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Summary of Second language acquisition (SLA)
By MOHAMMAD AGUS SALIM EL BAHRI
A. Definition 1. Second language acquisition (SLA) SLA: The language plays an institutional and social in community or any language learned later in life. According to hand out of Mr. Imam G in Psycholinguistic # 7 said: SLA is any language / s a child learns (learning process) after the L1 (Usually after the age of 5). Second language (SL) becomes umbrella terms for second and foreign languages (FL). Both differ in terms of on frequency of use and political affiliation of corresponding country. Frequency of use refers to the extent to which the language is used to fulfill the wide range of communicative needs of the speakers. The frequently used indicators are needed of communication at home, smaller and larger community, public services, education, work place, and religious services. Political affiliation refers to the status that the language acquires in certain region/country. In the case of English in Indonesia, the status was awarded through the political decision of ministry of education on behalf the Indonesian government in 1967. The theories: Behaviorism According to hand out of Mr. Imam G in Psycholinguistic # 7 said: The theory claims that language learning undergoes the same process of learning of other fields, that habit formation (S R R). Briefly the
process involves providing linguistic. Stimuli in order to that the learner produces Response which is appropriate or correct to the S. If the learner can do so the teacher should give Reinforcement. But when the learner can not do so, or makes inappropriate or incorrect response, the teacher should nor give R. she / he should corect the mistake to avoid the formation of bad habit (habit of making incorect forms). To help learner produces the expected or correcr R, the provision of S should be repeated over and over, called over learning. So as the case with production of R by the SL/FL learner. By means of this the bond between S and R becomes authomatic, when this is established the new habit formation is completed. To facilitate te habit formation process, behaviorism applies principles of contrastive analysis (CA). They believe that as the learner has established L1, thie cognitive capacity is filled with system of L1. When the learner wants to learn another habit, that is habit of L2, the L1 system dominates the process. This means that all forms, or rules, simliar to the L1 will be easily learned or established. But when the forms are different, they become potential problems (inference) in learning. Therefore, CA belives that the learning process will be facilitated when there is an analysis of the system of both of languages (L1 &L2). Based on comparison, some same rules or forms will facilitate the learning, while differences will become constraints. Teacher should be aware that establishing different form would take more thought and energy. In classroom, the form of behaviorism can be seen from some methods of language teaching, especially Audio Lingual Method (ALM) or Aural- Oral Method (AOM). The teaching procedure in these methods consists of teacher providing S, learner makes R, teacher gives R. Habit formed in First language can interfere with L2 learning. Audiolingualism (stimuli and reinforcement.) b. Innatism According to hand out of Mr. Imam G in Psycholinguistic # 8 said: The theory claims that every child was born with some innate capacities, one of which is specially used to process languages. It means the nature of
language learning is different from learning other fields. This specific capacity consists of underlying abstract representation or rules or grammar, which is also called univesal rules of language or more popularly called universal grammar (UG). This consists of a set of potential rules that becomes materialized (mastery of language rules) after they get (largely subconscious) exposure of language input. Two important isssues concerning this theory deals with access to the UG, and age: There is split argument on the first issue. Some innatists believe that learners cannot access UG to process L2 the same way as they do for L1. This is because the facility of UG has been used in the FLA. (This is called no access) some other innatists contend that learners still get the same access to UG to process L2 the same way as they do in L1,( this is called full access). Some others still believe that to some extent learners still can access UG to process L2 but not as much as when they process L1,( this is called limited access). Therefore, the SLA process is said to undergo from their acquired modalisties. i.e. L1. The second issue concerns with age. Briefly stated, problem revolves around biological condition, especially the brain capacity of the power to process the language. In ordinary word, in can be formulated whether languge learning process differ as a function of age. On the other hand, adults learn the language the same or different way from children. Answer to this problem should be referred to the basic claim that the children were born with some innate capacity, especially LAD consisting of UG. UG is biological factor and it can change with age. The answer to this problem relates to access and age. E. Lenneberg (1967) proposed a critical period hypothesis (CPH) for language learning in that biological condition changes at puberty. The biological condition after puberty makes adultlearners hard to learn any language to develop complete mastery of second language in the same way as children do for their L1. Lamandela, although claims that such access is different between children and adult, believes
with efforts complete mastery is still possible. However, some research results reveal that: Adults may learn more quickly than children in short term. Adults who are good classroom learners may learn more efficiently than young children language classrooms. Those who begin learning when they are younger and continue learning may ultimately reach a higher level of proficiency than those who begin adults, especially in learning pholonological components. Evidence of this can be observed from quality of pronounciation of learners learning the language from early ago and those learning after puberty. The application of innate theory in real classroom can be seen in kreshen and Terrel’s theory of natural approach and expressed in terms of saveral hypothesies. According to hand out of Mr. Imam G in Psycholinguistic # 9 said: The hypotheses are accomodated in terms of natural approach which was first proposed by Terrell in 1977 and later reformulated by Kreshen and Terrell in 1983. Then the reformulated theory called “hypotheses” was formulated by Kreshen in 1985. The five and later become Six hypotheses are: The Acquisition Vs Learning Hypothesis This says that there are two possible broad model of learning: learning and acquisition. Learning is a process that undergoes ‘concious learning’ that is ‘rule-based’ explicit teaching-the process typically taking place in regular language classroom. The other model is called acquisition in which learners ‘subconciously learn’ the language focusing on meaningful interaction. The natural hypothesis is favour of the acquisition process because it enables learners use language in meaningful communication. To Forster the acquisition should be exposed to an input-rich environment with plentiful opportunities to do meaning-based communication.
It is concluded that there are two distinct ways of developing competence (see; kreshen): Acquisition: real communication Learning: knowing about language.
The Monitor Hypotesis (Checking grammar) Result of learning process serves as monitor to check the language production if conditions are permitted. Use of monitor requires enough time, knowledge of the rules and a focus on the necessary forms. However, monitor does not lead to acqusition. The Natural Order Hypothesis SLA, like FLA, follows a natural order (natural route). Differences from adult, first language grammars are not errors but indication of natural development. 4. The Input Hypothesis Acquisition is forstered by plentiful input that is at a level beyond the learner’s level of comprehension. This can be expressed in the form of i + 1, in which i = current level of language development / comprehension. 1 = a level slightly higher than / beyond the current level. To provide comprehensible input, the teacher should provide in put at the approprite level which is input with plenty opportunities for meaningful interaction. If this is provided, acqusition will take place. We acquire (not learn) language by understanding input that is a little
beyond our current level of (acquired) competence. 5. The Affective Fiter Hypothesis This hypothesis claims that three is an affective filter component in the acquisition process. This component affects language indirectly acting as a barrier, if the affective filter is high or becomes facilitator if it is low. The affective filter can be raised when learners are overly anxious, lack self-confidence in their ability and poorly motivation, low anxiety, or nonthreatening athmosphere can be created, the affective factor will not in habit the process, and acquisition will be facilitated. 6. Reading Hypothesis Reading acts as a kind of input that extends acquisition especially for reading comprehension, writing style, vocabulary, spelling and advances grammar competence. c. Interactionist Based on Mr. Imam’s hand out # 10 was said: 1. Theoritical framwork This theory is influenced by sociolinguistics views and language as a means of communication. Briefly, it is sated that language learning involves learners in real communication process in which the environment and innate capacity play important roles. More specifically, the theory addresses components of interactio such as input, negotiation, out put, and interacton feedback. The followings are some facts on the theory. - a research is found that adult language learners find it easly to understand the input when the task is modified. Modification is designed to simplify the language. For example: Q how do you want to egg fried? Do you want the egg fried or half-done? Result shows that such as modification help less professional language users, i.g. language learner easier to be engged in conversation. The more she or he engaged in conversation, the further their language competency improves. - Language development would be more enhanced through negotiation of
meaning. T: yes, can I help you? S: need… (Shows hand movement to nail in) T: do you need something to drive the nail in the wood? (Repeats the movement) S: yes…yes T: ooh, so need ahammer, then S: yes, a hammer.. I need a hammer… Negotiations of meaning help the learners engaged in conversation longer and help them to communicate effectively. This way she or he should develop more language proficiency. This example also shows that the language development depends on the learner’s involvement in interactionduring which she or he comes across many minor process such as identifying language input, negotiation of meaning, feedback, etc. all of this do not neglect the other theories that put the role environment, or the child’s innate capacity for the final development of second language mastery. 2. Practical aspect The application of this theory in classroom language learning teaching can be seen from communicative language methodology (CTL). Although, there are partially unlimited numbers of CLT models, some common principles can be summarized as follows: More learners-centered and less teacher-centered classes. Little reliance on driil work, memorization and rule-based learning. Use of pair and group work. Contextualized teaching of vocabulary and grammar. Less explicit, rule-based teaching of vocabulary and grammar. Exposure to language as communication is emphasized. Some attempts to address pragmatic aspects of language. According to Mrs. Yuyun’s hand out is said that there are basic principle in learning FL & SL. Basic principle of both FL & SL
Acquisition occurs through learners figuring out how the languages work. Learners need opportunities to use and experiment with the new language. Mistakes are natural and inevitable part of language learning. Natural basic principle Acquisition occurs through social interaction in authentic communication setting. Learners need to talk with each other and need to have language inout from others. 2. Interlanguage English as second language or interlanguage of Indonesia has different from in learning process, according to Mr. Imam’s hand out # 12, language learnng process can be described to embark from completely no mastery of SL (called MT point, or L1) to prorass towards native like mastery (target language condition, or L2). The process which reflects to movement from zero point towards the native like mastery can be seen to consist of stages. These stages are real but difficult to describe with out proper indicators and labels. The stages closer to zero point reflect the relative distance to the target, while those closer to the native-like point reflects the relative distance to the zero point. All the stages can be cosidered as interlanguage, which is kind o f language which lies between the MT and the TL. NOTES: MT: mother tongue. TL: third language. From O upto university. a. Interlanguage Interlanguage is the type of laguage produced by second and foreign language learners in the process of mastering the laguage, thus called interlanguage (IL). IL is characterized by its different features from those of L1 & L2. The second is that it is systematic, not random. The kind of language has a system of its own, which to some extend is simiar to those of L1 & or TL. The third is that it is dynamic in that it moves to master : it means, there are many steps to learn interlanguages, for example, someone learns english from elementary school upto senior high school, even
the direction of more and more similar to the mature TL features as the learning process proceeds, but it also fossilizes if learning process stops at a certain period where the learning is incomplete. The forth is that it is independent from both the learners’ L1 &TL system she or he is trying to learn. b. Error VS mistake In learning of second language is often found many error language or make sentence either in writing or oral language, because according to Mr. Imam’s hand out # 12, In interlangauge system, the different (between L1 & TL system) is often referred to as error. Error is different from mistake in that it reflects” learner’s competence” while mistakes occur because of some other causes such as – false start, fatigue, short memory or other physical and emotional condition. In this context, errors can be used as a measurement to reveal the degree of mastery of L2. Therefore, to reveal learner’s language mastery linguisticts devise error analysis study. This tries to reveal what systems a learner have mastered and which are still in the process of learning. c. Error analysis (EA) In EA errors can be clsified into two: Interlingual error is an error which results from language transfer, which is caused by the learners’ native language transfer. It sometimes is called negative transfer. It can be seen as borrowing patterns from mother tongue. Intralingual error is one which results from faulty of partial learning of the target language. Interlingual error may be caused by the influence of one target language item upon another. d. Surface level taxonomy From the type of errors commited there are four types of errors, they are: 1. Movement, 2. Addition, 3. Deletion, and 4. Substitution. e. Significance of errors Study of errors gives information that they show the developmental satge, problems faced by learners, show attempts, and show their creativity.
School of though in SLA Time frame School of thought
Description. Observable performance. Scientific method. Empiricism Surface structure Conditioning, reinforcement Generative lingualistics Acquisition, innateness Interlanguage systematicity Universal grammar Competence Deep structure Intractive discourse Sociocultural variables Cooperative group learning Interlinguage variability Interactionist hypotheses
Early 1900s & 1940s 1950s Structuralism&
1960s & 1970
Rationalism& cognitive psychology
1980s,1990s and early 2000
To support the observation, the writer wants to know the character of young children. According to Wendy A.Scott & Libeth H. Yireberg (2003:2), In Teaching English to children said: The character of the young language learner: They know that the world is governed by rules. They may not always understand the rules, but they know that they are there to be obeyed and the rules help to nurture a feeling of security. They understand situation more quikly and they understand the language used. They use language skill long before they are a ware of them. Their own understanding comes through hand, eyes, and ears. Physical world is dominant at all time. Young children are enthusiastic and positive about learning.
It means, we all thrive on doing well and being praised for what we do and this is especially true for kids. It is important to praise them if they keep their enthusiasm and feel successful from the beginning. From those characteritic, it can be concluded that young children have habit to improve their innate capacity by hearing what the people said. They learn language word by word through social interaction. As according to J.D.O. Cannor (1967:1) in Better English pronounciation said: “Language starts with the ear. When a baby stars to talk, he does it by hearing the sound his mother makes and imitating them “ So, it can be concluded that Language is habit: Speaking is mouth-action: so, you must use your mouth. Reading is mouth and eye-action: so, you must use your mouth. Listening is ear-action: so, you must use your ear. Writing is hand-action: so, must use your action. Someone can speak depend on hearing, but just hearing, it is not enough, she or he must listen to it, and it is not for the meaning but for the sound of it. It means that language is habit. B. Function Language is very important for human life. English language is one of the tools of communication in international community. Therefore, English is needed here because not only English is used to communicate in international community, but also the fact that this language is mostly needed in transferring the knowledge of modern technology, scientific publications, books, newspaper and magazine. In learning a language especially in writing, it is needed a good ways. In the other word, learning English can be begun early when children still in elementary school, in a good writing can be learned by over learning either in school or at home, minimally, the children can write in their diary about experience, school, and friends.
A. Scott wendy and lisbeth H. Ytreberg, 2003 “Teaching English to children” Longman. Connor J.D.O, 1967 “Better English Pronunciation” Cambridge at the University Press
Ghazali Imam, 2007 “Psycholinguistics’s Hand out” UST Yogyakarta Harnby As “Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English “Oxford University press, 1995 Sir Randolph Quirk Professor “Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English “Longman Group UK Limited, 1987 Yulia Yuyun, 2007 “CLA and EFC hand out” UST Yogyakarta. Presented by MOHAMMAD AGUS SALIM EL BAHRI Now, he is studying at Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa University of Yogyakarta Indonesia. He comes from Madura Island East Java Indonesia