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Heavy metals Deposition in Topsoil, Road Side Dust and

Application of Doedonea viscose as Biomonitor


in Tripoli Area, Libya.

Almathnani, A.M. Alshergawi, M.I. Elssaidi, M.A. Kahled, B.Y. Inamul Haq
Environmental Science Departmental, Faculty of Engineering & Technology
Sebha University, Brack-Libya

ABSTRACT
Present paper deals with the monitoring and assessment of heavy metals in
soil, road side dust and particulate matter (PM) deposits on plant leaves around
Tripoli areas/ roads (Zawya, Khums, Sawani, Tarhuna) at different sites (0, 2, 5,
10 & 20 km) on each road. Plant, Doedonea viscosa, specie of Doedonea shrub,
widely distributed in Libya was used for monitoring of heavy metals in PM
deposition or accumulated on leave. The heavy metal monitored during the study
period includes Zn, Cu, Pb & Cd. The level of Zn and Cu in Environmental
samples such as soil, road side dust and in plant. unwashed leaves were much
higher than the level of Pb & Cd. The metal concentration order in these samples
were Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Metal concentration trend variation was also discussed
in relation with traffic density and other sources of fugitive emission around
different sites on each roads/areas. A comparative evaluation in variation of
heavy metals was also made with other data reported in other countries.
Preliminary data provides some insight to undertake expensive survey using
Doedonea viscosa, as biomonitor and low cost tool for monitoring of trace toxic
inorganic and organic atmospheric air emission in urban and industrial area of
Libya for preparation of environmental map for taking necessary environmental
production measures.

Key words:
Biomonitor, Doedonea shrub, Air, Soil, Pollution, Deposition, Traffic,
Heavy metals, Zinc, Lead, Copper, Cadmium, Tripoli, Libya.

INTRODUCTION
Pollution of airborne trace metals is derived through emission from industrial,
vehicular and urban activities. Interest on the effects of atmospheric particulates on
health and environment has increased many folds in the last one decade on the basis of
evidences that this type of pollution proved strong link with respiratory illness (1, 2). It
was also reported that metal adsorbed on ambient suspended particulates produce
tissue damage in the lungs (3).

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In most urban cities, the airborne trace metals are not routinely monitored by High-
volume sampler or other mechanical devices owing to their high cost and technical
difficulties to cover large geographical areas. Due to these problems and also release
of toxic trace metals are increasing alarmingly by rapid industrialization and increased
traffic density in the urban Environment (4, 5), more attention are being paid to plants
as bioindicator of trace metals in atmosphere (6). Such biomonitors, are an effective
monitoring tools for trace toxic pollutants, are extensively being used for sampling &
monitoring of large geographical regions for preparation of environmental map on
atmospheric airborne trace toxic contaminants (7-9). Data on ambient trace metal
deposition will help decision makers for planning and adoption of environmental
protection measures against the increasing level of potentially toxic/hazardous trace
metals in ambient environment.
Various authors have used botanical materials such as lichens, fungi, tree bark, tree
rings and leaves of higher plants as bioindicator. Lower plants especially mosses, algae
and lichens, in view of their higher capacity for metal accumulation were used more
frequently for biomonitoring of metal in urban environmental (10-16). In Europe
mosses have been employed in National & multi-national surveys of atmospheric
metal deposition (17). Considering the effectiveness of the findings, such survey was
further expanded in most of the European countries (18). Survey of heavy metals
deposition employing moss was also studied in mountainous territories of Italy (19).
Leaves of higher plants have also been extensively used for biomonitoring of heavy
metals (20 & 21). The most frequently used higher plants were chosen among the
genera Capsella and Poa (10), Pinus (22), Queruis (23). Several authors (24-27) found
higher plants/tree leaves and bark to be natural biomonitoring surfaces for industrial
and urban pollution. Leaves of higher plant like date palm and others have been used
to monitor distribution of airborne Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu (22 & 28). The level of Pb, Cd
and Zn concentrations in topsoil and washed & unwashed leaves of E. angustifolea, a
typical urban tree was tested as a possible biomonitoring in different areas in Turkey
(29). Mesquite (Prosopis Juliflora), deciduous tree that withstand drought and extreme
temperature in arid ecosystem was used as biomonitor for monitoring of Pb level (in
leaves, barks and surrounding soil) in different area in Kuwait (30). The level of heavy
metals contamination of surfaces road side soil, plants (Anabases Arbiclata) and air
along a major traffic highway in tropical climate of Jordan were monitored (31).
As evident from the literature, various investigators have extensively used lower
plants as well as different parts including leaves of higher plants, as bioindicator for
monitoring and assessment of airborne heavy metal deposition in urban environment.
Since no studies had assessed the level of heavy metals deposition and accumulation in
the leaves of Doedonea viscose, a widely distributed plants in Libya (Mediterranean
zone & desert climate). The present study was therefore initiated to assess the level of
various trace toxic metals such as Zn, Cu, Pb & Cd contamination/depositions in
unwashed and washed leaves of Doedonea viscose, surrounding topsoil and road side
dust on sites of different roads (Zawya, Khums, Sawani, Tarhuna) in Tripoli zone.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant used:
The choice of Doedonea viscose was made because of the their low dimensions
and resistance to Libyan climate, their availability & wide geographical native
distribution. This was considered to be an important data in order to use the Doedonea
viscose more extensively in urban and rural areas of Libya for monitoring and
assessment of environmental pollution.
Doedonea shrub has about 60 number of species which are mainly found in
Australia but some of these species are widely distributed in topical and sub-tropical
region of many countries (32). The Doedonea viscose has a average height of about 5
meters with dense branch of leaves and trunk diameter of about 10 centimeter.
Deciduous leaves are light green underneath and dark green on the top. Leaves are 4-5
centimeter long. Doedonea viscose has rapid growth and is naturally found in a wide
range of soil types, being relatively tolerant to sever hot and cold climate prevailing in
Libya. Doedonea viscose is commonly planted around residential areas, institutional
areas and road side for hedging purposes.
Sampling procedure:
Samples were collected during March and April 2006 to avoid washing out of
heavy metal deposits. Topsoil and road side dust samples (the upper 2 cm) of about
1000 gram were collected from 5 different sites and distances (0, 2, 5, 10, 20 Km) near
the identified Doedonea viscose on each road Fig. (1) with a stainless steel trowel. The
samples were stored in polyethylene bags for analysis separately.
The plants leaves were collected from where the soil samples were collected at
different distances on each road Fig. (1). The plant leaves samples were divided into
two groups and transported to laboratory in Polyethylene bags. One group of leaves
sample was thoroughly washed with distilled water to remove dust particles deposited
on leaves surface, and the other group of leaves samples remained unwashed. The
washed leaves samples were oven dried at 70 oC/24 hrs for further processing.
Heavy metals determination:
The procedure of metals determination in soil and dust samples was followed
according to the reported method (33). The soil dust samples were grounded and
sieved. The sieved samples were dried at 70 oC/24 hrs. One gram of soil was treated
with 10 ml concentrated nitric acid heated up to dryness and then cooled. This
procedure was repeated with another 10 ml concentrated nitric acid followed by 10 ml
of 12N HCl. The digested soil and dust samples were then warmed in 20 ml of 2N HCl
to redissolve the metal salts. Extracts were filtered using Whitman filter paper No 40
and the volume was then adjusted to 25 ml with 1.5% HNO3.
The procedure used to digest plants leaves and determination of heavy metals was
same as reported in literature (34). Metal determination for plant leaves topsoil and
road side dust were carried out using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

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RESULT & DISCUSSION
Trace metals (Zn, Cu, Pb & Cd) results that analyzed in plant leaves (washed &
unwashed), soil and road side dust are given in Table (1) and the concentration
variation trends with distance on roads side are shown in Fig. (2). The concentration
range of metal in washed and unwashed leaves of Doedonea viscose at different
distances are given in Table (2) and metal concentration variation in unwashed and
washed leaves at different distance from zero distance is shown in Fig. (3).

Table (1): Range of heavy metals concentrations in topsoil and road


side dust around Doedonea viscose shrubs:
Range of trace metal concentration (ug/g)
Road Sample
Zn Cu Cd Pb
Topsoil 34.0 - 103.0 21.0 - 42.6 0.1 - 2.0 16.7 - 31.2
Zawya
Road-side dust 112.0 - 187.0 34.0 - 66.0 29.0 - 41.3 2.9 - 3.8
Topsoil 45.0 - 87.0 21.0 - 41.0 0.6 - 1.8 0.2 - 16.9
Khums
Road-side dust 48.0 - 154.0 21.0 - 41.0 3.0 - 34.8 0.8 - 3.3
Topsoil 66.0 - 89.0 21.0 - 39.4 2.0 - 18.5 1.8 - 2.7
Sawani
Road-side dust 111.0 - 228.7 34.1 - 65.2 25.2 - 34.8 3.0 - 7.3
Topsoil 52.0 - 87.0 21.0 - 39.0 1.2 - 16.7 0.2 - 2.8
Tarhuna
Road-side dust 52.0 - 154.0 27.0 - 38.8 4.0 - 34.8 1.3 - 5.4

Table (2): Heavy metals levels range in washed and unwashed


Doedonea viscose leaves:
Range of trace metal concentration (ug/g)
Road Sample
Zn Cu Cd Pb
Un-washed 30.0 - 49.6 12.0 - 26.2 0.1 - 2.8 0 - 3.0
Zawya
Washed 7.8 - 19.0 0.5 - 14.5 0 - 0.1 0 - 0.1
Un-washed 35.0 - 38.7 12.0 - 33.1 0.1 - 2.2 0 - 0.2
Khums
Washed 8.9 - 17.2 6.4 - 10.8 0 - 1.3 0 - 0.1
Un-washed 31.8 - 38.3 12.2 - 31.2 0.1 - 3.3 0.2 - 1.9
Sawani
Washed 10.0 - 17.2 3.3 - 10.2 0 - 1.2 0 – 1.2
Un-washed 20.0 - 47.9 12.0 - 25.5 0.1 - 2.0 0.1 - 0.5
Tarhuna
Washed 7.0 - 20.4 3.0 - 10.2 0 - 0.2 0 - 0.1

Analysis of road side topsoil and dust, and plants leaves revealed high
concentration of Zn and Cu compared with Pb and Cd around these areas in Libyan
ecosystem i.e., Zawya, Khums, Sawani and Tarhuna roads.

1. Soil contamination:
The range of heavy metals concentrations and their variation in topsoil and road
side dust of four different roads at different distances are given in Table (1) and Fig.
(2). The concentration order among the above four critically selected heavy metals in
topsoil from four roads around Tripoli were Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. The same

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concentration order for these metal were found in road side dust but the concentrations
of these metals also much higher than those found in topsoil. The variation trends of
each heavy metals are briefly discussed in the following paragraphs:
Zinc: On Zawya road, zinc concentration in topsoil for different sites (distance
0-20 Km) showed a range of 33–103 ug/g. Near zero distance, zinc concentration in
topsoil was found at 87 ug/g, decreasing with increasing distance, then increased to
max. value 103 ug/g after 20 km, Fig. (2). Zinc concentration in road side dust at zero
distance was 154 ug/g and max. 187 ug/g near 2 Km. The value decreased for 5 Km
and 4 and increased further up to 151.4 ug/g near 20 Km Fig. (2). Zinc in topsoil and
road side dust showed increased value around 20 Km. On Khums road, Zn
concentration found decreasing from zero distance, but values for 2 Km, 4 and 5 were
not much different, average 52 ug/g, however for 5 Km the Zn concentration was
relatively lower than other sites. Incase of road side dust, Zn concentration was found
decreasing from zero distance but higher than topsoil Fig. (2). On Sawani road, the Zn
concentration in topsoil found varying with distance and lowest at 66.75 ug/g
around 20 Km. The Zn concentration for road side dust showed max. value around
5 Km (229 ug/g) and the lowest near 20 Km (111.48 ug/g).
On Tarhuna road Zn concentration for topsoil and road side dust show Cd same
variation trend, highest value found at 10 Km (62.3 ug/g for topsoil and 98.9 ug/g road
side dust). It is concluded from the above finding that, in general, Zn concentration in
topsoil and road side dust on different road sites showed the following order.
Sawani Rd. > Tarhuna Rd. > Khums Rd. > Zawya Rd.
Studies conducted elsewhere on metal depositions from particulate matter on road
side topsoil exhibited much higher value of Zinc in Hong Kong, 633 ug/g (33),
Lancaster, 300-530 ug/g (35), Ecuador 509 ug/g (36), North Wales, 1143 ug/g (37),
London, 513 ug/g (38), Banglore, India 808 ug/g (43). However Zn concentration
found in our study is comprisable with other reported values in Nigeria, 163 ug/g (39),
Auckland, 180 ug/g (40), Birmingham, 205 ug/g (41),.
In this study, since no major industries exists, the primary source of zinc may be
attributed to Zn emission into the atmosphere as a result of wear from tires of
automobiles and use of Zn additives (Zinc dithiophosphates) in engine lubricating oil.
The findings may be divided from two points of views i.e., heavy and low traffic road
area. The elevated level of zinc on different sites of Asian road as compared to other
roads were found to be maximum partly attributed to the high movement of traffic and
fugitive emission due to number of job works like auto workshop, car painting etc. The
concentration of Zn on other road was not so high, may be due to less traffic and
fugitive emission as the same observed and substantiated by the lower value of Zn in
topsoil and road side dust. The other distinct features found was comparatively higher
value of Zn concentration around 2 & 5 Km and around 20 Km on Zawya Rd. Fig. (2)
which is due to the fact that diversion of vehicle during peak hours following the
routes for Tunis through Zawya; Khums; Sawani & Tarhuna roads. The high intra road
traffic density and fugitive emission contributed by other sources (workshop) may be
the possible reason of high zinc level on Sawani Rd. sites as compared to other roads.

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Copper: The variation of the copper concentration range in topsoil and road side
dust on four different road sites were almost same (topsoil : 21–40 ug/g, road side
dust: 35-52 ug/g). On Zawya road., copper concentration on zero distance in topsoil
and road side dust were found at 21.6 ug/g and 35.5 ug/g respectively Fig. (2). On this
road maximum Cu concentration were found at 35.8 ug/g and 44 ug/g in topsoil and
road side dust around 2 Km and 42.57 ug/g & 66.35 ug/g in road side dust
around 20 Km. Similar Cu concentration trends Fig. (2) were found for other roads.
The Cu concentration range with distance variation on 4 roads are as follows:
Sawani Rd. > Khums Rd. > Zawya Rd. > Tarhuna Rd.
The reason for this could be due to the traffic density & fugitive emission which
are high on Sawani Rd. as compared to other roads where low traffic movement
observed. Comparing our results with other reported studies showed that our values
are much less than those found in topsoil in Hong Kong, 120 ug/g (33), Lancaster,
max. 199 ug/g (35), Nigeria, 61 ug/g (39),. However it was also found that our results
were comparable with other studies. The sources of Cu emissions may be varied
besides traffic (wear and tear of motor vehicles parts), the refused and tire burning
(found frequently practiced), car painting, automobile workshop along the road side.
Lead: Lead concentration in topsoil and road site dust is given in Table (1). At zero
distance, concentration of Pb in topsoil and road site dust were found at
16.73 and 34.87 ug/g. On Zawya road. at 20 Km maximum level of Pb in topsoil and
road site dust were at 31.17 and 41.29 ug/g as compared to other roads for the same
locations. Comparing values of Pb for each sites on roads with respect to zero distance,
the Pb concentration for other sites were much less for all the road sites, than value,
however, increased value were found around 2, 5 & 20 Km on Zawya Rd. in topsoil
and road side dust. Lead Concentration order road wise for lead as: Zawya
Rd. > Khums Rd. > Sawani Rd. > Tarhuna Rd. (Topsoil). Zawya Rd. > Sawani Rd. >
Khums Rd. > Tarhuna Rd. (Road side dust).
The above result show that lead concentration in topsoil and road side dust were
less than Zn & Cu concentration The concentration of Pb were much higher on
Zawya & Sawani Rd. as compared to other two roads Table (1) and Fig. (2). The lead
level in street dust and road side topsoil have been extensively studies because of its
most concern environmental heavy metal pollution and found to be present at elevated
level in ecosystems. On comparing with other studies carried out for Pb level in soil it
is found that our results for all the 4 roads sites revealed much less value with those
reported in Hong Kong (33), North Wales (37), Ecuador (36), Auckland, 1650 ug/g
(40), London, 1354 ug/g (38), USA, 444 ug/g (42), Banglor, India, 345 ug/g (43),. The
reason for low level of Pb in topsoil and road site dust as compared to other countries
is mainly due to use of unleaded fuel by automobiles in Libya. However, the most
probable source of low Pb contamination may be due to particulate emission by
normal wear and tear of the engine parts. The high level of Pb in Zawya Rd. and
maximum on 20 Km were compared with other road sites could be due to high traffic
density and deposition of lead around the site. Such increased concentration on
Zawya Rd. on 2 & 5 Km could be due to the diversion of traffic through the peak
hours from zero distance area.

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The ratio of Pb:Zn in soil is found to be less than unity which indicates that soil Pb
pollution is not caused by automobile but may be due to some local problems as
reported by other studies (36 & 42). The Pb:Zn ratio greater than unity as reported by
others (34, 39, 37 & 38) is a clear indication of soil Pb pollution caused by automobile
which is not the case in present study.
Cadmium: The Cd concentration range Table (1) along all the road’s topsoil and
road side dust were 0.7-2.8 and 0.8-7.3 ug/g respectively. Cd concentration variation
with distance on four different roads is shown in Fig. (2). Cadmium concentration in
topsoil and road side dust on different roads sites were very low than the other 3
metals. The order of Cd concentration in topsoil and road side dust on different roads
as Sawani Rd. > Zawya Rd. > Khums Rd. > Tarhuna Rd.
Cadmium concentration around zero distance ( zero distance) in topsoil and road
side dust were found to be at 1.79 and 3.29 ug/g respectively. On around 2 & 5 Km on
Zawya and Sawani Rd., Cd value increased from zero distances Fig. (2) for both
topsoil and road side dust However it is not the case for the other roads. On 20 Km, for
all the roads, high value were observed with respect to other 2, 5 & 10 Km. The low
and high values of Cd in soil sample found in our study were compared with values
reported in others. Low Cd in topsoil as found in our study is not much different than
those reported values in Hong Kong, 1.1 ug/g (33), Ecuador, 0.36 ug/g (36), Nigeria,
1.3 ug/g (39), Auckland, 0.4 ug/g (40), Birmingham, 0.7 ug/g (41), USA, 0.89 ug/g
(42). The elevated level of Cd found in our study on some of the road side dust range
3-7.3 ug/g. Such high level of Cd were also reported by other workers for Lancaster,
5.2 ug/g (35), North Wales, 6.8 ug/g (37) and London, 4.2 ug/g (38), Banglor, India
7.74 ug/g (43), for road side soil / dust. The sources of Cd in the urban areas are much
less well defined than those of Pb and other metals but metal plating and tire rubber
were considered the likely sources of Cd. Cd is also found in lubricating oil as part of
many additives. It was reported that the Cd level in the car tires is in the range
of 20-90 ug/g as Cd contamination in vulcanization process (40). The higher
concentration of Cd on Sawani Rd. therefore could be related to the movement of high
traffic and release of Cd and its deposition on topsoil/road side dust by mechanical
abrasion of tire due to high speed traffic and poor road condition and also emission
from engine lubricating oil.

2. Plant Contamination:
The concentration range of different metal studied in washed and unwashed leaves
is given in Table (2) and their variation trend in Fig. (3). Variation of different metal
concentration in washed and unwashed leaves of Doedonea viscose are briefly
discussed below.

Zinc: Heavy metal concentration in Table (2) shows that the order of metal
concentration in unwashed leaves is as follows: Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. similar order was
found in case of washed leaves but values wear less than unwashed leaves. The same
concentration order were found in topsoil and road side dust The variation of metals
(Zn, Cu, Pb & Cd) in unwashed and washed leaves for different road sites Fig. (3).
The variation trend for Zn metal depositions on leaves (washed and unwashed) for all

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the roads exhibited max. concentration of Zn around 2 Km Fig. (3) from zero distance
value (37.57 & 17.42 ug/g in unwashed & washed leave). The zinc concentration in
unwashed and washed leaves at 20 Km on Zawya Rd. were 49.56 & 17.23 ug/g and
same for Khums Rd. were 38.71 & 13.73 ug/g which were higher from the value of 2
to 10 Km. On other two roads, i.e., Sawani and Turhuna Rd. the trend for zinc
deposition were different. The concentration were found decreasing from around 2 & 5
Km and lowest on 20 Km, i.e., 31.75 ug/g on Sawani Rd and 33.24 ug/g on Turhuna
Rd. for unwashed leave. The trend were also the same for the washed leave, except on
Sawani Rd. at 20 Km.
Considering all the roads and sites, the concentration in unwashed leaves range
were 20-49.56 and 7-20 ug/g in washed leave. Our value is much less than those
reported elsewhere in unwashed and washed leaves plants around road site in urban
area's (83.5 ug/g in road side and 69.15 in Urban areas) in Turkey (29). The sources of
Zn emission in ambient area is the same as mention in the soil section. 2 and 20 Km in
general, show more concentration attributed due to high traffic density and aerial
deposition of heavy metals and other job works around these sites.
Copper: Concentration of copper accumulation trend in unwashed and washed
leaves were almost the same as found in the case of Zn. However the level of Cu in
unwashed and washed leaves were much less than Zn concentration. On Zawya road
the maximum concentration of copper was found around 2 Km (26.23 ug/g) and
around 20 Km (21.75 ug/g) with respect to other two 5 & 10 Km and zero distances
value (12.17 ug/g) in unwashed leave. The same trends where found in unwashed
leaves for Khums Rd. (max. at 28.49 and 33.15 ug/g on 2 & 20 Km. In case of washed
leaves the same variation trend were observed Fig. (3). The maximum value found in
washed leaves at 14.5 and 9.24 ug/g around 2 & 10 Km on Zawya Rd. and at
10.83 and 9.83 ug/g respectively. On Khums Rd. around 2, 10 & 20 Km. On As
Sawani Rd., maximum value in unwashed leaves were 31.2 at around 2 km and lower
than this was found on other sites including zero distance value 12.17 ug/g in
unwashed leaves. Cu concentration in washed leaves on zero distance was 10.23 ug/g
and increased further around 20 Km Tarhuna Rd. showed maximum value at around 2
Km at 19.36 ug/g against the zero distance value, highest at 10 & 20 Km i.e., 25.5 ug/g
and 22.13 ug/g in unwashed leave. In case of washed leaves high value was recorded
at 20 Km, i.e., 10.02 ug/g (As Sawani Rd. and 9.27 at Tarhuna Rd. and all the site
showed low value Fig. (3). Among all the roads sites, Khums Rd. show maximum
deposition (unwashed leave) of copper next to zinc Fig. (3). The high value of copper
in leaves on almost all the roads around 2 & 20 Km was due to high traffic density and
other job works. This could be related to Cu vehicular emission around these sites by
motor parts wear and brushing of bearing metals, frequent refuse burning and auto
workshops activity along the road side which results in more deposition of particulate
matters containing Cu on leaves. The Cu concentration order in different around
different road side is as follows: Khums Rd. > Sawani Rd. > Zawya Rd. > Tarhuna Rd.
Lead: concentration of lead on 2 & 20 Km showed maximum value in unwashed
leaves at 0.32 and 2.77 ug/g on Zawya Rd. and 2.17 and 0.75 ug/g on Khums Rd. as
compared with zero distance value 0.155 ug/g. Similar results were almost found in

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case of other two roads. Pb in washed leaves showed low concentration this shows that
uptake of Pb by leaves is almost negligible when compared with other metals. These
values were much less than data reported in other studies (29) for road side washed
leaves. As Sawani and Tarhuna Rd. also showed the same trend. Similar Pb
concentration variation with distance on road side topsoil were found. Source of Pb
emission deposition on leaves around 2 & 20 Km which showed mix. Value, is related
to traffic density and use of unleaded fuel and other fugitive emission on different road
sites as discussed in soil section. The Pb concentration order on different road sites
found to be as follows: Zawya Rd. > Khums Rd. > Tarhuna Rd. > Sawani Rd.
Cadmium: Cadmium concentration in unwashed leaves on all roads sites range
from traces to 1.85 ug/g and in washed leaves trace to 0.2 ug/g; Table (2). These values
were higher compared with results of other study (29) conducted for metal deposition
on plant leaves surface (unwashed) from urban road side areas in Turkey. But our
values for washed leaves were much lower compared with the reported value
0.66 ug/g. The high level of Cd where found in unwashed leaves 1.85 ug/g for Sawani
Rd. around 10 km distance from zero distance 0.22 ug/g. The washed leaves showed
negligible concentration which is an indication that Cd uptake by leaves is negligible
as the case with Pb. The sources of Cd emission are mentioned in soil section.
Heavy metals such as copper and zinc are essential for plant nutrition and requires
for the activities for various type of enzymes and therefore the uptake of copper and
zinc by the Doedonea viscose from the deposition of particulate matter containing
these metals appears to be more. However the variation pattern uptake of heavy metals
depends on plant species and climatic conditions. On the other hand cadmium and lead
do not have any known physiological function in plants and can be toxic and therefore
their uptake by the plant leaves is negligible.
Preliminary data gathered during the study, provide useful information to undertake
an extensive survey covering large geographical areas (rural & urban) in Libya using
Doedonea viscose as biomonitor for atmospheric trace inorganic and organic
pollutants and to prepare area wise environmental maps for different level of
Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) identified by USEPA for taking necessary
environmental protection measures.

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11
Fig. (1): Map showing roads and sampling sites

12
200 45

Siol Zn Site :AZ ZAWIYAH Road


Site :AZ ZAWIYAH Road
180 40
Dust Zn
160 Siol Cu 35
Dust Cu
140
30

120
Conc(ug/g)

Conc(ug/g)
25 Siol Pb
100 Dust Pb
20 Siol Cd
80
Dust Cd
15
60

10
40

20 5

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25
Site distance (Km) on :AZ ZAWIYAH Road Site distance (Km) on :AZ ZAWIYAH Road

Fig. (2a). Variation of heavy metal in topsoil and road side dust
Left side: Zn & Cu; Right side: Pb & Cd, Zawya.

180 40

Site :AL KHUMS Road Site :AL KHUMS Road Siol Pb


160 35
Siol Zn Dust Pb
140
Dust Zn Siol Cd
30
Siol Cu
Dust Cd
120 Dust Cu
25
Conc(ug/g)
Conc(ug/g)

100
20
80
15
60

10
40

20 5

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25
Site distance (Km) on AL KHUMS Road Site distance (Km) on AL KHUMS Road

Fig. (2b). Variation of heavy metal in topsoil and road side dust
Left side: Zn & Cu; Right side: Pb & Cd, Khums.

13
250 40
Site : AS SAWANI Road Siol Zn Site : AS SAWANI Road Siol Pb
Dust Zn 35 Dust Pb
Siol Cu Siol Cd
200
Dust Cu 30 Dust Cd

25
150

Conc(ug/g)
Conc(ug/g)

20

100 15

10
50
5

0
0
0 5 10 15 20 25
0 5 10 15 20 25
Site dis tance(Km)on AS SAWANI Road Site distance(Km )on AS SAWANI Road

Fig. (2c). Variation of heavy metal in topsoil and road side dust
Left side: Zn & Cu; Right side: Pb & Cd, Sawani.

180 40

Site:TARHONA Road Siol Pb


160 Site:TARHONA Road Siol Zn
35 Dust Pb
Dust Zn
Siol Cd
140 Siol Cu
30 Dust Cd
Dust Cu
120
25
Conc(ug/g)
Conc(ug/g)

100
20
80

15
60

40 10

20 5

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25
Site distance(Km )on TARHONA Road Site distance(Km )on TARHONA Road

Fig. (2d). Variation of heavy metal in topsoil and road side dust:
Left side: Zn & Cu; Right side: Pb & Cd, Tarhuna.

14
3
60
Site : AZ ZAWIYAH Road
Site : AZ ZAWIYAH Road
Plant specie :Dodonaea viscoaa
2.5 Plant specie :Dodonaea viscoaa
50

40 Zn unwashed 2
Cd unwashed
Zn washed
Conc (ug/g)

Conc (ug/g)
Cd washed
30 Cu unwashed 1.5
Pb unwashed
Cu washed
Pb washed
20 1

10 0.5

0
0
0 5 10 15 20 25
0 5 10 15 20 25
Site distance (Km) on AZ ZAWIYAH Road Site distance (Km) on AZ ZAWIYAH Road

Fig. (3a). Variation of heavy metal in plant leaves (washed & unwashed)
Left side: Zn & Cu; Right side: Pb & Cd, Zawya.

45 2.5

Site : AL KHUMS Road Site : AL KHUMS Road


40 Plant specie :Dodonaea viscoaa Plant specie :Dodonaea viscoaa
Cd unwashed
2
35
Cd washed

30 Zn unwashed Pb unwashed
1.5 Pb washed
Conc (ug/g)

Zn washed
Conc (ug/g)

25
Cu unwashed
20 Cu washed
1

15

10
0.5

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25

Site distance (Km) on AL KHUMS Road Site distance (Km) on AL KHUMS Road

Fig. (3b). Variation of heavy metal in plant leaves (washed & unwashed)
Left side: Zn & Cu; Right side: Pb & Cd, Khums.

15
45 4
Site:AS SAWANI Road Site:AS SAWANI Road Cd unw ashed
40 Plant specie:Dodonaea viscosa Plant specie:Dodonaea viscosa
3.5 Cd w ashed
Pb unw ashed
35
3 Pb w ashed

30
Zn unw ashed 2.5
Zn w ashed
Conc(ug/g)

Conc(ug/g)
25
Cu unw ashed 2
20 Cu w ashed

1.5
15

1
10

5 0.5

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25
Site distance(Km )on AS SAWANI Road Site distance(Km )on AS SAWANI Road

Fig. (3c). Variation of heavy metal in plant leaves (washed & unwashed)
Left side: Zn & Cu; Right side: Pb & Cd, Sawani.

60 2.5
Site:TARHONA Road Zn unw ashed Site:TARHONA Road
Plant specie:Dodonaea viscosa Plant specie:Dodonaea viscosa
Zn w ashed
50 Cu unw ashed
2
Cu w ashed

40 Cd unw ashed
1.5 Cd w ashed
Conc(ug/g)

Conc(ug/g)

Pb unw ashed
30
Pb w ashed

1
20

0.5
10

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25

Site distance(Km )on TARHONA Road Site distance(Km )on TARHONA Road

Fig. (3d). Variation of heavy metal in plant leaves (washed & unwashed)
Left side: Zn & Cu; Right side: Pb & Cd, Tarhuna.

16

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