SOLUTIONS – homogenous mixtures of substances composed of one solute and one solvent. SOLUTE – a substance that gets dissolved in a solvent. SOLVENT – the medium in which the solute gets dissolved in. - often is a liquid e.g. water, paint thinner, etc. HOMOGENOUS MIXTURE – a uniform mixture consisting of only one phase - usually clear HETEROGENOUS MIXTURE – a mixture where one can see distinct phases - usually opaque or translucent (cloudy) - e.g. oil in water, salad dressing, etc. SOLUTE IN SOLVENT Gas in Gas Gas in Liquid Gas in Solid Liquid in Gas Liquid in Liquid Liquid in Solid Solid in Liquid Solid in Solid EXAMPLE OF SOLUTION Oxygen in Nitrogen(air) Oxygen in Water Oxygen in Ice Water in Air Methanol in Water(anti-freeze) Mercury in Silver(tooth fillings) Sugar in Water(syrup) Tin in Copper(bronze)

needle on ohmmeter moves  light does not glow. needle does not move LITMUS TEST blue litmus paper turns red red litmus paper turns blue  no change in colour of litmus paper  ELECTROLYTE NON-ELECTROLYTE TYPE OF SOLUTION ACIDIC BASIC NEUTRAL .g.a chemical formula representing a solution specifies the solute by using its chemical formula and shows the solvent by using a subscript. (1) NH3(aq) – ammonia gas (Solute) dissolved in water(solvent) (2) I2(al) – solid iodine(solute) dissolved in alcohol(solvent)   all aqueous solutions have water as the solvent and are clear (transparent)  compounds can be classified as either electrolytes or nonelectrolytes  compounds are electrolytes if their aqueous solutions conduct electricity and compounds are non-electrolytes if their aqueous solutions do not conduct electricity.  electrolytes are mostly highly soluble ionic compounds most molecular compounds are non-electrolytes except for acids PROPERTIES OF SOLUTES & THEIR SOLUTIONS TYPE OF SOLUTE CONDUCTIVITY TEST  light on conductivity apparatus glows. e.

H can be covalently bonded – N -O -F  any of these compounds can “hydrogen bond” to their own molecules to increase the intermolecular forces more than either London Dispersion forces or dipole-dipole forces.g. 6.g.HOMEWORK: P. 269 & 270 #’s 1-8. e. . ethylene glycol is a polar molecule which has a high solubility(which also is polar)  the theoretical explanation is that “polar molecules are surrounded and suspended in solution by polar solvent molecules”  remember in Chapter 2…….2 Explaining Solutions  when we look at polar & non-polar solutes we generally find that “like dissolves like” e.

its particles separated from each other and dispersed into the solution  he further explained that electrically charged particles must be present in their solutions e. NaCl(s) --- Na(aq) + + Cl(aq) and (NH4 )2 SO4(s) -- 2NH4(aq) + + SO4(aq)  when an ionic compound dissolves we say that the compound dissociates into individual aqueous ions DO #’s 6 & 7 on p.g. considerable capacity for hydrogen bonding Do #’s 9-12 on pages 279 & 280. small size 2. many more ionic compounds dissolve in water than any other solvent  in Sweden. highly polar nature 3. 1. 278 & 279. Arrhenius studying electrolytes proposed a hypothesis that when a substance dissolved. . Why do polar solutes dissolve in non-polar solvents?  they do not show evidence of polar molecules (dipoles) or  hydrogen bonding  we would then have to look at London Dispersion Forces which are weak intermolecular forces WATER = “UNIVERSAL SOLVENT”  due to its.

3 Solution Concentration  because many solutions are colourless.6. we need to know the amount of solute that is present  we use a ratio called the concentration Concentration = Quantity of Solute Quantity of Solvent  if the concentration is high.0% V/V 2. consumer products commonly use “percent weight by volume” or % W/V  . we say that we have a dilute solution Percentage Concentration – 1. What is the percentage by volume concentration of acetic acid? A: cacetic acid = 140mL x 100% 500mL = 28. c= Vsolute x 100% Vsolution Concentration is expressed as % V/V or percentage by volume c= concentration Vsolute = volume of solute Vsolution = volume of the solution Sample Problem 1 Q: A photographic “Stop Bath” contains 140mL of pure acetic acid in a 500mL bottle of solution. we say that we have a concentrated solution  if the concentration is low.

e. 1ppm=1g/106 mL =1g/1000L = 1mg/L = 1mg/1kg = 1μg/g .0g x 100% c= 92. “percent weight by weight” or % W/W c=msolute x 100% msolution Sample Problem 2 Q: A sterling silver ring has a mass of 12. you often express concentration as parts per million (ppm) or 1:106  we can express this depending on the units we are working with i.1g of pure silver. Hydrogen Peroxide.0g and contains 11. What is the percentage weight by weight concentration of silver in the metal? A: mAg =11.0g c=11.5% W/W Therefore the ring is 92.1g malloy =12.1g 12.e. H2 O2 . etc. c=msolute x 100% vsolution 3.5% silver.e.g. may be 3% W/V which means 3g of H2 O2 is in every 100mL of solution cH2O2 = 3g/100mL=3% W/V i. Very Low Concentrations  very low concentrations(dilute concentrations) are expressed using reasonable numbers for very small quantities of solute  in the environment of swimming pools.

2mg VO2 = 250mL or 0. Calculate the molar concentration of NaOH? A: nNaOH = 1. C . a stoichiometric calculation produced a 0.250L = 8. What is the concentration of oxygen in parts per million? A: mO2 =2.250L c= 2.186mol of NaOH in 0. is the amount of solute(in moles) dissolved in one litre of solution or Molar Concentration = Amount of Solute (moles) Volume of Solution (litres) C=n/v C is expressed as moles/L  Molar Concentration is sometimes indicated by the use of square brackets e.g.8ppm Therefore the oxygen concentration is 8ppm.186mol vNaOH = 0.250L . 2.2mg of oxygen was measured.Sample Problem 3 Q: In a chemical analysis of 250mL of water at SATP. [NaOH(aq) ] Sample Problem 4 Q: In a quantitative analysis. MOLAR CONCENTRATION  when we talk about chemical reactions the coefficients in a balanced equation refer to the number of moles  concentration is communicated using Molar Concentration or C  the molar concentration.2mg 0.8mg/L = 8.250L of solution.

744mol/L Concentration Calculations in some cases.0g c=msolute /vsolution ----vsolution =msolute . CNaOH = n/v = 0. c=msolute vsolution Sample Problem 6 Q: People with diabetes have to monitor and restrict their sugar intake. you might have to work with the equations and manipulate them to find the answer  in other cases. What mass of fructose (C6 H12 O6 ) is present in a 175mL glass of juice? A: cC6H12O6 =12g/100mL V=175mL msolute =c x vsolution =12g/100mL x 175mL =21g Therefore there are 21g of fructose in a 175mL glass of apple juice.186mol/0.250L = 0.0g? Assume that the apple juice has a sugar concentration of 12g/100mL (12% W/V) and that the sugar in apple juice is fructose. if their sugar allowance for that beverage was 9. you might have to use the concentration ratio (quantity of solute/quantity of solution) as a conversion factor. Sample Problem 5 Q: A box of apple juice has a fructose concentration of 12g/100mL (12%W/V). A: cC6H12O6 =12g/100mL mC6H12O6 =9. What volume of apple juice could a diabetic person drink.744mol/L Therefore the molar concentration of NaOH is 0.

14g/mol =61.0g 12g/100mL =9.12 mol/L aluminum sulphate solution. volume of a substance and the molar concentration.6g of aluminum sulphate. .50L CAl2(SO4)3 =0. Mass.180mol x 342.50L =0. molar concentration to solve the problem Sample Problem 10 Q: To study part of the water treatment process in a lab. mAl2(SO4)3 =n x M =0.12mol/L x 1.14g/mol Step 1: C=n/v. we sometimes have to use 2 conversion factors.0g x 100ml/12g =75mL Therefore the person could drink 75mL of apple juice. nAL2(SO4)3 =C x v =0.12mol/L MAL2(SO4)3 =342.6g Therefore the student will need 61.50L of a 0. 1.c =9. a student requires 1. Volume & Conc3entration Calculations  when given the mass of a substance. molar mass 2. What mass of aluminum sulphate must be measured for this solution? A: vAl2(SO4)3(aq) =1.180mol Step 2: n=m/M.

CNa2CO3 =0.4 Drinking Water    70% of the Earth is covered with a dilute aqueous solution averaging about 4km deep very little of this is useful for drinking. A student dissolves 5.00g/105. which can be divided into 2 types.99g/mol Step 1: n=m/M.Sample Problem 11 Q: Sodium carbonate is a water softener that is a significant part of the detergent used in a washing machine. Surface water-Great Lakes. Answer questions 19-22 on page 290. etc 2. 1.00g of solid sodium carbonate to make 250mL of a solution to study the properties of this component of detergent. What is the molar concentration of the solution? A: mNa2CO3 =5.250L =0.99g/mol =0. nNa2CO3 =5.189mol/L.00g VNa2CO3 =250mL MNa2CO3 =105. Ground water-made up of thousands of aquifers* . rivers.06% more is ground water which has soaked into the soil and porous rock of the Earth’s crust  in Canada we have a very abundant supply of freshwater. Only about 2% of Earth’s water is freshwater from lakes and rivers  about 0. streams.189mol/L Therefore the molar concentration of the solution is 0.0472mol Step 2: C=n/v.0472mol/0. 6.

1. Water or Hydrologic Cycle Water Contamination  sometimes water will naturally contain substances like living organisms. Ca2+ .g. Na1+ ……common cations HCO3 -1 . suspended particles and naturally occurring dissolved chemicals from surrounding rocks and minerals e. Biological-viruses. Cl-1 …..*an aquifer is an underground formation of loose material or permeable rock that can produce useful quantities of water when tapped by a well. SO4 2. Physical-suspended particles (make water look dirty) .common anions  true contaminants are classified into 3 categories. Mg2+ . bacteria & algae 2.

Preparation of Standard Solutions By Dilution  done by diluting an existing solution  commonly done by taking a standard solution or stock solution & adding solvent to decrease the concentration to the level we need . All levels of Government have some degree of responsibility in ensuring the safety of our drinking water !  Federal-Provincial Governments have set-up MAC (Maximum Acceptable Concentrations) lists of chemicals in our water. dioxins. etc sometimes damage from chemicals can be reversed but many like PCB’s. 293 lists common sources of water contamination. 291-298 & answer questions 1-4.  Read Section 6.3. 6. From A Solid  Solutions with precisely known concentrations are called Standard Solutions  these are in many cases made by dissolving a solid solute into a liquid or aqueous solution 2. Chemical-all dissolved substances including metals. Also questions 11 & 12 on page 299. manufactured chemicals.4 “Drinking Water” P.5 Solution Preparation 1. heavy metals and some pesticides cause damage that CAN NOT be reversed!   TABLE 1 on P. & 6 on pages 294/295.

40mol/L Find Cf VI Ci =vf Cf Cf =vi Ci -- 0.1mol/L are often described as dilute.200L of 2. while those with a molar concentration >0.1mol/L are referred to as concentrated.  As the mass (or amount) of solute is not changed by adding more solvent…we can say that mi =mf of ni =nf mi =initial mass of solute mi =final mass of solute ni =initial amount of solute (in moles) nf =final amount of solute (in moles) we know that C=n/v --- n=v x C & that c=m/v --- m=c x v therefore we can compare 2 solutions and express the constant quantity of solute in terms of v and C. using the formula: vi Ci =vf Cf Sample Problem 1 Q: Water is added to 0.40mol/L vf 1. until the final volume is 1.000L Ci =2.000L.40mol/L of NH3(aq) cleaning solution.200L Vf =1. Solutions with a molar concentration of < 0. A: vi =0.200L x 2.000L . Find the molar concentration of the final diluted solution.

00L Cf =10% Find vi vi c i = vf cf ---- vi = vf cf ci = 4.480mol/L Therefore the final concentration is 0.00L x 10% 36% = 1.1L Therefore the initial volume was 1.00L of a 10% solution.=0. . Sample Problem 2 Q: A student is instructed to dilute some concentrated HCL(aq) (36%) to make 4.1L.480mol/L. Answer Questions 1-5 on Pages 306-307. What volume of HCl should the student measure to do this? A: ci =36% Vf =4.