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shape shown. Ignoring stress concentration, explain how the following properties are affected by the

change. (The dimensions are added as part of the solution)

(b) The torsional stiffness.

(c) The bending strength.

(d) The bending stiffness.

Bending equation

M E σ

= =

I R y

T Gθ τ

Torsion Equation = =

J L r

π (D 4 − d 4 ) π (50 4 − 46 4 )

Cylinder I xx = I yy = = = 87000 mm 4 J = 2I = 174000 mm 4

64 64

Flat shape The approximate dimensions of the hollow rectangular sections are found as follows.

The mean length of the centre line in the wall πDm = π x 48 = 150.8 mm. Treating the shape as a

rectangle, 150.8 = 2Lm + 6 Lm = 72.4 mm.

Outer dimensions are L = 74.4 mm H = 5 mm

Inner dimensions are l = 70.4 mm and h = 1 mm

Using I = (L H3 – l h3)/12

Ixx = {74.4 x 53 – 70.4 x 13}/12 = 769 mm4

Iyy = {5 x 74.43 – 1 x 70.43}/12 = 142520 mm4

The shape with the greatest torsional strength is the one with the minimum stress τ.

Cylinder

For any given torque τ = Tr/J r = 25 J/r = 174000/25 = 6960 mm3 τ = T/6960

Thin Rectangle

Without proof τ = T/2At where A is the cross sectional area based on the dimensions of the centre line of

the wall. A = (72.4) x (3) = 214.2 mm2. T/(2 x 217.2 x 2) = T/869 and hence this shape has the largest

stress so it is the weaker section.

Check cylinder with same formula A = π x 482/4 = 1809.6 mm2. τ = T/(2x1809.6x2) =T/7238 (close)

(b) Torsional stiffness = T/θ = GJ/L. It follows that the shape with the greatest value of J will have the

greater stiffness for a given modulus G and length L. Instinctively, the thin rectangle would twist easier

than the cylinder. For a thin solid rectangle J is usually given as LH3/3 = 74.4 x 53/3 = 3100 mm4 so this

would be much weaker.

(c) Bending Strength stress = σ = My/I so the greatest strength is the shape with the smallest value of y/I

or greatest value of I/y = z where z is normally referred to as the section modulus.

Cylinder

y = 25 mm zxx = zyy = 87000/25 = 3480 mm3

Thin Rectangle

About the x x axis y = 2.5 mm so z xx = 769/2.5 = 308 mm3

About the y y axis y = 37.2 mm so z yy = 142520/37.2 = 3831 mm3

The cylinder has the greater bending strength about the x x axis but the smaller about the y y axis.

(d) Bending stiffness is EI so the shape with the greatest value of I has the greater bending stiffness.

About the axis x x I is greater for the cylinder and about the y y axis it is greater for the flat shape.

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