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Volume 10, Issue 2

Encoders for Linear Motors
Did You Know...
in the Electronics Industry
… a HEIDENHAIN linear scale is a vital
Linear motors are gradually measurement component in a new
becoming more important medical imaging machine introduced
in such highly dynamic to the market just this past August?
applications with one or DMetrix, Inc., in Tucson, Arizona,
more feed axes. The benefits manufactures this high-speed medical
of this direct-drive technology scanner that is now offered for use
are low wear, low in critical digital pathology applications.
maintenance, and higher
productivity. However, this Known as the DMetrix DX-40 scanner,
increase in productivity is this new ultra-precise medical microscope
possible only if the control, slide scanner is based on DMetrix’
the motor, the machine exclusive array-microscope technology
frame, and the position which results in the ability to digitally image
encoder are optimally up to 40 slides per hour. One of the core
adjusted to one another. technologies enabling the high-speed
scanning is an innovative loader. “Our

T he semiconductor industry and automation
technology increasingly require more
precise and faster machines in order to satisfy
Direct drives place rigorous demands on the
quality of the measuring signals. Optimum
measuring signals:
slipstream™ slide loader is very unique,”
explains DMetrix’ Director of Engineering
Artur Olszak. “We have developed and
n reduce vibration in the machine frame,
growing demands on miniaturization, quality, utilize a patent-pending solution that rapidly
and manufacturing cost reduction. transports slides on a cushion of air.”
n stop excessive noise exposure from
velocity-dependent motor sounds, “The LIDA 400 linear scale from
n prevent additional heat generation, and
HEIDENHAIN Corporation is really at the
n allow the motor to realize its maximum
heart of our system,” added Olszak,
Pag “as it is used on the main scanning stage
1 Encoders for Linear Motors mechanical power rating. of the DX-40 scanner. It helps us to very
Did You Know... The efficiency of a linear motor in regard precisely control the speed and position
e to accuracy, speed stability, and heat of our transport component in this very
2 What’s New with TNC generation is therefore greatly influenced demanding closed-loop system. We chose
Infrared 3-D Touch Probe by the selection of the position encoder. to use HEIDENHAIN’s linear scale because,
Single-Field Scanning Linear Encoder frankly, it was the only scale that fulfilled
Design of direct drives our demands.”
Pag The decisive advantage of direct-drive
3 Web Site Helps with Encoder Selection
technology is the very stiff coupling of the HEIDENHAIN’s LIDA 400 scale -- with its
2005 Heidenhain Trade Show Schedule very small dimensions, grating pitch of 20
drive to the feed component without any
e microns, and generous mounting
Pag other mechanical transfer elements. This
4 Encoders for Linear Motors, cont. tolerances -- is often the ideal encoder for
allows significantly higher gain in the control
e use in applications where precise
Pag loop than with a conventional drive.
5 Encoders for Linear Motors, cont. equipment positioning in a small package is
e Velocity measurement on direct drives required.
6 Encoders for Linear Motors, cont. On direct drives there is no additional
e With a scanning head height of only 12
Pag encoder for measuring the speed. Both
7 Encoders for Linear Motors, cont. mm, the LIDA 400 can be installed in very
position and speed are measured by the
e tight spaces. And in spite of its size, the
Pag position encoder: linear encoders for linear
8 Encoders for Linear Motors, cont. very small scanning head features an
motors, angle encoders for rotating axes.
e extremely large scanning area of 14.5
Pag Since there is no mechanical transmission
9 New Catalogs mm2. This large scanning area allows the
between the speed encoder and the feed
e encoder a huge tolerance to contamination,
Pag unit, the position encoder must have a
10 HEIDENHAIN Makes Impressions correspondingly high resolution in order
at IMTS For more information circle # 2
to enable exact velocity control at slow on the reader service card.
traversing speeds.
continued on page 4

n circles.NC and the plain 3-D touch probes are ideal for quick language editor access the same file: the plain language program! and exact workpiece alignment as SmarT. higher traversing speeds. This new interface for machines that carry out repeated setup and inspection enables users to create executable NC programs faster. and more conveniently than ever before. and planes.The TS 440 In addition to G Code and classic conversational programming The newest addition to HEIDENHAIN’s recently improved 3-D for TNCs. HEIDENHAIN Corporation is now offering smarT. studs. 49 mm x 63 mm. programming system and in conjunction with HEIDENHAIN’s guides the user in a self.NC was shown for the first time in North America on HEIDENHAIN’s The TS 440 is offered in as small a size as iTNC 530 controls at the IMTS show in September. it is ideal for linear motor and machine tool applications. increased natural frequency and a variety of absolute output formats. touch trigger probes is the compact TS 440 model. Because of over the entire measuring length. This operating panel comprises a touch pad as well as circular pockets. Its features are similar to This exciting new HEIDENHAIN’s TS 640 Trigger Probe. resolution of its new design. safely. n For more information circle # 3 For more information circle # 4 on the reader service card. slots. This procedure is possible because both smarT. for any position of the machine’s example. interface.NC. making whose spindles move in two separate this a very unique system.NC is a simple all-in-one system as it also enables program well as for automated workpiece verification and execution. 2 .NC.NC since it makes it measure and determine common geometries possible to conveniently use the advantages of this new user such as bore holes. redesigned LC 400 absolute sealed linear The LC 400 also boasts constant signal quality encoder with Single-Field Scanning. this encoder is poised to offer up to 10 nm and with it’s maximum traversing many advantages over other encoders. SmarT. working spaces.NC is so probes. bolt hole three new keys for comfortable operation of the smarT. the SE 540. more procedures and have limited working space. it can be edited working space and is an advantage as before with the plain with very large machines and those language editor. way through the complete NC programming tasks by HEIDENHAIN also offers another new using straightforward transceiver for the infrared touch forms. on the reader service card. can be used on the iTNC explanatory and intuitive 530 control and higher.NC HEIDENHAIN’s New Compact User Interface from HEIDENHAIN Infrared 3-D Touch Probe . For more information circle # 5 on the reader service card. What’s New with TNC Infrared 3-D Touch Probe Introducing the New SmarT. n its increased resistance to contamination. transceivers. It is designed user-friendly that the user for installation in the headstock can decide whether to use providing the advantage of it or the plain language moving along with the touch level at any time. CNC controls – especially the TNC controls from HEIDENHAIN – offer HEIDENHAIN’s new TE 530B operating panel is highly numerous measuring cycles to automatically recommended for the use with smarT. simpler. This system has an integrated pattern measurement on the machine. This ensures a reliable program has been created transmission of infrared signals at with smarT. Even if a probe. Single-Field Scanning Linear Encoder Single-Field Scanning Linear Encoder This compact LC 400 incorporates a new single- Offers Increased Resistance to field scanning technology (versus a previous Contamination four-field scanning method) that utilizes a much Now available to the North American larger single scanning window thereby marketplace is HEIDENHAIN Corporation’s mitigating the effects of contamination. such as speed of up to 180 m/min.NC. rectangular pockets. Its extremely a brand new user interface for TNCs intended for use by both the small dimensions make the infrared TS 440 the ideal touch probe NC beginner and the conversational expert. Most generator as well. SmarT. and offers 360 degrees transmission.

heidenhain. .(Back End) . as well as take a look at the largest list of . including the availability of its interactive selection guide for rotary encoders.(Front End) . Illinois n SPS Electric Automation American May 24-26 Rosemont Convention Center www. California For more information circle # 6 on the reader service card.West Sign on and let us help you meet your measurement needs! n San Francisco.Moscone Center . 2005 HEIDENHAIN Featured here.Web Site Helps with Encoder Selection The HEIDENHAIN web site (www.heidenhain. California n Quality Show April 19-21 Rosemont Convention Center is of much assistance to its visitors every day. Illinois n SEMICON Click onto this site to obtain much more information on measurement July 12-14 components and systems. you have the opportunity to visit with HEIDENHAIN at many trade shows each year. 3 .Moscone Center . Though the schedule is still developing. SCHEDULE As always. 2005 being no exception.htm Rosemont.South HEIDENHAIN expects to exhibit at the following next year: n Medical Design & Manufacturing Show - Electronics West January 10-12 Anaheim Convention Center Anaheim. California n The National Design Show March 7-10 McCormick Place .North related products available in the industry today. this Rotary Encoder Selection Guide enables its users to insert required rotary encoder specifics and come up with options TRADE SHOW to complete the job. Illinois n WESTEC April 4-7 Los Angeles Convention Center Los Angeles. California n APEX February 22-24 Anaheim Convention Center Anaheim.

The combination of significantly higher control loop gain. The path information is transformed in the encoder into two sinusoidal signals with 90° phase shift. the interpolation errors of the same encoder are increased through poor adjustment.” On high-quality encoders. meaning that the control Heat generation of a linear motor controlled using an encoder: bandwidth is maintained. the feed drive can no longer follow the error curve. and insufficient signal processing can lead to a deviation from the ideal sinusoidal shape. This type of position error within one signal period is referred to as “interpolation error. However. Dynamic behavior Digital filters are often used with direct drives to smooth the position signals. and insufficient encoder signal quality can result in a dramatic decline in drive performance. during interpolation periodic position error occurs within one signal period of the encoder’s output signals. As a consequence. The LIDA linear encoder used here generates only barely noticeable disturbances in the motor current: the motor Motor current of a direct drive with position encoder operates normally and develops little heat. A comparison of the effects of linear encoders with low and high interpolation error on a linear motor illustrates the significance of high-quality position signals. otherwise the dynamic accuracy decreases. as is used particularly with direct drives. A: With low interpolation error B: With high interpolation error 4 . contamination of the measuring standard. This method – which is also applied to conventional axes – represents a numerical differentiation that amplifies periodic disturbances or noise in the signal. Position encoders with optimum signal quality help A B to reduce the use of filters. Effects of interpolation error: Generation of heat and noise If the frequency of the interpolation error increases. This causes an increased amount of noise and heat generated in the motor. the loss of phase-association by filtering in the speed-control loop must be kept to a minimum. However. or an absolute method of position measurement. Signal quality of position encoders Modern encoders feature either an incremental. the current components generated by the interpolation error cause increased motor noises and additional heating of the motor. Both methods require that the sinusoidal scanning signals be interpolated in order to attain a sufficiently high resolution. it is typically 1% to 2% Position error within one signal period of the signal period. significant noise arises in the motor current. Inadequate scanning. which means counting. Encoders continued from cover The velocity is calculated from the distance traversed per unit of time. A: With low interpolation error B: With high interpolation error If at the same controller setting.

Encoders with optical scanning therefore play a significant role in exploiting the potential of direct drives. In the DIADUR process. In this way. Exact graduations HEIDENHAIN encoders with optical scanning incorporate measuring standards of periodic structures known as graduations. or – for large measuring lengths – steel strips. steel. or water particles to accumulate. hard chrome layer is applied to produce a grating. They are characterized by high-edge definition and excellent homogeneity – a fundamental prerequisite for low interpolation error. Durable measuring standards By the nature of its design. the measuring standards of exposed DIADUR phase grating with approx. and therefore for smooth operating performance and high-control loop gain. Encoders that use photoelectric scanning are ideally suited for this task. dirt. a transparent layer is applied first over the reflective primary layer. The substrate material is glass. In the SUPRADUR process. These fine graduations – graduation periods from 40 µm to under 1µm are typical – are manufactured in a photolithographic process. since very fine graduations can be scanned by this method.25 µm grating height HEIDENHAIN therefore always uses tough gratings manufactured in special processes. SUPRADUR process: Optical three-dimensional graduation structure 5 . Position encoders for direct drives Linear encoders that generate a high-quality position signal with low interpolation errors are essential for optimal operation of direct drives in the electronics industry. The AURODUR process applies gold to a steel strip to produce a scale tape with hard gold graduation. HEIDENHAIN production technologies ensure an enduringly high signal quality that promotes the use of direct drives for particularly demanding applications. 0. Then an extremely thin. Scales with SUPRADUR graduations have proven to be particularly insensitive to contamination because the low height of the structure leaves practically no surface for dust. linear encoders are less protected from their environment. hard chrome structures are applied to a glass or steel carrier.

reduce control quality. and increase heat generation. This is the prerequisite for: n Low signal noise n Low interpolation error n High traversing speed n Good control loop performance for direct drives n Low heat generation of the motor Photoelectric scanning in accordance with the imaging principle with steel scale Signal generation based on the imaging tape and single-field scanning (LIDA 400) measuring principle (LIDA 400) To put it simply. An index grating with the same grating period is located here. Ideal output signals appear as a concentric inner circle. deviations from the circular form cause acoustic noise. The carrier material of the scanning reticle is transparent. the signals form a Lissajous figure. the imaging scanning principle functions by means of projected light signal generation: two scale gratings with equal grating periods are moved relative to each other – the scale and the scanning reticle. The size of the circle. whereas the graduation on the measuring standard may be applied to a transparent or reflective surface. which corresponds with the amplitude of the output signal. An especially beneficial feature is the single-field scanning with which the exposed linear encoders from HEIDENHAIN operate: The output signals are generated from only one scanning field. When the two gratings move in relation to each other. Optimized scanning methods The scanning method and the high quality of the grating share responsibility for low interpolation error. and the special optical filtering through the structure of the scanning reticle and photosensor. The specially structured grating of the scanning reticle filters the light current to generate nearly sinusoidal output signals. can vary within certain limits without influencing the measuring accuracy. generate scanning signals with constant signal quality over the entire range of traverse. no light passes through. Photocells convert these variations in light intensity into electrical signals. light passes through. 6 . In the XY representation on an oscilloscope. On direct drives. Deviations in circular form and position are caused by position error within one signal period and therefore go directly into the result of measurement. the incident light is modulated: if the gaps are aligned. If the lines of one grating coincide with the gaps of the other. This large scanning field. light and dark surfaces are projected at a certain distance. When parallel light passes through a grating.

This is particularly clear with the LIDA 400 and LIF 400. because they can operate without their own housing.. but not in their offset and phase position. An essential prerequisite for optical encoders with low sensitivity to contamination is therefore an optimized scanning method. the encoders continue to provide high-quality signals. which in relation to the grating period have a very large scanning surface of 14.5 mm2. Such requirements call specifically for exposed measuring systems that operate without friction and. In many cases this can prevent encoder failure. Exposed linear encoders from HEIDENHAIN operate with single-field scanning. Even with contamination with 3mm diameter. The position error Reaction of the LIF 400 to contamination remains far below the values specified for the accuracy grade of the scale. fingerprints from mounting or oil accumulation from guideways) influences the light intensity of the signal components. and the contamination-tolerant graduation. The large scanning field additionally reduces sensitivity to contamination. Within the mounting tolerances. This behavior is substantially responsible for the high reliability of exposed linear encoders from HEIDENHAIN. Only one scanning field is used to generate the scanning signals. Application-oriented mounting tolerances Very small signal periods usually come with very narrow distance tolerances between the scanning head and scale tape. Thanks to the interferential scanning principle of the LIF 400 and innovative index gratings in the LIF 400. the large scanning field. and therefore of the scanning signals. They stay highly interpolable. Special scanning methods and production techniques are used to provide tough protection against contamination even without sealing the encoder. changes in the signal amplitude remain negligible. can be designed to be very small and therefore low in mass. and the interpolation error remains small. The output signals do change in their amplitude. Local contamination on the measuring standard (e. 7 .g. Lower sensitivity to contamination Production facilities and handling devices for the semiconductor industry demand high acceleration and compact designs. it has become possible to provide ample mounting tolerances in spite of the small signal periods. in equal measure. therefore.

LIP Á and LIDA  series particularly for linear motors. and are fast and simple to mount. HEIDENHAIN position encoders for direct drives (selection): Maximum values of interpolation error with respect to the signal period Linear encoders for linear motors Exposed linear encoders from À HEIDENHAIN are optimized for use on fast. n  For more information circle # 1 on the reader service card. Their low weight and compact design suit encoders of the LIF À . ensure high long-term stability. precise machines as sought by the semiconductor industry and automation technology. In spite of the exposed mechanical design they are Á highly tolerant to contamination. 8 .

IL 60173 Phone: 847/490-1191 FAX: 847/490-3931 VOLUME 10.IS INTERESTED IN YOUR FEEDBACK Your comments about topics addressed in this issue and topics you’d like to see in future issues: Name Company Title Address City State Zip Phone ( ) FAX ( ) E-mail o Please add me to your mailing list. ISSUE 2 ©2004 HEIDENHAIN CORPORATION IS INTERESTED IN YOUR FEEDBACK Your comments about topics addressed in this issue and topics you’d like to see in future issues: Name Company Title Address City State Zip Phone ( ) FAX ( ) E-mail o Please add me to your mailing list. State Parkway. circle the appropriate number. (Provide address above) Please send me HEIDENHAIN’s most current catalog. (Provide address above) Please send me HEIDENHAIN’s most current catalog. o General o NC Linear o Digital Readout o METRO/CERTO Gauges o Measurement Inspection o Angular Rotary o Incremental Rotary o Absolute Rotary o Contouring Controls o Point-to-Point Controls o Servo Drive For further information. ISSUE 2 ©2004 HEIDENHAIN CORPORATION . Article #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 333 E. o General o NC Linear o Digital Readout o METRO/CERTO Gauges o Measurement Inspection o Angular Rotary o Incremental Rotary o Absolute Rotary o Contouring Controls o Point-to-Point Controls o Servo Drive For further information. IL 60173 Phone: 847/490-1191 FAX: 847/490-3931 VOLUME 10. Schaumburg. Article #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 333 E. circle the appropriate number. State Parkway. Schaumburg.


such as in rotary tables and swivel heads on machine tools. The descriptions of the technical features contain fundamental information on the use of rotary. spectrometers. For more information circle # 7 on the reader service card. and telescopes. These angle encoders. and linear encoders on electric drives. The catalog details the features and specifications for the machine manufacturer. This TNC features a fast and extremely powerful processor architecture. and boring machines and machining centers. and electrical connection information. Position Encoders for Servo Drives HEIDENHAIN’s position encoders for servo drives are extensively detailed in this catalog.New Catalogs Available Angle Encoders This latest catalog gives an overview of all of HEIDENHAIN’s angle encoders described as encoders that have an accuracy of better than ± 5” and a line count of at least 10. this catalog details the iTNC 530. which are available in both incremental and absolute output formats and come in a wide variety of mechanical configurations. C-axes on lathes. drilling. 9 . specifications.000. ITNC 530 Contouring Control Showcasing the newest TNC from HEIDENHAIN. technical features and mounting information. are typically found in applications requiring precision angular measurement to accuracies within several arc seconds. For more information circle # 9 on the reader service card. a versatile contouring control for milling. angular. measuring machines for gears. For more information circle # 8 on the reader service card. Details include selection tables.

HEIDENHAIN’s first display at the IMTS booth “Accuracy of Feed Drives” Display demonstrated the difference in drive performance associated with different measuring technologies (“Angle Encoders for Rotary Tables”). Here. HEIDENHAIN CORPORATION 333 E. The motion of the table and audible drive tuning deviations then clearly demonstrated how resolution. and absolute. Schaumburg. HEIDENHAIN Makes Impressions at IMTS During IMTS (the International Manufacturing Technology Show) this past September. These motion control displays had been developed recently by HEIDENHAIN’s Research & Development department in Germany in order to demonstrate the thermal effects on motion and signal quality for speed control. Here a rotary table fixture display was equipped with three different types of angle encoders to measure position and speed: magnetic. incremental. and the benefits and drawbacks of each type of measuring system. signal quality. a linear (HEIDENHAIN’s current single-field scanning technology for the LC scales) versus traditional rotary encoder/ ballscrew system was used to capture position. Both of these displays were based on technical white “Angle Encoders for Rotary Tables” Display papers available to anyone for the .” It was exciting to see these papers come to life at IMTS. including resistance to contamination. IL 60173 www. Tables” while the latter is titled “Accuracy of Feed Drives. always important considerations in any machining process. This year. HEIDENHAIN was once again on hand to talk with the many attendees who came to this world-renowned machine tool show that is held in Chicago on every even year. The second display highlighted the linear versus rotary argument (“Accuracy of Feed Drives”).heidenhain. and the advantage. State Parkway. of linear encoder systems. The title of the paper of the first display is “Angle Encoders for Rotary For more information circle # 10 on the reader service card. and interpolation contribute to the stability of servo loop. This display clearly demonstrated where drift error due to thermal effects often takes place with a rotary system. Their availability and actions at IMTS were often the subject of conversation by the viewers who are involved with designing or utilizing machine tools. HEIDENHAIN also highlighted two large motion control displays at the booth. besides showcasing the very newest in precision measurement components and systems.