735920 Telecommunication Technology Principles

Experiment A: Harmonic Analysis
In this experiment, you will determine the relationships between the harmonic frequencies and duty cycle of periodic rectangular pulse train. Follow the instructions given below and provide answers to all questions in your lab report.

Introduction A sine wave can be described as Y = A sinωt. This means that this sine wave has an amplitude (A) and a frequency (f) derived from ω= 2πf. This waveform can be viewed on an oscilloscope in the time domain (i.e. amplitude versus time). The same waveform can also be displayed on a spectrum analyser in the frequency domain (i.e. amplitude versus frequency). Any complex waveform: one that is not sinusoidal, e.g. square wave, triangular wave, speech waveforms, etc., can be analysed in frequency domain. This process is commonly known as the harmonic analysis. Consider a periodic rectangular pulse train as shown below:

Figure 1. The pulse lasts for a time d and repeats after a time T. The frequency of repetition or repetition frequency is thus 1/T. The duty cycle (or duty ratio) is defined as d/T. The complex waveform can be broken down into a number of harmonics, each having a fixed amplitude and frequency. The amplitude of the harmonic may be expressed in terms of voltage or current, or as a ratio (in dB) with respect to the fundamental. Similarly, the frequency of the harmonic may be expressed in Hz, or as a harmonic number with respect to the fundamental, e.g. for a fundamental frequency of 15 kHz, signals are measured at 30 kHz (2nd harmonic), 45 kHz (3rd harmonic) and 60 kHz (4th harmonic), etc. Thus, the harmonic numbers are 1 (fundamental), 2, 3, 4, .., and so on. The periodic rectangular pulse train can be expressed mathematically as (1), with the DC value (b0), and the amplitude of the nth harmonic (bn) given by (2) and (3), respectively: y(t) = b0 + bl cosωt + b2 cos 2ωt + b3 cos 3ωt + ........... b0 = E(d/T) (1) (2)

bn = 2E(d/T).sin(nπ(d/T)) nπ(d/T)


Part 1: Rectangular Pulse Train 1. In this experiment, the harmonic frequencies of a periodic rectangular pulse train with the following duty cycles will be investigated: Duty cycle (d/T) = 1:2, 1:3, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20

2. Using the Excel spread-sheet program, implement Eq. (3) to determine the amplitude of the harmonics for up to the 40th harmonic for each duty cycle. Assume E = 1 V.

3. Plot a graph of Amplitude (y) vs. Harmonic Number (x) in histogram (2-D column) form.

4. From the graphs, comment on the relationship between: i. ii. iii. iv. harmonic amplitude and harmonic number duty cycle and amplitude of the fundamental frequency duty cycle and amplitude of the harmonics duty cycle and the location of zero-crossings (i.e. where harmonic amplitudes are zero)

5. Further comment on the relationship between duty cycle and DC value of the waveform.

Part 2: Unit Impulse 1. As duty cycle becomes extremely small, the rectangular pulse will approach to being what is known as a unit impulse, which appears as an extremely narrow spike at a particular time instance. To understand the frequency spectrum of a unit impulse, we can perform harmonic analysis on a rectangular pulse with very small duty cycle. For this purpose, repeat Step 2 and 3 of Part 1 for a duty cycle of 1:1000


From the graph, comment on the bandwidth of a unit impulse. The bandwidth can be defined by the number of significant harmonics present in its frequency spectrum. Often, a harmonic is considered significant if its amplitude is at least 10% of the fundamental frequency.