Highlights from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists And American Diabetes Association CONSENSUS STATEMENT ON INPATIENT GLYCEMIC

CONTROL

Observational evidence clearly demonstrates that hyperglycemia is associated with worse clinical outcome in the hospital. Cohorts of patients with better glycemic control have better outcomes. But the question remains, “do interventions to tighten glucose control result in better outcomes?” Early clinical trials suggested benefit of aiming for tight glycemic control. The ACE and ADA quickly responded in 2006 by publishing a “Call to Action,” touting the virtues of tight control in the hospital setting. Given the relative ease of measurement, glycemic control was quickly adopted as a surrogate marker for hospital/provider performance. However, subsequent clinical trials have not confirmed these findings and have in fact suggested harm due to iatrogenic hypoglycemia when aiming for very tight control. This led to a joint consensus statement from the ACE and ADA in 2009. Below is a summary of their recommendations:
I. Critically Ill Patients Insulin therapy should be initiated for treatment of persistent hyperglycemia, starting at a threshold of no greater than 180 mg/dL (10.0 mmol/L). Once insulin therapy has been started, a glucose range of 140 to 180 mg/dL (7.8 to 10.0 mmol/L) is recommended for the majority of critically ill patients. Intravenous insulin infusions are the preferred method for achieving and maintaining glycemic control in critically ill patients. Validated insulin infusion protocols with demonstrated safety and efficacy, and with low rates of occurrence of hypoglycemia, are recommended.

frequent glucose monitoring is essential to minimize the occurrence of hypoglycemia and to achieve optimal glucose control. with basal. the premeal BG target should generally be <140 mg/dL (<7. Cost Appropriate inpatient management of hyperglycemia is cost-effective. provided these targets can be safely achieved.8 mmol/L) in conjunction with random BG values <180 mg/dL (<10. Safety Issues Overtreatment and undertreatment of hyperglycemia represent major safety concerns. and clear communication with outpatient providers are critical for ensuring a safe and successful transition to outpatient glycemic management. nutritional. Scheduled subcutaneous administration of insulin. Discharge planning. Clinical judgment and ongoing assessment of clinical status must be incorporated into day-to-day decisions regarding treatment of hyperglycemia. Prolonged therapy with SSI as the sole regimen is discouraged. is the preferred method for achieving and maintaining glucose control. II. patient education. hypoperfusion.With IV insulin therapy. V. VI. Buy-in and financial support from hospital administration are required for promoting a rational systems approach to inpatient glycemic management.0 mmol/L). Caution is required in interpreting results of POC glucose meters in patients with anemia. More stringent targets may be appropriate in stable patients with previous tight glycemic control. Needed Research A selected number of research questions and topics for guiding the management of inpatient hyperglycemia in various hospital settings are proposed. polycythemia. and correction components. Less stringent targets may be appropriate in terminally ill patients or in patients with severe comorbidities. or use of some medications. III. IV. Discharge Planning Preparation for transition to the outpatient setting should begin at the time of hospital admission. Education of hospital personnel is essential in engaging the support of those involved in the care of inpatients with hyperglycemia. Noncritically Ill Patients For the majority of noncritically ill patients treated with insulin. Noninsulin antihyperglycemic agents are not appropriate in most hospitalized patients who require therapy for hyperglycemia. .