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F. Schubert, B. Lamek

Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP), Dresden Branch, Germany

Abstract. In the present paper the elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) is combined with point-

source-synthesis (PSS) in order to efficiently calculate 3-D ultrasonic wave fields in the time-domain. The tech-

nique can be applied to arbitrarily layered locally isotropic media and includes the complete spectrum of linear

elastic wave phenomena like surface and interface waves, head waves, mode conversion, and multiple scattering.

Various numerical results for the radiation characteristics of circular, rectangular, and ring-shaped piston trans-

ducers obtained by the new EFIT-PSS technique are discussed. The results for the circular piston are compared

with the corresponding axisymmetric EFIT calculation of the same problem demonstrating the accuracy of the

new approach. The proposed technique represents a significant extension of the EFIT framework since it broad-

ens the range of applications to the problem of high-frequency 3-D transducer wave fields that was more or less

dominated by semi-analytical methods until now.

Keywords. Elastodynamic finite integration technique, Point-source-synthesis, 3-D transducer wave fields

INTRODUCTION

The modeling of ultrasonic wave fields can be performed by two different kinds of tech-

niques, namely (semi-)analytical and purely numerical methods, respectively. While numeri-

cal methods like the elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT, [1,2]) or the similar

finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique [3] are discretizing the volume of the model

region and are typically working in the time domain, (semi-)analytical methods based on

point-source-synthesis (PSS), Green’s functions, and integral transformations, respectively,

are usually discretizing outer and inner boundaries of the model and are mostly working in the

frequency domain [4,5].

Numerical techniques are based on the wave equation and thus, include the whole

wave physics. They are particularly used for complex set-ups where an accurate treatment of

all existing wave modes including multiple scattering, mode conversions, surface and inter-

face waves etc. is necessary. Their main disadvantage however, is the large amount of mem-

ory and computation time requirements, especially in high-frequency 3-D applications.

(Semi-)analytical methods on the other hand are significantly faster but usually neglect certain

aspects of the wave field like surface and interface waves, multiple scattering etc. and are thus

restricted to relatively simple model geometries. Transducer modeling in general can be seen

as a high-frequency 3-D problem and is therefore dominated by (semi-)analytical techniques

up to now. In the present paper the elastodynamic finite integration technique is combined

with point-source-synthesis in order to expand the area of application of the EFIT method and

to allow a fast and accurate time-domain simulation of 3-D transducer wave fields.

1. THE BASIC WAVE FIELD OF A POINT SOURCE

The starting point of the proposed technique is the wave field of a normal force point source

acting on a linearly elastic isotropic medium with stress-free or motion-free boundary condi-

tions. Analytical solutions are available for the elastic half space as well as for the elastic

plate problem. Also approaches for multilayered structures can be found in the literature but

evaluation of the corresponding equations is complex in general and has to be done numeri-

cally. Moreover, most of these techniques are usually working in the frequency domain and

provide time harmonic monochromatic solutions.

In order to calculate more realistic time-domain solutions, the axisymmetric version of

the elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) based on cylindrical coordinates is a

valuable tool. This so called CEFIT technique can be used for arbitrarily layered systems by

using one and the same fully numerical framework [6]. Due to the curvilinear coordinate sys-

tem, axisymmetric 3-D problems like normal force point sources can be effectively reduced to

2-D models in the r/z-plane with moderate memory and computation time requirements. In

Fig. 1, a time snapshot of the elastic wave field caused by a broadband point source (frequen-

cies up to 3 MHz) acting on a steel half space with stress-free boundary conditions is shown.

The data for the vr and vz velocity components form the basis for the subsequent point-source-

synthesis (PSS). It should be noted that the wave field can be calculated for different points in

time and thus, the full spatio-temporal data can be used for PSS purposes after it has been

calculated and saved to a storage medium.

Figure 1: Result of axisymmetric EFIT simulation of a wave field generated by a broadband point source act-

ing on a steel half space. Top: absolute value of particle velocity; bottom: vr (left) and vz velocity component

(right).

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2. POINT-SOURCE-SYNTHESIS FOR THE CIRCULAR PISTON TRANSDUCER

After performing the axisymmetric CEFIT calculation, the model region around a circular

aperture with a diameter of 2 cm has been discretized by using a Cartesian xyz coordinate

system. Its origin coincides with the center of the circular aperture while the latter stretches

across the x-y plane. For each space point the velocity components vx, vy, and vz have been

calculated by summing up the contributions of all point sources lying inside the transducer

aperture. For each pair of space and source point the corresponding radial and axial coordi-

nates, r and z, have been determined and used to extract the existing CEFIT data.

The results for this EFIT-PSS combination are shown in Fig. 2 and are compared to a

pure CEFIT calculation in which the finite aperture has been explicitly taken into account.

The agreement between the two calculations is very good although the spatial discretization

of the EFIT-PSS model is four times smaller than that of the pure CEFIT model. Moreover,

the 3-D EFIT-PSS calculation time is nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than the time

for the quasi 2-D CEFIT calculation.

Figure 2: Comparison of results for the circular piston transducer (r-z/x-z cross-sections through the origin at

y = 0). Left column: axisymmetric EFIT calculation; right column: EFIT-Point-Source-Synthesis. The agree-

ment is very good although the spatial discretization of the EFIT-PSS model is four times smaller than for the

axisymmetric EFIT model.

Beside the cross-sections through the origin at y = 0 as shown in Fig. 2 one can also calculate

arbitrary cross-sections in the x-z and x-y plane according to the full three-dimensional nature

of the EFIT-PSS solution. x-z cross-sections at y = 18 mm and y = 30 mm as well as an x-y

cross-section at z = 42 mm are shown in Figs. 3 and 4, respectively.

3

y = 18 mm y = 30 mm

Figure 3: EFIT-PSS results for the circular piston transducer (x-z cross-sections at y = 18 mm (left column)

and y = 30 mm (right column)). First row: absolute value of particle velocity; second row: vx component; third

row: vy component; fourth row: vz component.

Figure 4: EFIT-PSS results for the circular piston transducer (x-y cross-sections at z = 42 mm). From left to

right: absolute value of particle velocity, vx component, vy component, vz component.

4

3. THE CIRCULAR RING OR ANNULAR TRANSDUCER

For specific applications ring-shaped annular array transducers are being used. Fig. 5 shows

the wave field of an annular element having an inner radius of 6.5 mm and an outer radius of

8 mm. Again, the broadband point source shown in Fig. 1 has been used as basis for the

EFIT-PSS calculation. Compared to the circular aperture results shown in Fig. 2 it can be seen

that the energy relations between P, S, and Rayleigh waves are different. For the annular ele-

ment more energy is radiated into shear and surface waves.

Figure 5: EFIT-PSS results for the circular ring transducer (x-z cross-sections at y = 0, inner radius = 6.5 mm,

outer radius = 8 mm). First row: absolute value of particle velocity; second row: vx component; third row:

vz component.

The preceding problems described in sections 2 and 3 can be directly calculated with the

quasi 2-D CEFIT code and were only presented to demonstrate the general principle of the

new method. A rectangular transducer element, however, is out of reach for the pure EFIT

technique since it requires the calculation of full 3-D wave fields leading to very large mem-

ory requirements and unacceptably long calculation times. By using the hybrid EFIT-PSS

method the solution can be obtained within a few seconds.

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Fig. 6 shows the results for x-z and y-z cross-sections through the origin showing the wave

field of a rectangular transducer element with a width of 1.5 mm in x- and 8 mm in y-

direction. Such an element is often used in linear phased-array probes. As can be seen from

the pictures there is nearly no focusing of the P wave in the x-z plane since the corresponding

width of the transducer element is smaller than the dominating wavelengths. In the y-z plane,

however, a significant focusing can be observed that comes along with two shear and

Rayleigh wave fronts generated by the edges of the radiating element.

Figure 6: EFIT-PSS results for the rectangular piston transducer (x-z cross-sections (left column) and y-z

cross-sections through the origin (right column)). First row: absolute value of particle velocity; second row: vx

component; third row: vz component. The transducer width amounts to 1.5 mm in x- and 8 mm in y-direction.

Figure 7: EFIT-PSS results for the rectangular piston transducer (x-y cross-sections at z = 42 mm). From left to

right: absolute value of particle velocity, vx component, vy component, vz component. The size of the transducer

element is indicated by the black rectangle.

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Fig. 7 additionally shows the EFIT-PSS results in an x-y cross-section at z = 42 mm. The size

of the transducer element is indicated by the black rectangle. The higher amplitudes in x-

direction caused by the larger aperture in y-direction are clearly visible.

Square piezoelectric elements can be found in matrix phased arrays or in composite transduc-

ers for example. Figs. 8 and 9 show results for the wave field caused by an 8 × 8 mm² radiat-

ing element. Since 8 mm is slightly larger than the dominating wavelengths (approx. 2-4 mm)

the anisotropy of the wave fields in the x-y plane is significant (see Fig. 9). The radiated am-

plitudes in the x- and y-directions are clearly higher than those towards the main diagonal.

Figure 8: EFIT-PSS results for the quadratic 8 × 8 mm² piston transducer (x-z cross-sections at y = 0, trans-

ducer width = 8 mm in x- and y-direction). First row: absolute value of particle velocity; second row: vx com-

ponent; third row: vz component.

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Figure 9: EFIT-PSS results for the quadratic piston transducer (x-y cross-sections at z = 42 mm). From left to

right: absolute value of particle velocity, vx component, vy component, vz component.

In the preceding examples only the radiation into an elastic homogeneous half space has been

considered. One of the big advantages of the CEFIT approach is that multilayered structures

of nearly arbitrary complexity can be calculated with the same program and this advantage

can be transferred to the hybrid EFIT-PSS approach of course. Fig. 10 shows the wave field

of a normal force point source acting on a multilayer structure that consists of a 10 mm per-

spex layer followed by a thin 200 µm zinc layer on a steel substrate.

Figure 10: Result of axisymmetric EFIT simulation of a wave field generated by a broadband point source in a

multilayer structure consisting of 10 mm perspex followed by a 0.2 mm zinc layer on a steel half space. Top:

absolute value of particle velocity; bottom: vr (left) and vz velocity component (right).

8

The wave front snapshots in Fig. 10 were again calculated by the CEFIT code and show the

full complexity of the underlying wave physics including head waves, interface waves, as

well as mode converted and multiply scattered echoes. The vr and vz data can again be used

for EFIT-PSS calculations of arbitrary transducer geometries. As an example, the result for

the 8 × 8 mm² square element is shown in Fig. 11. The amplitudes in perspex have been

scaled down by a factor of seven in order to visualize more details.

Figure 11: EFIT-PSS results for the quadratic piston transducer coupled to the perspex-zinc-steel multilayer

(x-z cross-sections at y = 0, transducer width = 8 mm in x- and y-direction). Top left: absolute value of particle

velocity; top right: vx component; bottom: vz component. The amplitudes in perspex have been scaled down by

a factor of seven in order to show more details of the wave field.

In the present paper a hybrid technique that combines the advantages of the numerical EFIT

technique and the well-known point-source-synthesis has been presented. With this new time-

domain approach, high-frequency 3-D transducer wave fields for various transducer geome-

tries can be easily calculated with only a fraction of the computational effort needed for full

numerical 3-D calculations. In particular the following relevant transducers can be calculated

with the new EFIT-PSS method:

• Annular transducers

• Annular phased arrays

• Rectangular transducers

• Linear phased arrays

• Square transducers

• Matrix phased arrays

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• Piezo composite transducers

• Angle beam probes with fluid coupling (time delayed normal force excitation)

• Laser ultrasonic apertures

The EFIT-PSS results can be presented as wave front snapshots for different points in time,

wave front animations, time-domain signals at arbitrary positions (A-, B-, C-Scan representa-

tions) and the well-known intensity plots.

For the phased array transducers and especially for the angle beam probes, the point

source wave field is needed at different points in time. However, the extension of the EFIT-

PSS technique to the full spatio-temporal information is straightforward in principle but needs

an effective data management if the complete point-source data set does not fit into the avail-

able RAM at once.

Moreover, the proposed technique is not restricted to axisymmetric isotropic problems

since the basic point source data can also be calculated by using a single 3-D calculation of an

arbitrarily layered anisotropic medium. This data could then be used to calculate the wave

field of various transducer geometries without the need for further numerical 3-D calcula-

tions. As a conclusion one can summarize that the proposed EFIT-PSS technique represents a

significant extension of the EFIT framework establishing a powerful time-domain alternative

to traditional semi-analytical methods.

REFERENCES

[1] F. Schubert, “Numerical time-domain modeling of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic wave propagation using

finite integration techniques – Theory and applications”, Ultrasonics 42, 221-229, 2004.

[2] P. Fellinger, R. Marklein, K.-J. Langenberg, S. Klaholz, “Numerical modeling of elastic wave propagation

and scattering with EFIT- elastodynamic finite integration technique”, Wave Motion 21, 47-66, 1995.

[3] Y.-H. Chen, W. C. Chew, and Q.-H. Liu, “A three-dimensional finite difference code for the modeling of

sonic logging tools”, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103 (2), 702-712, 1998.

[4] M. Spies, “Transducer-Modeling in General Transversely Isotropic Media Via Point-Source-Synthesis: The-

ory”, J. of Nondestr. Eval. 13 (2), 85-99, 1994.

[5] E. Kühnicke, “Optimization of Ultrasound Broadband Transducers for Complex Testing Problems by Means

of Transient and Time Harmonic Sound Fields”, In. Proc. of 9th European Conference on NDT, Berlin 2006, BB

103-CD, Poster 154, DGZfP 2006.

[6] F. Schubert, A. Peiffer, B. Köhler, T. Sanderson, “The elastodynamic finite integration technique for waves

in cylindrical geometries“, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 104 (5), 2604-2614, 1998.

CONTACT ADDRESS

Fraunhofer-Institute for Nondestructive Testing, Dresden Branch (IZFP-D)

Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden, Germany

Email: Frank.Schubert@izfp-d.fraunhofer.de

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