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www.elsevier.com/locate/measurement

Alessandro Ferrero *

Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy

Available online 18 March 2006

Abstract

The proliferation of non-linear and time-variant loads is causing a number of disturbances on the electric network, from

a more and more signiﬁcant distortion of both currents and voltages, to transient disturbances on the supply voltage. In

this respect the electric network behaves as an ‘‘healthy carrier’’ of disturbances, so that a disturbance generated by one

customer can be distributed to other customers, causing possible damage to their equipment. The measurement of the qual-

ity of the electric power in a network section is therefore becoming an impelling need, especially in a deregulated electricity

market, where each actor can be responsible for the injection of disturbances. However, there are still some respects of

power-quality measurement, from both the methodological and instrumental point of views, that are still unsolved and

require to be carefully analyzed. The paper gives a survey of these problems and some indications about the present trends

of the research work in this ﬁeld.

2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

tify this phenomenon: the ﬁrst ‘‘quality index’’ was

The ‘‘power-quality problem’’ has been known deﬁned.

since the beginning of the ac energy transmission As far as the sinusoidal conditions are kept and

and distribution, although this term is relatively the supply is considered ideal, the power-quality

recent. It was soon clear that, for a given supply concept is conﬁned to a ‘‘loading-quality’’ concept,

voltage and a given active power, the current might since the responsibility for decreasing the power fac-

be higher than the value associated with that voltage tor is fully assigned to the load. However, as soon as

and power and, consequently, voltage drops on the the electric energy has been employed to feed the

source equivalent impedance might be higher than great industrial applications, a diﬀerent phenome-

expected and even outside the allowed limits. The non called for attention, as the power of some loads

concepts of apparent and reactive power and that became comparable with the power of the supplying

system: changes in the load consumption reﬂected

into voltage drops on the equivalent source imped-

*

Tel.: +39 0223993751; fax: +39 0223993703. ance that were no longer negligible with respect to

E-mail address: alessandro.ferrero@polimi.it the supply voltage.

0263-2241/$ - see front matter 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2006.03.004

122 A. Ferrero / Measurement 41 (2008) 121–129

age variations can be easily controlled with the volt-

age regulators. On the contrary, when the loads

become rapidly variable (arc furnaces, soldering

plants, . . .) new phenomena arise on the supply volt-

age, such as sags, swells, notches, ﬂicker. The prob-

lem is no longer a ‘‘loading-quality’’ problem, but

turns into a ‘‘supply-quality’’ problem.

Until the loads injecting disturbances were few,

known, generally large-power loads, it was possible

to ﬁlter out the disturbances at the load site, and

prevent them to travel along the network.

In more recent years, the development of high-

Fig. 2. Basic representation of the way a disturbance injected by

quality, low-cost power electronic components has a load is distributed to all other loads. L2 is the disturbing load

led to a very rapid diﬀusion of non-linear, time-var- and draws a distorted current (dashed line). When these current

iant loads, spreading from low-power domestic components reach the source equivalent impedance (dotted line)

appliances to low and high-power industrial appli- are converted in voltage disturbances and distributed to all loads

cations. New steady-state disturbances, such as har- connected to the PCC (dash-dotted line).

monic and inter-harmonic components, and

transient disturbances appeared on the line-current,

causing several phenomena, ranging from an by one load are distributed to all other loads by

increase in the losses and voltage drops to EMI both the disturbances that arise on the supply voltage,

on the other loads and the communication systems. as schematically shown in Fig. 2. A linear, time-

The overall power of such distorting loads con- invariant load may be forced to consume a distorted

nected to the supply network may be once again current, some ﬂicker may appear on the lighting sys-

comparable with the power of the supply system tem, interference may appear on the electronic con-

(that does not generally show a source equivalent trol apparatus and so on. The electric network is

impedance constant with frequency) and therefore now behaving as an ‘‘healthy carrier’’ of load-gener-

the supply voltage is distorted too by harmonic ated disturbances: the ‘‘loading-quality’’ problems,

and inter-harmonic components, and disturbed by together with the ‘‘supply-quality’’ problems, are

sags, swells, notches. Again, a ‘‘loading-quality’’ now causing ‘‘power-quality’’ problems.

problem becomes a ‘‘supply-quality’’ problem. As far as the ‘‘loading quality’’ and the ‘‘supply

In a typical network structure like the one shown quality’’ are concerned, recommendations have

in Fig. 1, where diﬀerent loads, belonging to diﬀer- been issued by the Standard Organizations both to

ent customers are connected to the same point of limit the injection of harmonics [1–4] and to deﬁne

common coupling (PCC), the disturbances injected the characteristics of the voltage supplied by public

networks [5–7]. Deﬁnitions of power-quality related

terms are also given [8]. However, these recommen-

dations appear to be still insuﬃcient to ensure the

solution of the ‘‘power-quality’’ problems. In fact,

it should be considered that, when the supply volt-

age is distorted (and possibly unbalanced, in three-

phase systems), a customer may not be totally

responsible for the harmonic and unbalance current

components ﬂowing in its loads. Ethical and legal

issues, other than technical ones, are involved, when

setting allowable limits [9], since the source respon-

sible for injecting the disturbances should be ﬁrst of

all detected.

Fig. 1. Single-phase representation of a power system with Moreover, the same amount of disturbances

multiple loads connected to the same point of common coupling injected by a load may have diﬀerent impact on

(PCC) fed by a sinusoidal non-ideal generator. the power quality, according to the short-circuit

A. Ferrero / Measurement 41 (2008) 121–129 123

power granted by the Utility at the PCC: the higher Authors [12,13,20–31], so that these phenomena are

is the short-circuit power, the lower is the impact of now more clearly described than in the past,

the injected disturbances. although a generally accepted, comprehensive the-

The main issue, when dealing with ‘‘power qual- ory of the power phenomena under non-sinusoidal

ity’’, is therefore not only that of limiting the conditions is not yet available. A good, extensive

amount of injected disturbances, but also that of survey of the scientiﬁc work done in this ﬁeld is rep-

detecting the source, or the sources, injecting the resented by the issues of the ETEP and L’Energia

disturbances and quantifying the eﬀect of such dis- Elettrica journals [32–37] dedicated to the contribu-

turbances on the power quality. The next sections tions presented during six ‘‘International Workshops

will discuss the technical respects of this problem, on Power Deﬁnitions and Measurements under Non-

both from the methodological point of view and Sinusoidal Conditions’’ (Como, Italy, 1991, Stresa,

that of the measuring equipment. Italy, 1993, Milano, Italy, 1995, 1997, 2000 and

2003).

2. Theoretical background A second critical point that must be considered

when discussing about power-quality measurement

The power theory of the ac electric systems and is concerned with the evaluation of the measure-

circuits has developed, during the last century, under ment uncertainty in the presence of heavily distorted

the strong constraint of sinusoidal waveforms. When signals. Up to a recent past, only the behaviour of

disturbances are superimposed to the sinusoidal volt- the active and reactive energy meters in the presence

age and current waveforms, and particularly when of distorted waveform conditions was widely dis-

such disturbances are steady-state disturbances, that cussed [38–40]. However, the power-quality indices

constraint cannot be considered any longer. Conse- that have been more recently proposed require com-

quently, all conventional quantities and factors usu- plex measuring systems for their measurement. The

ally employed to analyze the energy ﬂow in the evaluation of the measurement uncertainty, accord-

electric systems under sinusoidal conditions, such ing to the recommendation of the ISO Guide [41], is

as the reactive and apparent powers and the power still an open problem.

factor, lose most of the properties they have under All above referenced contributions represent a

sinusoidal conditions. This leads to a dramatic and theoretical background wide enough, if properly

misleading loss of information [10] when they are applied, to allow a correct approach to power-qual-

used in power-quality assessment. ity deﬁnition and measurement.

In order to avoid these problems, the non-sinu-

soidal conditions should be theoretically reconsid- 3. Power-quality indices

ered, starting from the mathematical bases of the

electromagnetism and circuit theory, in order to The ﬁrst, obvious, though not easy step toward

describe the physical behaviour of an electric system power-quality measurement is the deﬁnition of

under non-sinusoidal conditions in terms of a suit- power-quality indices able to quantify the deviation

able set of equations and mathematical relation- from an ideal reference situation, quantify the detri-

ships that relate voltages, currents and physical mental eﬀects of this deviation and identify the

properties of the system elements. At the Author’s source generating these detrimental eﬀects.

knowledge, very few attempts have been published A quite natural way seems to be the extension to

that try to give a general answer to this basic prob- the non-sinusoidal conditions of the indices

lem [11–13]. employed under sinusoidal conditions, such as the

Nevertheless, several attempts were made, in the power factor and the total distortion factor (THD),

past, to extend to the non-sinusoidal systems con- together with a discussion of their limits when the

cepts and deﬁnitions typical of the sinusoidal systems sinusoidal conditions are left.

[14–18]. These attempts were mainly concerned with In order to extend the deﬁnition of the power fac-

the solution of particular problems, typically the tor, the apparent power must be considered too. Its

compensation of non-active current components extension to the non-sinusoidal conditions is quite

and, in some cases, have been proved to be not totally immediate for single-phase systems; on the con-

correct from the physical point of view [19]. trary, several diﬀerent deﬁnitions are available in

More recently, a more in-depth investigation into the literature [42] when three-phase systems are con-

the power phenomena has been proposed by several sidered. The following one, due to Buchholz [43], is

124 A. Ferrero / Measurement 41 (2008) 121–129

receiving increasing acceptance in the scientiﬁc com- [28], the factors deﬁned in (4) can be modiﬁed, in

munity, though it is not endorsed by several order to keep into account the eﬀects of the unbal-

standards: ance components too, as

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

SR ¼ U RI R ð1Þ U 2R I 2R

þ þ

GTHDU ¼ 1 and GTHD I ¼ 1;

where UR and IR are the voltage and current collec- U 2Rþ1 I 2Rþ1

tive rms values, respectively and are deﬁned as

vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ð5Þ

uX uX

u n u n 2 where U Rþ1 and I Rþ1 are the collective rms values of

UR ¼ t U 2Lj and I R ¼ t I Lj

j¼1 j¼1

the fundamental frequency, positive sequence com-

ponents of the line voltages and currents, respec-

U Lj and I Lj being the rms values of the zero-sum line tively. It can be readily checked that the factors

voltages and the line currents, respectively, n the deﬁned in (5) act as non-conformity indices of the

number of wires of the system. line voltage and current waveforms to positive se-

If the total active power is deﬁned as quence sinewaves.

Z X n The comparison between the values assumed by

PR ¼ uLj ðtÞiLj ðtÞ dt ð2Þ (4) and (5) allows to establish whether the responsibil-

T j¼1 ity for the electrical pollution is mostly due to the

presence of distortion or to the presence of unbalance.

where T is the period of the voltage and current

All above quantities, however, are not useful in

waveforms, the power factor can be still deﬁned as

establishing whether the load or the supply are

the ratio between the active power and the apparent

responsible for the power-quality deterioration,

power (1):

since they can only provide an estimate of confor-

PR mity to given reference conditions, where, according

k¼ ð3Þ

SR to [1–9], the term ‘‘conformity’’ denotes ‘‘the fulﬁll-

The power factor (3) can be still considered a ment of speciﬁed requirements’’.

power-quality index, though it loses the property An attempt to ﬁnd more useful indices has been

of fully qualifying the load. Under non-sinusoidal proposed by the IEEE Working Group on Non-

conditions it only represents an index of conformity sinusoidal Situations [40] with the following resolu-

of the line current waveforms to the line voltage tion for the apparent power (1):

waveforms. It can be easily proven that also the dis- S 2R ¼ ðU R I R Þ2

tortion factors only show the conformity of the line

voltages and currents to sinewaves. In fact, for the ¼ ðU R1 I R1 Þ2 þ ðU R1 I RH Þ2 þ ðU RH I R1 Þ2 þ ðU RH I RH Þ2

three-phase systems, the global voltage and current ð6Þ

THD factors can be deﬁned as

sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ where U RH and I RH are the collective rms values of

U 2R I 2R the harmonic components of voltage and current,

GTHDU ¼ 1 and GTHD I ¼ 1 respectively.

U 2R1 I 2R1

Although the quantities:

ð4Þ

S 2R1 ¼ ðU R1 I R1 Þ2

where U R1 and I R1 are the collective rms values of

the fundamental frequency components of the line and

voltages and currents, respectively. According to

the given deﬁnition, factors (4) act as non-confor- S 2RN ¼ ðU R1 I RH Þ2 þ ðU RH I R1 Þ2 þ ðU RH I RH Þ2

mity indices of the line voltage and current wave- are introduced, it can be immediately checked that:

forms to sinewaves, no matter if these sinewaves 2

are balanced or not. S RN 2 2

¼ ðGTHDI Þ þ ðGTHDU Þ

Since it has been proven that the harmonic com- S R1

ponents and the sequence components, in three- 2

þ ðGTHDI GTHDU Þ

phase systems, have similar eﬀects from the power-

quality point of view and can be considered as the This approach, therefore, does not provide any

components of a generalized Fourier decomposition additional information to the one associated with

A. Ferrero / Measurement 41 (2008) 121–129 125

2

the THD factors and is useless in identifying the kIRL k

sources producing distortion. nHGI ¼ 2

ð10Þ

kIRS k

Some information about the location of the

source producing distortion is provided by the ratio: where IRL is the vector of the collective rms values of

GTHDþ the harmonic and sequence components associated

gþ ¼ I

; ð7Þ with active powers reﬂected backward from the load

GTHDþ

U to the source, and IRS is the vector of the collective

since a linear, balanced load is expected not to am- rms values of the harmonic and sequence compo-

plify the distortion of the current, with respect to nents associated with active powers ﬂowing from

that of the voltage, whilst a non-linear or unbal- the source towards the load. The higher is the value

anced load is expected to. However index (7) is sen- assumed by (10), the higher is the load contribution

sitive to resonance too, so it cannot discriminate to distortion. Both indices (9) and (10) may provide

between distortion and resonance eﬀects. incorrect information under practical conditions

The search for more eﬀective approaches has led, [47] when compensation eﬀects arise between the

recently, to focus on the analysis of the energy ﬂow- harmonic power components injected by the supply

ing in a network section [22,44]. This analysis shows and those reﬂected by the load and when the har-

that, under distorted conditions, active power com- monic active powers are close to zero, due to a

ponents associated with the harmonic and negative phase shift close to p/2 between the harmonic com-

sequence components of voltages and currents arise ponents of voltage and current, despite the presence

that ﬂow backward from the load to the generator, of large harmonic current components. Providing

and dissipate in the generator source impedance. incorrect indications is a common ﬂaw of all syn-

This phenomenon can be explained by considering thetic indices obtained from measurements done in

that the non-linear loads behave as ‘‘converters’’, a single metering section. These indices are some-

which draw active power at the fundamental fre- how doomed to fail, since an electric system under

quency and positive sequence, and return part of non-sinusoidal conditions has a theoretically inﬁnite

it back at diﬀerent frequencies and sequences. number of freedom degrees [11], and therefore its

According to the above considerations, the active state cannot be fully determined by means of a sin-

power PR, in the metering section of a three-phase gle index or quantity.

circuit can be resolved as In order to overcome this problem, new methods

X and indices have been recently proposed in the liter-

P R ¼ P Rþ1 þ P R1 þ P Rk ð8Þ ature, based on the measurement of suitable quanti-

k6¼1

ties and indices in diﬀerent metering sections of the

P Rþ1 is the active power generated by the sinusoidal, network.

balanced ideal supply. The other terms in (8) repre- In particular, a ﬁrst index has been proposed in

sent active powers delivered to the load and gener- [48,49], based on multi-point measurements of indi-

ally dissipated if the supply is distorted and/or ces (7), (9) and (10). For each line k leaving a PCC,

unbalanced, or reﬂected backward and dissipated this index can be deﬁned as

in the equivalent source impedance if the load is !

1

non-linear, time-variant and/or unbalanced. A ﬁrst 1 nslqk nHGIk gþ k

tk ¼ þ þ ð11Þ

supply- and loading-quality index can be hence de- 3 n1slq

nHGIs gþs

s

ﬁned as [45]

PR where subscript k refers to a line leaving the PCC

nslq ¼ ð9Þ and subscript s refers to the line supplying the PCC.

P Rþ1

This index is based on the consideration that, when

It can be readily checked that, when the distortion indices nHGI and g+ are evaluated for each line con-

and/or unbalance of the supply prevail over the load nected to the same PCC, the ratio of one index mea-

distorting and unbalancing eﬀects, nslq > 1. On the sured on one of the lines leaving the PCC with the

contrary, when the load distorting and/or unbalanc- same index measured on the line supplying the PCC

ing eﬀects prevail over the supply voltage distortion increases if the disturbances are injected by the load

and/or unbalance, nslq < 1. connected to the line, while it decreases if the distur-

A second power-quality index has been proposed bances are injected by the supply. The opposite

[46]: occurs when the ratio of indices nslq is considered.

126 A. Ferrero / Measurement 41 (2008) 121–129

Index (11) averages the above ratios, and is The two above approaches, based on multi-point

expected to compensate the diﬀerent reasons that measurements, have been tested by means of simu-

cause each single index to fail in assessing the lations on the IEEE industrial test system and their

responsibility for the injection of disturbances. performance have been compared in [51]. Both

When tk > 1, the load connected to line k is injecting methods provided satisfactory results, and appear

disturbances in the network. When tk < 1, line k is to deserve further, in-ﬁeld evaluation.

disturbed.

A diﬀerent approach has been proposed in [50], 4. The measurement problems

based on an estimate of a cost function v of the

eﬀects of the harmonic current components as Up to the present days, the discussion about

" # power quality in the electric systems under non-sinu-

X 2 soidal conditions has dealt mainly with the deﬁnition

v¼F ðwn I n Þ

n;n6¼1

of suitable theoretical approaches and indices.

When the practical issues of measuring the

where wn are suitable weights that depend on the deﬁned quantities and indices began to be consid-

harmonic order n and the characteristics of the ered, it was soon clear that the traditional instru-

source impedance. ments (mainly active and reactive energy meters)

In the approach proposed by [50], the considered used under sinusoidal conditions to evaluate the

cost function considers the loss on the source equiv- energy consumption, both from a quantitative and

alent impedance. In order to evaluate this loss, each ‘‘qualitative’’ point of view, were inadequate

harmonic component I sn of the current ﬂowing in [38,39]. This inadequacy involves also the traditional

the source equivalent impedance is obtained by electromagnetic current and voltage transformers, as

composing the corresponding harmonic compo- well as the capacitive voltage transformers, used in

nents of all currents drawn from the PCC. These High Voltage systems, whose bandwidth is too nar-

current components are then divided into the two row to allow a correct transduction of the distorted

subsets P and N. Subset P contains all harmonic signals.

components I þ ðkÞ;n of the current ﬂowing in load k This problem can be overcome, if the electronic

that cause an increment in current I sn , while subset transducers are used, based on zero-ﬂux current

N contains all harmonic components I ðkÞ;n of the transformers for the current transducers, and elec-

current ﬂowing in load k that cause a decrement tro-optical techniques for the voltage transducers

in current I sn . A graphical example of this classiﬁca- [52–54]. Several solutions have been proposed and

tion of the current components is reported in Fig. 3. are already commercially available.

The evaluation, for each single load k connected As far as the measurement method is concerned,

to the PCC, of the contribution given by each har- most of the newly deﬁned indices, such as (7), (9),

monic component of current to the loss in the (10) and (11), require an extensive processing of

source impedance allows to state whether that load the input signals to be determined: index (10), for

is increasing or mitigating the disturbances. instance, requires a Fourier Transform of both volt-

ages and currents, and the evaluation of the active

Im power associated with each voltage and current

component. This kind of processing can be obtained

I +(1),n only if the new, modern, DSP-based instruments are

IS,n employed.

From a mere technical point of view, this is not a

I -(2),n problem, since the available DSP-based structures

perform the Analog-to-Digital conversion and the

I +(k),n Re subsequent digital processing fast enough to allow

a real-time evaluation of all above mentioned indi-

I -( j),n ces with the required resolution. Distributed mea-

surement systems can be also implemented in a

Fig. 3. Load harmonic current components contributing to the

relatively simple way, so that the evaluation of indi-

harmonic components of the current ﬂowing in the source ces based on multi-point measurements, such as

equivalent impedance. (11), can be obtained [48].

A. Ferrero / Measurement 41 (2008) 121–129 127

The most critical problem, with the DSP-based, • The theoretical background is wide enough to

distributed systems that process complex measure- allow a good analysis of the power quality in

ment algorithms, is the uncertainty estimation. At the presence of non-sinusoidal conditions,

this stage of the research on the electric systems although a generally accepted approach for

under non-sinusoidal conditions, this is not only a describing the behaviour of the electric systems

mere metrological problem, but has also a large under non-sinusoidal conditions has not yet been

implication on the theoretical analysis. In fact, it developed.

should be always kept into account that no informa- • Several indices have been proposed to detect the

tion can be obtained about the practical utility of deviations from the reference ideal conditions

any proposed theory until the deﬁned quantities that lead to power-quality problems.

can be measured and the measurement uncertainty • The analysis of the direction of the active power

is known. In other words, the validity of any theo- components associated with the harmonic and

retical approach that is aimed at identifying a phys- sequence components of voltages and currents

ical phenomenon and providing quantitative has been proposed as the most eﬀective tool for

information about it is limited by the uncertainty the identiﬁcation of the sources producing distor-

with which the quantities employed to describe that tion and unbalance.

phenomenon can be measured. • The use of a single index was proved to be not

The reference document for expressing the uncer- suﬃcient for power-quality assessment. The most

tainty in measurement is the well known ISO Guide recent developments of the research activity are

[41]. The Guide follows a probabilistic approach to oriented towards the use of indices obtained from

uncertainty, where uncertainty itself is expressed multi-point measurements performed in diﬀerent

as a standard deviation. In the recent years, this metering sections of the electric system.

approach has been more and more questioned, since • The presently available digital instrumentation,

its application may become quite troublesome when including the new generation of electronic volt-

the uncertainty of measurement based on complex age and current transducers, is suitable for mea-

DSP algorithms has to be estimated. suring the newly deﬁned quantities and indices

Several proposals are available in the recent liter- with good accuracy and at a reasonable cost.

ature to overcome this kind of problems. Some of • The true present challenge is making the mea-

them are still based on a probabilistic approach surement uncertainty evaluation of the DSP-

[55–58], while some others are looking for diﬀerent, based instrument less troublesome than it pres-

innovative mathematical approaches, such as the ently appears if the recommendations of the

theory of evidence and the fuzzy mathematics [59– ISO Guide [41] are strictly applied.

61].

Moreover, the use of distributed measurement References

systems is also posing a number of new problems,

related to the synchronization requirements between [1] IEEE Standard 519-1992, IEEE recommended practices and

the diﬀerent remote units of the system [62]. requirements for harmonic control in electrical power systems.

All the mentioned approaches are too complex to [2] IEC 61000-3-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part

be considered in this short survey. It is however 3-2: Limits – Limits for harmonic current emissions (equip-

ment input current 6 16 A per phase), 1998.

worth while to note that the research activity in [3] IEC 61000-3-4, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part

the measurement ﬁeld is eagerly considering the 3-4: Limits – Limitation of emission of harmonic currents in

power-quality measurement problems and the char- low-voltage power supply systems for equipment with rated

acterization of the power-quality instruments as a current greater than 16 A, 1998.

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3: Limits – Section 6: Assessment of emission limits for

already been provided. distorting loads in MV and HV power systems, 1996.

[5] IEC 61000-3-3, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part

5. Conclusions 3-2: Limits – Limitation of voltage ﬂuctuations and ﬂicker in

low-voltage supply systems for equipment with rated cur-

The considerations reported in the above sections rent 6 16 A, 1994.

[6] IEC 61000-3-5, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part

allow for drawing a few conclusions about the pres- 3: Limits – Section 5: Limitation of voltage ﬂuctuations and

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power-quality monitoring. with rated current greater than 16 A, 1994.

128 A. Ferrero / Measurement 41 (2008) 121–129

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