Digital Image

Applications of Digital Image Processing

Aug 9, 2010

Aug 11, 2010

Classification of Digital Image Processing

Image

Image Rectification

Image Enhancement

Image Classification

Data Merging

Image Rectification Correction of image – preprocessing of image A.Part 1 . Geometric correction B. Radiometric correction .

Geometric Correction .

Geometric Correction .

Unwanted disturbance in image due to limitations in sensing. digitization. or data recording process .Radiometric Correction Conversion of DN into Actual Radiance values Lλ = Gain * DN + Offset Gain = (LMax – LMin)/255 Atmospheric Correction Noise correction .

Atmospheric Correction 443 nm 555 nm 620 nm Chl-a TSM AOD .

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Image Enhancement More effective display of images enhancing the contrast between various objects A.Part 2 . Spatial feature manipulation C. Contrast manipulation B. Multi-image manipulation .

Contrast Manipulation Grey-level thresholding – used to segment an image into two classes TM VIS Band TM NIR Band .

Contrast Manipulation Grey-level thresholding – similar to ‘Cloud Masking’ ASTER image ASTER Cloud Mask .

Contrast Manipulation Level Slicing – enhancement technique where the range of DN values are sliced and each slice is assigned a single DN values 1 2 3 4 5 .

Narrow range of brightness values stretched over a wider range of gray level values .Image display operate over a range of 256 gray levels .Contrast Manipulation Contrast Stretching .Sensor data hardly extends over this range .

Contrast Stretching Image Histogram Image Value Display Value Image Value Display Value Image Value Histogram Stretch Display Value Image Value Display Value Linear Stretch Special Stretch .

Contrast Stretching Original Image Histogram stretch Linear Stretch .

SC Linear Stretch ±1σ linear stretch Min = 12.Contrast Stretching Original (4 – 105) Mean = 27. σ = 15.76 Landsat Image of Charleston. Max = 43 Wetlands (DN 13-27) Special Linear stretch Histogram Equalization .3.

Image Enhancement Contrast Manipulation Spatial Feature Manipulation Multi-image Manipulation Spatial Filtering Edge Enhancement Fourier Analysis .

Spatial Feature Manipulation Spatial Filtering – enhances the smoothness/roughness of the image spatially Low-pass filter Original Image High-pass filter .

y) domain into spectral frequency domain using Fourier Transform .Spatial Feature Manipulation Edge Enhancement – preserve both local contrast and low frequency brightness information Original Image Edge enhanced Image Fourier Analysis – implementation of spatial feature manipulation in spatial (x.

Image Enhancement Contrast Manipulation Spatial Feature Manipulation Multi-image Manipulation Spectral Ratioing Principal Components IHS Transformation .

Spectral Ratioing Landsat TM1/TM2 Landsat TM3/TM4 Landsat TM5/TM2 Landsat TM3/TM7 .

SC PCA is appropriate when one has a number of observed variables and wish to develop a smaller number of artificial variables (principal components) that will account for most of the variance in the observed variables.71 0.53 0.95 0.76 0.Multi-image Manipulation Principal Component Analysis Band 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 1 1 0.78 1 0.76 0.84 0.56 0.66 1 0.72 0.56 1 0. .96 0.61 0.58 1 0.66 1 0.44 0.88 0.95 0.81 1 2 Correlation Matrix 3 4 5 7 6 Landsat Image of Charleston.96 0.39 0.

97 78.93 56.43 61.14 14.84 280.62 568.72 34.91 154.71 40.59 141.6 79.49 134.83 69.68 85.Principal Component Analysis Variance-Covariance Matrix Band 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 1 100. whose elements (Eigen values) are the variances of pth principal components .71 148.78 2 3 4 5 7 6 Eigen values of this matrix are computed such that EV Cov EVT = E E is a diagonal covariance matrix.91 22.5 43.91 42.27 90.13 23.04 86.65 17.4 330.14 46.22 55.92 248.33 68.

38 5 99.95 6 2.24 Percent of total variance in the data explained by each principal component %= eigenvalueλ p ×100 ∑ eigenvalueλ p =1 7 p Principal  Components Cumulative 1 84.71 6 99.17 7 1.82 4 99.Principal Component Analysis Principal  Components Eigen values 1 1010.92 2 131.67 3 98.6 4 6.73 5 3.68 2 95.99 .89 7 99.2 3 37.

Multi-image Manipulation Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS) Color Space Transformation Intensity – refers to the brightness of a color Hue – refers to dominant or average wavelength of light contributing to a color Saturation – refers to purity of a color relative to gray .

Unsupervised classification B. Supervised classification .Part 3 .Image Classification Quantitative technique to classify various features A.

Unsupervised Classification Distinguishing different objects based on cluster analysis using multi-spectral reflectance values Suitable for images with few classes with contrasting spectral reflectance values Do not utilize training data .

Example of Unsupervised Classification .

Supervised Classification Requires training set More accurate for complex scenes .

2005 .FCC produced from IRS 1C LISS –III over a part of the Himalayan Foothills Ref: Saha et al..

.Classified Image Ref: Saha et al. 2005 .

Merging of image data with ancillary information D.Data merging Merging of multiple data-set for better interpretation A. Multi-temporal merging – change detection study B. Integration with GIS . Multi-sensor merging C.

Change Detection Study .

Integration with GIS .

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