Learning about the parts of speech is the first step in grammar study just as learning the letters of the alphabet is the first step to being able to read and write. From learning the parts of speech we begin to understand the use or function of words and how words are joined together to make meaningful communication. To understand what a part of speech is, you must understand the idea of putting similar things together into groups or categories. Let's look at some examples of categories.

COLORS blue red yellow green black

FRUITS banana apple orange grape lemon

DRINKS milk water soda beer coffee

LANGUAGES Spanish Arabic Japanese English Korean

Colors, fruits, drinks, and languages are categories. If I tell you that Grebo is a language, you would understand exactly what Grebo is. If we did not have the category language, it would be hard to explain what is meant by the word Grebo. It is very convenient to have categories to talk about similar things. Let's look at some more examples of categories. In the list below, which does not belong with the others? a) violin b) hammer c) drums d) piano e) guitar If you chose hammer, you are right. Violin, drums, piano, and guitars are used to

make music, but a hammer is not used to make music. Hammer doesn't fit with the other words because it is a tool and all of the others are musical instruments. Let's try another example. Which of these does not belong with the others? a) hammer b) saw c) violin


c) screwdriver d) wrench This time, the word violin does not belong because it is not a tool. It is very useful to have categories like musical instruments and tools to organize our ideas. The parts of speech are categories used to organize or classify words according to how they are used. We use parts of speech as a way to make it easier to talk about language. The philosopher Aristotle and later scientists studied animals and classified them according to what they have in common. For example, eagles, robins and sparrows are kinds of birds; sharks, salmon and tuna are kinds of fish; and dogs, horses and elephants are kinds of mammals. Aristotle and others also studied language and classified words according to what they have in common. We usually use 8 This categories or parts of speech to classify all the words we use in English.

classification is not perfect. Sometimes it is hard to tell which category a word belongs in. The same word may belong in different categories depending on how it is used. There may be better ways to classify English than by using the 8 parts of speech. But this classification has been used for a long time and many grammar books use it, so it is easier to keep on using it. It is possible to speak or learn a language without knowing the parts of speech, but for most of us, knowing about parts of speech makes things easier. Here is an example of how it can be helpful to know about the parts of speech. Look at the sentence: The man surreptitiously entered the room. You probably don't know the meaning of the word surreptitiously, but if you know about parts of speech, you will recognize that it is an adverb and that it tells you something about how the man entered the room. You may still not understand the exact meaning of the word, but you can understand the whole sentence better than if you did not know about parts of speech. When you look up a word in a dictionary, you will find not only the meaning of the word but also what part of speech it is. This information is very helpful in understanding the full meaning of the word and knowing how to use it. The 8 parts of speech that are used to describe English words are:


Nouns Verbs Adjectives Adverbs Pronouns Prepositions Conjunctions Articles

A noun is often defined as a word which names a person, place or thing. Here are some examples of nouns: boy, river, friend, Mexico, triangle, day, school, truth,


If you see a word beginning with a capital letter in in the middle of a sentence. aunt. things or animals together and treated as one. friendship). KINDS OF NOUNS: Common Nouns – are names of people (e. Proper nouns are nouns which begin with a capital letter because it is the name of a specific or particular person place or thing. trees). Countable and Uncountable Nouns are used with the following:  4 . Susan. (e. John F. Kennedy. Kennedy.g. and boy is a noun because it is the name of a thing.  Abstract Nouns – An abstract noun is the name of something that we can only think of or feel but cannot see (e. things (e. Some grammar books divide nouns into 2 groups .mice. For example. John F.g.g. King Kong) and places (e. Kennedy is a noun because it is the name of a person.  Collective Nouns – are names used for a number of people. mouse . George Bush).g. New York City.g. For example: a group of friends.g. John F. animals (e. Mexico is a noun because it is the name of a place.proper nouns and common nouns. Most nouns are common nouns and do not begin with a capital letter. A proper noun begins with a Capital Letter.  Countable and Uncountable Nouns – Countable nouns are nouns which can be counted (e. Maple Street.g. animals (e.g.sheep). Paris). things (e. sheep . books).  Proper Nouns – are special names of people (e. Uncountable nouns are nouns which cannot be counted. Financial Times).g. idea. Burger King. a bunch of bananas. smoke). teacher. Some examples of proper nouns are: Mexico. flag. class.children. Many nouns have a special plural form if there is more than one. man). Atlantic Ocean. eye.g. grammar. movie. dream. vacation. it is probably a proper noun. February. we say one book but two books. Plurals are usually formed by adding an -s (books) or -es (boxes) but some plurals are formed in different ways (child . a litter of puppies. person people. monkey) and places (church).

Example: cousin. some. tiger) or place (e. child.g. much. person. a large number of Nouns have four genders: Uncountable Noun a little.g. Common Gender – The common gender is used where the noun can be both male and female. a great deal of 1. Example: table. Example: boy. beach beaches peach peaches 5 . Example: girl. several. Masculine Gender – The masculine gender is used for all males. girls). many. a lot of. chair. man 2. Neuter Gender – The neuter gender is used for things which have no life or sex. plenty of. animal (e. some.g. –s.g.g.g. plenty of. Feminine Gender – The feminine gender is used for all females. friend. an. animal (e. How plural nouns are formed. A noun that shows more than one person (e.Countable Noun a.g. Singular and Plural Nouns – A noun that shows only one person (e. –sh and –x. By adding –s. pencil). markets) is called a plural noun. By adding ‘es’ to nouns ending in –ch. pencils). a girl). thing (e. a lot of. a large amount of. a few. market) is called a singular noun). tigers) or place (e. woman 3. thing (e. student 4.g.

calf half life calves halves lives loaf self wife loaves selves wives By adding ‘s’ to nouns ending in –f or –fe. banjo bamboo radio banjos bamboos radios patio photo video patios photos videos By replacing ‘y’ with –ies. baby fly hobby babies flies hobbies lorry navy puppy lorries navies puppies By adding ‘s’ to nouns ending in –y.branch ditch boss bus chorus brush bush dish box fax fox branches ditches bosses buses choruses brushes bushes dishes boxes faxes foxes speech watch glass lens pass fish lash wish hoax six tax speeches watches glasses lenses passes fishes lashes wishes hoaxes sixes taxes By adding ‘es’ to nouns ending in –o. chief dwarf gulf chiefs dwarfs gulfs hoof reef roof hoofs reef roofs 6 . buffalo cargo echo buffaloes cargoes echoes potato mosquito tomato potatoes mosquitoes tomatoes By adding ‘s’ to nouns ending in –o. boy day donkey boys days donkeys key toy turkey keys toys turkeys By replaying ‘f’ or ‘fe’ with –ves.

foot goose mouse Some nouns have aircraft crossroads furniture Exceptional plural. They are formed by adding certain letters to them.By changing vowels. child crisis mouse children crises mice ox passer-by radius oxen passers-by radii feet geese mice same words for plural aircraft crossroads furniture louse tooth woman and singular. verbs and adjectives. music series sheep lice teeth women music series sheep FORMING NOUNS Nouns can be formed from nouns. Nouns widow friend king Verbs add fail give Adjectives clean sad beautiful Nouns widowhood friendship kingdom Nouns addition failure gift Nouns cleanliness sadness beauty 7 .

The trains have arrived. It may be made up of more than one word. 8 .CHAPTER III VERBS Verbs are words that show action. If the subject of a sentence is plural. ‘goes’. is. Examples of ‘subjects’ and ‘verbs’ being singular: The man is sleeping. The verb must agree with the subject in number. ‘does’ and ‘has’ are all singular too. The students do their homework every day. are. They are forms of the verb ‘to be’. the verb must be plural. If the subject of a sentence is singular. The student does his homework every day.The verbs ‘is’. and were are verbs. The train has arrived. They are helping verbs called auxiliary verbs. Every sentence must have a verb. was. ‘Man’. ‘she’. ‘student’ and ‘train’ are known as subjects. A verb is not always one word. Examples of ‘subjects’ and ‘verbs’ being plural: The men are sleeping. The subjects are all singular. Auxiliary verbs The words: am. She goes to the market. They go to the market. the verb must be singular.

Some of my friends are female. Examples: Each student is given a pen. The verbs 'are'. ‘none’ and ‘nobody’ take on the singular verbs. ‘they’. All of us want to be happy. ‘several’ and ‘a number of’ take on a plural verb. ‘many’. ‘any’. Examples: Rice is eaten in many countries. Nobody is allowed to walk on the grass.‘Men’. The subjects are all plural. His father and mother are watching television. ‘students’ and ‘trains’ are known as subjects. Every child is happy watching the show. ‘some’. There is oil on the floor. ¨ Subjects with words like ‘both’. ¨ Uncountable nouns always take singular verbs. ‘go’. ¨ Two or more subjects joined by ‘and’ always take a plural verb. ‘no’. Salt is added to make the food taste better. Examples: Both of you have to come home early. ‘all’. ‘do’ and ‘have’ are all plural too. Examples: My brother and his friends like to play football. ‘every’. 9 . 1 2nd 3rd st Singular subject/verb I am do You are do He is does She is does It is does have have has has has eat eat eats eats eats Plural subject/verb We are do You are do They are do They are do They are do have have have have have eat eat eat eat eat Other singular and plural subjects that take on singular and plural verbs: ¨ Subjects with words like ‘each’.

(No object) The Finite verb The finite verb changes with the subject.Transitive and intransitive verbs The verb which needs an object to make its meaning clear or complete is called a transitive verb. You want to play. (No object) He eats quickly. The word ‘cat’ is called the object of the verb ‘feeds’. ‘eat’ to ‘eats’. thing. The intransitive verb does not need an object but the meaning is clear or complete. The subject is the person. She reads every day. Subject First Person Second Person Third Person Third Person Third Person The pen/s The elephant/s The house/s The Infinitive Singular subject I eat You eat He eats She eats It eats The pen is The elephant does The house has Plural subject We eat You eat They eat They eat They eat The pens are The elephants do not The houses have The infinitive is a verb that is followed by ‘to’ and does not change with the subject. Plural Subject We want to play. The object can be a noun or a pronoun. When the subject is in the third person or is singular. the verb does not change. animal or place we refer to. 10 . Example: He ran. the verb changes from. When the subject is in the first or second person or is plural. Every sentence must have a finite verb. Subject First Person Second Person Singular Subject I want to play. The verb ‘eat’ is a finite verb. Example: He feeds a cat. You want to play. say. The verb ‘ran’ does not need an object.

the verb is usually in the plural. 5. He and I were classmates. Example: The shopkeeper and owner of the shop is my uncle. want to play. Bread and butter is his only food. When “and” is used to join two nouns or pronouns together. Examples: Beef and mutton are meat. They It wants to play. fifty dollars is not a lot of money. Examples: My friend and classmate is very helpful. They The infinitive can take on an object. A verb is used in different forms as follow: Simple Present Tense eat 11 . the verb should be in the singular. When we refer to two different persons. want to play. it is treated as a whole and the verb is in the singular. When we join two nouns and treat them as a whole. book = object). 4.Third Person He wants to play. we use the article twice and the verb must be in the plural. Example: The shopkeeper and the owner of the shop are my good friends. Nowadays. 2. For example: He likes to infinitive. When a noun is a quantity or an amount. When we use two nouns for the same person. 6. want to play. (To read = Other usage of verbs to remember 1. Examples: Ten kilometers is not a long way to travel. read book. They She wants to play. 3. we use the article ‘the’ only once and the verb should be in the singular. Example: Bread and butter is his usual breakfast. the verb is in the singular. When we use two nouns for the same person or thing.

” 2. that is. that is. Example: See how she walks. Example: Night follows day. an action is still going on at the time of speaking. Example: We hear that the king is dead. every day. The Present Continuous Tense • Used to show that something is still happening. Example: He plays football on Sundays. that is. to repeat words spoken or written by someone else. • Used for a general truth or a fact. often. • Used instead of the present perfect tense. • Used for something or an action happening now. Example: He arrives tomorrow. for something that we do always. • Used to introduce a quotation. for something that is true. Example: Shakespeare says: “Neither a borrower nor a lender be. It shows that the action is not yet complete. usually. it catches the boy. 12 . that is. Example: The tiger comes. • Used instead of the future tense. The Present Simple • ate is eating has eaten will eat Used for a habitual or repeated action. etc.Simple Past Tense Present Particle Past Particle Future Tense THE PRESENT TENSE 1. • Used instead of the past tense. to make something look more real.

There have been many changes in this country. that is. Where have you been? I have been to London to see the Queen. Example: 3. something that happened in the past but is going on still. Example: • Used to use the phrase ‘is going’ which means ‘about to’. Example: • Used often with ‘just’. ‘already’. Example: • Used instead of the future tense. Have you ever been to London? Example: • Used often to answer questions which contain a verb in the Present Perfect tense. ‘yet’ and (in questions) with ‘ever’. Example: • Used to show an action which happens many times. I have finished reading the book. The Present Perfect Tense • Used to show an action which has just been completed or a past action when the time is not mentioned. ‘never’. Example: • Used for an action that has been going on from the past until now. I have lived here for ten years. He is always getting into trouble. We often use ‘always’ with this expression. ‘recently’. It is going to rain. What have you lost? I have lost all my money. The action may be a recent one or it may be one which happened a long time ago. Example: 13 .He is writing a letter. We usually say the time when this future action will take place He is going to Japan next week. I have already told them about the plan She has never replied to my letter.

Example: THE PAST TENSE 1. While they were watching television. My mother made a cake and we all ate it. Example: • Used to express a habitual past action. Example: 2. While his father was reading the newspaper. 14 . the light went out. his mother was Example: cooking. The Past Simple Tense • Used to describe a completed past action when the time of the action is mentioned. Example: • Used for two actions that were going on at the same time in the past. Example: • Used to show an action that was going on at a certain time in the past. Example: • Used to show for a past action that was completely done in the past. I was eating my dinner at 7 o’clock last night. The Past Continuous Tense • Used for an action that was going on in the past when something else happened. The Present Perfect Continuous Tense • Used for an action just completed or continued up to now. He always came home late. I went to the cinema yesterday.4. He has been talking for an hour.

2. 3. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense • Used for an action that had been going on in the past before another action occurred in the past. Future Perfect Tense is used for an action which will have finished by some future time or date which is mentioned or before another action has begun.3. Example: I shall be seeing both of you tomorrow. 4. Example: 4. Simple Future Tense is used to show future action or that something will happen in the future. Example: I shall have finished this job by seven o’clock. She had been cooking when we visited her. Example: THE FUTURE TENSE The Future Tense is used to show some action or happening in the future. The Past Perfect Tense • Used for an action that was completed before another action took place. ‘Going to’ is used to express a future action that has been planned in advance. He said that he had read the book. Example: • Used in the Indirect or Reported Speech. Example: We are going to Japan next week. Future Simple + ‘Going To” 1. Future Continuous Tense is used to show continuous action at some future time. “I have read the book”. I had left the house before he arrived. Example: We will complete the work tomorrow. 15 .

Future Perfect Continuous Tense. 5. Example: I shall have been living in London for exactly ten years next Saturday. This continuous tense is formed with ‘shall/will have been’ + a present particle.I shall have finished this job by the time you arrive. CHAPTER IV ADJECTIVES 16 .

g. That is an old temple. An adjective which tells us about the quality of the noun. the escaped prisoners. For example: That is my dog. There are various kinds of adjectives: 1. An adjective which poses question in an ‘interrogative’ manner. the damaged goods. A giraffe has a long neck. that is. Those are their bicycles. 2. For example: the blue sky. For example: She is a pretty girl. For example: The zoo has many animals. an animal. a big house. 4. An adjective which tells us about the quatity of the noun. an amazing player. improved version. a square table. a cold morning. an interesting film. An adjective which tells us about the ownership of the noun. e. That girl is my sister. a thing or a place. An adjective which specifies a noun. e.An adjective is a word that tells us something about a noun. ¨ Adjectives which end in ‘-ed. The table is round.g. about a person. 3. For example: This boy is a member of the club. an annoying habit. ¨ Adjectives which end in ‘-ing’. For example: Which school do you go to? Whose car is this? 5. The pen has not much ink left. 17 .

acrobat artist photograph sympathy* robot aim end harm sense use Add ‘ive’. * Drop ‘e’.Drop ‘e’.* Change ‘y’Add ‘ous’ or ‘ious’. Add ‘able’. Noun accident danger length star wind Adjectives can be formed from Verbs. Adjective comical corrective elderly reddish sickly 18 . mountain danger industry mystery* glory* Add ‘ic’. Verb enjoy help obey play talk Adjective enjoyable helpful obedient playful talkative Adjective accidental dangerous long starry windy *Drop ‘y’. music accept nation comfort person enjoy nature* fashion agriculture* respect Adjectives can be formed from Nouns. Add ‘ful’. anger care ease* doubt greed peace ice* beauty* oil pity* Add ‘al’. attract effect act instruct progress Adjectives can be formed from Adjectives. to ‘i’. Adjective comic correct elder red sick Comparison of adjectives · We use the Positive degree to compare two equal nouns. For example: His house is as big as my house.Add ‘less’.Forming adjectives Adding ‘y’.*Drop ‘y’.

/ I saw her walking along the river last week. · We use the Superlative degree to compare three or more Nouns. an adjective or another adverb. 19 . quite=adverb) Types of Adverbs Adverb of Time – This shows when an action or something is done or happens. very=adverb) The rain stopped quite suddenly. Positive bold deep near rich tall Positive careful enjoyable forgetful useful wonderful Positive bad good little Comparative bolder deeper nearer richer taller Comparative more careful more enjoyable more forgetful more useful more wonderful Comparative worse better less Superlative boldest deepest nearest richest tallest Superlative most careful most enjoyable most forgetful most useful most wonderful Superlative worst best least CHAPTER V ADVERBS An adverb adds more to the meaning of a verb. I called you last night. (suddenly=adverb. For example: His house is the biggest in the neighbourhood. Example: I phoned you yesterday. last night=adverb) Your dress is very beautiful. For example: His house is bigger than my house.· We use the Comparative degree to compare two unequal nouns. (beautiful=adjective. (called=verb. It answers the question “When?” It is either placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.

Example: It is too dark for us to see anything.Adverb of Place – This shows where an action or something is done or happens. how. Interrogative Adverb (Question) For example: When? Where? How? Why? How much/often? Relative Adverb: when. by all means. Most adverbs which end in ‘-ly’ form the Comparative with ‘more’ and the Superlative with ‘most’. where. adverbs have three degrees of comparison – the Positive. Example: I live here. / The scene where the accident occurred.. why These words are the same in form as Interrogative Adverbs. not at all. It answers the question “Where?” It is placed after the verb. Comparison of Adverbs Similar to the comparison of adjectives. surely. Adverb of Degree or Quantity – This answers the questions. Affirmative Adverb (yes) and Adverb of negation (No) Example: yes. Adverb of Manner – This shows how an action or something is done. / He knows how to do it. It answers the question “How?” It is usually placed just after the verb. by no means. “To what degree?” or “How much?” It is usually placed before the adjective and the adverb. but they are not questions. / He drives quickly. the Comparative and the Superlative. / Last night it rained very heavily. / We always go to school by bus. / He fell down. Example: The time when he arrived. Example: She sleeps soundly. / The reason why he left. no. certainly. Adverb of Frequency – This answers the question “How often?” Example: He will never have finished in time. Positive comfortably happily kindly loudly noisily Comparative more comfortably more happily more kindly more loudly more noisily Superlative most comfortably most happily most kindly most loudly most noisily 20 . indeed.

This is the Indirect or Reported Speech. We use an infinitive and we repeat the pronoun. By using our own words to repeat what the speaker said. “Be careful!” This is the Direct Speech. Nouns beauty success Adjectives Verbs Adverbs beautifully successfully angrily foolishly continually knowingly angry foolish continue know CHAPTER VI INDIRECT SPEECH We can report what another person says in two ways: 1. Here we do not use the quotation marks. When we change Direct Speech into Indirect Speech. it is sometimes necessary to: • Change all Present and Future Tenses in the Direct Speech into the Past Tenses in the Indirect Speech when the main verb ‘said’ is in the Past Tense. adjectives and verbs. Example: – He said to me. By using the exact words of the speaker. Example – Direct: “Write carefully!” he said to me. Notice that the past tense is used when the main verb ‘said’ is in the past tense. “Be careful!” Indirect: He told me to be careful. Most adverbs end in ‘-ly’. 21 . 2. We repeat the exact words used by the speaker and keep the exact words within quotation marks.Forming Adverbs Adverbs can be formed from nouns. Example: – Direct: He said to me.

22 .” he said to me. ” Indirect: My mother told me not to quarrel with my sister. In most cases. Examples: Direct: “I’m tired. the Present Perfect tense (she has told us) or the Simple Future tense (I will tell him). Indirect: Every evening he says (that) he is tired. “They are late.Indirect: He told me to write carefully. “The shop is shut. She has already told us (that) they are late.” she has already told us. Example – Direct: “Don’t drive so fast when you pass my school. She told/asked me to get on with my school homework. • Change a pronoun or a possessive adjective. • Use more than one “speech” verb if the Direct Speech contains more than one sentence. “Get on with your school homework. “I will tell him.” I will tell him (that) the shop is shut.” he says every evening. Indirect: He asked me not to drive so fast when I passed his school. and the tense of the verb to Past Tense. We do not change the tense of verbs in Direct Speech if they make a statement which is always true or if the action is still continuing and a change of tense would give the wrong meaning. we do not change the tense of the verbs in Direct Speech when: • The reporting verb is in the Simple Present tense (he says). Example – Direct: “Don’t quarrel with your sister.” my mother said.

(in) that way 23 .” “My brother is living in Australia. The following changes are also made: 1. shall to should can to could 2. “The world is round. him. She said that her brother is living in Australia. will to would has to had may to might Pronouns and Possessive AdjectivesThe pronoun is changed in person from first and second to third. Adjectives and Adverbs: We change: this these now today last night tomorrow here yesterday thus to to to to to to to to to that those then that day on the previous night or the night before the next day or the day after there the previous day or the day before so.” Indirect: He told us that the world is round. I becomes her or them he or she We becomes they You becomes he.Examples: Direct: He told us. 3.

countable noun. Example: an hour. an honour. countable noun which begins with a vowel or silent ‘h’. etc. Example: I bought an orange. etc Before a singular. Example: an apple. ‘An’ is used: • • • Before a noun which begins with a vowel. Example: the earth. a uniform. a European. 24 .CHAPTER VII THE ARTICLES Definite Article – ‘The’ Indefinite Article – ‘A’ or ‘An’ ‘A’ is used: • • • • • Before a word which begins with a consonant. Example: an orange ‘The’ is used: • • • When the same thing or person mentioned again. When there is only one such thing. The orange is sweet.. etc. Before a word with a long sound of ‘u’. a useful book. an honest man. an heir. Before the names of famous buildings. a one-eyed man. the moon. a one-day holiday. that is. a particular thing or person. the sun. Example: a one-way street. a oneyear course. etc. Before the word one. Example: a woman Before a singular. The Great Wall of China. Example: a banana When we mention something for the first time. Example: I saw a dog. an honourable man. Before a word which begins with a vowel sound or a silent ‘h’. Example: The Eiffel Tower. Example: a university.

K.A. Before an adjective when the noun is understood. certain organizations. Articles are not used: • • • • Before the name of a person: Example: I am a fan of Michael Jackson. etc.. Example: The poor need help. The Republican Party. the U. The Dead Sea. Example: The Koran. • • Before the names of holy or important books.S. The Pacific Ocean. town. (not A or The Barcelona) Before names of materials. street. (not A or The Michael Jackson) Before the name of a place. etc. (not A or The gold) Before abstract nouns used in a general sense. The Nile. group.A. seas. (not a beauty or the beauty) 25 . The Himalayas. and countries such as the U. Example: We love all beauty.R. The Bible. Example: Gold is found in Australia. country. mountain ranges. and the U. groups of islands.S.• • When a singular noun is used to point out a whole class.S. oceans.. Example: Barcelona is a beautiful city. The United Nations.R.. Example: The bear is a strong animal. Before the special names of a rivers. or road. the U. political parties. race.

Pronouns like ‘himself' are called Reflexive Pronouns. It refers to a person or thing without giving the name. There are two types of Personal Pronouns: (1) those used as subjects. and (2) those used as objects. They always end in ‘self '. Reflexive Pronouns First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Myself Yourself Himself Herself Plural Ourselves Yourselves Themselves Themselves 26 .CHAPTER VIII PRONOUNS A Pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. Personal Pronouns Singular Object Me You Him Her It Plural Object Us You Them Them Them First Person Second Person Third Person Subject I You He She It Subject We You They They They Reflexive Pronouns We use the Reflexive Pronoun when the action of the doer goes back to himself so that the Subject of the sentence is the same person as the object. Example: He has hurt himself.

" • We use whose to show possession or relationship. There is one other difference in the way we use who and which. whose and whom to make statements about people. a pronoun or a noun. which." • We use which or that in almost the same way as we use who but it refers to things. and they are used to join two sentences about the same person or thing. Example: That is the camera which costs fifty dollars. Examples of relative pronouns: who. Example: "The man is an artist. Example: (a) The man whom they caught was sent to prison. That is the camera which John likes. not human beings." "The man is an artist who drew that picture. • We use whom to make a statement about human beings.Itself Themselves Relative Pronouns The Relative Pronouns take the place of Nouns or Pronouns. After who we put a verb. whom and whose. 27 . we use who. Example: "That is my uncle whose son is my cousin. that. In most cases. (b) The man to whom you should speak is my uncle. That is the camera which he bought. It is used in place of who (a) when it is the object of a verb or (b) when it comes after a preposition. • We use who to join two sentences. He drew that picture. After which we can put a verb.

CHAPTER IX PREPOSITIONS Prepositions are words placed before Nouns and Pronouns. Her parents give her a box of sweets. • Examples of Prepositions showing direction: She got into the taxi. The glass is on the table. The cat is sleeping under the chair. I have an appointment at 9 o'clock. Most shops are closed on Sunday. They say I walk like my father. They are used to show time.     Expressions using Prepositions: good at clever at bad at point at get up wake up look up clean up fall off get off set off break off interested in involved in send in work in 28 . Other examples of expressions using prepositions: The picture was drawn by his brother. She likes to go out with her friends. I have to go to town. The girl is walking towards her mother. position and direction. • Examples of Prepositions showing time: My birthday falls in September. • Examples of Prepositions showing position: He is standing at the door.

stare at fight against speak against vote against hit against lean against add up get into cash into jump into turn into dive into finish off turn on switch on get on carry on put it on fill in made of built of a box of half of many of 29 .

sentences. (Joining two adjectives) He eats quickly and noisily. Conjunctions can join nouns. He got into it. (Joining two adverbs) 30 . and many more. 'while'. Conjunctions joining phrases: Example: The fisherman is happy walking along the beach and carrying a bucket full of fish. She is tired but she cannot sleep. Example: I have a pen and a book. 'although'.CHAPTER X CONJUNCTIONS Conjunctions are words that connect words. (Joining two verbs) She is beautiful and tall. She cannot sleep. phrases. Examples of conjunction are: 'and'. or clauses. 'because'. verbs. (Joining two nouns) He joked and we laughed. 'or'. He walked to his car and got into it. adjectives and adverbs. 'but'.. Conjunctions joining sentences:  He walked to his car. 'since'. 'unless'. Conjunctions joining words: Example: I have a car and a house.  Will you have tea? Will you have coffee? Will you have tea or coffee?  She is tired.

the children's toys 2. Adjectives such as ‘my' and ‘his' are used before nouns such as ‘school' and ‘bicycle' to show possession. Possessive Nouns are formed: • By adding an apostrophe (‘s) to singular nouns and plural nouns not ending in s. Possessive Nouns Nouns that show possession are called Possessive Nouns. Possessive Adjectives Adjectives that show possession are called Possessive Adjectives. Example: the roof of the house.CHAPTER XI POSSESSION There are three kinds of Possession: Possessive Nouns. Such adjectives are examples of Possessive Adjectives. Example: ‘This is my school' and ‘That is his bicycle'. By adding an apostrophe (‘) to plural nouns ending in s. Possessive Adjectives and Possessive Pronouns. By using ‘of the' with names of non-living things. Example: my father's car. Possessive Adjectives First Person Second Person Third Person Singular my your his her its Plural our your their their their 31 . Example: the boys' bicycles 3.

Example: ‘This is my car. they are known as Possessive Pronouns. It is mine' and ‘That is your van. Possessive Pronouns First Person Second Person Third Person Singular Mine Yours His Hers Its Plural Ours Yours Theirs Theirs Theirs 32 . Words like ‘mine' and ‘yours' are pronouns and as they show possession. Possessive Pronouns Pronouns that show possession are called Possessive Pronouns. It is yours'.

Comma ( . Downing Street. Example: “John. Example: There are two sides to every question.” ¨ to separate parts of an address. Example: He told us. to show a pause in a sentence or reading.CHAPTER XII PUNCTUATION MARKS A full stop or period ( . before inverted commas of actual words spoken. ¨ to show the shortened form of a word Example: exam ¨ at the end of an abbreviation. ¨ to separate relative clause from the rest of the sentence. as I was jogging. let’s start work straightaway. is a doctor. lions and tigers in the zoo.” ¨ to separate the name of the person spoken to. “The world is round. Example: We saw monkeys. ) is used: ¨ to mark the end of a sentence. Kingston. Example: Dr. who lives next door. Example: 99. Example: Yesterday. ) is used: ¨ ¨ ¨ to separate words in a list. 33 . I saw a big snake. Example: The man.

etc. Example: good-looking. Charles’ book ¨ to the plural of letters and numbers.) is used to join two words or more to form compound words. Apostrophe ( ‘ ) is used: ¨ to show that numbers or letters have been left out. Example: This box contains the following items: bandages. lotion. Hyphen ( . ¨ to show that something belongs to someone or something. Example: ’86 (=1986). quotation. Example: He gives up smoking. pro-American. medicines and a pair of scissors.plasters. Example: “Turn on the light” she said to me. he fears smoking-related disease may strike him. Quotation Marks ( “ “ ) are used: ¨ to show the beginning and end of reported speech. don’t (=do not). Example: John’s mother. Semicolon ( . Example: “When will the train arrive?” Exclamation Mark ( ! ) is used at the end of a sentence to show surprise. or angry. forty-one.Question Mark ( ? ) is used at the end of a sentence to show a question. 34 . excited. ) is used to join two sentences or two complete parts of a sentence which are closely connected in meaning. Example: Your c’s / 5’s are too big. obviously. Example: We won! Quiet! Colon ( : ) is used to introduce an example. mother-in-law.

/ Anyone could have taken it. He bought some oranges. Would you like to drink some milk? Can you do something for me? 4. / There isn’t any tea in the kettle. Examples: 1. / There aren’t any eggs on sale here. / Would you like anything else to eat? 35 . / He spent some time looking for his lost wallet. / Do you have any sister? 2. We use “some” in a question if it is an invitation or a request. / Has anybody seen the film? / I want something to eat. 3. 2. We use “some” in a positive statement and “any” in a negative statement or a question. I have a sister. Someone has taken my book. 3. “body” or “thing” to form positive sentences and negative sentences respectively./ There’s somebody waiting to see you. We join “some” and “any” with “one”. 1.¨ to show a quoted word. / I don’t have a sister. We use both “some” and “any” with countable or uncountable nouns. phrase or title. CHAPTER XIII SOME and ANY Example: “War and Peace” is a novel by Leo Tolstoy. 4.

” / “No. Example: I am used to living in a warm climate.” Remember that “use” and not “used” is used after “did” and “didn’t”. (followed by possessive adjective) 36 . 2.CHAPTER XIV USED TO 1. I never used to. I didn’t use to. It is often followed by a gerund but it can be followed by a noun or possessive. “USED TO” AS A VERB We can use the expression “used to” when we wish to refer to a past habit which has now stopped. “USED TO” AS AN ADJECTIVE We can show that somebody is accustomed to something by using “used to” as an adjective. Example: I used to go to that shop but now I don’t go there anymore.” / “No. (followed by a gerund) They are used to this weather. I used to. The usual question form and possible answers with “used to” are: question: “Did you use to see them very often?” answers: “Yes. (followed by a noun) He seems used to your brother’s jokes.

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