(UNGS 2030)

The Meaning of Worldview


© Department of General Studies, 2007


Worldview Defined:
• ‘Worldview’ is an English translation of the German term “Weltanschauung”. • It is rendered in Arabic as “Ru’yat al-Islam li al-wujud”, (‫)ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻟﻠﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ • A set of attitudes on a wide range of fundamental matters. • A comprehensive set of propositions about various aspects of the world. • A unified and comprehensive view of the world around us and man’s place within it.
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Worldview Structures & Development

• Basic assumptions and images that provide a more or less coherent, though not necessarily accurate, way of thinking about the world. • A worldview is a profile of the way the people within a specified culture live, act, think, work and relate. It is a “map” or culture’s social, religious, economic and political views and relationships

Abstract thought


Scientific conceptual scheme KnowledgeStructure

Conception of society

Political Dealings


Life-Structure Legal Dealings

Value-Structure Morality


Culture: religion, language, environment, etc.

Technology, Psychology, experience, etc.


IMPACT OF WORLDVIEWS 3. Helps us to correct our own values, perspectives, attitudes and behaviours 4. Helps us to formulate theories of politics, sociology, culture, etc.

1. Helps to know peoples and cultures comprehensively 2. Helps us to interact with nature, individuals, peoples, nations, cultures and civilizations


Fundamental Questions addressed by worldview
• A worldview encapsulates answers regarding broad questions of "life understanding." These questions are lifetime concerns and sources of anxiety. They involve fundamental matters, expressed in the form of queries. Here are some examples of ongoing human concerns:

• How far out does the universe go? Did it have a beginning and will it have an end? • How was it that we humans came about here on earth? • Does life have a purpose? If it does, what can give meaning to my life? • Does my daily conduct matter in the long run? • What happens to me at my death? • Existing and Conception of God? • What is good and what is bad? How can I know the good and the bad? • How should I be treating others? • How can I know?

Worldview as Basic/Abstract
Worldview formulated by prophets (revelation), great philosophers and scientists Philosophy of IIUM

Worldview interpreted and applied by intellectuals, scholars, scientists, physicians, etc.


Interpreted and applied by lecturers & staffs

Worldview received applied by ordinary people

• Worldview influences all aspects of life • Some worldviews such as Islam cover all aspects of life including the personal, social, economic, political, cultural, civilization besides dealing with spiritual, moral, and Aqidah issues. • But there are other worldviews which focus only on spiritual, material, social, or economic aspects of human life. • Any worldview should be able to answer the ultimate questions not necessary correct answers but at least consistent
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Learned and applied by students

The Definition of Islamic worldview
• “ a metaphysical survey of the visible as well as the invisible worlds including the perspective of life as a whole”. Al-Attas in “Islam and the
Challenge of Modernity, p. 27. • Islamic worldview encompasses the issues of universe, creator, prophethood, society, man, and hereafter.

• It is not a worldview that is formed merely by amalgamation or historical concoction of various cultural values. Rather, it is a well established framework derived from the revelation and interpreted by Muslim scholars throughout Islamic history


• This frame of reference provides us with correct and consistent answers to the ultimate questions pertinent to the issues of God, unseen, man, universe, and life. It also guides man as a vicegerent of Allah to the correct belief system, shari‘ah, and ethical values.

• The worldview of Islam encompasses both al-dunia ( ‫ ) اﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬and al-akhirah ( ‫ ) اﻵﺧﺮة‬in which the dunia aspect must be inextricably linked to the akhirah aspect, and in which the akhirah aspect has ultimate and final significance.



The Main Elements of Islamic worldview
• • • • • • • The Conception: of God; of Revelation (i.e. the Qur’an); of God’s Creation; of man and the psychology of human soul; of knowledge; of religion

• of freedom; • of values and virtues; • And of happiness. Al-Attas, . Ibid, 29


The Objectives of Islamic worldview
• To provide the Muslims with the true knowledge and explanation about the world seen and unseen as they are explained in the Qura'n. • To teach people the way and method how to achieve the main values of Islam in human life. • To establish the fundamental ethical precepts, such as justice, freedom, trust, and dignity of human life and existence.



Western Perception of Worldview
• Most of the western perceptions of worldview rely more on our existing reality, experience and life. They don’t give much consideration to the issues related to the unseen world and hereafter. • Most of the western perceptions of worldview consider it as assumption, but this is not true from an Islamic perspective because in Islam, we consider it as a system and truth derived from revelation.

• Most of the western perceptions of worldview consider it as a product of culture and experience. According to them, religion itself is produced by people and culture. • In the Muslim perspective, Islam or Islamic worldview is not a cultural product of Arab, Indian, or Malay. It is rather derived from the revealed word of God without corruption and change. This revelation is then understood by Muslims through their different cultural backgrounds and experiences.



• worldview of Islam comprises both aldunya and al-Akhirah aspects, in which the dunya-aspect must be related profoundly to the Akhirah-aspect, and in which the Akhirah-aspect has ultimate and final significance. • On the basis of this epistemological and anthological premise, Al-Attas defines the Islamic worldview as follows:

• worldview is: the vision of reality and truth that appears before our mind’s eye revealing what existence is all about; for it is the world of existence in its totality that Islam is projecting…The Islamic view of reality and truth, which is a: metaphysical survey of the visible and invisible worlds including the perspective of life as a whole, is not a worldview that is formed merely by the gathering together of various cultural objects, values and phenomena into artificial coherence

• Nor is it one that is formed gradually through a historical process of philosophical speculation and scientific discovery, which must of necessity be left vague and open-ended for future change and alteration in line with paradigms that change in correspondence with changing circumstances. • It is not a worldview that undergoes a dialectical process of transformation repeated through the ages, from thesis to anti-thesis then synthesis
Revealed and preserved

Classification of Worldview



Revealed but Interpolated

Not revealed but Based ob human wisdom








Another classification

Religious worldview
• There is a universal spirit, god, deity or divine entity • This divinity has established an eternal moral order that, in part at least, can be known to human beings • People have the duty to follow eternal moral dictates • This human conduct has long-term (beyond individual death) significance.
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Philosophical worldview

Religious worldview

Scientific worldview

Characteristics of Religious Worldview
• The Religious worldview considers both the world of seen and unseen. It is comprehensive in its perception of the world. It does not undermine any dimension of reality and existence • Its basis is on the scripture or ‘sacred’, revealed or non-revealed text.

• It is more stable than the scientific and philosophical worldview, in terms of having certain and unchangeable principles of belief system and ethical system. • The Religious worldview in general imparts to our life the sense of responsibility, meaning, and purpose. This means that life and the existence has a meaning and a purpose. Therefore, it makes our life as a responsibility towards God, and towards other people.


Modernity as paradigm shift from religious worldviews to secular worldviews
• Philosophers call the 17th century the "Age of Reason" when the likes of Sir Francis Bacon, Pascal, Hobbes, Galileo, Descartes and Spinoza injected into the thought patterns of humanity the idea that human beings were rational and lived in a rational world which had been created by a rational God. Because God, creation and people were rational, humans could figure things out - answers would come from scientific inquiry and research. • The 18th century is popularly called the "Age of Enlightenment" (a somewhat loaded term). Locke, Berkeley, Voltaire, Hume and others proposed ideas which led people to believe that the rational universe could be understood without reference to a supernatural God. Soon, the authority of the Bible, especially its supernatural parts, was under attack as theologians sought to "demythologize" scripture.

• Kant, John Stewart Mill, Nietzsche, Marx, Hegel and Kierkegaard ushered in the so-called "Age of Ideology", also called "existentialism", in the 19th century. Frederick Nietzsche cynically remarked that the only reason the poor and disenfranchised want justice is so that they seize political power, and the only reason the powerful teach toleration and benevolence is to keep the disenfranchised under their control. In both cases, the motive is selfish. To Nietzsche, it was all about power - everyone is seeking to either gain or keep power over others. Because Jesus taught of love and forgiveness, Nietzsche called Him "the pale enemy". (Nietzsche died in an asylum after 10 years of syphilis- 32 induced insanity.)

• Sigmund Freud taught that religion was merely the unconscious projection of a humanity trying to rid itself of guilt-induced neurosis. Karl Marx believed that religion was a tool used by the powerful to bludgeon the proletariat into continued submission. And Charles Darwin presented a seemingly reasonable alternative to special creation.

• 20th century philosophers like Sartre, James and Russell, continued the path set by their predecessors, stretching existentialism into the "Age of Analysis". The belief that life is absurd and cannot be understood was gradually replaced by the desire to analyze, delve into the mystery which is man and develop individualistic philosophies which are relative to each person, rather than universally applicable. • These influences combined to form the modern view that religion is an unnecessary evil. Religion has been used by the up and in to oppress the down and out, and, if our existence can be explained without it, why do we need it? 34

Philosophical worldview
• It derives from philosophy and it means to deal with fundamental questions of life here and hereafter. • It uses logical reasoning, deduction, induction , mathematic and speculation. • The Philosophical worldview is more wider in its scope than the scientific worldview. It deals with issues of philosophical and metaphysical world. • It attempts to give a meaning to creation and life. It does not have the exactness of sciences but it instills in ourselves a sense and meaning. • Its results and findings are not precise and measurable like scientific worldview’s but they open new ways for human beings to think beyond their physical world.



Main Characteristic
• It is more comprehensive than the scientific worldview, because it deals with physical and metaphysical realties. • If scientific worldview deals only with certain part of the universe, the Philosophical worldview deals with the entire existence and the universe.

• Materialism is a theory that physical matter is the only or fundamental reality and that all beings and processes and phenomena can be explained as manifestations or results of matter. • Materialism excludes the existence of entities that are radically different from or superior to the matter of our ordinary experience. • In materialistic worldview, only matter matters. Everything that is not physical and material is not accepted.

• It rejects, therefore, the existence of God or gods on whom the universe would depend for its existence or mode of operation; it denies the existence of angels or spirit; it questions the notion of a soul, if taken to be immaterial entity separable, in principle, from the human body.

• Its two main targets are therefore theism and dualistic views of human nature. • It negates the existence of all that doesn’t fall within the framework of change and transformation and is not perceivable by sense organs



• All knowledge of the world and of society must be based on sense experience and ultimately on science. • Like positivism, materialism lays stress on science as the only legitimate source of knowledge about the causalities of the world

• It is a trend to shift modern paradigm to a new paradigm which is called postmodernism. • Belief that individuals are merely constructs of social forces, that there is no transcendent truth that can be known; a rejection of any one worldview or explanation of reality as well as a rejection of the reality of objective truth.


• A view which, for example, stresses the priority of the social to the individual; which rejects the universalizing tendencies of philosophy; which prizes irony over knowledge; and which gives the irrational equal footing with the rational in our decision procedures all fall under the postmodern umbrella.

• A cultural and intellectual trend of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries characterized by emphasis on the ideas of the decenteredness of meaning, the value and autonomy of the local and the particular, the infinite possibilities of the human existence, and the coexistence.


Seven principles and characteristics of postmodernism
• Postmodernism claims to address the sense of despair and fragmentation of modernism through its efforts at reconfiguring the broken pieces of the modern world into a multiplicity of new social, political, and cultural arrangements
1. No absolute truth, truth is relative, contingency is everything. The ONLY ABSOLUTE TRUTH is that there are NO ABSOLUTE TRUTHS (Feyerabend) 2. No reality: there is no ultimate reality behind things: we see largely what want to see, what our position in time and place allows us to see… 3. Only Simulacrum: Imagination and speculation 4. Meaningless and valueless.



5. Total Doubt 6. Multiplicities of truth, ethnicities, cultures … 7. Equal representation for class gender sexual orientation
• The English word secular derives from the Latin word saeculum, meaning “this present age”, “this world” of change as opposed to the eternal “religious world”. • It is defined as “the liberation of man from religious and metaphysical tutelage, the turning of his attention away from other worlds and towards this one.”


Components of secularization
• Disenchantment of nature
– freeing of nature from its religious overtones. Nature is not a divine entity. – This provides an absolute condition for the development of natural science. However highly developed a culture’s powers of observation, however refined its equipment for measuring, no real scientific breakthrough is possible until man can face the natural world unafraid.

• Desacralization of politics
– No one rules by divine right. – Significant political and social change is almost impossible in societies in which the ruling regime is directly legitimated by religious symbols.



Scientific worldview
• Deconsecration (relativization) of values
– The disappearance of securely grounded values – There are no longer the direct expression of the divine will. – They have ceased to be values and have become valuations

• It is based on the premises and findings of science, • Science is the source of all explanations pertaining to the issues of creation, life, men, and other issues • Based on 4 important foundations:
– Materialism, logical positivism, empiricism, skepticism


The main steps of scientific method
• Identify the problem or question through observation • Propose hypotheses and assumptions that should explain the problem posed • Collect data and information • Test the hypotheses. If any of hypotheses are wrong reject it, or modify it, or replace it until you get the correct one.

If your hypotheses are correct. You accept and provide a full explanation of the problem. Repeat the test in similar situations and if the result is the same, then you may proceed to construct a scientific theory. The latter provides a consistent and rational explanation of the phenomenon or the problem. If this scientific theory stands and resists many tests, then it becomes scientific law. The fact usually remains intact for long period of time but they can be questioned with development of human understanding and the new data and tool of research. And once a fact is questioned the process of research takes the same course as mentioned above.



Positive and Negative Aspects of Scientific Method
• Because it is based on experiment and empirical research, its findings are more exact and authentic and they can be verified through using statistic, mathematics, and measurement. • However, these exact results only apply to a certain part of our existence, the physical world. The scientific worldview cannot give us exact and authentic knowledge or interpretation of the metaphysical world.

• Therefore, the scientific worldview is not capable of providing comprehensive and consistent explanation of the entire world. • The Scientific worldview is very important, because it allows human reason to exercise its ability and to produce knowledge in many fields.


• The Scientific worldview also allows man to discover many laws and pattern of God in the universe. • However, the scientific worldview passes its limitation when it gives human senses and reason a role beyond their capacities. In scientific worldview, Aql and senses become the only source of knowledge that can be accepted; any other source including revelation cannot be accepted.

• Scientific worldview allowed the human mind to produce industries, sciences and technologies. It opened many ways for human mind to exploit nature and discover its laws.


• However, the scientific worldview failed to protect man and nature from destruction. One of the main reasons of this attitude of scientific worldview is because it undermines the moral, ethical, and religious factors. • According to the scientific worldview, the only sources of knowledge are reason, experiment, nature, senses, and human experience. It does not consider revealed knowledge as a source of knowledge that can provide guidance to people and answer their questions. In this sense, the scientific worldview was unable to discover the sense and role of morality in human life.

The place of man in the mechanistic-materialistic view is clearly portrayed by Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) in the 1903: The philosophy of nature is one thing, the philosophy of value is quite another….Undoubtedly we are part of nature, which has produced our desires, our hopes and fears, in accordance with laws which the physicist is beginning to discover. In this sense we are part of nature, we are subordinated to nature, the outcome of natural laws, and their victims in the long run… But in the philosophy of values the situation is reversed… We are ourselves the ultimate and irrefutable arbiters of values and in the world of value Nature is only a part…In this realm we are the kings, and we debase our kingship if we bow down to Nature. It is for us to determine the good life, not for nature – not even for Nature personified as God.


General Overview of Islam and Its main Characteristics
• Therefore, the scientific worldview failed to give meaning to life and existence. It only gives power of controlling nature, but it lacks the sense of meaning to our life. Therefore, the scientific worldview should adopt new approaches which involve values, moralities, and ethics in the process of scientific research.
• Islam: Salm or Silm, from which Islam derives its root, means submission, surrender, safety/protection and peace. • As a religion, Islam stands for “complete submission and obedience to Allah”. It is the religion of Allah (S.W.T) which is revealed to mankind. • It was so named by God. ”‫ﻴ ﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻼﻡ‬‫ﻴﺕ ﻟﻜﻡ ﺍﻹﺴ‬ ‫ﻲ ﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﻜﻡ ﻭﺃﺘﻤﻤﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻡ ﻨﻌﻤ‬ ‫“ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺃﻜﻤﻠﺕ ﻟﻜﻡ‬ ‫ ﺩ ﻨ‬ ِ  ‫ﻀ ﹸ ﹶ ﹸ‬  ‫ﺘ‬    ‫ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬  ‫َ ﹾ‬  ‫ ﺩ ﹶ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﹾ ﹸ ﹶ ﹸ‬ ‫ َ ﹾ‬   “This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed my favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.”(5: 3)


Yet islam as a total submission has been the name of religions brought by early God’s messengers.


Four Meanings of Islam ‫اﻹﺳﻼم‬
• There are four basic meanings for the word islam (as submission), moving from the broadest to the narrowest: 1. The submission of the whole of creation to its Creator: "‫ﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻭﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻴﺭﺠ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻭﻜﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻁﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻴﺒ ﹸﻭﻥ ﻭﻟﻪ ﺃﺴﻠﻡ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫"ﺃﻓﻐﻴﺭ‬  ‫ﻌ‬     ‫ِ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻫ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻋ‬ ‫ ﹺ ﹶ‬ َ ‫ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻤ ﻭ‬ ‫ ﻓ‬   ‫ﹶ‬ َ  ‫ ﹶ‬  ‫ﻐ‬   ‫ ﺩ ﹺ ﱠ‬  ‫َ ﹶ ﹶ‬ “Do they seek for other than the religion of Allah? while all creatures in the heavens and on earth have, willing or unwilling, bowed to his will (accepted Islam), and to him shall they all be brought back.” (3: 83) 2. The submission of human beings to the guidance of God as revealed through the prophets (3:85; “‫ﻲ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ ﹶﺎﺴ ﹺﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ ﹰﺎ ﻓ ﹶﻥ ﻴﻘﺒل ﻤﻨﻪ ﻭﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻼﻡ‬‫ﻥ ﻴﺒﺘﻎ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﺴ‬ ‫"ﻭ‬  ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ ﺨ‬     ‫ ﻓ‬    ‫ ﹾ‬ َ  ‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ ِ ﹺ ﺩ ﻨ ﹶﻠ‬  ‫ ﹶ ﹺ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﻤ‬ “If anyone desires a religion other than Islam (submission to Allah), never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spiritual good).” (3: 85)

3. The submission of human beings to the guidance of God as revealed through the prophet Muhammad: “‫ﻴ ﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻼﻡ‬‫ﻴﺕ ﻟﻜﻡ ﺍﻹﺴ‬ ‫ﻲ ﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻨﻜﻡ ﻭﺃﺘﻤﻤﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻡ ﻨﻌﻤ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺃﻜﻤﻠﺕ ﻟﻜﻡ‬ ‫ ﺩ ﻨ‬ ِ  ‫ﻀ ﹸ ﹶ ﹸ‬  ‫ﺘ‬    ‫ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬  ‫َ ﹾ‬  ‫ ﺩ ﹶ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﹾ ﹸ ﹶ ﹸ‬ ‫ َ ﹾ‬   “This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed my favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.” (5: 3) 4. The submission of the followers of Prophet Muhammad to God’s practical instructions. Only the third of these can properly be translated as Islam with an uppercase Islam


Islam also means ‘peace’ and this signifies that one can achieve real peace of body and of mind only through submission and obedience to Allah. Such life of obedience brings in peace of the heart and established real peace in the society at large. • Every Muslim has to utter this word at least 5 times a day at the end of each of the five daily prayers. • Always every Muslim salutes one another with: al-Salamu ‘alaykum, meaning ‘peace be unto you. • Not only in this world would the Muslim exchange this salutation but also in the hereafter “and ‘Peace’ will be their greeting therein” “‫ﺎﻟﻤﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺩ ﻟﻠﻪ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺁﺨﺭ ﺩﻋ‬ ‫ﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ ﻭﺘﺤﻴﺘﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺎﻨﻙ ﺍﻟﱠﻬ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺴﺒ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﻡ‬ ‫"ﺩﻋ‬   ‫ ﱢ ﻌ ﹶ‬  ‫ ِﱠ‬   ‫ َ ﹺ‬  ‫ﻭ‬    ‫ ﻓ ﻬ ﺴ ٌ ﻭ‬  ‫ ﹸ‬  ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ ﻠ‬ ‫ﺤ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﻓ ﻬ‬  ‫ﻭ‬  “(This will be) their cry therein: "Glory to thee, O Allah!" And "Peace" will be their greeting therein! And the close of their cry will be: "Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds!" (10:10) • Allah (swt) calls into the abode of Peace. "‫ﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻁ ﻤﺴﺘ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻴ ﹶﺎﺀ ﺇ ﹶﻰ ﺼ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﻼﻡ ﻭﻴﻬ‬ ‫ﺍﺭ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺇ ﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱠﻪ ﻴﺩ‬ " ‫ ﹶﻘ ﹴ‬  ٍ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ ِﻟ‬ ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ﺩ ﻤ‬   ‫ﻋ ِﻟ ﺩ ﹺ ﺴ ﹺ‬   ‫ﻭ ﻠ‬ “But Allah doth call to the home of peace: he doth guide whom he pleaseth to a way that is straight.” (10: 25)

• Paradise is nothing but the abode of peace: "‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﻼ‬‫ﺎ ﺇﻻ ﻗﻴ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﺄ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻟﻐ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻭﻥ‬ ‫"ﻻ ﻴﺴﻤ‬ ‫ ﺴ ﻤ ﺴ ﻤ‬ ‫ ﻓ ﻬ ﹶ ﹾﻭ ﻭ ﹶ ْﺜ ﻤ ِ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻌ‬   “They shall not hear therein vain or sinful discourses. Only the saying: ‘Peace, Peace” (56:25-26). • Muslims are enjoined to enter into peace wholeheartedly: "‫ﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴ ﹶﺎﻥ ﺇ ﱠﻪ ﻟﻜﻡ ﻋﺩﻭ ﻤ ﹺﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ ﺨﻁ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺘﺘﺒ‬ ‫ﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻡ ﹶﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻥ ﺁﻤ ﹸﻭﺍ ﺍﺩﺨﹸﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺃﻴ‬ " ٌ ‫ﺒ‬     ‫ ﹶ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻁ ﹺ ِﻨ‬ ‫ ﱠ‬ ‫ﱢ ﹾ ﹺ ﻜ ﱠ ﹰ ﻭ ﹶ ﱠ ﹺﻌ ﹸ ﹸﻭ‬ ‫ ﹸﻠ ﻓ‬ ‫ﻨ‬  ‫ﻬ ﱠﺫ‬ َ ‫ﻴ‬ “O ye who believe! enter into Islam whole heatedly; and follow not the footsteps of the evil one; for he is to you an avowed enemy.” (2: 208) • In fact, the enjoinment of peace is not just within the Muslims but extended to non-Muslim communities: "‫ﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻌ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻭﺘﻭﻜل ﻋ ﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺇ ﱠﻪ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ ِﻠﺴﻠﻡ ﹶﺎﺠﻨﺢ ﻟ‬ ‫"ﻭﺇﻥ ﺠﻨ‬  ‫ﻠ‬  ‫ﻤ‬    ‫ ِﻨ‬ ‫ﻠ ﱠ‬ ْ ‫ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹶﻬ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹾ ﹺ ﻓ‬ ‫ ﹶﺤ ﻟ‬  ِ “But if the enemy incline towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards peace, and trust in Allah: for he is the one that heareth and knoweth (all things).” (8: 61)

‫ :ﺍﻹﳝﺎﻥ‬al-Iman
• Iman is the state of security and safety that a person enjoys when he is attached to his creator • Technically: • Iman is the belief in the main articles of the Islamic faith:
– – – – – – Believe in God and his attributes and names ‫اﻹﻳﻤﺎن ﺑﺎﷲ‬ Believe in angels ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻼﺋﻜﺔ‬ Believe in books ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺐ‬ Believe in prophethood ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺮﺳﻞ‬ Believe in hereafter ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻴﻮم اﻷﺧﺮ‬ Believe in predestination‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻀﺎء واﻟﻘﺪر‬

‫ ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﻥ‬al-Ihsan
• Everything we do should be put in Ihsan form, that is, in beautiful manner. • In Had'ith : ( ‫ﺭﺍﻙ‬‫) ﺃُﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ ﻜﹶﺄﻨﻙ ﺘﺭﺍﻩ ﻓِﺈﻥ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﹸﻥ ﺘﹶﺭﺍﻩ ﻓﺈِﻨﻪ ﻴ‬    ‫ ّ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹼ‬ “Ihsan means to worship Allah as if you see Him, or if you don’t see Him, He is seeing you”. • It also means: to do, or worship Allah in the manner He likes. • To fear Allah and be certain that He is present, and watching every deed, and everything one does.


Ihsan in the Qur’anic context

(29:69) “

‫“ َاﻟ ِﻳﻦ َﺎه ُوا ِﻴ َﺎ ﻟ َﻬﺪﻳﻨ ُﻢ ﺳﺒﻠ َﺎ وإن اﷲ ﻟﻤﻊ اﻟ ُﺤﺴ ِﻴﻦ‬ ‫و ﱠﺬ َ ﺟ َﺪ ﻓ ﻨ َﻨ ِ َ ﱠﻬ ُ َُﻨ َِ ﱠ َ َ َ َ ﻤ ِﻨ‬

‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻡ ﻟ ﱠﻱ َﺤﺴﻥ ﻜ ﱠ ﹶﻲﺀ ﺨﻠﻘﻪ ﻭﺒﺩﺃ ﹶﻠﻕ ﺍ ِﻨ‬ ‫ﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌ ﹺﻴﺯ ﺍﻟﺭ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟ ﹶﻴﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺸ‬ ‫“ﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫َ ﺨ ﹶ ﻹ ﺴ ﹺ ﻤ‬    ‫ ﹸل ﺸ ٍ ﹶ ﹶ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﺫ ﺃ‬ ‫ﺤ‬  ‫ﺯ‬   ‫ﱠﻬ‬ ّ ‫ ﻐ ﹺ‬ ِ ‫ ﻋ‬ ِ‫ﹶ‬ • “ (32:6-7).‫ﻴﻥ‬‫ﻁ‬ In this verse, if God does what is beautiful through creating and making everything, including men, beautiful, then man has the obligation to do what is beautiful particularly in his relation with Allah and with other creature. • Ihsan is everything in our life and in fact, when we become Muhsinin, we become protectorate servants of Allah (S.W.T). ‫ﻨ‬ ‫ ﻫ ﻤ‬ ‫ ﱠﻘ ﻭ ﱠﺫ‬ ‫ ﱠﺫ‬  َ  ِ (16:128).“ ‫ﺤﺴ ﹸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻴﻥ ﺍﺘ ﹶﻭﺍ‬ ‫“ ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟ‬ In this verse, Allah promises support to those who beautify their deeds.

In this verse, Allah makes Ihsan as a condition for providing guidance to us and showing us the right path, the right way and correct deed which will make us successful in Dunia (‫ ) اﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬and Akhirah ( ‫.) اﻵﺧﺮة‬

”‫ﻴﻢ ﺣﻨﹺﻴﻔﺎ‬‫ﺍﻫ‬‫ﺗﺒﻊ ﻣﻠﺔ ﺇﹺﺑﺮ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺤﺴ‬ ‫ﻮ‬ ‫ ﷲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﻬ‬‫ﻳﻨﺎ ﻣ ّﻦ ﺃﹶﺳﻠﻢ ﻭ‬‫ ﺩ‬ ‫ﻦ ﺃﹶﺣﺴ‬‫“ﻭﻣ‬   ‫ ﱠ ﹶ‬   ‫ ﻣ ِ ﻦ‬ ‫ ﻫ‬ ِ ‫ﻪ‬  ‫ﻤ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﻦ ﹰ‬  

(2:195). “‫”وأَﺣﺴﻨُﻮا ِإن اﷲ ﻳﺤﺐﱡ اﻟﻤُﺤﺴِﻨﻴﻦ‬ َُِ ‫ﱠ‬ ِ َ This verse, Ihsan is related to Allah, to what we do in all our life.

In this verse, Ihsan is linked with the perfect and correct religion the most perfect person in the religion is the one who is Muhsin, meaning he does things in very beautiful manner.



Hadith Jibril on Islam, Iman and Ihsan
On the authority of Omar, who said : One day while we were sitting with the messenger of Allah there appeared before us a man whose clothes were exceedingly white and whose hair was exceedingly black; no signs of journeying were to be seen on him and none of us knew him. He walked up and sat down by the prophet. Resting his knees against his and placing the palms of his hands on his thighs, he said:"O Muhammed, tell me about Islam". The messenger of Allah said: "Islam is to testify that there is no god but Allah and Muhammed is the messenger of Allah, to perform the prayers, to pay the zakat, to fast in Ramadhan, and to make the pilgrimage to the House if you are able to do so.“

• He said:"You have spoken rightly", and we were amazed at him asking him and saying that he had spoken rightly. He said: "Then tell me about iman. • He said:"It is to believe in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day, and to believe in divine destiny, both the good and the evil thereof.“ • He said:"You have spoken rightly". He said: " Then tell me about ihsan.“ • He said: "It is to worship Allah as though you are seeing Him, and while you see Him not yet truly He sees you".



• He said: "Then tell me about the Hour". • He said: "The one questioned about it knows no better than the questioner.“ • He said: "Then tell me about its signs.“ • He said: "That the slave-girl will give birth to her mistress and that you will see the barefooted, naked, destitute herdsman competing in constructing lofty buildings.“ • Then he took himself off and I stayed for a time. Then he said: "O Omar, do you know who the questioner was?" I said: "Allah and His messenger know best". He said: "He was Jibril (Gabriel), who came to you to teach you your religion.” (Muslim)

Taqwa (‫)ﺗﻘﻮى‬
• Taqwa is perhaps the most important single term in the Qur’an.
“And make provision for yourself; the best provision is taqwa". (Quran, 2:197).

• Taqwa is one of the many words in Islamic vocabularies whose exact equivalent cannot be found in English. It has been translated as "fear of Allah", "piety", "righteousness", "dutifulness" and "God-wariness",


• The word taqwa is derived from the Arabic root (waqa), whose verb signifies “to guard or protect against something. • Taqwa has the sense of protecting oneself from moral peril, preserving one's virtue, and guarding oneself against the harmful or evil consequences of one’s conduct (and thus the displeasure of the Almighty). • Taqwa is thus a kind of awareness or consciousness by means of which one protects oneself from sliding into evil.

• the Qur'an teaches that both the sinful tendency and taqwa are inspired into the soul of man by Allah. This is not to say that Allah inspires us to be sinful. • One who has taqwa has wariness of associating others with Allah, wariness of sin and evil, and even wariness of that which is dubious. • We learn from the Qur'an that the outward observance of ritual is not sufficient for taqwa.

• Taqwa thus seems to have practical social and political implications. It is not a meditative state which isolates one from the world, but a provision for finding one's way through the world, which in its social and political dimensions requires justice and fairness. • Indeed, the historian, Marshall Hodgson. attributes the success of early Islamic civilization not to favorable economic conditions or military power. but to the Taqwa of the Muslims • The command issued to the believers "Ittaquallah", is a command to be vigilant over oneself with awareness of the presence of Allah, a religious form of the admonition "Watch Yourself" directed to one whose misbehavior is imminent.

Main Characteristics of Islam
• Divine nature of Islam ‫ﺭﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ • Comprehensiveness ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻝ‬ • Universality ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ • Moderation/Balance ‫اﻟﺘﻮازن‬



Divine nature of Islam ‫ﺭﺑﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
• Its origin is from God • It is based on the concept of the unity of God • It was so named by God • It calls people to the unity of lordship ( ‫, ) رﺑﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬ unity of worship ( ‫ , ) أﻟﻮهﻴﺔ‬and unity of names and attributes (‫.)وﺣﺪاﻧﻴﺔ اﻷﺳﻤﺎء واﻟﺼﻔﺎت‬

Comprehensiveness ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻤﻮﻝ‬
• It covers all aspects of life • It deals with spiritual and material aspects, dunia ( ‫) دﻧﻴﺎ‬and akhirah ( ‫ ,) ﺁﺧﺮة‬seen and unseen, social, economic, political, and cultural, aspects of human life



• Islam contains many legislations with regard to personal and social lives as well as national and international aspects of human life. It covers ‘Ibadah, transaction, relation between man and man, between man and God, between man and the universe • Comprehensiveness in belief ‘ibadah system, and moral code. system,

God God Hereafter Hereafter Universe Universe

Vicegerency Vicegerency (History/ (History/ Culture/ Culture/ Civilization) Civilization)

Existence Existence of Seen & Unseen of Seen & Unseen Worlds Worlds

Life Life

Man Man Truth Truth Prophet Hood Prophet Hood



Universality ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬
• Islam is not meant only for a particular group of people or a particular period of time, but it is addressed to all mankind, regardless of their social strata, races, colors, languages, cultures, and civilizations. • There is a unity of religion within a diversity of cultures and ways of implementing the teaching of Islam.

Giving things their due measures ‫اﻟﺘﻮازن‬ in:
• • • • Human nature Human needs Belief system Ritual



• Islam is a religion that gives to each aspect of human life its due without any imbalance or exaggeration. The material, social, spiritual, cultural, and intellectual aspects of human life are treated in a balance manner. • Islam never asks people to focus only on the spiritual dimension or on the material dimension of their life. But it puts each dimension in its right place and legislates the necessary instruction to fulfill and meet the need of that particular dimension of human life.

“‫“ﻭﺍﺒﺘﻎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﺘﺎﻙ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻵﺨﺭﺓ ﻭﻻ ﺘﻨﺴﻰ ﻨﺼﻴﺒﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻨﻴﺎ‬ But seek, with the (wealth) which Allah has bestowed on thee, the Home of the Hereafter, nor forget thy portion in this world: but do thou good, as Allah has been good to thee, and seek not (occasions for) mischief in the land: for Allah loves not those who do mischief." (28: 77)



Michael Hart in The 100, A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons In History' New York, 1978 • My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world’s most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the secular and religious level. ...It is probable that the relative influence of Muhammad on Islam has been larger than the combined influence of Jesus Christ and St. Paul on Christianity. ...It is this unparalleled combination of secular and religious influence which I feel entitles Muhammad to be considered the most influential single figure in human history

The Concept of Tawhid (‫)ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ‬
• Literally Tawhid means "unification" (making something one) or "asserting oneness“. It comes from the Arabic verb (wahhada) which itself means to unite, unify or consolidate. However, when the term Tawhid is used in reference to Allah it means the realizing and maintaining of Allah's unity in all of man's actions which directly or indirectly relate to Him.


Unity of Lordship
• It is the belief that Allah is One, without partner in His dominion and His actions (Rububiyyah), One without similitude in His essence and attributes (al-Asma’ wa Sifat), and One without rival in His divinity and in worship (Uluhiyyah/‘Ibadah).
• This category is based on the fundamental concept that Allah alone caused all things to exist when there was nothing; He sustains and maintains creation without any need from it or for it; and He is the sole Lord of the universe and its inhabitants. • It is the belief that there is only One God, who is the creator of everything in the heaven and on the earth. • The belief that this creator is the sustainer ( ‫,) اﻟﺮزاق‬ manager of the affairs of the whole universe. He is the only One who gives life and takes it away. He is Allknowing. He is merciful and does what He wishes, because He is the creator of everything. Everyone is dependent on Him whether in heaven or earth.


“ ‫ﻴل‬‫“ﺍﷲ ﺨﹶﺎﻟﻕ ﻜلﱢ ﺸﹶﻲﺀ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻜلّ ﺸﹶﻲﺀ ﻭﻜ‬  ٍ ‫ ﹸ‬  ٍ ‫ُ ِ ﹸ ﹸ‬
“Allah created all things and He Is the agent on which all things depend.“ (al-Zumar 39:62)

Unity of worship
• It is the belief in the unity of Allah's worship. He is the one, who deserves to be worshipped. He is the one who sets the way how we worship Him and we should follow His instruction and Shari‘ah as He ordered and instructed us to do. • All forms of worship must be directed only to Allah because He alone deserves worship, and it is He alone who can grant benefit to man as a result of His worship. Furthermore, there is no need for any form of intercessor or intermediary between man and God.

“ ‫ﺎ ﹶﻌﻤﹸﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﷲ ﺨﻠﻘ ﹸﻡ ﻭ‬ “ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﻤ ﺘ‬ ‫ﻭ ُ ﹶ ﹶ ﹶﻜ‬ “And Allaah created you all and whatever you do” (al-Saffat 37:96)


• Allah emphasized the importance of directing worship to Him alone by pointing out that this was the main purpose of man's creation and the essence of the message brought by all the prophets. • Allah says: ” ‫ﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺱ ﺇﻻ ﻟﻴﻌﺒ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺨﻠﻘﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﻥ‬ ‫""ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ ﹺ‬   ِ ‫ ِ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﻭ ِ ﹾ‬ ‫ﻤ ﹶ ﹶ ﹾ ﹸ ﹾ ﹺ‬ “I created the jinn and humankind only that they might worship Me.” (al-Dhariyiat: 51:56) "Verily, We have sent to every nation a messenger (saying), 'Worship Allah and avoid false gods'.“ " ‫" َﺎل أﻓﺘﻌﺒ ُون ﻣﻦ ُون اﻟﻠﻪ َﺎ ﻻ ﻳﻨﻔﻌﻜﻢ ﺷﻴ ًﺎ َﻻ ﻳﻀ ﱡآﻢ‬ ْ ُ ‫ﻗ َ َ َ َ ْ ُﺪ َ ِ ْ د ِ ﱠ ِ ﻣ َ ْ َ ُ ُ ْ َ ْﺌ و َ ُﺮ‬ 'Do not worship besides Allah that which can not help or harm you." (al-Anbiya’: 21:66)

Unity of Names and Attributes
• It is the belief that God has attributes and names. And one should worship Him and do supplication to Him using His names and attributes. No one has the right to tell us about His names, and attributes except His messengers who came to teach people the names and attributes through using the revelation which God sent to them. • We cannot imagine a God and give Him names and attributes such as the way of Arab before Islam made idols and gave them names and attributes and worship them. This is not correct because only Allah can tell us about this names and attribute.


• Allah must be referred to according to how He described Himself or how His Prophets have described Him.
”‫ﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﺒ‬ ‫ﺜﻠﻪ ﹶﻲﺀ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫“ ﹶﻴﺱ ﻜ‬ ‫ﺼ‬  ‫ﻤ‬    ‫ ﺸ‬  ‫ ﹶﻤ‬ ‫ﻟ‬

“There is nothing like Him and He is hearer and seer of all.“ (42:11)

• Every Muslim should believe in the unity of Lordship, worship, and names and attributes. And if one denies one of them or all, he is considered as unbeliever ( ‫.) آﺎﻓﺮ‬



Shirk ‫ِـﺮك‬ ‫ﺷ‬
• The study of Tawheed cannot be considered complete without a careful analysis of its opposite, Shirk. • Shirk literally means partnership, sharing or associating, but Islamically it refers to the act of assigning partners to Allaah in whatever form it may take. • Some modern Muslim scholars interpret the concept of shirk to include all forms (kinds) of worshipping others with God, such as worshipping the material aspect of life and fearing people more than God and associating themselves in any act of Satan (Shaitan ‫.)اﻟﺸﻴﻄﺎن‬

• Every sort of worship of whim, prestige, position, money, or personality is shirk. • Because the sin of Shirk denies the very purpose of man's creation, it is to God the gravest of sins; the unforgivable sin.
‫ﻥ ﻴﺸﺭﻙ ﹺﺎﻟﻠﻪ ﻓﻘﺩ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻴ ﹶﺎﺀ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻟ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫“ ِﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻻ ﻴﻐﻔﺭ َﻥ ﻴﺸﺭﻙ ﺒﻪ ﻭﻴﻐﻔﺭ‬  ‫ ﹶ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﺒ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﹾ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻤ‬  ‫ﺸ‬ ‫ ِﻤ‬ ِ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﻤ ﺩ‬  ‫ ﹾ‬   ‫ ﹺ‬  ‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ ﺃ‬  ‫ ﹾ‬  ‫ ﱠ‬ ‫إ‬ ”‫ﻴﻡ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻋ‬ ‫ﻯ ﺇﺜ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘ‬  ‫ ﻅ‬ ‫ﹾ ﹶ ﺭ ِ ﹾﻤ‬

"Surely Allah will not forgive the association of partners (Shirk) with Him, but He forgives (sins) less than that of whomever He wishes.“ (al-Nisa’, 4:48) Because the sin of Shirk denies the very purpose of man's creation, it is to God the gravest of sins; the unforgivable sin



Shirk in Rububiyyah
• This category of Shirk refers to either the belief that others share Allah's Lordship over creation as His equal or near equal, or to the belief that there exists no Lord over creation at all. • Most religious systems fall into the first aspect of Shirk in Ruboobeeyah while it is the philosophers who tend to fill the second aspect. • (A) Shirk by Association • Beliefs which fall under this sub-category are ones in which a main God or Supreme Being over creation is recognized, however His dominion is shared by other lesser gods, spirits, mortals, heavenly bodies or earthly objects. Such belief systems are commonly referred to by theologians and philosophers as polytheistic (having more than one God).


Shirk in al-‘Ibadah
• (B) Shirk by Negation • This sub-category represents the various philosophies and ideologies which deny the existence of God either explicitly or implicitly. That is, in some cases God's nonexistence is stated (Atheism), while in other cases His existence is claimed, but the way in which He is conceived actually denies His existence (Pantheism).

• In this category of Shirk, acts of worship are directed to other than God and the reward for worship is sought from the creation instead of the Creator. • As in the case of the previous categories, Shirk in al-‘Ibadah has two main aspects:



Al-Shirk al-Akbar (Major Shirk):
• This form of Shirk occurs when any act of worship is directed to other than Allah. It represents the most obvious form of idolatry which the prophets were specifically sent by Allah to call the masses of mankind away from. This concept is supported by Allah's statement in the Qur'an: " ‫ﻭﺍ ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎ ﹸﻭﺕ‬‫ﺍﺠﺘﻨ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺃ ﹺ ﺍﻋﺒ‬ ‫ﻲ ﻜ ﱢ ﺃﻤﺔ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺒﻌﺜ ﹶﺎ‬ “ ‫ﺒ ﻁ ﻏ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩ ﱠ‬  ‫ﺴ ﹰ َﻥ‬   ُ ‫ ﹾﻨ ﻓ ﹸل‬   ‫ﻭﹶ ﹶ‬ "Surely we have sent to every nation a messenger saying, worship Allaah and avoid Taghut (false gods)” (16: 36) • Taghut actually means anything which is worshipped along with Allah or instead of Allah. For example, love is a form of worship which, in its perfection, should only be directed to Allah. In Islam, the love of God is expressed by total obedience to Him.

Al-Shirk al-Asghar( Minor Shirk):
• The Prophet said: "The thing I fear for you the most is ash-Shirk al-Asghar (minor shirk)." The companions asked "Oh! messenger of Allah, what is minor Shirk?" He replied "Al-Riya’ (showing off), for verily Allah will say on the Day of Resurrection when people are receiving their rewards, 'Go to those for whom you were showing off in the material world and see if you can find any reward from them.

Shirk in al-Asma wa-al-Sifat
• Shirk in this category includes both the common pagan practice of giving Allah the attributes of His creation as well as the act of giving created beings Allah's names and attributes • It takes many forms. The most important are: • To deny any names or attributes of God, or to give to God other names and attributes, which are not authorized by Shari’ah.

• When you make similarity between names and attributes of God and those of His creatures, then you are committing an act of Shirk, because there is no similarity between the creator and what he created. • when you describe God and attribute to Him some human qualities like eating, drinking, marriage, having kids, being jealous of other, being injustice, this is considered another form of Shirk.



Kufr ‫آﻔﺮ‬
• Kafara literally means ‘to cover,’ ‘to hide something; ‘to ignore knowingly the benefit which one has received,’ and thence, ‘to be unthankful’. • The root KFR (‫ )آﻔﺮ‬has been used in the Qur’an in either of the two, but conceptually linked, basic meanings: ‘ingratitude’ and ‘disbelief’.

• A Kafir is a person who, having thus received God’s benevolence, shows no sign of gratitude in his conduct, or even acts rebelliously against his Benefactor. He covers the truth of Islam and doesn’t submit to the will of Allah. • He is the person who knows that Allah is the creator, but he denies the unity of worship of Allah ( ‫.) ا ُﻟﻮهﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻷ‬ • He is the person who acknowledges that God is the creator, but he rejects to worship Allah and to follow his Shari‘ah



The Concept of Sunnatullah
• Sunnah here means “pathway”; it also stands for consistency and order. So Sunnatullah means “God’s customary way of acting”
"‫ﻻ ﺘﺠﺩ ﻟﺴﻨﺘ ﹶﺎ ﺘﺤ ﹺﻴﻼ‬ ‫”ﺴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺃﺭﺴﻠ ﹶﺎ ﻗﺒﻠﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺭﺴﻠ ﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻨ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﱠ‬ ِ  ‫ﻨ ﻭ ﹺ‬      ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹾﻨ ﹶ‬  َ  ‫ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﱠ ﹶ‬

(This was Our) way with the messengers We sent before you: you will find no change in Our ways.” (17: 77)
“‫ﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻭﻟﻥ ﺘﺠﺩ ﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺘﺒ‬‫ﻴﻥ ﺨﻠﻭ‬ ‫ﻲ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫"ﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﱠ‬ ِ  ‫ ﹶ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ُ  ‫ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﹶ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﻓ ﱠﺫ‬ ‫ ﱠ ﹶ ﱠ‬

• The Qur`anic concept of “Sunnatullah” emanates from the same source on which system of the universe is constructed, i.e. Divine justice. According to the Qur`an, the entire universe was created in extremely balanced system and just order.

(Such was) the practice (approved) of Allah among those who lived aforetime: no change wilt thou find in the practice (approved) of Allah.” (33: 62)
109 110

• Sunnatullah in this sense, means the absolute and eternal rule that God has prescribed for Himself to deal with His creatures. Through this concept, the Qur`an draws human attention that God inevitably acts in the created world in certain ways which are recognizable by close observation in the natural phenomena as well as in historical events. The Qur`an declares; “That is law of God (Sunnatullah), which has taken course aforetime, you will not find any change for the law of God”. Therefore, Sunnatullah prescribes kind of universal and unchangeable rules that govern the universe and human history as well.

• This character of Sunnatullah establishes two main methodological factors, with regard to the Islamic theory of knowledge: • First; physical world is fact; therefore, man should acquire knowledge through observational and empirical methods.


• Second; human history is governed by systematic patterns and rules recognizable to the human intellect, thus, a sustainable civilization can be established only with consideration of these patterns, which can be discovered upon critical examination of disintegrated civilizations and knowledge of reasons that were behind their rise and fall.

• However, Sunnatullah does not describe details of natural laws, such as law which prescribes certain medicine to certain disease, because all that can be discovered by human intellect. Instead, it provides principles of science, based on a holistic vision of the world.


Kinds of Sunnatullah
• Sunnatullah is categorized based on two main domains: nature (Āfāq ‫ )ﺁﻓﺎق‬and human (Anfus‫.) أﻧﻔﺲ‬ 1. Sunnatullah in the natural phenomena, which is termed by the Qur`an as “Ayatul Aafaq”, is also known as Sunan Kawniyyah (universal laws), because it includes the most general laws that govern the cosmic order, such as creation of everything in pairs (Zawjiyyah) and creation of everything in precise measures.


2. The second type, with consideration to its subject matter, is Sunnatullah in human domain which is introduced by the Qur`an as “Ayatul Anfus”, means God’s signs within human self. • This type can be understood in two integrative senses: Sunnah that governs human behavior at individual level, and that which governs human society.

• Standards of this classification, initially, provide relevant ground to hold that, universality of Divine custom does not necessarily means unity of the order in either domain, i.e. human and non-human.


Characteristics of Sunnatullah
• In other words, characteristics of patterns that govern human history and civilization are not necessarily similar to laws which rule the natural phenomena. Morality, which characterized by free choice and responsibility, is obviously the relevant criteria for this division. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Generality Permanence Predictability Exactness Diversity



Manifestations of Sunnatullah in Nature
‫ﻓَﻦ ﺗﺠﺪ ﻟﺴﻨﺖ اﻟﻠﻪ ﺗﺒ ِﻳﻼ وَﻦ ﺗﺠﺪ ﻟﺴﻨﺖ اﻟﻠﻪ ﺗﺤ ِﻳﻼ‬ ً ‫َﻠ َ ِ َ ِ ُ ﱠ ِ ﱠ ِ َ ْﺪ ً َﻟ َ ِ َ ِ ُ ﱠ ِ ﱠ ِ َ ْﻮ‬ [43 : ‫]ﻓﺎﻃﺮ‬
But no change wilt thou find in Allah's way (of dealing): no turning off wilt thou find in Allah's way (of dealing).

• God created nature and then assigned to each heavens its duty and command:



‫ﻟﻚ ﺭﺏ‬‫ﺍﺩﹰﺍ ﺫ‬‫ ﺃﹶﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻌ ﹸﻮﻥ ﹶﻟ‬‫ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻲ‬‫ﻱ ﺧﻠﻖ ﺍﹾﻟﺄﺭﺽ ﻓ‬‫ﻭﻥ ﺑﹺﺎﱠﻟﺬ‬ ‫ﺋﻨ ﹸﻢ ﹶﻟﺘﻜﻔ‬‫• ﻗﻞ ﹶﺃ‬ ‫ ﱡ‬  ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻠ ﹶ ﻪ‬ ْ  ‫ ْ ﹺ‬ ْ  ْ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹾ ﹸﺮ ﹶ‬ ْ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﹸ ﹾ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺔ‬‫ﻲ ﹶﺃﺭ‬‫ﺎ ﻓ‬‫ﺗﻬ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﺃﻗﻮ‬‫ﻴﻬ‬‫ﺎ ﻭﻗﺪﺭ ﻓ‬‫ﻴﻬ‬‫ﺎﺭﻙ ﻓ‬‫ﺎ ﻭﺑ‬‫ﻦ ﻓﻮﻗﻬ‬‫ﺍﺳﻲ ﻣ‬‫ﺎ ﺭﻭ‬‫ﻴﻬ‬‫ﺎﹶﻟﻤﲔ )9( ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻓ‬‫ﺍﹾﻟﻌ‬  ْ ‫ﹾ‬   ‫ﹶ‬    ْ ‫ ﹶ‬   ‫ ﹶ‬   ‫ﻟﻠﺄﺭﺽ‬‫ﺎ ﻭ‬‫ﺎ ﹲ ﻓﻘﹶﺎﻝ ﹶﻟﻬ‬‫ﺎﺀ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺩﺧ‬‫ﻯ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤ‬‫ﺋﻠﲔ )01( ﹸﺛﻢ ﺍﺳﺘﻮ‬‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺀ ﱢﻠ‬‫ﺎﻡ ﺳﻮ‬‫ﹶﺃ‬ ‫ ﹾﹶ ْ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﻥ ﹶ ﹶ‬    ْ    ‫ ﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﻳ ﹴ‬  ْ ‫ ﹶ ﹰ ْ ﹶ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻲ‬‫ﺍﺕ ﻓ‬‫ﺎﻭ‬‫ﺎﻫﻦ ﺳﺒﻊ ﺳﻤ‬‫ﺋﻌﲔ )11( ﻓﻘﻀ‬‫ﺎ ﻃﹶﺎ‬‫ﺗﻴﻨ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﺃ‬‫ﺎ ﻃﻮْﻋﺎ ﹶﺃﻭ ﻛﺮْﻫﺎ ﻗﹶﺎﹶﻟﺘ‬‫ﺍﹾﺋﺘﻴ‬ ‫ْ ﹺ‬ ْ ٍ   ْ   ‫ﹶ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻳﺮ‬‫ﺗﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻚ‬‫ﺎﺑﹺﻴﺢ ﻭﺣﻔﹾﻈﺎ ﺫ‬‫ﺎ ﹺﺑﻤﺼ‬‫ﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪْﻧﻴ‬‫ﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻤ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺎ ﻭﺯ‬‫ﺎﺀ ﹶﺃﻣﺮﻫ‬‫ﻲ ﻛﻞ ﺳﻤ‬‫ﻰ ﻓ‬‫ﻭﹶﺃﻭﺣ‬  ‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ ﹰ ﹶ‬   ‫ﱡ‬  ‫ ﻨ‬ ْ  ‫ﹸﱢ‬ ْ (12) ‫ﻴﻢ‬‫ﺍﹾﻟﻌﺰﹺﻳﺰ ﺍﹾﻟﻌﻠ‬ ‫ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﹺ‬


"Is it that ye deny Him Who created the earth in two Days? and do ye join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds." He set on the (earth). Mountains standing firm, high above it, and bestowed blessings on the earth, and measured therein all things to give them nourishment in due proportion, in four Days, in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek (sustenance). Moreover, He Comprehended in His design the sky, and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: "Come ye together, willingly or unwillingly.“


They said: "We do come (together), in willing obedience." So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days and He assigned to each heaven its duty and command. And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge. (Fussilat:9-12).

(37) ‫• َﺁﻳﺔ ﻟﻬﻢ اﻟﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﺴﻠﺦ ﻣﻨﻪ اﻟﻨ َﺎر ﻓﺈ َا ُﻢ ﻣﻈﻠ ُﻮن‬ َ ‫و َ ٌ ﱠ ُ ْ ﱠ ْ ُ َ َْ ُ ِ ْ ُ ﱠﻬ َ َ ِذ ه ﱡ ِْﻤ‬ (38) ‫َاﻟﺸﻤﺲ ﺗﺠ ِي ﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺮ ﻟ َﺎ ذﻟﻚ ﺗﻘ ِﻳﺮ اﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ اﻟﻌِﻴﻢ‬ ِ ‫و ﱠ ْ ُ َ ْﺮ ِ ُ ْ َ َ ﱟ ﱠﻬ َِ َ َ ْﺪ ُ ْ َ ِ ِ ْ َﻠ‬ ‫َاﻟﻘﻤﺮ ﻗﺪر َﺎﻩ ﻣ َﺎزل ﺣ ﱠﻰ َﺎد َﺎﻟﻌﺮ ُﻮن اﻟﻘ ِﻳﻢ )93( َﺎ‬ ‫ﻟ‬ ِ ‫و ْ َ َ َ َ ﱠ ْﻧ ُ َﻨ ِ َ َﺘ ﻋ َ آ ْ ُ ْﺟ ِ ْ َﺪ‬ ‫اﻟ ﱠﻤﺲ َﻨﺒ ِﻲ ﻟ َﺎ َن ﺗﺪرك اﻟﻘﻤﺮ وَﺎ اﻟﻠﻴﻞ َﺎﺑﻖ اﻟﻨ َﺎر وآﻞ‬ ‫ﺸ ْ ُ ﻳ َ ﻐ َ ﻬ أ ُ ْ ِ َ ْ َ َ َ َﻟ ﱠ ْ ُ ﺳ ِ ُ ﱠ ﻬ ِ َ ُ ﱞ‬ (40) ‫ِﻲ ﻓﻠﻚ ﻳﺴﺒ ُﻮن‬ َ ‫ﻓ ََ ٍ َ ْ َﺤ‬


And a Sign for them is the Night: We withdraw therefrom the Day, and behold they are plunged in darkness. And the sun runs its course for a period determined for it; that is the decree of (Him), the Exalted in Might, the AllKnowing. And the Moon, We have measured for it mansions (to traverse) till it returns like the old (and withered) lower part of a date-stalk. It is not permitted to the Sun to catch up the Moon, nor can the Night outstrip the Day: each (just) swims along in (its own) orbit (according to law). (Yasin/36: 37127 40)

• Nature is so well-knit and works with such regularity that is the prime miracle of God, cited untiringly in the Qur’an.


Manifestations of Sunnatullah in Human Nature & History/Civilization
‫“قد خلت من قبلكم سنن فسيروا في األرض فانظُروا كيف كان‬ َ َ َ َْ ْ ُ ْ َ ِ َْ ِ ْ ُ ِ َ ٌ َ ُ ْ ُ َِْ ِ ْ َ َ َْ ( 137 : ‫عاقبةُ المكذبين” )آل عمران‬ َ ِ‫َ َِ ْ ُ َ ﱠ‬ Many were the Ways of Life that have passed away before you: travel through the earth, and see what was the end of those who rejected Truth.

‫)ﹸﺛ ﱠ ﹶﺃﺭﺳﻠﻨَﺎ ﺭﺳﻠﻨَﺎ َﺗْﺘﺮَﺍ ﻛﻞ ﻣَﺎ ﺟَﺎﺀ ﹸﻣﺔ ﱠﺳﻮﹸﻟﻬَﺎ ﻛﺬُﻮﻩ ﻓﺄْﺗَﺒﻌﻨَﺎ َﺑﻌﻀ ُﻢ َﺑﻌْﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬ ‫ﹶ ﱠﺑ ُ ﹶﹶ ْ ْ َﻬ‬ ُ ‫ﺃﱠﹰ ﺭ‬ ‫ﹸﱠ‬ ‫ﻢ ْ َ ﹾ ُ ُﹶ‬ ( 44 : ‫ﻭﺟﻌﻠﻨَﺎﻫﻢ ﹶﺃﺣَﺎﺩِﻳﺚ ﻓُﺒﻌْﺪﹰﺍ ﱢﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﱠﺎ ُﻳﺆﻣُﻮﻥ( )ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﹶ ْ ﹴ ﻟ ْ ِﻨ ﹶ‬ ‫ﹶﹶ‬ ْ ُ ‫َ َ َﹾ‬ Then sent We our messengers in succession: every time there came to a people their messenger, they accused him of falsehood: so We caused them to follow one another (to disaster) and We made them as a tale (that is told): So away with a people that will not believe!


‫ﻓﺈ َا ﻗﻀﻴ ُﻢ ﻣ َﺎﺳﻜﻜﻢ َﺎذآ ُوا اﻟﻠﻪ آﺬآﺮآﻢ ﺁ َﺎءآﻢ أو أﺷﺪ ذآْﺮا‬ ً ِ ‫َِذ َ َ ْﺘ ﱠﻨ ِ َ ُ ْ ﻓ ْ ُﺮ ْ ّ َ َ ِ ْ ِ ُ ْ ﺑ ُ ْ َ ْ َ َ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻦ اﻟ ﱠﺎس َﻦ ﻳ ُﻮل رﺑ َﺎ ﺁﺗ َﺎ ِﻲ اﻟﺪﻧ َﺎ و َﺎ ﻟﻪ ِﻲ اﻵﺧﺮة ﻣﻦ‬ ْ ِ َِ ِ ‫َ ِ َ ﻨ ِ ﻣ َﻘ ُ َ ﱠﻨ ِﻨ ﻓ ﱡ ْﻴ َﻣ َ ُ ﻓ‬ ‫ﺧﻼق )002( وﻣﻨ ُﻢ ﱠﻦ ﻳ ُﻮل رﺑ َﺎ ﺁﺗ َﺎ ِﻲ اﻟﺪﻧ َﺎ ﺣﺴﻨﺔ و ِﻲ‬ ‫ِ ِ ْﻬ ﻣ َﻘ ُ َ ﱠﻨ ِﻨ ﻓ ﱡ ْﻴ َ َ َ ً َﻓ‬ ٍَ َ ‫اﻵﺧﺮة ﺣﺴﻨﺔ وﻗ َﺎ ﻋ َاب اﻟ ﱠﺎر )102( ُوَـﺌﻚ ﻟﻬﻢ ﻧ ِﻴﺐ ﻣ ﱠﺎ‬ ‫أ ﻟ ِ َ َ ُ ْ َﺼ ٌ ﱢ ﻤ‬ ِ ‫ِ َ ِ َ َ َ ً َ ِﻨ َﺬ َ ﻨ‬ (202) ‫آﺴ ُﻮا َاﻟﻠﻪ ﺳ ِﻳﻊ اﻟﺤ َﺎب‬ ِ ‫َ َﺒ ْ و ّ ُ َﺮ ُ ْ ِﺴ‬

• So when ye have accomplished your holy rites, celebrate the praises of Allah, as ye used to celebrate the praises of your fathers, yea, with far more heart and soul. There are men who say: "Our Lord! Give us (Thy bounties) in this world!" But they will have no portion in the Hereafter. And there are men who say: "Our Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and defend us from the torment of the Fire!" To these will be allotted what they have earned; and Allah is quick in account.(2: 200202)
131 132

‫ﱠﻦ َﺎن ﻳ ِﻳﺪ اﻟ َﺎﺟﻠﺔ ﻋﺠﻠ َﺎ ﻟﻪ ِﻴ َﺎ َﺎ ﻧ َﺎء ﻟ َﻦ ﻧ ِﻳﺪ ﺛ ﱠ ﺟﻌﻠ َﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ آ َ ُﺮ ُ ْﻌ َِ َ َ ﱠ ْﻨ َ ُ ﻓ ﻬ ﻣ َﺸ ِﻤ ﱡﺮ ُ ُﻢ َ َ ْﻨ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﺟﻬﻨﻢ ﻳﺼْﻼ َﺎ ﻣﺬ ُﻮﻣﺎ ﻣﺪ ُﻮرا )81( وﻣﻦ أ َاد اﻵﺧﺮة‬ ََ ِ َ ‫َ َ ْ َر‬ ً ‫َ ُ َ َ ﱠ َ َ ه َ ْ ﻣ ً ﱠ ْﺣ‬ (19) ‫وﺳ َﻰ ﻟ َﺎ ﺳﻌﻴ َﺎ وهﻮ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ﻓُوﻟﺌﻚ َﺎن ﺳﻌﻴ ُﻢ ﻣﺸ ُﻮرا‬ ً ‫َ َ ﻌ َ ﻬ َ ْ َﻬ َ ُ َ ُ ْ ِ ٌ َﺄ َ ِ َ آ َ َ ْ ُ ﻬ ﱠ ْ ﻜ‬ ‫آ ًّ ﻧﻤﺪ َـ ُﻻء و َـ ُﻻء ﻣﻦ ﻋ َﺎء رﺑﻚ و َﺎ آﺎن ﻋ َﺎء رﺑﻚ‬ َ ‫ِ ْ َﻄ َ ﱢ َ َﻣ َ َ َﻄ َ ﱢ‬ ‫َه ﺆ‬ ‫ُﻼ ﱡ ِ ﱡ ه ﺆ‬ ً ‫َ ْﻈ‬ ‫ﻣﺤ ُﻮرا )02( اﻧﻈﺮ آﻴﻒ ﻓﻀﻠ َﺎ ﺑﻌﻀﻬﻢ ﻋَﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ وَﻶﺧﺮة‬ ُ َ ِ ‫ُ ْ َ ْ َ َ ﱠ ْﻨ َ ْ َ ُ ْ َ ﻠ َ ْ ٍ َ ﻟ‬ (21) ‫أآﺒﺮ در َﺎت وأآﺒﺮ ﺗﻔ ِﻴﻼ‬ ً ‫َ ْ َ ُ َ َﺟ ٍ َ َ ْ َ ُ َ ْ ﻀ‬

• If any do wish for the transitory things (of this life), We readily grant them such things as We will, to such persons as We will: in the end have We provided Hell for them: they will burn therein, disgraced and rejected. Those who do wish for the (things of) the Hereafter, and strive therefore with all due striving, and have Faith, they are the ones whose striving is acceptable (to Allah). Of the bounties of thy Lord We bestow freely on all these as well as those: the bounties of thy Lord are not closed (to anyone). See how We have bestowed more on some than on others; but verily the Hereafter is more in rank and gradation and more in excellence. (17: 18-21)


• The Laws of al-Akhirah (hereafter) ‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﺑﺄ َﺎﻧﻴﻜﻢ َﻻ أ َﺎﻧﻲ أهﻞ اﻟﻜ َﺎب َﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ ُﻮءا ﻳﺠﺰ ﺑﻪ‬ ِ ِ َ ْ ُ ً ‫ﱠ ْ َ ِ َﻣ ِ ﱢ ُ ْ و َﻣ ِ ﱢ َ ْ ِ ْ ِﺘ ِ ﻣ َ ْ َ ْ ﺳ‬ ‫وﻻ ﻳﺠﺪ ﻟﻪ ِﻦ ُون اﻟﻠﻪ وﻟﻴﺎ وﻻ ﻧ ِﻴﺮا )321( و َﻦ ﻳﻌﻤﻞ‬ ْ َ ْ َ ‫َﻣ‬ ً ‫َ َ َ ِ ْ َ ُ ﻣ د ِ ّ ِ َ ِ ّ ً َ َ َﺼ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟ ﱠﺎﻟ َﺎت ِﻦ ذآﺮ أو ُﻧ َﻰ وهﻮ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ﻓﺄوَـﺌﻚ ﻳﺪﺧُﻮن‬ َ ‫ِ َ ﺼ ِ ﺤ َ ﻣ َ َ ٍ َ ْ أ ﺜ َ ُ َ ُ ْ ِ ٌ َ ُ ْ ﻟ ِ َ َ ْ ُﻠ‬ (124) ‫اﻟﺠﻨﺔ وﻻ ﻳﻈﻠ ُﻮن ﻧ ِﻴﺮا‬ ً ‫ْ َ ﱠ َ َ َ ُ َْﻤ َ َﻘ‬

• Not your desires, nor those of the People of the Book (can prevail): whoever works evil, will be requited accordingly. Nor will he find, besides Allah, any protector or helper. If any do deeds of righteousness, be they male or female - and have faith, they will enter Heaven, and not the least injustice will be done to them. (4: 123-124)
135 136

‫َﺎ ﻗﻮم إﻧ َﺎ هﺬﻩ اﻟﺤ َﺎة اﻟﺪﻧ َﺎ ﻣ َﺎع وإن اﻟْﺂﺧﺮة هﻲ َار اﻟﻘ َار‬ ِ ‫ﻳ َ ْ ِ ِ ﱠﻤ َ ِ ِ ْ َﻴ ُ ﱡ ْﻴ َﺘ ٌ َِ ﱠ ِ َ َ ِ َ د ُ ْ َﺮ‬ ‫)93( ﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ ﺳﻴﺌﺔ ﻓَﺎ ﻳﺠ َى إﱠﺎ ﻣﺜﻠ َﺎ وﻣﻦ ﻋﻤﻞ َﺎِﺤﺎ‬ ً ‫َ ْ َ ِ َ َ ﱢ َ ً َ ﻠ ُ ْﺰ ِ ﻟ ِ ْ َ ﻬ َ َ ْ َ ِ َ ﺻ ﻟ‬ ‫ﱢﻦ ذآﺮ أو ُﻧ َﻰ وهﻮ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ﻓﺄوﻟﺌﻚ ﻳﺪﺧُﻮن اﻟﺠﻨﺔ ﻳﺮز ُﻮن‬ َ ‫ﻣ َ َ ٍ َ ْ أ ﺜ َ ُ َ ُ ْ ِ ٌ َ ُ ْ َ ِ َ َ ْ ُﻠ َ ْ َ ﱠ َ ُ ْ َ ﻗ‬ (40) ‫ِﻴ َﺎ ﺑﻐﻴﺮ ﺣ َﺎب‬ ٍ ‫ﻓ ﻬ ِ َ ْ ِ ِﺴ‬

O my people! this life of the present is nothing but (temporary) convenience: it is the Hereafter that is the Home that will last. "He that works evil will not be requited but by the like thereof: and he that works a righteous deed - whether man or woman - and is a Believer; such will enter the Garden (of Bliss): therein will they have abundance without measure. (40: 39-40)
137 138

The Concept of Nubuwwah and their relevance to the Muslim life
• God has created no community of beings in the world without a purpose and left them without a guide or leader. It is inconceivable that God Almighty, Who has not left bees without a queen, ants without a leader, and birds and fish without a guide, has left humanity without Prophets to guide them to spiritual, intellectual and material perfection.

• The centrality of prophethood is evident from the fact that it forms the content of the second clause of the Shahadah (testimony). It is also one of the articles of Islamic faith. The source of legitimacy of being a prophet is Allah (S.W.T) through His revelation. As it is impossible for everyone to receive revelation directly from God, the prophets (peace be upon them) then functioned as a ‘channel’ to receive and transmit the Divine revelation to humankind. Though both revelation and prophethood are not the same, they overlap and are very much interrelated.

The Meaning of Wahy and Other Related Terms
• Revelation (wahy is the act by which God, having created the world, discloses Himself to His creation. It refers to a phenomenon whereby a supra human, or supernatural, communication is transmitted from the Divine to the human or epiphany of the Divine order, which presents itself to the human sight, hearing, sensibility and consciousness as an event out of the ordinary course

The Meaning of Prophethood
• Prophethood is translated into Arabic as nubuwwah (‫ .)اﻟﻨﺒﻮة‬Nabi refers to prophet who gives news from God. • Prophetic experience has been described by Muslim theologians as something out of ordinary experience.


• During his experience, a prophet’s faculties raised to the point of frenzy and he is under the domination of a Divine power which he cannot resist, and his innermost belief, all the while, is that the message of guidance and salvation has come directly from God as a ‘revelation’ and must be conveyed at once to his fellow beings. • A prophet is like a branch which arches out from the Divine to the human realm.

Rasul & Nabi • The two words are used interchangeably in the Qur'an, the same person sometimes being called nabi and sometimes rasul; while occasionally both names are combined. • The reason seems to be that the prophet has two capacities: he receives information from God, and he imparts his message to mankind. he is called nabi in the first, and rasul in the second capacity, but there is one difference.

• The word rasul has a wider significance, being applicable to every messenger in a literal sense; and the angels are called Divine Messengers [rasul], because they are also bearers of the Divine messages when complying with His Will.

• rasul is higher than nabi, because the rasul brings a divine legislation with him, whereas the nabi follows the legislation of the previous rasul. Thus, rasul is also nabi, but a nabi may not necessarily be a rasul.



The Necessity and Function of Revelation and Prophethood
• When the Qur’an says that the institution of Nubuwwah ‫( اﻟﻨﺒﻮة‬Prophethood) has been terminated
"‫ﺎﻟﻜﻡ ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ﺭﺴﻭل ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻭ ﹶﺎﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺒ ﱢﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺃﺤﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺭ‬ ‫ﺎ ﹶﺎﻥ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺃ‬ “  ‫ ﱠ ﹺﻴ‬ ‫ﺨ ﹶ‬  ‫ َ ﱠ‬    ‫ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﹺﺠ ِ ﹸ‬ ‫ ٍ ﱢ‬ َ ‫ ٌ َﺒ‬    ‫ﻤ ﻜ‬

“Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he
is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets” (33:40), it means that the institution of Risalah ‫اﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬ (Messengerhood) has also been terminated since the closure of a general cadre automatically means that the upper ones have also been terminated.

• Humankinds are faced with broad questions of "life understanding." These questions are lifetime concerns some of which are sources of great expectation while others are sources of anxiety.


‫ﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﻴﺯ ﱢﻴﻬﻡ ﻭﻴﻌﻠﻤﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻜ ﹶﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﻴﺘ ﹸﻭ ﻋﻠﻴ ﹺﻡ ﺁ‬ ‫ﻴﻥ ﺭ‬ ‫ﻲ ﺍﻷﻤ‬ ‫ﻱ ﺒﻌﺙ‬ ‫“ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟ‬  ‫ﺘ‬    ‫ﱢ‬    ‫ﻜ ﹺ‬     ‫ﻬ ﻴ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹾﻠ‬   ‫ﺴ ﱢ ﹾ‬  ‫ﻴ‬ ُ ‫ ﹶ ﻓ‬  ‫ ﱠﺫ‬  ”‫ﻼل ﻤﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﻭﺇﻥ ﹶﺎ ﹸﻭﺍ‬ ‫ ﹴ‬   ٍ ‫ ُ ﹶﻔ ﻀ‬ ‫ ﻜ ﻨ ﻤ ﹶ‬ ِ  ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ﻭ ﹾ‬ • “It is He who has sent to the illiterate a Messenger from among their own people to recite to them His revelations and purify them. He will teach to them the Book and Wisdom- although they had been, before in manifest error-” (Al-Jum’ah: 2)

• Some of the questions that have occupied human minds from time immoral are more important than others; and some are easily discoverable by human reason than others. • The entire range of human concerns that might have called for an external intervention may be classified into three ascending categories of importance: (1) what reason can generally discover/solve; (2) what reason can discover/solve but may err; (3) and what falls beyond rational ambit


The Functions of Revelation
• 1- To confirm; Imam al-Ghazali says: “‫”اﻟﻮﺣﻲ ﻋﻘﻞ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺨﺎرج، واﻟﻌﻘﻞ وﺣﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺪاﺧﻞ‬ Revelation is reason from without and reason is revelation from within • 2- To Guide; and • 3- To Inform humankind their ultimate concerns in this world and in the Hereafter.

Prophets are People too
• The prophets distinguished themselves in human soceity by their special aptitudes, natural bents of mind and a pious and meaningful way of life.


• The unbelievers disparaged the humanity of the messengers. They demanded that this link between the Infinite and the finite be supernatural, akin to the nature of angels and even God Himself (15:6-9; 25:21; 17:92). In other words, they wanted the nature of this link to be the same as, or nearer to, that of his sender than to that of the recipients. This demand however was turned down.

‫ﺍﻕ ﻟﻭ ﹶﺎ ﺃﻨﺯل ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻤﻠﻙ‬ ‫ﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺄﺴ‬ ‫ﺎﻡ ﻭﻴﻤ‬ ‫ﻭل ﻴﺄﻜل ﺍﻟﻁ‬ ‫ﺎل ﻫ ﹶﺍ ﺍﻟﺭ‬ ‫"ﻭ ﹶﺎ ﹸﻭﺍ‬ ٌ ‫ ﹶ‬   ‫ﻟ ُ ﹾ ﹺ َ ِ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ َ ‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ﺸ‬    ‫ ْ ﹸ ُ ﱠﻌ‬ ِ ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﺫ‬ ِ ‫ﻗ ﻟ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻭ ﹶﺎل ﺍﻟ ﱠﺎﻟ‬ ‫ﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻴﻠ ﹶﻰ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻜﻨﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺠﻨﺔ ﻴﺄﻜل ﻤﻨ‬ ‫ﻴ‬ ‫ﻓﻴ ﹸﻭﻥ ﻤﻌﻪ ﻨ‬  ‫ﻗ َ ﻅ ِﻤ‬ ‫ ﹾﻬ‬ ُ ‫ ْ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﱠ ﹲ‬  ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹶ ﹸ‬ َ ٌ ‫ ﹶ ﹾ‬  ‫ ﹾﻘ ِ ﹶ‬  َ ‫ ﹶﺫ ﺭ‬    ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ "‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻥ ﺇﱠﺎ ﺭﺠ ﹰﺎ ﻤﺴ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ ﺘﺘﺒ‬ ‫ﺤ ﺭ‬  ‫ﻠ‬  ‫ ِﻟ‬ ‫ ﹶ ﱠ ﹺﻌ‬ ِ

• What sort of a messenger is this, who eats food, and walks through the markets? Why has not an angel been sent down to him to give admonition with him? "Or (Why) has not a treasure been bestowed on him, or why has he (not) a garden for enjoyment?" The wicked say: "Ye follow none other than a man bewitched." (al-Furqan, 25:7-8)

“‫ﺎﺩﻗﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻴ ﹶﺎ ﹺﺎﻟﻤ ﹶﺎﺌﻜﺔ ﺇﻥ ﻜﻨﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺘﺄ‬ ‫"ﻟﻭ‬    ‫ ﺼ‬  ‫ ﹸ ﹾ ﹶ‬ ِ  ‫ﻠ ِ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﻤ ﹶ ْﺘ ﻨ ﺒ ﹾ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻭﺍ‬ ‫ﻯ ﺭﺒ ﹶﺎ ﻟﻘﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﺒ‬ ‫ﻭﻥ ﻟ ﹶﺎﺀ ﹶﺎ ﻟﻭ ﹶﺎ ﺃﻨﺯل ﻋﻠﻴ ﹶﺎ ﺍﻟﻤ ﹶﺎﺌﻜﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻨ‬ ‫ﻴﻥ ﹶﺎ ﻴﺭ‬ ‫"ﻭ ﹶﺎل ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ ﹶ ﹾ‬  ‫ﻨ ﹶ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﹶﺭ‬ َ ‫ﻠ ِ ﹶ ﹸ‬ ‫ﻨ ﹾ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ َ ‫ﻟ ُ ﹾ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻨ ﹶ‬ ‫ ِﻘ‬ ‫ﺠ‬  ‫ ﻟ‬ ‫ﻗ َ ﱠﺫ‬ "‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍ ﻜ ﹺﻴ‬ ‫ﺍ ﻋﺘ‬‫ﻲ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ ﻭﻋﺘﻭ‬ ‫ ﹸﻭ ﹶﺒ ﺭ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬   ‫ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻓ َ ﹾ ﹸ‬

• Why do you not bring to us the angels if you are of the truthful ones? (al-Hjr 15:7) • They say: "Why is not an angel sent down to him?" If we did send down an angel, the matter would be settled at once, and no respite would be granted them.

• Why are not the angels sent down to us, or (why) do we not see our Lord?" Indeed they have an arrogant conceit of themselves, and mighty is the insolence of their impiety! (Furqan; 25:21)

• They say: "We shall not believe in thee, until thou cause a spring to gush forth for us from the earth, Or (until) thou have a garden of date trees and vines, and cause rivers to gush forth in their midst, carrying abundant water; Or thou cause the sky to fall in pieces, as thou sayest (will happen), against us; or thou bring Allah and the angels before (us) face to face. • Or thou have a house adorned with gold, or thou mount a ladder right into the skies. No, we shall not even believe in thy mounting until thou send down to us a book that we could read." Say: "Glory to my Lord! Am I aught but a man,- a messenger?" (Isra’ 17: 90-93)

• As a ‘practical’ book to be implemented, rather than a ‘speculative’ or ‘idealistic’ book, the Qur`ān considers the nature of the recipients instead of that of the sender. Had the reverse been the case, man would have taken its supernaturality as an excuse for not being able to implement the teaching of revelation in his life. For the messengers to be endurable, they must be humanlike.


• Even if they were to be angels, they must be in human shape having human qualities, so that the revelation they were sent with would be communicable, comprehensible and practicable just as the messengers have exemplified it as role models. (6:8-9; 32:21; 60:4,6)
– Had we appointed him (Our messenger) an angel, We assuredly had made him (as) a man (that he might speak to men); and (thus) obscured for them (the truth) they (now) obscure. (al-An’am 6:8-9

The Functions of Prophets
• To be role model to humankind Both through their personal conduct and through the heavenly religions and Scriptures they conveyed to people, the Prophets have also guided people to develop their inborn capacities and directed them towards the purpose of their creation. Had it not been for the Prophets, man this fruit of the tree of creation would be left to decay.

The Functions of Prophets
• • • • To convey divine message to the people; To explain the divine to the people; To act as a role model-qudwatun hasnah. To correct people’s wrong doings.

Relevance of the Prophetic Sunnah to the Contemporary Life
• Is Sunnah relevant to our contemporary life and why? • Sunnah has always been relevant and will remain so until the Day of Judgment. • Sunnah is relevant because of the following:


Relevance of the Sunnah
• 1) It is the second primary source of Islam; it comes second to the Holy Qur’an. • The Prophet (SAW) said, “I have left you with two things. You will never get astray so long as you remain attached to them; i.e. the Holy Qur’an and my Sunnah.” • Without the Sunnah Islam is considered incomplete.

• 2) It is an explanation of the Holy Qur’an; Without the Sunnah the Qur’an would remain an abstract or a misunderstood Book. Allah (SWT) says in reference to the Sunnah as an explanation of the Holy Qur’an,


“‫ﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻔﻜ‬ ‫ﻢ‬‫ﻧﺰﻝ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﹶﻟﻌﻠﻬ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺎﺱ ﻣ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﺒﻴﻦ ﻟ‬‫ﻟﺘ‬ ‫ﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻴﻚ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ‬‫"ﻭﹶﺃْﻧﺰﹾﻟﻨ‬ ‫ ﹶ ﱠﺮ ﹶ‬ ْ ‫ ﱠ‬  ْ ‫ ﹶ ْ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﻨ ﹺ‬   ‫ ﱢ ﹾ‬ ْ  

• “(We sent them) with Clear Signs and Scriptures and We have sent down unto thee (also) the Message; that thou mayest explain clearly to men what is sent for them, and that they may give thought.” [alNahl (16): 44].

• According to many Qur’an interpreters, the word ‘Message’ which is called in Arabic al-Zikra refers to the Sunnah of the Prophet (SAW). The role of the Sunnah therefore is to explain the Holy Qur’an so that it is understood by the people.


• Through the Sunnah we get to know many of the things commanded in Islam; for example, we get to know how to perform the Salat, Hajj (pilgrimage to Maccah) and Fasting. • Through the Sunnah we also get to know about many of the things forbidden in Islam.

• 3) The Qur’an instructs us to emulate the Prophet (SAW); i.e. to take him as the best example (idola) in whatever we do. Allah (SWT) says in reference to this, "‫ﺍﹾﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﹾﻟﺂﺧﺮ ﻭﺫﻛﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻛﺜﲑًﺍ‬‫ﻮ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻦ ﻛﹶﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﹸﺃﺳﻮ ﹲ ﺣﺴﻨ ﹲ‬ ‫ﻲ ﺭ‬‫"ﹶﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﹶﺎﻥ ﹶﻟﻜﻢ ﻓ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﹶ ﹶ‬   َ  ْ   ‫ ْ ﹶ ْﺟ ﱠ‬ ‫ﺔ‬  ‫ﺓ‬ ْ  ‫ﺳ ﹺ ﱠ‬ ْ ‫ﹶ ْ ﹶ ﹸ‬ “Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in Allah and the Final day, and who engages much in the praise of Allah.” [al-Ahzab (33): 21]


• 4) Following the Sunnah of the Prophet is an obligation upon every Muslim; No Muslim is considered a believer in Allah (SWT) without following the Sunnah of the Prophet (SAW). Allah (SWT) says in the Holy Qur’an:

‫ﺎ ﻗﻀﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻲ ﹶﺃ ْﻧﻔﹸﺴﻬﻢ ﺣﺮﺟًﺎ ﻣ‬‫ﻭﺍ ﻓ‬ ‫ﻳﺠ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ ﹸﺛﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺷﺠﺮ‬‫ﻴﻤ‬‫ﻮﻙ ﻓ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﻜ‬ ‫ﻰ‬‫ﻮﻥ ﺣ‬‫ﻳﺆﻣ‬ ‫ﺑﻚ ﻟﹶﺎ‬‫"ﻓﻠﹶﺎ ﻭﺭ‬  ْ  ‫ﻤ ﹶ‬   ْ ‫ِ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﹺﺪ‬ ْ  ْ     ‫ ﱢﻤ‬ ‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﻨ ﹶ‬ ْ    ‫ﹶ‬ "‫ﻴﻤًﺎ‬‫ﺗﺴﻠ‬ ‫ﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺴﻠ‬‫ﻭ‬ ْ ‫ ﱢ ﻤ‬ ‫ﻳ‬

“But no, by the Lord, they can have no (real) Faith, until they make thee judge in all disputes between them, and find in their souls no resistance against thy decisions, but accept them with the fullest conviction.” [al-Nisa’ (4): 65].


• 5) Severe Punishment will inflicted upon those who do not follow the Sunnah of the prophet. Allah (SWT) says in the Holy Qur’an,
" ‫ﻴ‬‫ ﹶﺃﻟ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﻬﻢ ﻋﺬﹶﺍ‬‫ﻳﺼ‬ ‫ﻢ ﻓﺘﻨ ﹲ ﹶﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﺒ‬‫ﺗﺼ‬ ‫ﻟ ﹸﻮﻥ ﻋﻦ ﹶﺃﻣﺮﻩ ﹶﺃﻥ‬‫ﺎ‬  ‫ﻳﻦ‬‫"ﻓﻠﻴﺤﺬﺭ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‬ ‫ ﺏ ﻢ‬ ْ   ْ ‫ﺔ‬ْ  ْ ‫ﻬ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ ْ ْ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﻳﺨ ﻔ ﹶ‬ ‫ ْ ﹶ ﹺ‬‫ﹶ ﹾ‬

• 6) The Prophet never told any lies. Whatever he said is revelation from Allah (SWT). Allah (SWT) says in the Holy Qur’an,
"‫ﻰ‬‫ﻮﺣ‬  ‫ﻮ ﹺﺇﱠﺎ ﻭﺣ‬ ‫ﻯ ﹺﺇﻥ‬‫ ﻋﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻬﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻄ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫"ﻭﻣ‬ ‫ ْﻲ ﻳ‬ ‫ ﻟ‬ ‫ﹾ ﻫ‬  ‫ ﹺ‬ ‫ﻖ‬ ْ 

“…then let those beware who withstand the Messenger’s order, let some trial befall them, or a grievous Penalty be inflicted on them.” [al-Nur (24): 63]

“Nor does he say (aught) of (his own) Desire. It is no less than inspiration sent down to him.” [al-Najm (53): 3-4].

• 7) Obedience to the Prophet is obedience to Allah and disobedience to him is considered disobedience to Allah (SWT). Allah (SWT) says in the Holy Qur’an, "‫ﻴﻈﹰﺎ‬‫ﺎﻙ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﺣﻔ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﺃﺭﺳﻠﻨ‬‫ﺗﻮﱠﻰ ﻓﻤ‬ ‫ﻮﻝ ﻓﻘﺪ ﹶﺃﻃﹶﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻄﻊ ﺍﻟﺮ‬ ‫"ﻣﻦ‬  ْ ‫ ﹶ ْ ﹺ‬  ‫ ﹾ‬ ْ ‫ﻟ ﹶ‬ ْ    ‫ ﱠ‬ ْ ‫ﺳ ﹶ ﹶ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹺ‬ ‫ ْ ﻳ‬ “He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah; but if any turn away, We have not sent thee to watch over their (evil deeds).” [al-Nisa’ (4): 80].

• 8) It can be an independent source of Law. The Sunnah states many things that are not found in the Holy Qur’an which all Muslims are obliged to follow. Allah (SWT) says, "‫ﻳﺪ ﺍ ﹾﻟﻌﻘﹶﺎﺏ‬‫ﺗ ﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﹺﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺷﺪ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻮﺍ ﻭ‬ ‫ ﻓﹶﺎْﻧﺘ‬ ‫ﺎﻛﻢ ﻋﻨ‬‫ﻧﻬ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻮﻝ ﻓﺨ ﹸﻭﻩ ﻭﻣ‬ ‫ﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﻟﺮ‬‫ﺎ ﺁﺗ‬‫"ﻭﻣ‬ ‫ ﹺ‬   ‫ ﱠ ﱠ‬‫ﻘ ﱠ‬ ‫ﻬ‬ ‫ ْﻪ‬ ْ ‫ﹸ‬   ‫ﺬ‬ ‫ ﺳ ﹸ ﹶ‬  ‫ َ ﹸ‬ “…So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you. And fear Allah; for Allah is strict in Punishment.” [al-hashr (59): 7].



The phenomenon and universality of prophethood
• There have been many religions which have been distorted and altered in the world, and consequently it is essential to accept the purity of their original foundation. The Qur’an says: " ‫ﻳ‬‫ﻧﺬ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻴﻬ‬‫ﻳﺮًﺍ ﻭﹺﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﹸﻣﺔ ﹺﺇﱠﺎ ﺧﻠﹶﺎ ﻓ‬‫ﻧﺬ‬‫ﺑﺸﲑًﺍ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺎﻙ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﺤﻖ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﺃﺭﺳﻠﻨ‬‫"ﹺﺇ‬ ‫ﺮ‬  ‫ٍ ﻟ‬‫ ْ ﺃ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬      ‫ﹾ‬ ْ ‫ﻧ‬
“There never was a people without a Warner having lived among them.” (35:24)

• Rather than being an inclusive commodity or privilege of any nation, prophethood is a universal phenomenon. ‫ﺎﻟﹰﺎ‬‫ﺎ ﺭﺟ‬‫ﺑﺚ ﻣﻨﻬﻤ‬‫ﺎ ﻭ‬‫ﺎ ﺯﻭﺟﻬ‬‫ﺍﺣﺪﺓ ﻭﺧﻠﻖ ﻣﻨﻬ‬‫ﻧﻔﺲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻱ ﺧﻠﻘﻜﹸﻢ ﻣﻦ‬‫ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‬ ‫ﺑ ﹸ‬‫ﺗ ﹸﻮﺍ ﺭ‬‫ﺎﺱ ﺍ‬‫ﺎ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﺃﱡﻳﻬ‬‫"ﻳ‬ ‫ ﹺ‬ ْ ‫ ﱠ‬  ْ  ْ  ‫ﹶ‬  ٍ   ‫ ْ ﹾ ﹴ‬ ْ ‫ﹶ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﻜﻢ‬ ‫ ﻘ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ "‫ﻴﺒًﺎ‬‫ﺎﻡ ﹺﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻛﹶﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺭﻗ‬‫ﺍﹾﻟﺄﺭﺣ‬‫ﺎﺀﹸﻮﻥ ﹺﺑﻪ ﻭ‬‫ﺗﺴ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﺗ ﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺎﺀ ﻭ‬‫ﻛﺜﲑًﺍ ﻭﹺﻧﺴ‬  ْ ‫ ﹶ ْ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﱠ ﱠ‬ ْ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫َﻟ ﹶ‬  ‫ ً ﻘ ﱠ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ • According to the Qur’anic narration, the human race began from one man: Adam (peace be upon him) from whom the family of man grew and the human race multiplied [4:1]. Adam, being the first man on earth, was also the first prophet of God (p.b.u.h.).

"‫ﻮﻟﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻲ ﻛﻞ ﹸﻣﺔ ﺭ‬‫ﺎ ﻓ‬‫ﺑﻌﺜﻨ‬ ‫"ﻭﹶﻟﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺳ‬ ٍ  ‫ﹸ ﱢ ﺃ‬ ‫ﹾ‬ ْ ‫ ﹶ‬
– “And We assuredly sent among every people a Messenger.” (16:36)



• After a long break of revelation, humankind tends to be forgetful, overwhelmed with superstitions, myths and all types of false notions. Within such circumstances, God raised prophets among every nation, "‫ﻮ ﹲ‬ ‫ﻟ ﹸﻞ ﹸﻣﺔ ﺭ‬‫"ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳ ﻝ‬ ٍ  ‫ ﻜ ﱢ ﺃ‬ • (to every people (was sent) a messenger) [10:47], " ‫ﻳ‬‫ﻧﺬ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻴﻬ‬‫"ﻭﹺﺇﻥ ﻣﻦ ﹸﻣﺔ ﹺﺇﱠﺎ ﺧﻠﹶﺎ ﻓ‬ ‫ﺮ‬  ‫ٍ ﻟ‬‫ ْ ﺃ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬ • (and there never was a people, without a warner having lived among them (in the past).) [35:24].

• Despite their relative differences, their messages were the same in their fundamentals. All messengers of God did away with all customs of ignorance and taught their people the right course of action. They preached adherence to a life of piety, goodness and peace. They also preached belief in life after death with its just mechanism of reward and punishment and, the most important of all, belief in the unity of God to Whom alone service and worship are due

177 178

• Speaking on behalf of God’s messengers, Prophet MuÍammad (p.b.u.h.) declares the universal Divine Unity: “The best thing I and the prophets before me have said is: ‘There is no god but Allah, alone, without any partner’.

• These revelations universally declare that God sent Messengers to every people throughout the world. The names of some of these are known to us through the Qur’an, but there is also a large number whose names have not been made known to us.



‫ﺎﻕ‬‫ﻴﻞ ﻭﹺﺇﺳﺤ‬‫ﻴﻢ ﻭﹺﺇﺳﻤﺎﻋ‬‫ﺍﻫ‬‫ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹺﺇْﺑﺮ‬‫ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻭﹶﺃﻭﺣﻴﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴﲔ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻮﺡ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺎ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﺃﻭﺣﻴﻨ‬‫ﺎ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻴﻚ ﻛﻤ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﺃﻭﺣﻴﻨ‬‫"ﹺﺇ‬  ْ  ‫ ﹶ‬ْ   ْ  ْ    ْ ْ   ‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﻧ ﹴ‬ ْ ْ ‫ ﹶ‬ ْ ْ ْ ‫ﻧ‬ ‫ﻮﺭًﺍﻭﺭﺳﻠﹰﺎ ﻗﺪ‬‫ﻭﺩ ﺯ‬ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺎ ﺩ‬‫ﺗﻴﻨ‬‫ﺎﻥ ﻭﺁ‬‫ﺎﺭﻭﻥ ﻭﺳﻠﻴﻤ‬‫ﺲ ﻭﻫ‬‫ﻮ‬‫ﻰ ﻭﹶﺃﱡﻮﺏ ﻭ‬‫ﻴﺴ‬‫ﺎﻁ ﻭﻋ‬‫ﺍﹾﻟﺄﺳﺒ‬‫ﻳﻌ ﹸﻮﺏ ﻭ‬‫ﻭ‬ ْ ‫ ﹶ‬   ‫ﺑ‬  ‫ َ ْ ﻭ‬ ‫ ﹶ ْ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﹶ‬   ‫ﻳ ﻧ‬  ‫ ﻳ‬   ْ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ْﻘ‬ "‫ﻴﻤًﺎ‬‫ﺗﻜﻠ‬ ‫ﻰ‬‫ﻮﺳ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺼﺼﻬﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻭﻛﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺎﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒ ﹸ ﻭﺭﺳﻠﹰﺎ ﹶﻟﻢ‬‫ﻗﺼﺼﻨ‬ ‫ﹾ‬ ‫ ﻣ‬ ‫ ﱠ‬ ‫ ﹶ ﱠ‬  ْ ‫ ﹶ‬ ْ  ْ  ‫ ْ ﹾ‬   ‫ ْ ﹶ ْﻞ‬  ْ ‫ ﹶ‬ ْ  ْ  ‫ﹶ‬ “We inspire thee as We inspired Noah and the prophets after him, as We inspired Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and Jesus and Job and Jonah and Aaron and Solomon, and as We imparted unto David the Psalms. Of some messengers We have already told thee the story; of others We have not;- and to Moses Allah spoke direct” (4:163-164)

"‫ﻧﻘﺼﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺭﺳﻠﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻚ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺼﺼﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﹶﻟﻢ‬‫"ﻭﹶﻟﻘﺪ ﹶﺃﺭﺳﻠﻨ‬  ْ ‫ ﹶ‬ ْ  ‫ ْ ْ ﹾ‬ ْ  ْ    ْ ‫ ﹶ‬ ْ  ‫ ْ ﹶ‬ ْ  ْ    ْ ‫ ْ ﹶ‬   ‫ ﹾ‬ ْ ْ ‫ ﹶ‬ • We did in times past send Messengers before you; of them there are some whose stories We have related to you, and some whose story We have not related to you. (40:78) ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺎﻁ ﻭﻣ‬‫ﺍ ﹾﻟﺄﺳﺒ‬‫ﻳﻌ ﹸﻮﺏ ﻭ‬‫ﺎﻕ ﻭ‬‫ﻴﻞ ﻭﹺﺇﺳﺤ‬‫ﺎﻋ‬‫ﻴﻢ ﻭﹺﺇﺳﻤ‬‫ﺍﻫ‬‫ﺎ ﹸْﻧﺰﻝ ﹺﺇﻟﹶﻰ ﹺﺇ ْﺑﺮ‬‫ﺎ ﻭﻣ‬‫ﺎ ﹸ ْﻧﺰﻝ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻴﻨ‬‫ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﻠﻪ ﻭﻣ‬‫" ﹸﻮﹸﻮﺍ ﺁﻣ‬   ْ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ْﻘ‬  ْ  ‫ ْ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﺃ ﹺ ﹶ‬ ْ ‫ ﺃ ﹺ ﹶ‬  ‫ﻨ ﱠ‬ َ ‫ﻗ ﻟ‬ "‫ﻮﻥ‬ ‫ ﻣﺴﻠ‬ ‫ ﹶﻟ‬ ‫ﻧﺤ‬‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﹶﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﻭ‬  ‫ﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ‬‫ﺗﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﱡﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺭ‬‫ﺎ ﹸﻭ‬‫ﻰ ﻭﻣ‬‫ﻴﺴ‬‫ﻰ ﻭﻋ‬‫ﻮﺳ‬ ‫ﺗﻲ‬‫ﹸﻭ‬ ‫ﻤ ﹶ‬ ْ  ‫ ْﻦ ﻪ‬ ْ  ْ  ٍ   ْ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ ﹺ ْ ﻧ ﹶ‬ ْ  ‫ﹺﻴ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﺃ‬  ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ • We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah (in Islam)." (2:136; 3:84)



‫ﻲ‬‫ﺎﺩًﺍ ﻟ‬‫ﻮﺍ ﻋﺒ‬‫ﺎﺱ ﹸﻮ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﻳ ﹸﻮﻝ ﻟ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ ﹸﺛﻢ‬‫ﺍﹾﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻭ‬‫ﺎﺏ ﻭ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﺘ‬ ‫ﺗﻴ‬‫ﺆ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﹶﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻛﹶﺎﻥ‬‫"ﻣ‬  ‫ ﻘ ﹶ ﻨ ﹺ ﻛ ﻧ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﱡ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬    ‫ﻪ ﱠ‬ ْ ‫ ﹴ ﹾ ﻳ‬  ‫ﹶ‬ ‫ﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ‬‫ﺎﺏ ﻭﹺﺑﻤ‬‫ﻮﻥ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﺘ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻠ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻛﻨﺘﻢ‬‫ﺎﹺﻧﻴﲔ ﹺﺑﻤ‬‫ﻮﺍ ﺭ‬‫ﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻭﹶﻟﻜﻦ ﹸﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳ ﹶ‬ ْ ْ ْ ‫ ﹸ‬   ‫ ﱢﻤ ﹶ‬ ْ ْ ‫ﹸ‬   ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ ْ ﻛ ﻧ‬   ‫ ﱠ‬ ‫ ْ ﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﹺﺇﺫ ﹶﺃْﻧﺘﻢ‬ ‫ ﹸﻢ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﻜﻔﺮ‬  ‫ﻳﺄ‬‫ﺎﺑًﺎ ﹶﺃ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻴﲔ ﹶﺃﺭﺑ‬‫ﺋﻜﺔ ﻭ‬‫ﺗﺘﺨ ﹸﻭﺍ ﺍﹾﻟﻤﻠﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﺮ ﹸﻢ ﹶﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺄ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﹶﺎ‬ ْ  ‫ ﹾ‬ ْ ‫ ْ ﹾﻣﺮﻛ ْ ﹸ ﹾ ﹺ‬ ‫ﹺ‬ ‫ ﹶ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺬ‬  ‫ﻛ ْ ﹾ‬ ‫ ﹾﻣ‬ "‫ﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠ‬ ‫ﻤ ﹶ‬ ْ 
“It is not (possible) that a man, to whom is given the Book, and Wisdom, and the prophetic office, should say to people: "Be ye my worshippers rather than Allah's": on the contrary (He would say) "Be ye worshippers of Him Who is truly the Cherisher of all: For ye have taught the Book and ye have studied it earnestly. Nor would he instruct you to take angels and prophets for Lords and patrons. What! would he bid you to unbelief after ye have bowed your will (To Allah in Islam)? " (3:79-80)

• The names we know are 28 out of 124,000 (or perhaps 224,000); even then we do not know exactly where and when many of them lived.


The Finality of Prophet Muhammad
• There are only four conditions under which the Prophets have been sent unto the world: • 1. There was need for a prophet to be sent unto a certain nation to which no prophet had been sent before and the message brought by the Prophet of another nation could not have reached these people.

• 2. There was need for appointing a prophet because the message of an earlier Prophet had been forgotten by the people, or the teachings of the former prophets had been adulterated and hence it had become impossible to follow the message brought by that Prophet.


• 3. The people had not received complete mandate of Allah through a former prophet. Hence succeeding prophets were sent to fulfil the task of completing the religion of Allah. • 4. There was need for a second prophet to share the responsibility of office with the first prophet. • None of the above needs remains to be fulfilled after the advent of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

Challenges to the Sunnah of the Prophet at the Modern Age
• Several Muslim modernists have suggested that with and through Islam and its revealed book, man has reached rational maturity and therefore he is no longer in need for the revelation. • While there is no need for new message or new messenger from God, the message brought by Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) is till relevant and in dire need today as ever before.


• As man continues to be plagued by moral confusion and his moral maturity is conditional upon his constantly seeking guidance from the Divine Books, especially the Qur’an. Indeed, man has not become mature in the sense that he can dispense with Divine guidance.

• It is true that the Qur’an was directly dealing with the ongoing issues of the Arabian peninsula of the seventh century CE. However, it should be equally recognized that these acute problems were not peculiar to that context alone. They happened in the past and are still happening now in the present time (though in a more complex way); and there is no indication that they will cease to exist in the future. They are the characteristics of humankind. On this ground, the Qur’an is a response to the ultimate concerns of humankind


Al-Akhirah (the End, Hereafter)
• True, human thinking faculty has attained a high degree of intellectual power and maturity. But it is all relative, not absolute, and incapable of solving all the problems it has spawned. While man’s capacities are likely to increase in the future, we must also accept that the difficulties and problems with which he is faced will also increase and grow more complex, just as his present problems are greater than those that confronted him in the past

• Belief in al-Akhirah is a basic article of Islamic faith, along with belief in God, His angels, His Books, and His Messengers, Divine Decree and Predestination. After the doctrine of tawhid and Revelation, alAkhirah is the most repeated theme with all vigour in the Qur`ān. • All of the teachings of Islam would crumble if the afterlife or the eternal life were to be denied. It is therefore incomplete and indeed impossible to discuss the teachings of Islam without referring to the great significance that al-Akhirah possesses, not only for man’s final end but also for his life in this 192 world .

• Al-Akhirah literally translates into English as ‘the last’ or “the end” As it deals with the end and ultimate destiny of mankind and the world, it is often enclosed within a Greek term eschatology, means “the science or teachings concerning the last things.”

• Al-Akhirah, in Islamic belief system, specifically refers to the ‘Hereafter’. It signifies both “the other and ultimate state of existence in the world to come and the life of everlasting duration,” and “the good or blessing of the ultimate state of the other world.” In both senses, it is opposed to al-Dunyā, which means the “here-andnow” of life and immediate and transient values.


• In Islam, there is not only the life of this world but also the life in the world to come. This world is like a field in which our actions are sown like seeds and they grow into plants which are then harvested in the next world. The Prophet (p.b.u.h) says: this world is the growing field or the planting field for the next world.”

• The end of the world is not a complete extinction or an ultimate end, but the beginning of a completely new state of existence with new laws and systems that afford eternity. Likewise, death is not an irrevocable end of humankind, but the passage into a new and eternal life. The Qur`ān leaves no doubt that the alternatives for each individual at the Day of Judgment are two: the bliss of the Heaven or the torment of the Hell.


The Names of al-Ākhirah
• Al-Ākhirah has more than 40 names scattered in the Qur’ānic verses. The names vary according to different spectacles of al-Ākhirah and the purposes al-Ākhirah serves. Nevertheless, some names are more central than others. • It is known as the Day of Resurrection (Yawm al-Qiyāmah/al-Ba‘th) when all the dead bodies will be brought back to life and then assembled (the Day of Assembly “Yawm al-Jam‘”) to stand trial (the Day of Judgment “Yawm al-Dīn”) and account for individual deeds of commission and omission (the Day of Reckoning “Yawm alḤisāb”).


• Because the events seen to take place on that Day are great and numerous, it is known as the Eventful day (al-Qāri‘ah) that is Real, beyond any doubt (al-Ḥāqqah). Unlike this worldly and transient life, it is the Hereafter (al-Ākhirah), the Day of Eternal Life (Yawm al-Khulūd).

• Because in this worldly life, whoever comes eventually departs, and whoever departs never returns, al-Ākhirah is the Day that is certainly approaching and Imminent (Yawm al-Āzifah), and the final Hour (al-Sā‘ah) the knowledge of its appointed time is known to God alone.



The Unbelievers and al-Akhirah
• Resurrection or the final accounting was an idea which the secular Meccan pagans found very hard to accept. In fact, besides the doctrines of monotheism and of Revelation itself, this doctrine was the most difficult for them to accept.

‫ﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﹶﺃﻭ ﺧﻠﹾﻘﺎ‬‫ﺎﺭﺓ ﹶﺃﻭ ﺣﺪ‬‫ﻮﹾﺍ ﺣﺠ‬‫ﻳﺪﹰﺍ ﹸﻞ ﹸﻮ‬‫ﻮﹸﻮﻥ ﺧﻠﹾﻘﺎ ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺎ ﹶﻟﻤﺒ‬‫ﻓﹶﺎﺗﺎ ﹶﺃﹺﺇ‬‫ﺎ ﻋﻈﹶﺎﻣﺎ ﻭﺭ‬‫ﺋﺬﹶﺍ ﻛ‬‫"ﻭﻗﹶﺎﹸﻮﹾﺍ ﹶﺃ‬ ‫ ﹰ‬ ْ  ْ ‫ ﹰ‬  ‫ ﻗ ﻛ ﻧ‬ ‫ ﹰ‬ ‫ ْﻌ ﺛ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹰ ﻧ‬ ‫ ﹰ‬ ‫ﹸﻨ‬ ‫ ﻟ‬ ‫ﻮﻥ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﻱ ﻓﻄﺮﻛﹸﻢ ﹶﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﺮﺓ ﻓﺴﻴﻨﻐ‬‫ﺎ ﻗﻞ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‬‫ﻴﺪﻧ‬‫ﻳﻌ‬ ‫ﻦ‬‫ﻭﺭﻛﻢ ﻓﺴﻴﻘﹸﻮﹸﻮﻥ ﻣ‬ ‫ﻲ ﺻ‬‫ ﻓ‬ ‫ﻳﻜ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﻣ‬  ْ ‫ﻀ ﹶ‬ ْ  ‫ ٍ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﹶ‬ ْ  ‫ﹶ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹸﹺ‬ ‫ ﻟ ﹶ‬  ‫ﺪ ﹺ ﹸ ْ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻤ ﹾﺒﺮ‬ “‫ﻳ ﹸﻮﻥ ﻗﺮﹺﻳﺒﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻰ ﺃﹶﻥ‬‫ﻮ ﻗﻞ ﻋﺴ‬ ‫ﻰ‬‫ﻳﻘﹸﻮﹸﻮﻥ ﻣﺘ‬‫ﻭﺳﻬﻢ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﻜ ﹶﹶ ﹰ‬  ‫ ﹸ ﹾ‬ ‫ ﻫ‬ ‫ ﻟ ﹶ‬ ْ   ‫ﺅ‬ They say: "What! when we are reduced to bones and dust, should we really be raised up (to be) a new creation?" Say: Become stones or iron. Or created matter which, in your minds, is hardest (to be raised up),- (Yet shall ye be raised up)!" then will they say: "Who will cause us to return?" Say: "He who created you first!" Then will they wag their heads towards thee, and say, "When will that be?" Say, "May be it will be quite soon! (17:49-51)

Necessity and Wisdom of al-Akhirah
• First, it is a manifestation of divine justice. Some criminals and oppressed rulers may enjoy opulence and luxury until the end of their life. On the other hand, other people might be righteous and lead a virtuous life but did not survive to reap the fruits of their labours. Instead, they had been made a scapegoat for all sorts of crimes. Were the file of both groups of people to be closed in this world on the basis of what transpires, what would become of the infinite justice, wisdom and mercy that God cherishes for His servants? Nobody who has the slightest notion of love and justice would consent to such a state of affairs

• It is also obvious that not all the good and evil deeds are subject to final accounting in this worldly life. Many crimes and virtues are thus not commensurable with the worldly retribution or reward respectively. It is more logical to look further, beyond this world. • The link between God’s justice and the need for a precise accounting of men’s deeds and misdeeds makes resurrection irrefutably necessary


• It is only in the Hereafter that all deeds, however extensive or infinitesimal, will be irresistibly exposed, scrupulously scrutinized and then adequately requited. ‫ ﺷﻴﺌﹰﺎ ﻭﹺﺇﻥ ﻛﹶﺎﻥ ﻣﺜﻘﹶﺎﻝ ﺣﺒﺔ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻔ‬  ‫ﺗﻈﻠ‬ ‫ﺎﻣﺔ ﻓﻠﹶﺎ‬‫ﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﹺﻳﻦ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﺴﻂ‬‫ ﺍﹾﻟﻤﻮ‬‫ﻧﻀﻊ‬‫"ﻭ‬ ْ  ٍ  ‫ ﹾ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹾ ﹶ‬ ْ  ‫ ﹶ ﹾ ﹶﻢ ﹾﺲ‬   ‫ ْ ﹺ‬ ‫ ْ ﹶ‬     "‫ﺎﺳﺒﲔ‬‫ﺎ ﺣ‬‫ﺎ ﻭﻛﻔﹶﻰ ﹺﺑﻨ‬‫ﺎ ﹺﺑﻬ‬‫ﺗﻴﻨ‬‫ﺧﺮﺩﻝ ﹶﺃ‬  ‫ﹺ‬ ‫ﹶ‬ ْ ‫ ﹴ‬ْ “We shall set up scales of justice for the Day of Resurrection, so that not a soul will be dealt with unjustly in the least, and if there be (no more than) the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it (to account): and enough are We to take account.”(21:47; see also 10:61; 31:16)

• Secondly, the ends of the life must be clarified beyond any doubt, so that men may see what they have been striving for and what the true purposes of life are. • The life indeed is incomplete if considered from the perspective of this world alone, where values are grounded in the transitory rather than the immutable.


• In the Hereafter every person will find his deepest self, fully excavated from the debris of extrinsic and immediate concerns wherein the means is substituted for ends and even pseudo-means for real ends, where falsehood is not only substituted for truth but becomes truth, and even more attractive than truth.

• So what makes the Hereafter better than this worldly life is not only because of the quality of its life, but also because of the everlastingness and permanence of such a life. • The Qur`ān simultaneously maintains both characteristics when it states: "‫ ﻭﹶﺃْﺑﻘﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟﺂﺧﺮﺓﹸ ﺧﻴ‬‫ﺎ ﻭ‬‫ﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺪْﻧﻴ‬‫ﻭﻥ ﺍﹾﻟﺤﻴ‬ ‫ﺛ‬‫ﺗﺆ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬"  ‫ ْﺮ‬   َ ‫ ﹶ ﱡ‬ ‫ﹾ ْﺮ ﹶ‬ – “But the Hereafter is better [in quality of life] and more enduring [in duration].” (87:16-17).

• Thirdly, disputes, dissensions, and conflicts of human orientations must be finally resolved.

• Thus, in order to give our life and efforts a meaningful meaning and indeed to make a good sense of al-Dunyā in its entirety, there must be an ultimate end to which human actions are directed

• for the most part, human differences are plagued with extrinsic motivations of selfishness of individuals, groups and national interests, and inherent traditions and myriad other forms of fanaticism. The resolution of these differences of belief, therefore, will be practically identical with the manifestation of the motivations of these beliefs.



• The Qur`ān makes frequent reference to such conflicts and conflict- resolution: •  ‫ﻳﻔﺘ‬ ‫ﺎ ﹸﺛﻢ‬‫ﺎ ﺭﱡﺑﻨ‬‫ﺑﻴﻨﻨ‬  ‫ﻳﺠﻤ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤ ﹸﻮﻥ ﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺄ ﹸ ﻋ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻭﻟﹶﺎ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﺃﺟﺮﻣﻨ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺄﹸﻮﻥ ﻋ‬ ‫"ﻗﻞ ﻟﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﺢ‬‫ ﹾ‬  ْ ‫ﻊ‬ ْ ‫ﻠ ﹶ ﹸ ﹾ‬ ْ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ ﻧ ْﹶﻝ‬ ْ  ْ ‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﹸ ﹾ ْﹶﻟ ﹶ‬ "‫ﻴﻢ‬‫ﺎﺡ ﺍﹾﻟﻌﻠ‬‫ﻮ ﺍﹾﻟﻔ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺑﹺﺎﹾﻟﺤﻖ ﻭ‬‫ﺑﻴﻨﻨ‬    ‫ ﹶﺘ‬ ‫ﻫ‬   ْ
• “Say: "You shall not be questioned as to our

‫ﻳﻦ ﹶﺃﺷﺮ ﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‬‫ﻮﺱ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟﻤ‬‫ﻯ ﻭ‬‫ﺎﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺼ‬‫ﺎﹺﺑﺌﲔ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟ‬‫ﻭﺍ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻳﻦ ﻫ‬‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‬‫ﻮﺍ ﻭ‬‫ﻳﻦ ﺁﻣ‬‫"ﹺﺇﻥ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‬ ‫ﻛ ﱠ‬ ْ   ‫ﺠ‬  ‫ﺼ‬ ‫ ﺩ‬ ‫ﻨ‬ َ  ‫ﱠ‬ " ‫ﺎﻣﺔ ﹺﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺷﻲﺀ ﺷﻬﹺﻴ‬‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﻴ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺼ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬ ‫ ﺪ‬ ٍ ْ  ‫ ﹸ ﱢ‬  ‫ ﱠ ﱠ‬    ْ ْ  ْ ‫ﻞ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ﱠ‬
• “Those who believe [Muslims], and the Jews and the Sabeans and the Christians, and the Magians, and the polytheists,- surely Allah will decide among them on the Day of Resurrection, for Allah is witness over all things.” (22:17). • For this, the Qur`ān often refers to that Day “The Day of Decision” (i.e., between right and wrong deeds, beliefs, life-orientations, etc.) (37:21; 44:40; 77:38; 78:17).

sins, nor shall we be questioned as to what you do” Say: "Our Lord will gather us together and will in the end decide the matter between us [and you] in truth and justice: and He is the one to decide, the One Who knows all." (34:25-26)


The Benefits of belief in al-Akhirah
• Individual Benefits • At individual level, it gives man a unique and valuable advantage with a greater choice that has an eternal implication. Anyone who is concerned with his eternal welfare will immediately feel the burden of disobedience awaiting him once he allows himself to be succumbed to passion and ignorance toward the precipice of sin and rebellion against divine command.

• Belief in al-Akhirah has several benefits at different levels. There are individual benefits, social benefits and civilizational benefits.


• Thus, his belief in al-Akhirah not only raises qualitatively the level of his deeds but also accelerates their quantitative growth. His behaviour is therefore shaped by truthfulness and sincerity. • Belief in al-Akhirah also provides psychological benefit to an individual. a

• Belief in the afterlife, when all ‘true’ lovers will be reunited, (43:67,70; 13:23; 36:56; 40:8) can console the bereaved for the loss of their beloved ones. It is also a source of consolation for elderly and a terminally ill patient as they would know that his departure does not mean his total extinction, but rather a passage to an eternal life where he can enjoy eternal comfort, if he strives for it in this worldly life .


• It prevents young people from wasting their lives in transitory and trivial things. • It gives hope to the elderly as they move closer to the grave. • It helps to endure the death of the loved ones. Who believe that they will be reunited with their deceased loved ones in a far better world, would find true consolation in the Resurrection.

• It also consoles the sick with terminal illness. • This belief encourages people to live a responsible life, a life of peace and tranquility • It also prevents man from fearing the passing difficulties of life, make him accept them with equanimity and even transforms those difficulties into means of development and ascent toward the lofty goals of life.


• Social Benefits • A society composed of such individuals who believe in al-Akhirah and live to it has much to gain. • After belief in God, belief in al-Akhirah has the primary place in preserving social security and preventing the spread of corruption, crime and violation of law. It is a force capable of taming the rebellious desires of the soul.

• That is because who holds this belief will obey a series of ethical principles (having eschatological implications) without hypocrisy and without being subject to external pressure.



• It is the belief and knowledge of the teleological implication of one’s conduct within one’s society that will produce good citizens. Anyone seriously concerned with his eternal abode, will accustom himself with good behaviours and the society will thus be protected from the crimes or immoralities that he might otherwise have committed

• Belief in al-Akhirah also has civilizational benefits. • Enamoured with his vast potentialities and tremendous material achievements, man can do many things – virtue and vice, commendable and abominable – simply because he can do them. This attitude will lead to irresponsible subjugation of nature, amounting to unsustainable development.


• However, belief in al-Akhirah when everyone will be accountable for his deeds and misdeeds will imbue one with the sense of responsibility, which is a condition of sustainable development. Man will consequently choose the right course of action

• Belief in al-Akhirah should be seen as a source of strength and not of weakness, for any responsible individuals, societies and civilizations. Human beings are expected to exhaust their potentialities and invest them in long-term rewards: greater efforts for greater rewards.



• Instead of resigning to the lower and immediate values, the basal pursuits of al-Dunyā, he is encouraged to strive for long-range results of alAkhirah. That is why the Qur`ān often exhorts man to “deliberate on that which one has sent forth for the morrow,” (59:18) ‫ﺗ ﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﹺﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺧﺒﲑ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻟﻐﺪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻗﺪﻣﺖ‬‫ ﻣ‬ ‫ﻧﻔ‬ ‫ﺗ ﹸﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻭﹾﻟﺘﻨﻈﺮ‬‫ﻮﺍ ﺍ‬‫ﻳﻦ ﺁﻣ‬‫ﺎ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﺃﱡﻳﻬ‬‫" ﻳ‬  ‫ﹺ‬  ‫ ﱠ ﱠ‬ ‫ ٍ ﻘ ﱠ‬ ْ   ‫ ْ ﹸ ْ ﹾﺲ ﹶ‬   ‫ﻨ ﻘ ﱠ‬ َ  "‫ﺗﻌﻤ ﹸﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﹺﺑﻤ‬ ‫ﻠ ﹶ‬ ْ • for whatever accrues to a person is the consequence of previous deeds.

• To conclude, we may ask “Is there anything to lose if one believes in alAkhirah and works for it?” The answer is negative, one will lose nothing.


• To invest one’s thought and action in al-Akhirah means to live a purposeful and responsible life in this world and to prepare for one’s eternal felicity in the world to come. The important lesson to be learned is to keep always in mind the reality of afterlife, the ultimate consequence of one’s actions and one’s responsibly for Allah for what one does.

• Belief in al-Akhirah is not a sort of ‘blind faith’. Rather, it is rational and necessary if only to make any sense of the existence in this worldly life. • We must not mistake absence of experiential knowledge for knowledge of absence. By its essence, al-Akhirah is not meant to be experienced in this world, because it starts where all worldly experiences stop. It will be the last and ultimate experience awaiting humankind!

Man in the Qur’an and Sunnah

• Man in Islam is a multidimensional creature; stands between the material and spiritual worlds and partakes the nature of both. • God has originated him from clay, so the animal world is reflected. Due to this bodily dimension, man needs resources of the material world for his personal growth and social fulfillments.
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• Spiritually, God breathed His own spirit in to him so that from one side the spiritual world is reflected in him, the part that constitutes the relationship to his Lord.

• The Qur`an addresses mankind from two crucial dimensions. First, man is addressed in his ultimate nature: his essential characteristics and behaviors; as such man takes several integral features and attributes, such as Insan (human being), Bashar (man kind), Bani Adam (children of Adam)


• The second crucial dimension that the Qur`an deals with mankind is man as a moral creature. In this regard the Qur`an employs terms such as Khilafah (vicegerency), Taqwa (piety), Iman (believing), Islam (total submission to God), or their opposite terms such as Fujur (immorality), Kufur (disbelieving), Nifaq (hypocrite)

• The way in which living things change and develop over millions of years, or a gradual process of change and development: • Charles Darwin(1809–1882), renowned naturalist and thinker associated with the theory of evolution by natural selection. • Darwin's theory of evolution: Darwin's theory of evolution maintained that all living beings emerged as a result of chance and thus denied Creation.

• There are more than a million species living on the earth. How did these creatures with entirely distinct features and perfect designs come into being? Anyone who uses his reason would understand that life is the work of a perfect and supreme creation. • The idea that life is the product of an uncontrolled, purposeless process of coincidence is a 19th century myth. Looking at the matter from the primitive level of the science of the period, evolutionists assumed that life was very "simple".

• Different branches of science like biochemistry, genetics, and palaeontology have demonstrated that the claims that life originated as a result of "coincidences" is deceptive.


Creation of man
• Man is God’s creature just like other created beings. He has been created in the best conceivable pattern. • God fashioned Adam out of baked clay, which, when organized into a human being, produces an extract, sulalah (reproductive semen). When injected into the womb, this semen undergoes a creative process, as has been described the Qur’an.

‫ﺎ‬‫ﺎ ﺍﻟﻨﻄﻔﺔ ﻋﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﺨﻠﻘﻨ‬‫ﺍﺭ ﻣﻜﲔ ﹸﺛﻢ ﺧﻠﻘﻨ‬‫ﻲ ﻗﺮ‬‫ﻄﻔﺔ ﻓ‬ ‫ﺎﻩ‬‫ﻴﻨﺜﻢ ﺟﻌﻠﻨ‬‫ﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻠﹶﺎﹶﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃ‬‫ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﺈْﻧﺴ‬‫"ﻭﹶﻟﻘﺪ ﺧﻠﻘﻨ‬ ‫ ﹶ ﹾ‬ ‫ ﹶ ﹶ ﹰ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹶ ﹾ ﱡ ﹾ ﹶ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﹴ‬  ‫ ﻧ ﹾ ﹶ ﹰ ﹶ ﹴ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬   ‫ ْ ﹴﹸ‬ ٍ  ْ  ‫ ﹶ ﹾ ﹺ ﹶ‬ ْ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ﺎﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ‬‫ﺎﻩ ﺧﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﺁﺧﺮ ﻓﺘﺒ‬‫ﻧﺎ ﺍ ﹾﻟﻌﻈﹶﺎﻡ ﹶﻟﺤﻤًﺎ ﹸﺛﻢ ﹶﺃْﻧﺸﺄﻧ‬‫ﻀﻐﺔ ﻋﻈﹶﺎﻣًﺎ ﻓﻜﺴﻮ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟ‬‫ﻀﻐﺔ ﻓﺨﻠﻘﻨ‬ ‫ﺍﹾﻟﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬  ‫ ﱠ‬  ‫ ﹶ‬  َ ‫ ﹾ‬  ‫ ﹾ‬  ْ   ْ  ‫ ﹶ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ْ ‫ ﹶ ﹾ ﻤ‬ ‫ ﹰ ﹶ‬ ْ ‫ ﹶ ﹶ ﹶ ﻣ‬ " ‫ﻟﻘﲔ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ ﺍﹾﻟﺨ‬ ‫ﹶﺃﺣﺴ‬   ‫ﻦ‬ ْ “And certainly We created man of an extract of clay; Then We placed him as (a drop of) sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed; Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (foetus) lump; then we made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the best to create!” (Qur’an 23:12-14.)

The Place of Man in God’s Universe
• Man is God’s creature just like other created being. But the whole creatures have been made subservient for him.

It is Allah Who hath created the heavens and the earth and sendeth down rain from the skies, and with it bringeth out fruits wherewith to feed you; it is He Who hath made the ships subject to you, that they may sail through the sea by His command; and the rivers (also) hath He made subject to you. And He hath made subject to you the sun and the moon, both diligently pursuing their courses; and the night and the day hath he (also) made subject to you. And He giveth you of all that ye ask for. But if ye count the favours of Allah, never will ye be able to number them. Verily, man is given up to injustice and ingratitude


The Purpose of Creation
• Indeed, man has been raised far above most other creatures: ‫ﺎﻫﻢ ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻤﻦ‬‫ﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻀﻠﻨ‬‫ﺎﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻴﺒ‬‫ﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﺒﺮ ﻭﺍﹾﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﻭﺭﺯﻗﻨ‬‫ﺎﻫﻢ ﻓ‬‫ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﺁﺩﻡ ﻭﺣﻤﻠﻨ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫"ﻭﹶﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺮﻣﻨ‬ ْ   ‫ ﹴ‬‫ ﹶ‬ ْ  ‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﱠ‬  ْ  ‫ ﹾ‬   ‫ ْ ﹺ‬    ْ  ‫ﹾ‬     َ ْ‫ ﹶ ْ ﹶ‬ “‫ﻴﻠﹰﺎ‬‫ﺗﻔﻀ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺧﻠﻘﻨ‬ ‫ﹶ ﹾ ﹾ‬ We have honoured the sons of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favours, above a great part of our creation. (Qur’an 17: 70).





Meaning of Khalifah
‫ﺎﺕ‬‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﺩﺭﺟ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻜﻢ ﻓﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺋﻒ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ‬‫ﻱ ﺟﻌﻠﻜﹸﻢ ﺧﻼ‬‫ﻮ ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‬ ‫"ﻭ‬ ٍ   ‫ ْ ﹴ‬ ْ ‫ ﹸ ْ ﹶ‬ ْ  ‫ﹶ‬  ‫ َ ْ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ْ ‫ﹶ‬   ‫ﻫ‬ " ‫ﻴ‬‫ ﺭﺣ‬ ‫ ﹶﻟﻐ ﹸﻮ‬ ‫ﻧ‬‫ﺑﻚ ﺳﺮﹺﻳﻊ ﺍﹾﻟﻌﻘﹶﺎﺏ ﻭﹺﺇ‬‫ﺎﻛﻢ ﹺﺇﻥ ﺭ‬‫ﺎ ﺁﺗ‬‫ﻲ ﻣ‬‫ﱢﻟﻴﺒ ﹸﻮ ﹸﻢ ﻓ‬ ‫ ﻢ‬ ‫ﻔ ﺭ‬ ‫ ﻪ‬ ‫ ﹺ‬     ‫ﹸ ْ ﱠ‬ ْ ‫ﻛ‬ ‫ ْﻠ‬ • It is He Who has made you (His) agents, inheritors of the earth: He has raised you in ranks, some above others: that He may try you in the gifts He has given you: for your Lord is quick in punishment: yet He is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. (AlAnam, 6: 165)

• Khalifah means: • “One who exercises delegated power on behalf of the Supreme Authority.” In this way he is not the master but the deputy of the One who has entrusted him with power. •


• A Khalifah is entrusted with certain powers to govern/ manage the world; • A Khalifah is given freedom of action but he has to choose the right thing and leave the wrong one; • A Khalifah has duties and responsibilities to His Creator; to himself, to his fellow men and to other creatures of Allah. • A Khalifah is equipped with knowledge (of everything, good and bad, right and wrong) so that he is able to establish justice.

• Allah provided man with everything he needs to fulfill his responsibilities; material and immaterial things. • A Khalifah will be held responsible and accountable for all his actions on the Day of Judgment. • A khalifah is promised Paradise if he succeeds in fulfilling his responsibilities and Hell-Fire if he fails to do so. • Allah has from to time sent Prophets and Messengers to guide the children of Adam:

‫ ْﻑ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ْ ﹶ‬  ‫ﺗﻘﹶﻰ ﻭﹶﺃﺻﻠﺢ ﻓﻠﹶﺎ ﺧﻮ‬‫ﻲ ﻓﻤﻦ ﺍ‬‫ﺎﺗ‬‫ﻳﻘ ﱡﻮﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺁﻳ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﻨﻜﹸﻢ ﺭﺳ ﹲ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ‬‫ﻳﺄ‬ ‫ﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﺁﺩﻡ ﹺﺇ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫"ﻳ‬ ‫ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﹶ ْ ﹸ ْ َ ﹶ‬ ‫ ْ ﹸ ْ ﹸﺼ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻞ‬  ْ  ‫ ﻣ ﹾ‬  َ "‫ﻮﻥ‬‫ﻳﺤﺰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻭﻟﹶﺎ ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻧ ﹶ‬ ْ ْ   ْ ‫ ﹶ ْ ﹺ‬
• “O ye Children of Adam! Whenever there come to you Messengers from amongst you, rehearsing My Signs unto you-those who are righteous and mend (their lives)on them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve.” [al-A‘raf (7): 35]. • The responsibility given to man as Khalifah is known as Amanah (trust). In some places of the Holy Qur’an it is known as Mithaq (covenant). Allah says in the Holy Qur’an:

‫ﺑﻠﹶﻰ‬ ‫ﺑ ﹸﻢ ﻗﺎﹸﻮﺍ‬‫ ﹺﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻢ ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﹶﺃْﻧﻔﹸﺴﻬﻢ ﹶﺃﹶﻟﺴ‬‫ﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻭﹶﺃﺷﻬﺪﻫ‬‫ﻮﺭﻫﻢ ﺫﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﺁﺩﻡ ﻣﻦ ﻇ‬ ‫"ﻭﹺﺇﺫ ﹶﺃﺧﺬ ﺭﱡﺑﻚ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ ﻜ ْ ﹶ ﻟ‬ ‫ِ ﹺ ْ ْﺖ‬  ْ   ْ  ْ    ‫ ْ ﹸ‬ ‫ ْ ﹸﻬ ﹺ‬   َ ْ    ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬ "‫ﺎ ﻋﻦ ﻫﺬﹶﺍ ﻏﹶﺎﻓﻠﲔ‬‫ﺎ ﻛ‬‫ﺎﻣﺔ ﹺﺇ‬‫ﻳﻮﻡ ﺍ ﹾﻟﻘﻴ‬ ‫ﺗ ﹸﻮﹸﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺎ ﹶﺃﻥ‬‫ﺷﻬﺪﻧ‬     ْ  ‫ ﻧ ﹸﻨ‬    ْ ‫ ﹺ ْ ﹾ ﻘ ﻟ‬ “When thy Lord drew forth from the Children of Adam from loins-their descendants, and made them testify concerning themselves, (saying): “Am I not your Lord (who cherishes and sustains you)?”-They said: “Yea! We do testify!” (This), lest ye should say on the Day of Judgment: “Of this we were never mindful.” [al-A‘raf (7): 172].


• It is narrated by Ubayy ibn Ka‘b that “Allah gathered the whole of mankind and arranged it into separate groups according to their kinds or periods and gave them human shape and the power of speech. Then he took a Covenant from and made them witnesses concerning themselves and asked, ‘Am I not your Lord?’ They answered, ‘Most certainly, You alone are our Lord.’ Then Allah said, ‘I ask the earth and the heavens and your father Adam to bear witness to this effect, lest you should say on the day of resurrection that you had no knowledge of this. So note it well that none other than I is worthy of worship (and obedience) and that there is no

• other Lord than I. You should not set up any partners with me. I will send to you Messengers, who will remind you of this covenant that you are making with me; I will also send My Book to you.’ At this, the whole of mankind replied, ‘We bear witness to this: You alone are our Lord and our Deity: we have no other lord or deity than You.’ ”

• The above narration implies that Tawhid (belief in the Oneness of Allah) is implanted in human nature; everyone is born on Fitrah and it is the parents who misguide him. • The righteous people fulfill their covenant with Allah and they never break it: • Allah (SWT) says: ‫ﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﹾﻟﺄﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺴ‬‫ﻮﺻﻞ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺎ ﹶﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﹺﺑﻪ ﹶﺃﻥ‬‫ﻮﻥ ﻣ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻄ‬‫ﻴﺜﹶﺎﻗﻪ ﻭ‬‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﻣ‬ ‫ﻮﻥ ﻋﻬﺪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻘ‬ ‫ﻳﻦ‬‫ﺍﱠﻟﺬ‬‫"ﻭ‬ ‫ ﹶ ْ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﹾ ِﺪ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹾ ﻳ‬  ‫ ﱠ‬  ‫ ﹾ ﹶﻌ ﹶ‬    ْ ْ   ‫ ﱠ‬ ْ  ‫ ْ ﹸﻀ ﹶ‬ "‫ﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻮﺀ ﺍﻟ‬ ‫ﻢ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﻠﻌﻨ ﹸ ﻭﹶﻟ‬  ‫ﹸﻭﹶﻟﺌﻚ ﹶﻟ‬ ‫ ﻬ ْ ﺳ ُ ﺪ ﹺ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ْ ‫ ﻬﻢ ﱠ‬  ‫ﺃ‬ “They (the righteous) fulfill their Covenant with Allah, and break it not after confirming it.” [al-Ra‘d (13): 25] • On the contrary, the wrong doers break their Covenant with Allah.

• Allah says, “But those who break the Covenant of Allah, after having plighted their word thereto, and cut asunder those things which Allah has commanded to be joined, and work mischief in the land-on them is the Curse; for them is the terrible Home!.” (13: 25).


Responsibilities of a Khalifah
• • • • Social responsibilities Economic responsibilities Political responsibilities Religious responsibilities

The Concept of Amanah
• Amanah is the common name for the responsibility given to man as Khalifah which he must fulfill. • Allah (SWT) says: ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺎ ﻭﺣﻤﻠﻬ‬‫ﺎ ﻭﹶﺃﺷﻔﻘﻦ ﻣﻨﻬ‬‫ﻳﺤﻤﻠﻨﻬ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﹶﺃﻥ‬‫ﺎﻝ ﻓﺄ‬‫ﺍﹾﻟﺄﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﹾﻟﺠﺒ‬‫ﺍﺕ ﻭ‬‫ﺎﻭ‬‫ﻧﺔ ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻤ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺎ ﺍﹾﻟﺄﻣ‬‫ﺎ ﻋﺮﺿﻨ‬‫"ﹺﺇ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬   ْ   ‫ ْ ﹶ ﹾ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬ ْ ‫ ﹾ‬ ْ ‫ ﹺ ﹺ ﹶ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹶ ْ ﹺ‬   ‫ ْ ﹶ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻧ‬ "‫ﻮﻟﹰﺎ‬ ‫ ﻛﹶﺎﻥ ﻇ ﹸﻮﻣًﺎ ﺟ‬ ‫ﻧ‬‫ﺎﻥ ﹺﺇ‬‫ﺍﹾﻟﺈْﻧﺴ‬ ‫ﻬ‬ ‫ﹺ ﹸ ﻪ ﹶ ﹶﻠ‬ “We did indeed offer the Trust (Amanah) to the Heavens and the Earth and the Mountains; but they refused to undertake it, being afraid thereof: but man undertook ithe was indeed unjust and foolish.” [al-Ahzab (33): 72]
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Meaning of Amanah
• What is meant by Amanah in the Ayat quoted above? • According to ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas Amanah means ‘obligatory duties’-fara’idh. • Fulfillment of Amanah therefore means fulfillment of the Commands of Allah (SWT); to establish the Law of Allah (SWT) on the earth. • One who fails to fulfill the Amanah according to the above Ayat is considered ‘unjust’-Zaluman and ‘foolish’-Jahulan.

Meaning and Concept of Fitrah
• Fitrah means: “the natural constitution with which a child is created and born, whereby he is capable of accepting the religion of truth.” • The Prophet is reported to have said “every child is born with a true faith (i.e. to worship none but Allah alone) but his parents convert him to Judaism, Christianity or Magainism…”


Islamic Worldview and the Challenges of Globalization
• ‘Globalization’ defined:
– a phenomenon involving the integration of economies, cultures, governmental policies, and political movements around the world; – The growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume of crossborder transactions in goods and services of international capital flows, and also through the rapid and widespread diffusion of technology; – it consists of processes that lead to global interdependence and the increasing rapidity of exchange across vast distances

• it has acquired three different distinct meanings: 1) Information meaning of globalization: Forces which are transforming the information pattern of the world and creating the beginnings of what has been called the information super highway. Expanding access to data and mobilising the computer and the internet into global service. • The economic definition of globalization: Forces which are transforming the global market and creating new economic interdependencies across vast distances. • The third meaning of Globalization is comprehensive: All forces which are turning the world into a global village, compressing distance, homogenizing culture, accelerating mobility and reducing the relevance of political borders. Under this comprehensive definition, Globalization is the gradual villagization of the world.

Positive Aspects of Globalization
• As early as 1962 the Canadian visionary Marshall McLuhan wrote that the electronic age was turning all humanity into a “global tribe,” and the term global village is attributed to him
• Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) has helped to reduce poverty by creating jobs and improving incomes. • New communications and information technology have helped disseminate knowledge in many fields of study and disciplines. • Communication is cheaper and easier. Costs of telephone calls as well as travel have fallen.
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• This makes it easier to understand one another. Communities although heterogeneous, can be more cooperative now that are more means of understanding each other. • Globalization makes it possible for humanity to have compassion for each other when calamities – natural or man-made – affect others. • Issues such as human rights and public accountability are brought to the fore.

Negative Aspects of Globalization
• Environmental degradation due to unrestrained logging activities of transnational corporations whose sole aim is to multiply profits. • Although poverty has been reduced to a certain extent, new economic disparities have been created. There are stark regional disparities in poverty. • Basic necessities in life are set aside in favor of profits. Many countries in the South have been occupied with facilitating foreign investment in industries that are lucrative to foreign markets and forsaking the most fundamental needs of the people.


• Globalization aids the removal of national controls over cross-border financial flows. Dramatic outflows of capital from one country to another have caused havoc in some currencies, particularly in Southeast Asia. • Advances in technology aggravated by the outflow of capital to low cost production sites in the South has caused growing unemployment in the North, which is an affront to human dignity. • Globalization has popularized the consumer culture. Consumerism has given birth to materialism where people are more interested in what they have rather than the essential aspects of humanity.

• Global consumerism is now forming a homogeneous global culture where indigenous cultures of the South are being replaced by Western cultures. • The global entertainment industry is propagating a superficial American pop culture, which titillates the senses and impairs the spirit. • Formal education systems are emphasizing technical and managerial skills responding to market demands and leaving aside traditional academic subjects. This means that education is nothing more than acquiring specific skills and techniques and less emphasis on moral education.


• Although the IT boom has given rise to an expanse of information there is a lot of information that is useless and meaningless causing people to be pre-occupied with trivia. • Double standards are present in the human rights aspect of the present world where they are used as part of Western governments’ foreign policy but only when it suits them. • Globalization has internationalized crime of all kinds. • Like crime, disease is more rampant throughout the world making the spread difficult to control.

Cultural Globalization
• Against the environment • Globalized food • Homogenized world



• Extremism literal means:
– being situated at the farthest possible point from the centre; – going to great or exaggerated lengths; – exceeding the ordinary, usual, or expected. – Figuratively, it indicates a similar remoteness in religion, politics and ethnicity.

• Islam condemns extremism in all its forms and recommends moderation. The Prophet says: “Beware of excessiveness in religion. [People] before you have perished as a result of [such] excessiveness.” • The Qur’an addresses the people of the Book: ‫ﺍﺀ ﻗﻮﻡ ﻗﺪ ﺿ ﱡﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒ ﹸ ﻭﹶﺃﺿ ﱡﻮﺍ‬‫ﻮﺍ ﹶﺃﻫﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺒ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻜﻢ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺍﹾﻟﺤﻖ ﻭﻟﹶﺎ‬‫ﻲ ﺩ‬‫ﺗﻐ ﹸﻮﺍ ﻓ‬ ‫ﺎﺏ ﻟﹶﺎ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﺘ‬‫"ﻗﻞ ﻳ‬ ‫ﻠ‬  ‫ ْ ﹶ ْﻞ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ْ ‫ﹺﻌ ْ َ ﹶ ْ ﹴ ﹶ‬     ْ ‫ﹺ ﹸ ْ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹺ ْﻠ‬ ‫ﹸ ﹾ ْ ﹶ‬ "‫ﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﹺﻴﻞ‬‫ﻛﺜﲑًﺍ ﻭﺿ ﱡﻮﺍ ﻋﻦ ﺳﻮ‬ ‫ ﹺ‬ ِ  ْ  ‫ﻠ‬  ‫ﹶ‬ “Say: O People of the Book! Exceed not in your religion the bounds [of what is proper]” (5:77)



• It also disapproves of and rejects the tendency to prohibit tayyibat (goodness) and zinah (beautification), which Allah has provided for His servants:
"‫ﲔ‬‫ﻳﺤﺐ ﺍﹾﻟﻤﺴﺮﻓ‬ ‫ ﻟﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﻧ‬‫ﺴﺮ ﹸﻮﺍ ﹺﺇ‬ ‫ﻮﺍ ﻭﻟﹶﺎ‬‫ﺍﺷﺮ‬‫ﺑﻨﹺﻲ ﺁﺩﻡ ﺧ ﹸﻭﺍ ﺯﹺﻳﻨﺘ ﹸﻢ ﻋﻨﺪ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺴﺠﺪ ﻭ ﹸ ﹸﻮﺍ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫"ﻳ‬ ‫ ْ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﱡ‬ ‫ ﺗ ْ ﹺﻓ ﻪ‬ ‫ ﺑ‬ ْ ‫ﻛﻠ‬ ٍ ‫ ْ ﹺ‬ ‫ ﹸ ﱢ‬ ْ  ْ ‫ﻜ‬ ‫ﺬ‬   َ

Historical Background of Extremism
• Extremism is not a new phenomenon, it can be found in all religions. • With regard to Islamic community, its root can be found in the early history of Islam. There have been many extremist schools and sects, which have impact on other extremist groups. • In this respect, Al-Khawaarij and Al-Murji’ah are the best known of early extremist groups.

“O Children of Adam! wear your adornment at every time and place of prayer:; and eat and drink and be not extravagant; surely He does not love the extravagant.” (7:31)


• They are the ones who set out to kill Ali bin Abee Taalib due to his rulership. Their methodology consists of freeing themselves from ‘Uthmaan and ‘Ali. • They believe that the person who commits a major sin will remain in the Hellfire forever. • They have branded all who oppose them as unbelievers [kaffaru man khalafahum]. They dare to heap curses on the Companions [Ashab] of the Prophet and on his Helpers [Ansar]. • They do not believe in the torment of the tomb ['adhab al-qabr], nor in the Basin [Hawd], nor in the right of intercession [shafa'a]

• They believe that actions are deferred from Iman (AlIrjaa). Thus actions, according to them, are not part of it. Iman is simply the complying of the heart. Thus the sinner, according to them, is a believer with complete Iman, even if he does what he does from the disobedient acts or he abandons what he abandons from the obedient acts. • And if we ruled that someone that abandoned one of the commandments of the Religion is a disbeliever, then that would be due to the absence of the complying in his heart not due to his abandonment of that deed. And this view, along in comparison with the views of the Khawaarij, are the two opposite extremities. 272

Manifestation of Extremism
1. Bigotry and intolerance 2. Commitment to excessiveness and attempt to force others to do the same; 3. Obsolete religious excessiveness and overburdening of others; 4. Harshness in the treatment of people and crudeness in calling people to Islam • It is unfair to accuse a person of “religious extreme” simply because he has adopted a ‘hard-line’ juristic opinion of certain fuqaha’. People naturally differ on this matter, even among the Prophet’s companions. For example, Ibn ‘Abbas facilitated religious matters, while Ibn ‘Umar was strict.


Remedy for extremism
• A person whose knowledge of and commitment to Islam is little, or who has been brought up in an environment that neglects shari‘ah, will certainly consider even the minimal adherence to Islam as a kind of extremism. 1. 2. 3. 4. Duties of Society Duties of Yong Muslims Knowledge, values and actions Sympathetic understanding of abilities, limitations and circumstances of others 5. Knowledge and insight into the sunan of Allah’s creation 6. A dialogue on the Sunan of Allah and conditions of victory


• ‘Liberalism’ a political philosophy based on belief in progress, the essential goodness of the human race, and the autonomy of the individual and standing for the protection of political and civil liberties; • ‘Liberal’ BROAD-MINDED; especially: not bound by authoritarianism, orthodoxy, or traditional forms.

• Liberal Muslims object to the implementation of the Shari’ah on several grounds:
– Against theocracy – For democracy – Rights of women – Right of non-Muslims – Freedom of thought

• The liberals emphasized the role of reason and ijtihad and they condemned Taqlid (imitation). • They call for the re-interpretation of the Shari’ah; they argue that the revelation is divine, but interpretation is human and fallible and inevitably plural. .

• Similarly, Hassan Hanafi (Egypt, born 1935) wrote: "There is no one interpretation of a text, but there are many interpretations given the difference in understanding between various interpreters. An interpretation of a text is essentially pluralistic. The text is only a vehicle for human interests and even passions. ... The conflict of interpretation is essentially a sociopolitical conflict, not a theoretical one. Theory indeed is only an epistemological cover-up. Each interpretation expresses the socio-political commitment of the interpreter."


• Amina Wadud-Muhsin (United States, born 1952) argues in a similar vein that "when one individual reader with a particular world-view and specific prior text [the language and cultural context in which the text is read] asserts that his or her reading is the only possible or permissible one, it prevents readers in different contexts from coming to terms with their own relationship to the text."

• Abdullahi An-Na`im (Sudan, born 1946) said: "there is no such thing as the only possible or valid understanding of the Qur'an, or conception of Islam, since each is informed by the individual and collective orientation of Muslims...."


• Liberal Islam has been denounced by many Muslims. • The proponents of ‘Liberal Islam’ has been called by so many names including ‘Secularists’ and ‘Apostates’.

• Liberals generally claim that they are returning to the principals of the early Muslim community, arguing that the traditionalist or the fundamentalist have diverged from true Islam through their focus on the literal word rather than the ethical intent of scripture and are usually secularist in nature.


• It is He Who has made you (His) agents, inheritors of the earth: He has raised you in ranks, some above others: that He may try you in the gifts He has given you: for your Lord is quick in punishment: yet He is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.


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