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Delhi Technological University
SUBMITTED BY: Arth Acharya 2k8/COE/120 Computer Engineering
SUBMITTED TO: Mr. Parshuram Sharma Professor, Dept. Of Humanities Delhi Technological University
[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE]
[Report on IC Engine and detailed description of 4-stroke and 2-stroke combustion cycle ]
[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE]
I hereby acknowledge that I am thankful to my respected faculty Mr P.R. Sharma for his guidance and valuable advice in preparing this report. I express my gratitude towards sir for providing us such a topic which if taken into account can be a major step for water conservation and can provide solutions to many other problems caused by it. Thanks are also due to my batch mates and hostel friends who assisted me in various ways in completion of this work.
Arth Acharya 2K8/COE/120
E. Sharma) Department of Humanities Delhi College of Engineering CONTENTS Acknowledgements  .[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT This is to certify that this report titled “INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE” embodies the original work done by ARTH ACHARYA (2K8/COE/120) under my supervision as a part of the sessional subject ‘Report Writing’ in their curriculum of B. He has completed the work to my utmost satisfaction (Mr P.R. 4th semester.
In an internal combustion engine the expansion of  .[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT Certificate The Internal Combustion Engine • Engine Configurations o Four Stroke o Two Stroke • Engine Cycle o Four Stroke o Two Stroke • Common Components • Parts Bibliography INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (generally. fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber.
Only for hand-held power tools do they share part of the market with battery powered devices. and boats. A large number of different designs for ICEs have been developed and built. the real strength of internal combustion engines is in mobile applications and they dominate as a power supply for cars. a liquid derived from fossil fuels). each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. such as the Wankel rotary engine. such as steam or Stirling engines. generate useful mechanical energy. The internal combustion engine (or ICE) is quite different from external combustion engines. mixed with or contaminated by combustion products. with a variety of different strengths and weaknesses. such as the more familiar four-stroke and twostroke piston engines. jet engines and most rocket engines. nuclear. directly applies force to a movable component of the engine. along with variants. While there have been and still are many stationary applications. pressurized water or even liquid sodium. hot water. wood-burning. such as the pistons or turbine blades and by moving it over a distance. from the smallest to the biggest. solar etc.  .[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT the high temperature and pressure gases. The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent. the ICE delivers an excellent power-to-weight ratio with few safety or other disadvantages. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines. in which the energy is delivered to a working fluid not consisting of. Working fluids can be air. aircraft. Powered by an energy-dense fuel (which is very frequently petrol. heated in some kind of boiler by fossil fuel. which are produced by the combustion.
Four Stroke Configuration Operation STARTING POSITION INTAKE STROKE COMPRESSION STROKE IGNITION OF FUEL POWER STROKE EXHAUST STROKE  .[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT ENGINE CONFIGURATIONS Internal combustion engines can be classified by their configuration.
The combustion process typically results in the production of a great quantity of heat. the temperature reached is determined by the chemical makeup of the fuel and oxidizers. and the rarer use of propane. either by spark ignition (SI) or compression ignition (CI). although a few systems involve detonation. Internal combustion engines require ignition of the mixture. Exhaust o The cooled combustion products are exhausted into the atmosphere o Many engines overlap these steps in time.[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT As their name implies. Except for the fuel delivery components. Liquid and gaseous biofuels. typically with oxygen from the air (though it is possible to inject nitrous oxide in order to do more of the same thing and gain a power boost). most internal combustion engines that are designed for gasoline use can run on natural gas or liquefied petroleum gases without major modifications. 4. Intake Combustible mixtures are emplaced in the combustion chamber 2. jet engines do all steps simultaneously at different parts of the engines. Fossil fuels include diesel fuel. pressing on and moving parts of the engine and performing useful work. Before the invention of reliable electrical methods. Large diesels can run with air mixed with gases and a pilot diesel fuel ignition injection. hot tube and flame methods were used. operation of four stroke internal combustion engines have four basic steps that repeat with every two revolutions of the engine: 1. such as ethanol and biodiesel (a form of diesel fuel that is produced from crops that yield triglycerides such as soybean oil). Power o The mixture is burnt. gasoline and petroleum gas. The hot mixture is expanded.  . Compression o The mixtures are placed under pressure 3. almost invariably a deflagration. as well as the production of steam and carbon dioxide and other chemicals at very high temperature. can also be used. The most common modern fuels are made up of hydrocarbons and are derived mostly from fossil fuels (petroleum). Combustion All internal combustion engines depend on the exothermic chemical process of combustion: the reaction of a fuel. Some engines with appropriate modifications can also run on hydrogen gas.
crankcase-scavenged two-stroke engines have been less fuel-efficient than other types of engines when the fuel is mixed with the air prior to scavenging allowing some of it to escape out of the exhaust port. lawnmowers. Two-stroke engines have the advantage of an increased specific power ratio (i. Spark-ignition two-strokes are small and light for their power output and mechanically very simple. however. outboard motors. They use forced induction (similar to super-charging) to scavenge the cylinders.[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT Two Stroke Configuration Engines based on the two-stroke cycle use two strokes (one up. Research continues into improving many aspects of two-stroke motors including direct fuel injection. chain saws. amongst other things. Fuel injection is essential for a modern two-stroke engine in order to meet ever more stringent emission standards. Two-stroke engines are widely used in snowmobiles. In terms of power per cubic centimeter. Modern designs use air-assisted fuel injection which avoids this loss. Since there are no dedicated intake or exhaust strokes.e.5 times that of a typical four-stroke engine. an example of this type of motor is the Wartsila-Sulzer turbocharged two-stroke diesel as used  . they are also generally less efficient and more polluting than their four-stroke counterparts. The most common method in spark-ignition two-strokes is to use the downward motion of the piston to pressurize fresh charge in the crankcase. which is then blown through the cylinder through ports in the cylinder walls. Small displacement. and are more efficient than comparably sized four-stroke engines. used in some locomotives and large ships. and many motorcycles. power to volume ratio). jet skis. typically around 1. mopeds. The largest internal combustion engines in the world are two-stroke diesels. a single-cylinder small motor application like a twostroke engine produces much more power than an equivalent four-stroke engine due to the enormous advantage of having one power stroke for every 360 degrees of crankshaft rotation (compared to 720 degrees in a 4 stroke motor). one down) for every power stroke. string trimmers. alternative methods must be used to scavenge the cylinders. The initial results have produced motors that are much cleaner burning than their traditional counterparts.
and the wider but smoother flat or boxer configuration. which is.  . the more compact V configuration. one can achieve uniflow scavenging. Because here gas in. Also the thermal efficiency is improved because of lack of cylinder heads. U. For comparison.[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT in large container ships. It is the most efficient and powerful internal combustion engine in the world with over 50% thermal efficiency. More unusual configurations such as the H. Aircraft engines can also adopt a radial configuration which allows more effective cooling. Multiple crankshaft configurations do not necessarily need a cylinder head at all because they can instead have a piston at each end of the cylinder called an opposed piston design. size is an advantage for efficiency due to the increase in the ratio of volume to surface area. efficient over a wide range of revolution numbers. and W have also been used. X. like in the four stroke engine.and outlets are positioned at opposed ends of the cylinder. Common cylinder configurations include the straight or inline configuration. the most efficient small four-stroke motors are around 43% thermal efficiency.
either crankcase compression or super-charging. This is achieved by exhausting and re-charging the cylinder simultaneously. Compression stroke: Fuel-air mix compressed and ignited. Some form of pressure is needed.  . fuel injected and self ignited 3. The steps involved here are: 1. Power stroke: piston is pushed downwards by the hot exhaust gases. In case of Diesel: Air compressed. 2. Intake and exhaust occur at bottom dead center.[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT ENGINE CYCLE Two-Stroke IDEALISED P/V DIAGRAM FOR TWO STROKE OTTO CYCLE This system manages to pack one power stroke into every two strokes of the piston (up-down).
3. 2. more efficient. During the 1st. Combustion occurs rapidly. THE POWER STROKE IS THE TOP CURVED LINE. Compression stroke: Fuel vapor and air are compressed and ignited. The steps involved here are: 1. Intake stroke: Air and vaporized fuel are drawn in. THE BOTTOM IS THE COMPRESSION STROKE Engines based on the four-stroke ("Otto cycle") have one power stroke for every four strokes (up-down-up-down) and employ spark plug ignition. larger boats. Exhaust stroke: Exhaust is driven out. and larger than their two-stroke counterparts. 4. and during combustion the volume varies little ("constant volume").[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT Four-Stroke IDEALISED PRESSURE/VOLUME DIAGRAM OF THE OTTO CYCLE SHOWING COMBUSTION HEAT INPUT QP AND WASTE EXHAUST OUTPUT QO. They are generally quieter. They are used in cars. and 4th stroke the piston is relying on power and the momentum generated by the other pistons. some motorcycles. a four cylinder engine would be less powerful than a six or eight cylinder engine. and many light aircraft. Combustion stroke: Fuel combusts and piston is pushed downwards. In that case.  . 2nd.
Snowmobiles Usually have one to four cylinders and can be both 2 stroke or 4 stroke. due to the limit on average piston speed of less than 30 ft/sec on engines lasting more than 40000 hours under full power. A row contains an odd number of cylinders so an even number indicates a two. and some very small cars and trucks having two or three. some 'novelties' exist with 8.or four-row engine. normally in the in-line configuration however there are again some novelties that exist with V-4 Engines Small portable appliances such as chainsaws. The downside to having more pistons is that the engine will tend to weigh more and generate more internal friction as the greater number of pistons rub against the inside of their cylinders. Freight diesel locomotives usually have around 12 to 20 cylinders due to space limitations as larger cylinders take more space (volume ) per kwh.[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT COMMON COMPONENTS Combustion Chambers Internal combustion engines can contain any number of combustion chambers (cylinders). that is. or 12. Most car engines have four to eight cylinders with some high performance cars having ten. This tends to decrease fuel efficiency and robs the engine of some of its power. the mass of each piston can be less thus making a smoother-running engine since the engine tends to vibrate as a result of the pistons moving up and down. but it did not enter production. In previous years. • • • • • Radial aircraft engines (now obsolete) had from three to 28 cylinders. with numbers between one and twelve being common. though as many as 36 have been used. but twocylinder chainsaws exist. Doubling the number of the same size cylinders will double the torque and power.  . an example is the Pratt & Whitney R-4360. Motorcycles commonly have from one to four cylinders. Having more cylinders in an engine yields two potential benefits: first. and domestic lawn mowers most commonly have one cylinder. Large reversible two cycle marine diesels have a minimum of three to over ten cylinders. For highperformance gasoline engines using current materials and technology— such as the engines found in modern automobiles. with a few high performance models having six. there seems to be a point around 10 or 12 cylinders after which the addition of cylinders becomes an overall detriment to performance and efficiency. generators. some quite large cars had two-cylinder or two-stroke engines. the engine can have a larger displacement with smaller individual reciprocating masses. although. 10. The largest of these was the Lycoming R-7755 with 36 cylinders (four rows of nine cylinders). twelve—or even sixteen.
In this case. outside flame and hot-tube systems were used. The vast majority of compression ignition engines are diesels in which the fuel is mixed with the air after the air has reached ignition temperature. Very small model engines for which simplicity and light weight is more important than fuel costs use easily ignited fuels (a mixture of kerosene. and diesel engines by compression heating. is also known as pinging or Engine knocking. Diesel engines timing is precisely controlled by the pressure pump and injector. resulting from compression—near top dead center. such as Gale Banks. Ignition Timing For reciprocating engines. the timing comes from the fuel injection system. Historically. Leaner mixtures and lower mixture pressures burn more slowly requiring more advanced ignition timing. For this reason. due to heat generated by the compression of the air during the compression stroke. fuel mixture temperature. Petrol engines are typically ignited by a precisely timed spark. and lubricant) and adjustable compression to control ignition timing for starting and running. The speed of the flame front is directly affected by the compression ratio. see hot bulb engine. Compression Ignition occurs as the temperature of the fuel/air mixture is taken over its autoignition temperature. ignition timing is largely a compromise between an earlier "advanced" spark—which gives greater efficiency with high octane fuel—and a later "retarded" spark that avoids detonation with the fuel used. So at least in petrol-burning engines. Almost all gasoline engines are of this type. not by a shock wave. believe that  . and octane rating or cetane number of the fuel. Combustion propagation by a shock wave is called detonation and.[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT Ignition System The ignition system of an internal combustion engines depends on the type of engine and the fuel used. the point in the cycle at which the fuel-oxidizer mixture is ignited has a direct effect on the efficiency and output of the ICE. high-performance diesel automobile proponents. Spark The mixture is ignited by an electrical spark from a spark plug—the timing of which is very precisely controlled. ether. in engines. It is important to have combustion spread by a thermal flame front (deflagration). The thermodynamics of the idealized Carnot heat engine tells us that an ICE is most efficient if most of the burning takes place at a high temperature.
it is the fuel. Liquid fuels must be atomized to create a fuel-air mixture.though the technology is quite different. from the mid-1980s it lost out on cost and flexibility to fuel injection. In other words. With a diesel. While diesel must be injected at an exact point in that engine cycle. which has become the limiting factor. Diesel engines have always used fuel injection system because the timing of the injection initiates and controls the combustion. engine designers have come to realize that diesels are capable of substantially more power and torque than any comparably sized gasoline engine.[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT There’s only so far you can go with an air-throttled engine on 91-octane gasoline. the lack of lubricity in petrol means that the injectors themselves must be more sophisticated. However. Consequently. boost pressure is essentially unlimited. traditionally this was done with a carburetor in petrol engines and with fuel injection in diesel engines. While turbo charging has been applied to both gasoline and diesel engines. Although carburetor technology in automobiles reached a very high degree of sophistication and precision. Most modern petrol engines now use fuel injection too . It is literally possible to run as much boost as the engine will physically stand before breaking apart. Simple forms of carburetor remain in widespread use in small engines such as lawn mowers and more sophisticated forms are still used in small motorcycles. petrol. Fuel Systems CUT THROUGH DIAGRAM OF A TYPICAL FUEL INJECTOR Fuels burn faster and more efficiently when they present a large surface area to the oxygen in air. Carburetor Simpler reciprocating engines continue to use a carburetor to supply fuel into the cylinder. no such precision is needed in a petrol engine.  . Fuel Injection Larger gasoline engines used in automobiles have mostly moved to fuel injection systems (see Gasoline Direct Injection). only limited boost can be added to a gasoline engine before the fuel octane level again becomes a problem.
 .[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT Autogas (LPG) engines use either fuel injection systems or open.or closedloop carburetors.
these pumps are normally driven electrically. hence requiring a high delivery pressure to overcome the pressure of the combustion chamber.  . Diesel engines use an all-mechanical precision pump system that delivers a timed injection direct into the combustion chamber. Gas turbine and rocket engines use electrical systems.[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT Fuel Pump Most internal combustion engines now require a fuel pump. Petrol fuel injection delivers into the inlet tract at atmospheric pressure (or below) and timing is not involved.
Each valve opens once per cycle and the ones that are subject to extreme accelerations are held closed by springs that are typically opened by rods running on a camshaft rotating with the engines' crankshaft. and a crankpin. covered and uncovered by the piston. connecting rod. and for each cylinder there is a spark plug (petrol engines only). A single sweep of the cylinder by the piston in an upward or downward motion is known as a stroke. Piston Engine Valves In piston engines. For a two-stroke engine. there may simply be an exhaust outlet and fuel inlet instead of a valve system. In both types of engines there are one or more cylinders. Two-stroke engines use ports in the cylinder bore. Valves All four-stroke internal combustion engines employ valves to control the admittance of fuel and air into the combustion chamber.  . the valves are grouped into 'inlet valves' which admit the entrance of fuel and air and 'outlet valves' which allow the exhaust gases to escape. a piston. one or more camshafts. For a four-stroke engine. The downward stroke that occurs directly after the air-fuel mix passes from the carburetor or fuel injector to the cylinder (where it is ignited) is also known as a power stroke. key parts of the engine include the crankshaft. though there have been variations such as exhaust valves.[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT PARTS AN ILLUSTRATION OF SEVERAL KEY COMPONENTS IN A TYPICAL FOUR-STROKE ENGINE. and valves.
Cooling Systems Combustion generates a great deal of heat. both chemical and noise pollution. Exhaust Systems EXHAUST MANIFOLD WITH CERAMIC PLASMA-SPRAYED SYSTEM Internal combustion engines have to effectively manage the exhaust of the cooled combustion gas from the engine. either the engine will physically fail. The exhaust system frequently contains devices to control pollution. Rockets in particular can use regenerative cooling which uses the fuel to cool the solid parts of the engine. In addition. or any lubricants used will degrade to the point that they no longer protect the engine. It is located in a cylinder and is made gas-tight by piston rings.[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT Control Valves Continuous combustion engines—as well as piston engines—usually have valves that open and close to admit the fuel and/or air at the startup and shutdown. often referred to as Exhaust Heat Management. The majority of exhausts also have systems to prevent heat from reaching places which would encounter damage from it such as heat-sensitive components. Its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/or  . for cyclic combustion engines the exhaust system is frequently tuned to improve emptying of the combustion chamber. and some of these transfers to the walls of the engine. Some valves feather to adjust the flow to control power or engine speed as well. Some high altitude rocket engines use ablative cooling where the walls gradually erode in a controlled fashion. Cooling systems usually employ air (air cooled) or liquid (usually water) cooling while some very hot engines using radiative cooling (especially some Rocket engines). Piston A piston is a component of reciprocating engines. Failure will occur if the body of the engine is allowed to reach too high a temperature.
Propelling Nozzle For jet engine forms of internal combustion engines a propelling nozzle is present. The flywheel is also used as a mounting for the clutch or a torque converter in most automotive applications. The exhaust leaves the nozzle going at much higher speed and provides thrust. This is typically achieved by a crankshaft. In two-stroke engines the piston also acts as a valve by covering and uncovering ports in the cylinder wall.  . The flywheel may also perform a part of the balancing of the system and so by itself be out of balance.[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT connecting rod. although most engines will use a neutral balance for the flywheel. This means that the linear motion of a piston must be converted into rotation. The rotational inertia of the flywheel also allows a much slower minimum unloaded speed and also improves the smoothness at idle. Flywheels The flywheel is a disk or wheel attached to the crank. Flywheels are present in most reciprocating engines to smooth out the power delivery over each rotation of the crank and in most automotive engines also mount a gear ring for a starter. This takes the high temperature. Crankshaft A CRANKSHAFT FOR A 4 CYLINDER ENGINE Most reciprocating internal combustion engines end up turning a shaft. high pressure exhaust and expands and cools it. giving greater thrust for the exhaust mass that exits. forming an inertial mass that stores rotational energy. In engines with only a single cylinder the flywheel is essential to carry energy over from the power stroke into a subsequent compression stroke. enabling it to be balanced in a separate operation. as well as constricting the flow from the engine and raising the pressure in the rest of the engine.
can be easily formed and does not corrode in the same way as steel. The majority of older cars use simple steel heat shielding to reduce thermal radiation and convection. Insufficient lubrication subjects the parts of the engine to metal-to-metal contact. It is now most common for modern cars are to use aluminium heat shielding which has a lower density. Higher performance vehicles are beginning to use ceramic heat shielding as this can withstand far higher temperatures as well as further reductions in heat transfer. Large jet engines and gas turbines are started with a compressed air motor that is geared to one of the engine's driveshaft. while bump starting refers to an alternative method of starting by the application of some external force. a unit on the ground or by the aircraft's APU.g. Heat Shielding Systems FLEXIBLE CERAMIC HEAT SHIELD COMMONLY USED ON HIGH-PERFORMANCE AUTOMOBILES These systems often work in combination with engine cooling and exhaust systems. heat build-up. Lubrication Systems Internal combustions engines require lubrication in operation that moving parts slide smoothly over each other. rapid wear often culminating in parts becoming friction welded together e. Large stationary and marine engines may be started by the timed injection of compressed air into the cylinders—or occasionally with cartridges. Compressed air can be supplied from another engine. Most piston engines use a starter motor powered by the same battery as runs the rest of the electric systems. Jump starting refers to assistance from another battery (typically when the fitted battery is discharged). Motorcycles of all sizes were traditionally kick-started.[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT Starter Systems All internal combustion engines require some form of system to get them into operation. friction. though all but the smallest are now electricstart. Small internal combustion engines are often started by pull cords. rolling down a hill.  .g. Heat shielding is necessary to prevent engine heat from damaging heat-sensitive components. e.
[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT pistons in their cylinders. Early slow-speed stationary and marine engines were lubricated by gravity from small chambers similar to those used on steam engines at the time—with an engine tender refilling these as needed. higher temperatures. Big end bearings seizing up will sometimes lead to a connecting rod breaking and poking out through the crankcase. The first generation. was introduced 10 years after the U. Control Systems Most engines require one or more systems to start and shutdown the engine and to control parameters such as the power.S. torque. known as OBD1. Many control systems today are digital. pollution. combustion temperature. Such systems may be referred to as engine control units. Congress passed the Clean Air Act in 1970 as a way to monitor a vehicles' fuel injection system. Simple two-stroke engines are lubricated by oil mixed into the fuel or injected into the induction stream as a spray. the second generation of computerized onboard diagnostics.  . This was provided either by a direct lubrication from a pump. and are frequently termed FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control) systems. speed. OBD2. or indirectly by a jet of oil directed at pickup cups on the connecting rod ends which had the advantage of providing higher pressures as the engine speed increased. Diagnostic Systems Engine On Board Diagnostics (also known as OBD) is a computerized system that allows for electronic diagnosis of a vehicles' power plant. As engines were adapted for automotive and aircraft use. and greater pressure on bearings which in turn required pressure-lubrication for crank bearings and connecting-rod journals. efficiency and to stabilize the engine from modes of operation that may induce self-damage such as pre-ignition. Several different types of lubrication systems are used. was codified and recommended by the California Air Resource Board in 1994 and became mandatory equipment aboard all vehicles sold in the United States as of 1996. the need for a high power-to-weight ratio led to increased speeds.
Scientific American Magazine ‘Modern Day Internal Combustion Engines’.com ‘Combustion Engines’.engineworx. SAE Paper  .howstuffworks.com Encyclopedia Britannica Encarta Encyclopedia www.wikipedia.com www. iMechE ‘Research on Automobile Engines’.[INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE] REPORT BIBLIOGRAPHY: • • • • • • • • www.
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