizing the AC evaluation does affect the selection decision. then the rating creates a self-fulfilling prophecy 2) Benefits of ACs for Managers/Assessors a) Development of proficiency in interviewing skills b) Development of better information communication skills c) A reduction of halo errors in assessing subordinates Criticism of ACs 1) Cost . taking action to monitor the results of delegated assignments or projects Decisiveness : Expressing a readiness to make decisions. take action. 2) Construct Validity . Taking action to achieve goals beyond those called for.” . the test developer should perform an empirical validity study for the SJT. originating action Oral Communication: Effectively expressing oneself in individual or group situations (includes gestures and nonverbal communications) Planning and Organizing: Establishing a course of action for self or others in order to accomplish a specific goal. or activities of subordinates.ACs have failed to demonstrate the patterns of correlations (both convergent and discriminant validity) among dimension ratings that they were designed to produce. 2 Only a small amount of the dimension was shown. or people Control: Establishing procedures for monitoring or regulating the processes. with various tasks. 4 Quite a lot of the dimension was shown. or equivalent. 0 No opportunity existed for this dimension to be shown. The Effectiveness of Assessment Centers 1) “Crown Prince Syndrome. planning proper assignments of personnel and appropriate allocation of resources Tenacity: Staying with a position or plan of action until the desired objective is achieved or is no longer reasonably attainable Tolerance for Stress: Maintaining a stable performance under pressure or opposition .