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Optical Terminology

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What is light to photography? an electromagnetic wave in which an characteristics of the lens or prism cause
electric field and magnetic field vibrate at the index of refraction to vary depend-
What is ‘light’? right angles to each other in a plane ing on the wavelength, thus dispersing
Light is a physical phenomenon which perpendicular to the direction of propa- the light. This is also sometimes referred
involves creating vision by stimulating the gation. The two elements of a light wave to as colour dispersion.
optic nerves, and can be broadly defined which can actually be detected by the
as a type of electromagnetic wave. human eye are the wavelength and Extraordinary partial dispersion
Types of electromagnetic radiation vary amplitude. Differences in wavelength are The human eye can sense mono-
according to wavelength. Starting from sensed as differences in colour (within chromatic light wavelengths within the
the shortest wavelengths, electromagnetic the visible light range) and differences in range of 400nm (purple) to 700nm (red).
radiation can be classified into gamma amplitude are sensed as differences in Within this range, the difference in index
rays, X rays, ultraviolet light rays, visible brightness (light intensity). The third of refraction between two different
light rays, infrared light rays, far-infrared element which cannot be detected by the wavelengths is called partial dispersion.
light rays, microwave radiation, ultra human eye is the direction of vibration Most ordinary optical materials have
short wave radiation (VHF), short wave within the plane perpendicular to the similar partial dispersion characteristics.
radiation, medium wave radiation (MF) light wave’s direction of propagation However, partial dispersion charac-
and long wave radiation. In photography, (polarized light). teristics differ for some glass materials,
the most utilised wavelengths are in the such as glass, which has larger partial
visible light region (400nm~700nm). Basic light-related phenomena dispersion at short wavelengths, FK glass
Since light is a type of electromagnetic which features a small index of refrac-
radiation, light can be thought of as a tion and low dispersion characteristics,
type of wave in the category of “light Refraction fluorite, and glass which has larger
waves.” A light wave can be regarded as A phenomenon whereby the propagation partial dispersion at long wavelengths.
Figure-1 Approaching the human eye
direction of a ray of light changes when These types of glass are classified as
the light passes from one medium such as having extraordinary partial dispersion
Wavelength Frequencies a vacuum or air into a different medium characteristics. Glass with this property is
103
(1kHz)
VLF
(Ultra-long wave) such as glass or water, or vice versa. used in apochromatic lenses to
VLF 104 LF Figure-3 Light Refraction compensate chromatic aberration.
(Long wave)
Incident
LF 105 angle
MF Figure-4 Light Dispersion by A Prism
km (Medium wave) i
MF 106
Radio (1MHz) HF
waves (Short wave) Ordinary optical glass Special optical glass
HF 107
VHF Extraordinary
(Ultra-short wave) partial dipersion
VHF 108 R
UHF R Y
Y R
(Extremely B
UHF 109 ultra-short wave) B Y
(1GHz) B
Micro Refraction
SHF
SHF 1010 angle
(Centimeter wave)
r
EHF 1011
EHF
(Millimeter wave) Reflection
mm
Sub millimeter
1012
Reflection differs from refraction in that it
wave
(1THz) is a phenomenon which causes a portion
Far infrared 1013
Visible light rays of the light striking the surface of glass or
1eV
Infrared
1014
0.77
m other medium to break off and propagate
Red
Near infrared
0.64
Orange
Index of refraction in an entirely new direction. The direction
0.59
1m
0.55
Yellow A numerical value indicating the degree of propagation is the same regardless of
1015 Green
Ultraviolet 0.49
Blue of refraction of a medium, expressed by wavelength. When light enters and leaves
0.43
Vacuum 1016 0.38
Violet the formula n = sin i/sin r. “n” is a a lens which does not have an anti-
ultraviolet
1017
constant which is unrelated to the light reflection coating, approximately 5% of
1nm 1keV ray’s angle of incidence and indicates the light is reflected at the glass-air
1018 the refractive index of the refracting boundary. The amount of light reflected
1 X rays 1019
medium with respect to the medium depends on the glass material’s index of
from which the light impinges. refraction.→Coating (P.174)
1020
1MeV For general optical glass, “n” usually
indicates the index of refraction of the Figure-5 Light Reflection
1021

γ rays the
glass with respect to air. Normal reflection Abnormal reflection
Figure-2 Approaching 10 human eye 22

Center line

1GeV
1023 Dispersion
Amplitude
A phenomenon whereby the optical
properties of a medium vary according
Electric field to the wavelength of light passing
Wavelength
Magnetic field through the medium. When light enters
a lens or prism, the dispersion Flat surface, flat smooth surface Rough surface
Direction of propagation

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Diffraction with the optical axes of all other lens Stop/diaphragm/aperture
A phenomenon in which light waves elements. Particularly in zoom lenses, The opening which adjusts the diameter
pass around the edges of an object and which are constructed of several lens of the group of light rays passing through
enter the shadowed area of that object, groups that move in a complex manner, the lens. In interchangeable lenses used
caused because of the wavelike nature of extremely precise lens barrel construction with single lens reflex cameras, this
light. Diffraction in a photographic lens is necessary to maintain proper optical mechanism is usually constructed as an
is known for causing flare (diffraction axis alignment. iris diaphragm consisting of several blades
flare) which occurs when light rays bend which can be moved to continuously vary
around the edges of the diaphragm. Paraxial ray the opening diameter. With conventional
Although diffraction flare tends to A light ray which passes close to the SLR camera lenses, the aperture is
appear when the diaphragm diameter is optical axis and is inclined at a very small adjusted by turning an aperture ring on
smaller than a certain size, it actually angle with respect to the optical axis. The the lens barrel. With modern camera
depends not only on the diameter of the point at which paraxial rays converge is lenses, however, aperture adjustment is
diaphragm but also on various factors called the paraxial focal point. Since the commonly controlled by operating an
such as the wavelength of the light, the image formed by a monochromatic electronic dial on the camera body.
lens’s focal length and the aperture ratio. paraxial ray is in principle free of aberra-
Diffraction flare causes reductions in tions, the paraxial ray is an important Circular aperture diaphragm
image contrast and resolution, resulting factor in understanding the basic With normal aperture diaphragms,
in a soft image. The laminated operation of lens systems. closing the aperture causes its shape to
diffraction optical elements developed by become polygonal. A circular aperture
Canon control the direction of the light Principal ray diaphragm, on the other hand,
by intentionally creating diffraction. A light ray which enters the lens at an optimises the shape of the blades to
angle at a point other than the optical achieve a nearly perfect circle even
Figure-6 Light Diffraction
Straight advancing light Center maximum
axis point and passes through the center when considerably stopped down from
of the diaphragm opening. Principal the maximum aperture. Photography
Diffracted
light rays are the fundamental light rays with a lens that is equipped with a
light used for image exposure at all dia- circular aperture diaphragm achieves a
phragm openings from maximum beautiful blur effect for the background,
aperture to minimum aperture. because the point source is circular.
Aperture

Parallel pencil of rays Automatic diaphragm


A group of light rays traveling parallel to The general diaphragm operation system
First light ring First shadow ring
Diffraction phenomenon Incident light
Light intensity distribution
the optical axis from an infinitely far point. used in SLR cameras, referring to a type of
seen on waters surface
When these rays pass through a lens, they diaphragm mechanism which remains
converge in the shape of a cone to form a fully open during focusing and
Optical terminology related to point image within the focal plane. composition to provide a bright viewfinder
light passing through a lens image, but automatically closes down to
Ray tracing the aperture setting necessary for correct
Figure-7 Optical Terminology Related To Light
Passing Through A Lens Use of geometrical optics to calculate exposure when the shutter button is
the condition of various light rays pressed and automatically opens up again
Parallel pencil of rays passing through a lens. Calculations are when the exposure is completed. Although
Effective
aperture performed using powerful computers. conventional lenses use mechanical
Focal
Optical
axis Aperture point linkages for controlling this automatic
diameter
Aperture/effective aperture diaphragm operation, EF lenses use
The aperture of a lens is related to the electronic signals for more precise control.
Aperture
Distance of diameter of the group of light rays You can observe this instantaneous
incidence
Paraxial passing through the lens and deter- aperture stop-down operation by looking
ray
mines the brightness of the subject into the front of the lens when the shutter
Paraxial focal point
image formed on the focal plane. The is released.
Principal ray
optical aperture (also called the effective
aperture) differs from the real aperture Distance of incidence
Optical axis of the lens in that it depends on the Distance from the optical axis of a
A straight line connecting the center diameter of the group of light rays parallel ray entering a lens.
points of the spherical surfaces on each passing through the lens rather than the
side of a lens. In other words, the optical actual lens diameter. When a parallel Entrance pupil/exit pupil
axis is a hypothetical center line pencil of rays enters a lens and a group The lens image on the object side of the
connecting the center of curvature of each of these rays passes through the diaphragm, i.e. the apparent aperture seen
lens surface. In photographic lenses diaphragm opening, the diameter of this when looking from the front of the lens, is
comprised of several lens elements, it is of group of light rays when it enters the called the entrance pupil and is equivalent
utmost importance for the optical axis of front lens surface is the effective in meaning to the lens’ effective aperture.
each lens element to be perfectly aligned aperture of the lens. The apparent aperture seen when looking

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Figure-8 Pupils and Angular Aperture is set at 44.00 mm on all cameras. object-side focal point if it is the point at
Entrance pupil Exit pupil
Flange back is also referred to as which light rays entering the lens parallel
Angular aperture
Angular aperture flange-focal distance. to the optical axis from the focal plane
side converge on the object side of the
Object point Image
point Back focus lens.
With a lens focused to infinity, the distance
along the optical axis from the apex of the Focal length
from the rear of the lens (the lens image on rearmost glass surface to the focal plane is When parallel light rays enter the lens
the image side of the diaphragm), is called called back focus. Wide-angle lenses with a parallel to the optical axis, the distance
the exit pupil. Of the light rays from a short back focus cannot be used on SLR along the optical axis from the lens’
certain subject point, the effective light rays cameras that use a mirror that swings up second principal point (rear nodal point)
which actually form the image create a cone before exposure because the lens will to the focal point is called the focal length.
of light rays with the subject point being the obstruct the mirror movement. Wide-angle In simpler terms, the focal length of a lens
point of the cone and the entrance pupil lenses for SLR cameras generally employ a is the distance along the optical axis from
being the base of the cone. At the other end retrofocus design which allows a long back the lens’ second principal point to the focal
of the lens, the light rays emerge in a cone focus. The compact size of the quick-return plane when the lens is focused at infinity.
shape with the exit pupil forming the base mirror on the EF-S lens compatible digital
Figure-11 Focal Length of Actual
of the cone and the point of the cone falling SLR cameras makes it possible to design Photographic Lens
within the image plane. The entrance and lenses like the dedicated EF-S 60mm f/2.8
exit pupils have the same shape as the Macro USM, EF-S 10-22mm f/3.5-4.5 USM,
actual diaphragm and their size is directly EF-S 17-55mm f/2.8 IS USM and EF-S 18-
proportional to that of the diaphragm, so 55mm f/3.5-5.6 II USM lenses with a
even if the construction of the lens system is shorter back focus than in other EF lenses. Focal length

not known, it is possible to graphically h'

illustrate the effective light rays which Principal point


actually form the image as long as the Focal point and focal length The focal length of a thin, double-convex,
positions and sizes of the entrance and exit single-element lens is the distance along
pupils are known. Thus, knowledge of the Focal point, focus the optical axis from the center of the lens
entrance and exit pupils is indispensable When light rays enter a convex lens to its focal point. This center point of the
when considering performance factors such parallel to the optical axis, an ideal lens lens is called the principal point. However,
as the total amount of light entering the will converge all the light rays to a single since actual photographic lenses consist of
lens, the manner in which the image blurs point from which the rays again fan out in combinations of several convex and
and aberrations. a cone shape. This point at which all rays concave lens elements, it is not visually
converge is called the focal point. A apparent where the center of the lens
Angular aperture familiar example of this is when a might be.
The angle between the subject point on magnifying glass is used to focus the rays The principal point of a multi-element
the optical axis and the diameter of the of the sun to a small circle on a piece of lens is therefore defined as the point on
entrance pupil, or the angle between the paper or other surface; the point at which the optical axis at a distance equal to the
image point on the optical axis and the the circle is smallest is the focal point. In focal length measured back toward the
diameter of the exit pupil. optical terminology, a focal point is further lens from the focal point. The principal
classified as being the rear or image-side point measured from the front focal point
focal point if it is the point at which light is called the front principal point, and the
Flange back and back focus rays from the subject converge on the film principal point measured from the rear
plane side of the lens. It is the front or focal point is called the rear principal
Flange back Figure-10 Focal Point (single lens element)
Figure-12 Principal point
Distance from the camera’s lens mount Rear principal point
Parallel light rays
reference surface to the focal plane (film a
n'
plane). In the EOS system, flange back n
Focal Image focal
b
Figure-9 Flange Back and Back Focus point h h'
point
Front principal point Rear principal point
Focal length
(First principal point) (Second principal point)

Convex lens Fig.12-A Fig.12-B

Telephoto type
Object space Image space
Focal
Rear principal point Point

Object focal point Image focal point


(Front focal point) (Rear focal point)
Focal length
Concave lens Fig.12-C
Retrofocus (Inverted telephoto type)

Focal
Back focus point
Flange back
Image focal point Object focal point
Mount reference surface Focal plane Focal length
Rear principal point
Fig.12-D

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point. The distance between these two diagonal of the APS-C sized image brightness is inversely proportional to the
principal points is called the principal sensor of EF-S compatible digital SLR square of the F number, meaning that the
point interval. cameras. image becomes darker as the F number
increases. F number values are expressed
Front principal point/rear principal Angle of view as a geometrical series starting at 1 with a
point The area of a scene, expressed as an angle, common ratio of √2, as follows: 1.0, 1.4, 2,
Light entering a lens from point a in which can be reproduced by the lens as a 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 16, 22, 32, etc. (However, there
Figure-12-A refracts, passes through n and sharp image. The nominal diagonal angle are many cases where only the maximum
n’ and arrives at b. When this occurs, of view is defined as the angle formed by aperture value deviates from this series.)
similar angles are generated between a-n imaginary lines connecting the lens’ The numbers in this series, which may at
and n’-b with respect to the optical axis, second principal point with both ends of first seem difficult to become familiar
and points h and h’ can be defined as the image diagonal (43.2mm). Lens data with, merely indicate values which are
where these angles intersect the optical for EF lenses generally includes the close to the actual FD values based on the
axis. These points, h and h’, are principal horizontal (36mm) angle of view and diameter (D) of each successive diaphragm
points indicating the lens reference vertical (24mm) angle of view in addition setting which decreases the amount of
positions with respect to the subject and to the diagonal angle of view. light passing through the lens by half.
image. h is called the front principal point Thus, changing the F number from 1.4 to
(or first principal point) and h’ is called the 2 halves the image brightness, while going
rear principal point (or second principal Terms related to lens brightness the other direction from 2 to 1.4 doubles
point). In general photographic lenses, the the image brightness. (A change of this
distance from h’ to the focal point (focal Aperture ratio magnitude is generally referred to as “1
plane) is the focal length. Depending on A value used to express image brightness, stop”.) With recent cameras employing
the lens type, the front-rear relationship of calculated by dividing the lens’ effective electronic displays, smaller divisions of 1/2
the principal points may be reversed, or h’ aperture (D) by its focal length (f). Since stop or even 1/3 stop are used.
may fall outside of the lens assembly the value calculated from D/f is almost
altogether, but in any case the distance always a small decimal value less than I Numerical aperture (NA)
from the rear principal point h’ to the focal and therefore difficult to use practically, it A value used to express the brightness or
point is equal to the focal length. is common to express the aperture ratio on resolution of a lens’ optical system. The
*With telephoto type lenses, the rear the lens barrel as the ratio of the effective numerical aperture, usually indicated as
principal point h’ is actually positioned in aperture to the focal length, with the NA, is a numerical value calculated from
front of the frontmost lens element, and effective aperture set equal to 1. (For the formula nsinθ, where 2θ is the angle
with retrofocus type lenses h’ is positioned example, the EF 85mm f/1.2L II USM lens (angular aperture) at which an object point
to the rear of the rearmost lens element. barrel is imprinted with 1 : 1.2, indicating on the optical axis enters the entrance
that the focal length is 1.2 times the effective pupil and n is the index of refraction of
Image circle aperture when the effective aperture is the medium in which the object exists.
The portion of the circular image equal to 1.) The brightness of an image Although not often used with
formed by a lens that is sharp. produced by a lens is proportional to the photographic lenses, the NA value is
Interchangeable lenses for 35mm square of the aperture ratio. In general, lens commonly imprinted on the objective
format cameras must have an image brightness is expressed as an F number, lenses of microscopes, where it is used
circle at least as large as the diagonal of which is the inverse of the aperture ratio more as an indication of resolution than of
the 24 x 36mm image area. EF lenses (f/D). F number brightness. A useful relationship to know
therefore generally have an image circle is that the NA value is equal to half the
of about 43.2mm diameter. TS-E lenses, Figure-14 Lens Brightness inverse of the F number. For example,
however, are designed with a larger F 1.0 = NA 0.5, F 1.4 = NA 0.357, F2 = NA
image circle of 58.6mm to cover the F number
f D
Aperture ratio 0.25, and so on.
D f
lens’s tilt and shift movements. EF-S
lenses feature a smaller image circle
Focus and depth of field
than other EF lenses, to match the D
Figure-13 Angle of view and image circle
Horizontal
36mm Image circle
Focus, focal point
f The focal point is the point where parallel
Image circle Vertical
24mm Diagonal
light rays from an infinitely far subject
43.2mm converge after passing through a lens. The
F number plane perpendicular to the optical axis
Since the aperture ratio (D/f) is almost which contains this point is called the focal
always a small decimal value less than plane. In this plane, which is where the
Image circle
one and therefore difficult to use film or the image sensor is positioned in a
Angle
of view practically, lens brightness is often camera, the subject is sharp and said to be
expressed for convenience’ sake as the “in focus.” With general photographic
Angle
Angle Image plane
inverse of the aperture ratio (f/D), which is lenses consisting of several lens elements,
of view h h'
of view called the F number. Accordingly, image the focus can be adjusted so that light rays

196
from subjects closer than “infinity” Depth of field circle of confusion by the F number,
converge at a point in the focal plane. The area in front of and behind a focused regardless of the lens focal length. With
subject in which the photographed image modern autofocus SLR cameras, focusing
Figure-15 Relationship Between the Ideal Focal
appears sharp. In other words, the depth of is performed by detecting the state of
Point and the Permissible Circle of
Confusion and Depth of Field sharpness to the front and rear of the focus in the image plane (focal plane)
subject where image blur in the focal using a sensor which is both optically
plane falls within the limits of the equivalent (1:1 magnification) and
permissible circle of confusion. Depth of positioned out of the focal plane, and
field varies according to the lens’ focal automatically controlling the lens to bring
length, aperture value and shooting the subject image within the depth of
distance, so if these values are known, a focus area.
Lens Ideal focal point rough estimate of the depth of field can be
Figure-17 Relationship Between Depth of
Fro
n
of t de
calculated using the following formulas: Focus and Aperture
fie pth
De
ld
Re
a
Front depth of field = d·F·a2/(f2 + d·F·a) 50mm f/1.8
pth of r de Aperture
of
foc
fie pth
ld Rear depth of field = d·F·a2/(f2 — d·F·a) Permissible
circle of confusion
us
f: focal length F: F number d: minimum f/1.8
Permissible circle of confusion
circle of confusion diameter
a: subject distance (distance from the
Circle of confusion first principal point to subject) Depth of focus at
maximum aperture
Since all lenses contain a certain amount Aperture
hyperfocal distance × Permissible
of spherical aberration and astigmatism, Near point limiting shooting distance circle of confusion
=
they cannot perfectly converge rays from a distance hyperfocal distance + f/5.6
shooting distance
subject point to form a true image point Depth of
hyperfocal distance × focus at f/5.6
(i.e., an infinitely small dot with zero area). Far point limiting shooting distance
distance =
In other words, images are formed from a hyperfocal distance -
shooting distance
composite of dots (not points) having a (Shooting distance: Distance from focal plane to subject) Hyperfocal distance
certain area, or size. Since the image Using the depth of field principle, as a
becomes less sharp as the size of these If the hyperfocal distance is known, the lens is gradually focused to farther
dots increases, the dots are called “circles following formulas can also be used: subject distances, a point will eventually
of confusion.” Thus, one way of indicating In general photography, depth of field is be reached where the far limit of the
the quality of a lens is by the smallest dot characterised by the following attributes: rear depth of field will be equivalent to
it can form, or its “minimum circle of a Depth of field is deep at short focal “infinity.” The shooting distance at this
confusion.” The maximum allowable dot lengths, shallow at long focal lengths. point, i,e., the closest shooting distance
size in an image is called the “permissible b Depth of field is deep at small at which “infinity” falls within the depth
circle of confusion.” apertures, shallow at large apertures. of field, is called the hyperfocal distance.
c Depth of field is deep at far shooting The hyperfocal distance can be
Permissible circle of confusion distances, shallow at close shooting determined as follows:
The largest circle of confusion which still distances.
appears as a “point” in the image. Image d Front depth of field is shallower Hyperfocal f2 f: focal length F: F number
distance =
sharpness as sensed by the human eye is than rear depth of field. d•F number d: minimum circle of confusion
diameter
closely related to the sharpness of the Figure-16 Depth of Field and Depth of Focus
actual image and the “resolution” of Minimum circle of confusion
Thus, by presetting the lens to the
human eyesight. In photography, image hyperfocal distance, the depth of field will
sharpness is also dependent on the degree Depth of focus extend from a distance equal to half the
Depth of field
of image enlargement or projection hyperfocal distance to infinity. This
distance and the distance from which the Far point Near point method is useful for presetting a large
image is viewed. In other words, in depth of field and taking snapshots
practical work it is possible to determine Front without having to worry about adjusting
Rear Front depth of field
certain “allowances” for producing images depth depth of
focus the lens focus, especially when using a
of field Near point distance
which, although actually blurred to a Subject distance
Image
distance Rear
w i d e - a n g l e Photo-1 Hyperfocal Length Set
Condtion
certain degree, still appear sharp to the Far point distance
depth
of focus
lens. (For
observer. For 35mm single lens reflex Shooting distance example, when
cameras, the permissible circle of confusion Focal plane the EF 20mm
is about 1/1000~1/1500 the length of the f/2.8 USM is set
film diagonal, assuming the image is Depth of focus to f/16 and the
enlarged to a 5”×7” (12 cm × 16.5 cm) The area in front of and behind the focal shooting
print and viewed from a distance of 25~30 plane in which the image can be distance is set
cm/0.8~1 ft. EF lenses are designed to photographed as a sharp image. Depth of to the hyperfocal distance of ap-
produce a minimum circle of confusion of focus is the same on both sides of the proximately 0.7m/2.3ft, all subjects within
0.035 mm, a value on which calculations image plane (focal plane) and can be a range of approximately 0.4m/1.3ft from
for items such as depth of field are based. determined by multiplying the minimum the camera to infinity will be in focus.)

197
Chromatic aberration can be referred to as “lateral chromatic
Lens aberration
When white light (light containing many aberration” (since it occurs laterally with
Aberration colours uniformly mixed so that the eye respect to the optical axis).
The image formed by an ideal photo- does not sense any particular colour and Note: While chromatic aberration is most
graphic lens would have the following thus perceives the light as white) such as noticeable when using colour film, it
characteristics: sunlight is passed through a prism, a affects black-and-white images as well,
a A point would be formed as a point. rainbow spectrum can be observed. This appearing as a reduction in sharpness.
b A plane (such as a wall) perpendicular phenomenon occurs because the prism’s
to the optical axis would be formed as a index of refraction (and rate of dispersion) Achromat
plane. varies depending on the wavelength (short A lens which corrects chromatic aber-
c The image formed by the lens would wavelengths are more strongly refracted ration for two wavelengths of light. When
have the same shape as the subject. than long wavelengths). While most referring to a photographic lens, the two
Also, from the standpoint of image visible in a prism, this phenomenon also corrected wavelengths are in the blue-
expression, a lens should exhibit true occurs in photographic lenses, and since it violet range and yellow range.
colour reproduction. If only light rays occurs at different wavelengths is called
entering the lens close to the optical axis chromatic aberration. There are two types Apochromat
are used and the light is monochromatic of chromatic aberration: “axial chromatic A lens which corrects chromatic aber-
(one specific wavelength), it is possible to aberration,” where the focal point position ration for three wavelengths of light,
realise virtually ideal lens performance. on the optical axis varies according to the with aberration reduced to a large
With real photographic lenses, however, wavelength, and “chromatic difference of degree particularly in the secondary
where a large aperture is used to obtain magnification,” where the image spectrum. EF super-telephoto lenses are
sufficient brightness and the lens must magnification in peripheral areas varies examples of apochromatic lenses.
converge light not only from near the according to the wavelength. In actual
optical axis but from all areas of the photographs, axial chromatic aberration Five aberrations of Seidel
image, it is extremely difficult to satisfy appears as colour blur or flare, and In 1856, a German named Seidel
the above-mentioned ideal conditions due chromatic difference of magnification determined through analysis the existence
to the existence of the following appears as colour fringing (where edges of five lens aberrations which occur with
obstructive factors: show colour along their borders). monochromatic (single wavelength) light.
V Since most lenses are constructed sole- Chromatic aberration in a photographic These aberrations, described below, are
ly of lens elements with spherical surfaces, lens is corrected by combining different called the five aberrations of Seidel.
light rays from a single subject point are types of optical glass having different
refraction and dispersion characteristics. a Spherical aberration \\Bydproj1\DTP M
not formed in the image as a perfect point.
(A problem unavoidable with spherical Since the effect of chromatic aberration This aberration exists to some degree in
surfaces.) increases at longer focal lengths, precise all lenses constructed entirely of spherical
V The focal point position differs for chromatic aberration correction is elements. Spherical aberration causes
different types (i.e., different wavelengths) particularly important in super-telephoto parallel light rays passing through the
of light. lenses for good image sharpness. edge of a lens to converge at a focal point
V There are many requirements related to Although there is a limit to the degree of closer to the lens than light rays passing
changes in angle of view (especially with correction possible with optical glass, through the center of the lens. (The
wide-angle, zoom and telephoto lenses). significant performance improvements amount of focal point shift along the
The general term used to describe the can be achieved using man-made crystal optical axis is called longitudinal spherical
difference between an ideal image and the such as fluorite or UD glass. Axial aberration.) The degree of spherical
actual image affected by the above factors chromatic aberration is also sometimes aberration tends to be larger in large-
is “aberration.” Thus, to design a high- referred to as “longitudinal chromatic aperture lenses. A point image affected by
performance lens, aberration must be aberration” (since it occurs longitudinally spherical aberration is sharply formed by
extremely small, with the ultimate
with respect to the optical axis), and light rays near the optical axis but is
objective being to obtain an image as
chromatic difference of magnification affected by flare from the peripheral light
close as possible to the ideal image.
Aberration can be broadly divided into rays (this flare is also called halo, and its
chromatic aberrations, and mono- radius is called lateral spherical
chromatic aberrations → Chromatic aberration). As a result, spherical
aberration → Five aberrations of Seidel
Figure-18 Chromatic Aberration
Figure-19 Spherical Aberration

Table-1 Lens Aberrations VThis phenomenon occurs because the prism’s index of VThis is the phenomenon where the focus is not
refraction varies depending on the wavelength (colour). concentrated on one point on the light ray but rather is offset
Transverse chromatic aberration to the front or back.
Aberrations seen in the continuous spectrum (lateral chromatic aberration) Occurrence of a halo–––The image becomes flare.
W Chromatic aberrations
B
VAxial chromatic aberration (longitudinal Y
chromatic aberration) Parallel light rays R
VTransverse chromatic aberration
(lateral chromatic aberration)
a Spherical aberration Optical axis
Aberrations seen at b Chromatic aberration
specific wavelengths c Astigmatism
W Five aberrations d Curvature of field
of Seidel e Distortion
Off-axis object point
B Y R
Axial chromatic aberration
(longitudinal chromatic aberration)
198
Photo-2 The photographs are magnifications of the subject and surrounding area from part of a Photo-3 Axial chromatic aberration
test chart photographed with a 24mm x 36mm film frame and printed on quarter size
paper. Almost ideal image formation

Photo-4 Transverse chromatic aberration


Peripheral part magnified

a Example of spherical aberration b-1 Example of inward coma

the same point passing through the lens


c Example of astigmatism b-2 Example of outward coma
center. Coma increases as the angle of the
principal ray increases, and causes a
decrease in contrast near the edges of the
image. A certain degree of improvement is
possible by stopping down the lens. Coma
can also cause blurred areas of an image
to flare, resulting in an unpleasing effect.
The elimination of both spherical
aberration and coma for a subject at a
certain shooting distance is called
aplanatism, and a lens corrected as such is
called an aplanat.
aberration affects the entire image area causes light rays entering the edge of the
from the center to the edges, and produces lens at an angle to converge in the form of c Astigmatism
a soft, low-contrast image which looks as a comet instead of the desired point, hence With a lens corrected for spherical and
if covered with a thin veil. Correction of the name. The comet shape is oriented comatic aberration, a subject point on the
spherical aberration in spherical lenses is radially with the tail pointing either optical axis will be correctly reproduced as
very difficult. Although commonly carried toward or away from the center of the a point in the image, but an off-axis
out by combining two lenses –– one image. The resulting blur near the edges subject point will not appear as a point in
convex and one concave –– based on light of the image is called comatic flare. Coma, the image, but rather as an ellipse or line.
rays with a certain height of incidence which can occur even in lenses which This type of aberration is called astigma-
(distance from the optical axis), there is a correctly reproduce a point as a point on tism, It is possible to observe this phe-
limit to the degree of correction possible the optical axis, is caused by a difference nomenon near the edges of the image by
using spherical lenses, so some aberration in refraction between light rays from an slightly shifting the lens focus to a position
always remains. This remaining off-axis point passing through the edge of
Figure-21 Astigmatism
aberration can be largely eliminated by the lens and the principal light ray from
stopping down the diaphragm to cut the VThis is the phenomenon where there P2
Figure-20 Comatic Aberration
amount of peripheral light. With large is no point image
aperture lenses at full aperture, the only VThis is the phenomenon where the diagonal light rays do not
focus on one point on the image surface.
effective way to thoroughly compensate Inward coma
This is the phenomenon where Principle ray P1
spherical aberration is to use an aspherical
lens element. → Aspherical lens
there is a tail like that of a comet.
Outward coma
llel
p ara
axis ays Lens Sagittal image
Off- cil of r Optical
pen
b Coma, comatic aberration axis
Po
Coma, or comatic aberration, is a Optical axis
Meridional image
phenomenon visible in the periphery of an
image produced by a lens which has been P
corrected for spherical aberration, and

199
where the subject point is sharply imaged correcting astigmatism and image bending tend to exhibit barrel distortion at the
as a line oriented in a direction radiating at the same time is Petzval’s condition shortest focal lengths and pincushion
from the image center, and again to (1843). This condition is that the inverse of distortion at the longest focal lengths (the
another position. the product of the index of refraction for distortion characteristics change slightly
each of the single lenses of the lens during zooming), but in zoom lenses that
d Curvature of Field configuration and the focal distance added use an aspherical lens, the aspherical lens
This is the phenomenon where, when with the number of single lenses used in is effective at removing distortion, so the
focusing on a flat surface, the image does the lens configuration must produce a correction is good. This difference is
not become flat, but where the image is sum of 0. This sum is called Petzval’s sum. caused by the difference in refraction of
formed in a bowed shape to the inside of the principal rays passing through the
the bowl. Therefore, when focusing on the e Distortion center of the lens, so it cannot be
center of the frame, the circumference is One of the conditions for an ideal lens is improved no matter how much the
blurred, and conversely, when focusing on that “the image of the subject and the aperture is stopped down.
the circumference, the center is blurred. image formed by the lens are similar,” and
This image bending is mainly changed the deviation from this ideal where the Meridional
using the astigmatism correction method, straight lines are bent is called distortion. A plane that includes a principal ray that
which creates an image between a sagittal The extended shape in the diagonal view tries to capture a point outside the optical
image and a meridional image, so the angle direction (+) is called pincushion axis and the optical axis is called a
more the astigmatism is corrected, the distortion, and, conversely, the contracted meridional plane. The position linked to
smaller the image becomes. Because there shape (—) is called barrel distortion. With the focal point by the light ray entering
is almost no corrective effect from an ultra wide-angle lens, rarely do both of through a lens of this shape is called the
stopping down the lens, various efforts are these distortions exist together. Although meridional image plane. This is the image
made during designing, such as changing this seldom occurs in lenses where the plane where the image of concentric
the shape of the single lenses of the lens lens combination configuration is at the circles in the frame are at the best. If the
configuration and selecting the aperture aperture boundary, it occurs easily in spherical surface of the lens is compared
position, but one of the requirements for configuration lenses. Typical zoom lenses to a portion of the earth’s curvature and if
Figure-22 Curvature of field Figure-23 Distortion the optical axis is compared to the earth’s
This is the phenomenon where a good image
axis, the meridional plane would be where
focus surface is bent. Barrel distortion (-) the earth’s meridian is, which is why this
VThis is an ideal lens with no image bending. name is used. The curve that expresses the
Pincushion distortion (+)
Lens characteristics of this image plane using a
MTF characteristics graph, etc., is often
abbreviated as “M.”
Subject surface Focus surface Lens
Subject VOccurrence of image bending
Sagittal
Subject The plane that is perpendicular to the
meridional plane is called the sagittal
plane, and this is the image plane where
Photo-5 Example of curvature of field Photo-7 Example of distortion
the radial image is at its best. The word
comes from the Greek word for arrow.
The name comes from the shape of the
focal point, which spreads radially. The
position linked to the focal point of a light
ray that passes through a sagittal plane
shape and into a lens is called the sagittal
image plane, and when the characteristics
of this image plane are expressed using a
MTF characteristics graph, etc., it is often
abbreviated using the initial “S.”
Focusing on center of screen causes corners to go out of +•Pincushion distortion
focus.
Photo-6 Example of curvature of field Photo-8 Example of distortion How to Read Distortion Graphs
A simple way of reading the aberration
graphs that accompany test report
articles in camera magazines.

V Spherical Distortion
Characteristics Graph (Graph1)
The vertical axis of the graph shows the
height of entry above the axis entering the
lens system (distance above the diagonal
Focusing on corners of screen causes center to go out of -•Barrel distortion
focus.

200
from the center of the frame), and the lens system, and the horizontal axis is modern lenses are often designed with
horizontal axis shows the image point percent (%) distortion. The curve indicates consideration given to achieving a
offset captured by the film surface shape. the difference between the ideal image pleasing blur effect (image characteristics
The unit is mm. The horizontal axis and the actual image formed at the focal outside the image formation plane) by
symbols are “—“ (minus), which shows the plane. A minus sign indicates negative, or using computer simulation techniques to
subject’s side direction, and “+” (plus), barrel, distortion where the length of the analyze lens performance at the design
which shows the film’s side direction. The diagonal of the actual image is shorter stage. As mentioned in the various
ideal lens characteristic is for the horizontal than the diagonal of the ideal image. A aberration descriptions, the effects of some
axis zero point to form a straight line with plus sign indicates positive, or pincushion, aberrations can be minimised by stopping
the entry height. The difference between distortion. An ideal lens would exhibit down the lens, while others cannot. The
this ideal and the actual lens is shown as a ±0% distortion at any image height. relationships between aperture and
curve. Spherical distortion correction is Distortion curves for zoom lenses aberrations are shown in Table 2.
generally said to be good if there is a core generally show barrel distortion at wide-
in the image and the focal point moves angle positions and pincushion distortion Lens performance evaluation
little when the lens is stopped down, in at telephoto positions.
other words, there is slightly insufficient Resolving power/resolution
correction in the middle area while at the Figure-25 Astigmatism Distortion Curve The resolution of a lens indicates the
Curve (Graph2) (Graph3)
maximum entry height there is perfect capacity of reproduction of a subject point
[mm] [mm]
correction where it returns nearly to zero. of the lens. The resolution of the final
20 20
S M photograph depends on three factors: the
Figure-24 Spherical Distortion
Characteristics Graph (Graph 1) resolution of the lens, the resolution of the
[mm]
film or image sensor, and the resolution of
20 the printer or printing paper. Resolution is
10 10
evaluated by photographing, at a specified
Figure-26 Resolution Measurement Charts
Resolution chart (koana)

-0.6 0 +0.6 [mm] -5 0 +5 [%]


10

How to minimise the effects of


aberrations
Modern lenses are designed using large-
0 scale computers to perform mind-boggling Resolution chart (JIS)
-0.2 0 +0.2
[mm] calculations and high-level simulations to
B
minimise all types of aberration and
C
V Astigmatism curve (Graph 2) achieve superior image formation D

The graph’s vertical axis is the axial height performance. Even with this technology, D
C
of incidence (distance from the image however, it is impossible to completely B

center) of the ray entering the lens system, remove all aberrations, meaning that all
and the horizontal axis is the amount of lenses on the market still have at least a Siemens star
shift of the image point formed in the small amount of aberration remaining.
focal plane. Units and signs are the same This aberration is called residual
as in the spherical aberration curve. The aberration. The type of residual aberration
curve for an ideal lens would be a straight in a lens generally determines the lens’
line at the horizontal axis’ zero point with imaging characteristics such as its
respect to the height of incidence. The sharpness and blur effect. Because of this, Projection-use resolution chart Howllet chart
difference between the ideal lens and
actual lens is indicated by two curved lines Table-2 Relationship between aperture and aberration
in the S direction (sagittal/radial direction) Cause of drop in image quality Areas affected on the screen Improvement by smaller aperture
and M direction (meridional/concentric
Axial colour aberration Center and edges Slight effect
circle direction). If the difference between
S and M (astigmatic difference) is large, a Magnification colour aberration Edges No effect
point will not be formed as a point and Spherical aberration Center and edges Effect present
the image will smear. Moreover, the blur
image in front of and behind the image Comatic aberration Edges Effect present

formation plane will be unnatural. Astigmatism Edges Slight effect

Curvature of field Edges Slight effect


V Distortion curve (Graph 3)
The graph’s vertical axis is the axial height Distortion Edges No effect

of incidence (distance from the image Ghosting/flaring Center and edges No effect
center; unit: mm) of the ray entering the
Drop in peripheral illumination Edges Effect present

201
magnification, a chart containing groups and when unclear, contrast is said to be determine the MTF characteristics of the
of black and white stripes that gradually low. In general, lenses producing high overall image. Because of this, for the EF
decrease in narrowness, then using a quality images have both high resolution lens MTF characteristics presented in this
microscope to observe the negative image and high contrast. book, two typical spatial frequencies (10
at a magnification of 50x. lines/mm and 30 lines/mm) are selected
It is common to hear resolution expressed MTF (modulation transfer and sophisticated computer simulation
as a numerical value such as 50 lines or function) techniques are used to determine the MTF
100 lines. This value indicates the number Modulation transfer function is a lens characteristics of the entire image area,
of lines per millimeter of the smallest performance evaluation method used to graphed with the horizontal axis
black and white line pattern which can be determine the contrast reproduction ratio, corresponding to the distance from the
clearly recorded on the film. To test the or sharpness, of a lens. When evaluating center of the image along the diagonal
resolution of a lens alone, a method is the electrical characteristics of audio line, and the vertical axis corresponding to
used in which a fine resolution chart is equipment, one important measure of contrast.
positioned in the location corresponding to performance is frequency response. In this
the focal plane and projected through the case, where the source sound is recorded How to read the MTF graphs
test lens onto a screen. The numerical through a microphone and then played The MTF graphs shown for the lenses in
value used for expressing resolving power back through speakers, frequency this book place image height (with the
is only an indication of the degree of response indicates the fidelity of the image center having an image height of 0)
resolution possible, and does not indicate reproduced sound with respect to the on the horizontal axis and contrast on the
resolution clarity or contrast. source sound. If the reproduced sound is vertical axis. MTF characteristics are
very close to the source sound, the provided for spatial frequencies of 10
Contrast equipment is classified as “hi-fi,” or “high lines/mm and 30 lines/mm. The test
The degree of distinction between areas of fidelity.” By thinking of the optical system chart’s spatial frequency, lens aperture
different brightness levels in a photograph, of a lens as a “system for transmitting value and direction in the image area are
i.e., the difference in brightness between optical signals” in the same way as an as shown in the following table.
light and dark areas. For example, when audio system transmits electrical signals, it Basic information on the performance of a
the reproduction ratio between white and is possible to find out how accurately lens can be extracted from the MTF chart
black is clear, contrast is said to be high, optical signals are transmitted as long as as follows: The closer the 10-line/mm
Figure-27 Contrast Concept Diagram
the frequency response of the optical curve is to 1, the better the contrast and
system can be measured. In an optical separation ability of the lens, and the
Light from Image Light from Image system, the equivalent of frequency is closer the 30-line/mm curve is to 1, the
subject forming subject forming
(incoming) lights (exiting) (incoming) lights (exiting)
“spatial frequency,” which indicates how better the resolving power and sharpness
many patterns, or cycles, of a certain sine of the lens. Additionally, the closer the
density are present in a 1 mm width. characteristics of M and S are, the more
Figure-27-A Figure-27-C Accordingly, the unit of spatial frequency natural the background blur becomes.
is lines per mm. Figure-27-A shows the Although a good balance between these
MTF characteristics of an ideal “hi-fi” lens characteristics is important, it can
for a certain spatial frequency, with the generally be assumed that a lens will
Figure-27-B Figure-27-D
output equal to the input. A lens of this provide excellent image quality if the 10-
Contrast Reproduction Image
type is said to provide a contrast of 1:1. line/mm curve is greater than 0.8, and that
Chart However, since actual lenses contain satisfactory image quality can be obtained
residual aberration, actual contrast ratios if the l0-line/mm curve is greater than 0.6.
are always less than 1:1. As the spatial Looking at the MTF characteristics of EF
frequency increases (i.e., as the black-and- super-telephoto L-series lenses with this
white sine wave pattern becomes finer, or frame of reference, it is obvious from just
Image formed by Image formed by more dense), the contrast decreases as the data that these lenses possess
large-aperture aspherical lens large-aperture spherical lens
shown in Figure-27-D until finally extremely high-performance imaging
becoming gray with no distinction characteristics.
between black and white (no contrast, 1:0)
Graph-4 MTF Characteristics for A Single
at the spatial frequency limit. Illustrating Image Point
this phenomenon in graph form with 1
Density
spatial frequency as the horizontal axis
Contrast

difference

High contrast Low contrast


and contrast as the vertical axis results in
the curve shown in Graph-4. In other A
words, the graph makes it possible to B
C
Figure-27-E MTF Measurement-Use Slit Chart 0.5
check resolution and contrast repro-
ducibility (i,e., the degree of modulation) in
a continuous manner. However, since it
only shows the characteristics for one
point in the image area, it is necessary to 0
0 10 30 50
use data for several points in order to Spatial frequency(line/mm)

202
CCI (colour contribution index) indicates the brightness at the optical
Colour reproduction in a colour axis position, i.e., at the center of the
photograph depends on three factors: the image. The brightness (image surface
colour characteristics of the film or digital illuminance) at the edge of the image is
imaging system, the colour temperature of called peripheral illumination and is
the light source illuminating the subject, expressed as a percent (%) of the
and the light transmission characteristics of amount of illumination at the image
the lens. The colour contribution index, or center. Peripheral illumination is
CCI, is an index indicating “the amount of affected by lens vignetting and the cos4
colour variation caused by filtering effect
A:Resolving power and contrast are both good (cosine 4) law and is inevitably lower
differences between lenses” when using a
than the center of the image.→
standard film and light source, and is
expressed by three numbers in the form Vignetting, Cos4 law
0/5/4. These three numbers are relative
Graph-7 Image Plane Illuminance Ratio
values expressed as logarithms of lens Showing the Peripheral Illumination
transmittance at the blue-violet/green/red Characteristics
wavelengths corresponding to the three
100
light sensitive emulsion layers of colour [%]
film, with larger numbers representing f/8
higher transmittance. However, since
B:Contrast is good and resolving power is bad photographic lenses absorb most
ultraviolet wavelengths, the blue-violet
f/2.8
transmittance value is usually zero, so 50
colour balance is judged by comparing the
green and red values to ISO-specified
reference lens values. The ISO reference
lens light transmission characteristics were
set according to a method proposed by
Japan which involved taking the average 0
0 10 20
transmittance values of 57 standard lenses Image height [mm]

Graph-6 ISO Tolerance Range Graphed on Optical vignetting


C:Resolving power is good and contrast is bad
CCI Coordinates Light rays entering the lens from the
Yellow
edges of the picture area are partially
Table-3
blocked by the lens frames in front of
Maximum aperture F8
Spatial frequency
S M S M
and behind the diaphragm, preventing
10 lines/mm
all the rays from passing through the
30 lines/mm
effective aperture (diaphragm diameter)
and causing light fall-off in the
Graph-5 MTF Characteristics Green
S peripheral areas of the image. This type
of vignetting can be eliminated by
1.0
stopping down the lens.
0.9
1.0
0.8 G R Figure-28 Vignetting
1.0

Red y
1.0

0.7 Cyan 0/0/0


l lig ht ra
B

Front frame Rear frame


hera
0.6 Blue Magenta Origin Diaphragm Perip
0.5
comprising five models from representative
0.4
lens manufacturers including Canon. The Central light ray
0.3 resulting recommended reference value of
0.2 0/5/4 is used by film manufacturers as a
0.1 reference when designing the colour Cosine law
0 production characteristics of colour films. In The cosine law, also called the cosine law,
0 5 10 15 20
other words, if the light transmission states that light fall-off in peripheral areas
Colour balance characteristics of a lens do not match the of the image increases as the angle of
The colour reproduction fidelity of a photo ISO reference values, the colour view increases, even if the lens is
taken through a lens compared to the reproduction characteristics of a colour film completely free of vignetting. The periph-
original subject. Colour balance in all EF cannot be obtained as intended by the eral image is formed by groups of light
lenses is based on ISO recommended manufacturer. rays entering the lens at a certain angle
reference values and maintained within a with respect to the optical axis, and the
strict tolerance range narrower than ISO’s Peripheral illumination amount of light fall-off is proportional to
CCI allowable value range.→ CCI The brightness of a lens is determined the cosine of that angle raised to the
by the F number, but this value only

203
Graph-8 Peripheral Light Reduction According to desirable to use an appropriate lens hood Lens coating is carried out not only to
Cosine Law
whenever possible. The term “flare” is also prevent reflections, however. By coating
Illumination ratio
(%)
100
used when referring to the effects of the various lens elements with appropriate
a'
blurring and halo caused by spherical and substances having different properties,
Lens
comatic aberration. coating plays an important role in
P
p'
providing the overall lens system with
w
50 Ghost image optimum colour balance characteristics.
a A type of flare occurring when the sun or
Uniform brightness other strong light source is included in the Optical Glass
0 scene and a complex series of reflections
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
among the lens surfaces causes a clearly
Incident angle
defined reflection to appear in the image Optical Glass
fourth power. As this is a law of physics, it in a position symmetrically opposite the Optical glass is specially made for use in
cannot be avoided. However, with wide- light source. This phenomenon is precision optical products such as
angle lenses having a large angle of view, differentiated from flare by the term photographic lenses, video lenses,
decreases in peripheral illumination can “ghost” due to its ghost-like appearance. telescopes and microscopes. In contrast to
be prevented by increasing the lens’ Ghost images caused by surface reflections general-purpose glass, optical glass is
aperture efficiency (ratio of the area of the in front of the aperture have the same provided with fixed, precise refraction and
on-axis entrance pupil to the area of the shape as the aperture, while a ghost image dispersion characteristics (precision to six
off-axis entrance pupil). caused by reflections behind the aperture decimal points) and subjected to strict
appears as an out-of-focus area of light requirements regarding transparency and
Hard vignetting fogging. Since ghost images can also be lack of defects such as striae, warps and
A phenomenon where light entering the caused by strong light sources outside the bubbles. Types of optical glass are
lens is partially blocked by an picture area, use of a hood or other classified according to their composition
obstruction such as the end of a lens shading device is recommended for and optical constant (Abbe number), and
hood or the frame of a filter, causing blocking undesired light. Whether or not more than 250 types are in existence
the corners of the image to darken or ghosting will actually occur when the today. For high-performance lenses,
the overall image to lighten. Shading is picture is taken can be verified beforehand different types of optical glass are
the general term used for the case by looking through the viewfinder and optimally combined. Glass with an Abbe
where the image is degraded by some using the camera’s depth-of-field check number of 50 or less is called flint glass
type of obstacle that blocks light rays function to close down the lens to the (F), and glass with an Abbe number of 55
which should actually reach the image. actual aperture to be used during or more is called crown glass (K). Each
exposure. type of glass is further classified in other
Flare ways such as specific gravity, and a
Light reflected from lens surfaces, the Coating corresponding serial name is assigned to
inside of the lens barrel and the inner When light enters and exits an uncoated each type.
walls of the camera’s mirror box can reach lens, approximately 5% of the light is
the film or image sensor and fog part or reflected back at each lens-air boundary Abbe number
all of the image area, degrading image due to the difference in index of refraction. A numerical value indicating the
sharpness. These harmful reflections are This not only reduces the amount of light dispersion of optical glass, using the Greek
called flare. Although flare can be reduced passing through the lens but can also lead symbol ν. Also called the optical constant.
to a large extent by coating the lens to repeating reflections which can cause The Abbe number is determined by the
surfaces and using anti-reflection unwanted flare or ghost images. To following formula using the index of
measures in the lens barrel and camera, prevent this reflection, lenses are refraction for three Fraunhofer’s lines: F
flare cannot be completely eliminated for processed with a special coating. Basically (blue), d (yellow) and c (red).
all subject conditions. It is therefore this is carried out using vacuum vapor Abbe number = νd = nd — 1/nF — nc
deposition to coat the lens with a thin film
having a thickness 1/4 the wavelength of Fraunhofer’s lines
Figure-29 Flare and Ghosting
the light to be affected, with the film made Absorption lines discovered in 1814 by a
Correct of a substance (such as magnesium German physicist named Fraunhofer
Image
fluoride) which has an index of refraction (1787~1826), comprising the absorption
Correct
of √n, where n is the index of refraction of spectrum present in the continuous
Lens Image the lens glass. Instead of a single coating spectrum of light emitted from the sun
affecting only a single wavelength, created by the effect of gases in the sun’s
however, EF lenses feature a superior and earth’s atmospheres. Since each line is
Ghost multi-layer coating (multiple layers of located at a fixed wavelength, the lines are
vapor deposited film reducing the used for reference in regard to the colour
reflection rate to 0.2~0.3%) which (wavelength) characteristics of optical
effectively prevents reflections of all glass. The index of refraction of optical
Flare
Lens wavelengths in the visible light range. glass is measured based on nine

204
wavelengths selected from among manufacturer to develop lead free glass, special lens element with a surface curved
Fraunhofer’s lines (see Table 4). In lens and is in the process of phasing out glass with the ideal shape to correct these
design, calculations for correcting which contains lead from its lens lineup. aberrations, i.e., a lens having a free-curved
chromatic aberrations are also based on Lead free glass uses titanium, which, surface which is not spherical, is called an
these wavelengths. unlike lead, poses no problems for the aspherical lens. The theory and usefulness
environment or humans, but still delivers of aspherical lenses. have been known
Table-4 Light Wavelengths and Spectrum
Lines optical characteristics equal to since the early days of lens making, but
Spectrum
conventional leaded glass. due to the extreme difficulty of actually
i h g F
line code processing and accurately measuring
Wavelength (mm) 365,0 404,7 435,8 486,1 Lens shapes and lens aspherical surfaces, practical aspherical
Colour Ultra-violet Violet Blue-violet Blue
construction fundamentals lens manufacturing methods were not
realised until fairly recently. The first SLR
Spectrum e d c r t Lens shapes photographic lens to incorporate a large
line code
Figure-30 Lens Shapes diameter aspherical lens was Canon’s
Wavelength (mm) 546,1 587,6 656,3 706,5 1014
FD 55mm f/1.2AL released in March 1971.
Colour Green Yellow Red Red Infrared Plane-convex lens Biconvex lenses Convex meniscus lens Due to revolutionary advances in
Note: 1 nm = 10 mm
-6
production technology since that time,
Canon’s current EF lens group makes
Fluorite abundant use of various aspherical lens
Fluorite has extremely low indexes of types such as ground and polished glass
refraction and dispersion compared to aspherical lens elements, ultra-precision
optical glass and features special partial glass molded (GMo) aspherical lens
dispersion characteristics (extraordinary Plane-concave lenses Biconcave lens Concave meniscus lens
elements, composite aspherical lens
partial dispersion), enabling virtually ideal elements and replica aspherical lens
correction of chromatic aberrations when elements.
combined with optical glass. This fact has Fresnel lens
long been known, and in 1880 natural A type of converging lens, formed by Air lens
fluorite was already in practical use in the finely dividing the convex surface of a flat The air spaces between the glass lens
apochromatic objective lenses of micro- convex lens into many concentric circle- elements making up a photographic lens
scopes. However, since natural fluorite shaped ring lenses and combining them to can be thought of as lenses made of glass
exists only in small pieces, it cannot be extremely reduce the thickness of the lens having the same index of refraction as air
used practically in photographic lenses. In while retaining its function as convex lens. (1.0). An air space designed from the
answer to this problem, Canon in 1968 In an SLR, to efficiently direct peripheral beginning with this concept in mind is
succeeded in establishing production diffused light to the eyepiece, the side called an air lens. Since the refraction of
technology for manufacturing large opposite the matte surface of the focusing an air lens is opposite that of a glass lens,
artificial crystals, thus opening the door for screen is formed as a fresnel lens with a a convex shape acts as a concave lens and
fluorite use in photographic lenses. 0.05 mm pitch Fresnel lenses are also a concave shape acts as a convex lens.
commonly used in flash units, indicated This principle was first propounded in
UD lens by the concentric circular lines visible on 1898 by a man named Emil von Hoegh
A lens made of special optical glass the white diffusion screen covering the working for the German company Goerz.
possessing optical characteristics similar to flash tube. The projection lens used to
Figure-32 Air Lens Concept Diagram
fluorite. UD lens elements are especially project light from a lighthouse is an
effective in correcting chromatic aberra- example of a giant fresnel lens. ML M
H H
tions in super-telephoto lenses. Two UD
lens elements are characteristically Figure-31 Fresnel Lens
equivalent to one fluorite element. “UD”

stands for “ultra-low dispersion.” L (air space)

Lead-Free Glass Actual photographic lenses


This is a type of optical glass which When looking at the enlarged image of an
contains no lead, to relieve the burden on object through a magnifying glass, it is
the environment. Lead is used in many common for the edges of the image to be
types of optical glass because it raises the Aspherical lens distorted or discoloured even if the center
refractive power of glass. While the lead Photographic lenses are generally is clear. As this indicates, a single-element
cannot leak out of the glass it is contained constructed of several single lens elements, lens suffers from many types of aberra-
in, it does nevertheless pose a threat to the all of which, unless otherwise specified, tions and cannot reproduce an image
environment when it escapes in the form have spherical surfaces. Because all which is clearly defined from corner to
of waste produced when grinding and surfaces are spherical, it becomes corner. Because of this, photographic
polishing the glass. With the goal of especially difficult to correct spherical lenses are constructed of several lens
eliminating lead from the manufacturing aberration in large-aperture lenses and elements having different shapes and
process, Canon worked with a glass distortion in super-wide-angle lenses. A characteristics in order to obtain a sharp

205
image over the entire picture area. The types such as the Gauss type, triplet type, the value of the distance from the apex of
basic construction of a lens is listed in the Tessar type, Topcon type and orthometer the frontmost lens element to the focal
specifications section of brochures and type. Of these, the Gauss type and its plane divided by the focal length. For
instruction manual in terms of elements derivations is the most typical telephoto lenses, this value is less than one.
and groups. Figure 33 shows an example configuration used today because its For reference, the telephoto ratio of the
of the EF 85mm f/1.2L II USM, constructed symmetrical design allows well balanced EF 300mm f/2.8L IS USM is 0.94, and that
of 8 elements in 7 groups. correction of all type of aberrations, and a of the EF 600mm f/4L IS USM is 0.81.
comparatively long back focus can be Figure-36 Telephoto Type
Figure-33 EF 85mm f/1.2L@USM Lens
Construction
achieved. The Canon 50mm f/1.8 released
back in 1951 succeeded in eliminating the
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (Elements)
comatic aberration which was the sole
weak point of Gauss type lenses of that
day, and thus became famous as a c Retrofocus type
historical landmark lens due to the Conventionally designed wide-angle lenses
remarkable improvement in performance have such a short back focus that they
it afforded. Canon still uses a Gauss type cannot be used in SLR cameras because
construction in current lenses such as the they would obstruct the up/down
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (Groups)
EF 50mm f/1.4 USM, EF 50mm f/1.8 II swinging movement of the main mirror.
Fundamentals of lens and EF 85mm f/1.2L II USM. The Tessar Because of this, wide-angle lenses for SLRs
construction and triplet type symmetrical have a construction opposite that of
There are five basic constructions used for configurations are commonly used today telephoto lenses, with a negative lens
general-purpose single focal length lenses. in compact cameras equipped with single assembly placed in front of the main lens
a The single type is the simplest —— focal length lenses. assembly. This moves the second principal
comprised of a single element or a doublet Figure-35 Typical Photographic Lens Types
point behind the lens (between the
made of two conjoined elements. b and rearmost lens element and the film plane)
c are of the double type, comprised of and creates a lens having a back focus
two independent elements. d is a triplet which is longer than the focal length. This
type, comprised of three independent lens type of lens is generally called a retrofocus
elements in a convex-concave-convex lens from the name of a product marketed
sequence. e is a symmetrical type, Triplet type Tessar type
by Angenieux Co. of France. In optical
consisting of two groups of one or more terms, this type of lens is classified as an
lenses of the same shape and inverted telephoto type lens.
configuration symmetrically oriented Figure-37 Inverted Telephoto Types
around the diaphragm. (Retrofocus)
Figure-34 Fundamental Lens Groupings
Gauss type Topogon type

b Telephoto type (teletype)


Group 1
With general photographic lenses, the
overall length of a lens (the distance from Zoom lenses
the apex of the frontmost lens element to
Group 2
the focal plane) is longer than its focal d 4-group zoom type
length. This is not usually the case with An orthodox zoom lens configuration
lenses of particularly long focal length, which clearly divides the functions of the
Group 3 however, since using a normal lens lens into four groups (focusing group,
construction would result in a very large, magnification variation group, correction
unwieldy lens. To keep the size of such a group and image formation group). Two
Group 4
lens manageable while still providing a groups –– the magnification variation
long focal length, a concave (negative) lens group and correction group –– move
Group 5
assembly is placed behind the main during zooming. Since a high-mag-
convex (positive) lens assembly, resulting nification zoom ratio can be easily
in a lens which is shorter than its focal obtained with this type of construction, it
Typical photographic lens types length. Lenses of this type are called is commonly used for movie camera
telephoto lenses. In a telephoto lens, the lenses and SLR telephoto zoom lenses.
V Single focal length lenses second principal point is located in front of However, due to problems incurred when
a Symmetrical type the frontmost lens element. designing compact zoom lenses, its use is
In this type of lens, the lens group behind becoming less common in modern non-
the diaphragm has nearly the same V Telephoto ratio telephoto zoom lenses.
configuration and shape as the lens group The ratio between the overall length of a
in front of the diaphragm. Symmetrical telephoto lens and its focal length is called e Short zoom type
lenses are further classified into various the telephoto ratio. Put another way, it is Explanation → P.175

206
f Multi-group zoom type Figure-38 Shooting Distance, Subject Distance and Image Distance

Explanation → P.175 Subject Front principal point Rear principal point


h h'

Focusing and lens movement


Focal plane

Focusing and lens movement


techniques
Methods of lens movement for focusing
can be broadly classified into the five
Extension
types described below. Focal length Principal Focal length amount
point
interval
a Overall linear extension Subject distance Image distance

The entire lens optical system moves


Working distance Machanical distance
straight backward and forward when
focusing is carried out. This is the simplest Shooting distance
type of focusing used in mainly in wide-
angle through standard single focal length
lenses, Such as the EF 15mm f/2.8 proportional value indicating the size of
Shooting distance/subject
Fisheye, lense, the EF 50mm f/1.4 USM, the image compared to the actual subject.
distance/image distance
the TS-E 90mm f/2.8, and other EF lenses. (For example, a magnification of 1:4 is
Camera distance expressed as 0.25x.)
b Front group linear extension The distance from the focal plane to the
subject. The position of the focal plane is Figure-39 Relationship Between the Focal
The rear group remains fixed and only the Length, Extension Amount (Overall
front group moves straight backward and indicated on the top of most cameras by a Extension) and Magnification
forward during focusing. Examples of “ ” symbol.
front group linear extension lenses are the y

EF 50mm f/2.5 Compact Macro, Subject distance y'


MP-E 65mm f/2.8 Macro Photo and The distance from the lens’ front
f f r
EF 85mm f/1.2L II USM. principal point to the subject. e
R

c Front group rotational extension Image distance R


(r f)2 e f
r
Focal length
Extension amount
r
The lens barrel section holding the front The distance from the lens’ rear principal f(M 1)2
e
e
R
Principal point interval
Shooting distance
M
lens group rotates to move the front group point to the focal plane when the lens is y' r' y Subject size
M y f y' Subject size on the film plane
backward and forward during focusing. focused on a subject at a certain distance. M Magnification

This type of focusing is used only in zoom


lenses and is not found in single focal Extension amount Polarized light and
length lenses. Representative examples of With a lens which moves the entire polarizing filters
lenses using this method are the EF 28- optical system backward and forward
90mm f/4-5.6 III, EF 75-300mm f/4-5.6 IS during focusing, the amount of lens Polarized light
USM and EF 90-300mm f/4.5-5.6 USM movement necessary to focus a subject Since light is a type of electromagnetic
and other EF lenses. at a limited distance from the infinity wave, it can be thought of as uniformly
focus position. vibrating in all directions in a plane
d Inner focusing perpendicular to the direction of
Focusing is performed by moving one or Mechanical distance propagation. This type of light is called
more lens groups positioned between the The distance from the front edge of the natural light (or natural polarized light). If
front lens group and the diaphragm. lens barrel to the focal plane. the direction of vibration of natural light
→ P.176 becomes polarized for some reason, that
Working distance light is called polarized light. When
e Rear focusing The distance from the front edge of the
Figure-40 Naturally Polarized Electromagnetic
Focusing is performed by moving one or lens barrel to the subject. An important Wave
more lens groups positioned behind the factor especially when shooting close-
diaphragm. → P.177 ups and enlargements.

Floating system Image magnification


This system varies the interval between The ratio (length ratio) between the actual
certain lens elements in accordance with subject size and the size of the image
the extension amount in order to com- reproduced on film. A macro lens with a
pensate for aberration fluctuation caused magnification indication of 1:1 can Light
by camera distance. This method is also reproduce an image on film the same size Partially polarized light
propagation
direction
referred to as a close-distance aberration as the original subject (actual size).
compensation mechanism. → P.177
Naturally
polarized light
Magnification is generally expressed as a (natural light)

207
natural light is reflected from the surface (pixels) on a flat surface which convert The ability of the eye to vary its refractive
of glass or water, for example, the variations in light into electric signals. The power in order to form an image of an
reflected light vibrates in one direction higher the number of receptors, the more object on the retina. The state in which the
only and is completely polarized. Also, on accurate the image reproduction is. Since eye is at its minimum refractive power is
a sunny day the light from the area of the these receptors are only sensitive to called the accommodation rest state.
sky at a 90° angle from the sun becomes brightness and not colour, RGB or CMYG
polarized due to the effect of air molecules colour filters are placed before them in Normal vision, emmetropia
and particles in the atmosphere. The half- order to capture both brightness and The eye condition in which the image
mirrors used in autofocus SLR cameras colour data at the same time. of an infinitely distant point is formed
also cause light polarization. on the retina when the eye is in the
Low-pass filter accommodation rest state.
Linear polarizing filter With general image elements used in
A filter which only passes light vibrating digital cameras, RGB or CMYG colour Far-sightedness
in a certain direction. Since the information is collected for each receptor The eye condition in which the image
vibrational locus of the light allowed to arranged on the surface. This means that of an infinitely distant point is formed
pass through the filter is linear in nature, when light with a high spatial frequency to the rear of the retina when the eye is
the filter is called a linear polarizing filter. hits a single pixel, false colours, moiré, and in the accommodation rest state.
This type of filter eliminate reflections other colours which do not exist in the
from glass and water the same way as a subject appear in the image. In order to Near-sightedness, myopia
circular polarizing filter, but it cannot be reduce the occurrence of these types of The eye condition in which the image
used effectively with most auto exposure false colours, the light must made to enter of an infinitely distant point is formed
and autofous cameras as it will cause many different receptors, and in order to in front of the retina when the eye is in
exposure errors in AE cameras equipped do that, the receptors used are low-pass the accommodation rest state.
with TTL metering systems using half- filters. Low-pass filters use liquid crystal
mirrors, and will cause focusing errors in and other crystal structures which are Astigmatism
AF cameras incorporating AF range- characterised by double refraction (a The eye condition in which astigmatism
finding systems using half-mirrors. phenomenon where two streams of exists on the eye’s visual axis.
refracted light are created), placed before
Circular polarizing filter the image elements. By double-refracting Presbyopia
A circular polarizing filter is functionally light with a high spatial frequency using The eye condition in which the ability
the same as a linear polarizing filter as it low-pass filters, it becomes possible to of the eye to focus decreases as a person
only passes light vibrating in a certain receive light using multiple elements. becomes older. In camera terms, this is
direction. However, the light passing similar to having a fixed focal point
through a circular polarizing filter differs The human eye and with a shallow depth of field.
from light passing through a linear viewfinder diopter
polarizing filter in that the vibrational Least distance of distinct vision
locus rotates in a spiral pattern as it Eyesight, visual acuity The closest distance at which an eye
propagates. Thus, the effect of the filter The ability of the eye to distinguish details having normal vision can observe an
does not interfere with the effect of half- of an object’s shape. Expressed as a object without straining. This distance is
mirrors, allowing normal operation of numerical value which indicates the normally assumed to be 25 cm/0.8 ft.
TTL-AE and AF functions. When using a inverse of the minimum visual angle at
polarizing filter with an EOS camera, be which the eye can clearly distinguish two Diopter
sure to always use a circular polarizing points or lines, i.e. the resolution of the eye The degree to which the light ray
filter. The effectiveness of a circular in reference to a resolution of 1’. (Ratio bundles leaving the viewfinder converge
polarizing filter in eliminating reflected with a resolution of 1’ assumed as 1.) or disperse. The standard diopter of all
light is the same as that of a linear EOS cameras is set at —1 dpt. This
polarizing filter. Eye accommodation setting is designed to allow the finder
Figure-41 Human Eye Construction
image to appear to be seen from a
Digital Terminology distance of 1 m. Thus, if a person
Posterior chamber
Limbal zone
Cornea
Iris
cannot see the viewfinder image clearly,
Image sensor ry
Anterior
chamber
Conjunctiva the person should attach to the camera’s
lia Canal of Schlemm
Ci ody
A semiconductor element which converts b
Crystal lens
Ciliary muscle eyepiece a dioptric adjustment lens
image data into an electric signal, playing Ciliary process having a power which, when added to
Zonule fibers
the role of the film in a regular film Retrolental space
Ciliary epithelium
the viewfinder’s standard diopter,
camera. Also known as an imager. The Optical axis Eye central axis makes it possible to easily see an object
two most common image elements used at one meter. The numerical values
in digital cameras are CCD (Charge- Glass
printed on EOS dioptric adjustment
Retina
Coupled Devices) and CMOS lenses indicate the total diopter
(Complementary Metal-Oxide Semi- Sclera
Choroid
Dis
c
Fovea
centralis
obtained when the dioptric adjustment
conductors). Both are area sensors lens is attached to the camera.
containing a large number of receptors
Optic nerve Yellow
spot

208
MTF Characteristics

How to read the MTF Characteristics

An MTF characteristic
of 0.8 or more at 10 Curve showing contrast
lines/mm indicates at maximum aperture
a superior lens.
1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

An MTF characteristic 0.4 Curve showing resolution


of 0.6 or more at 10 at maximum aperture
lines/mm indicates 0.3
a satisfactory image.
0.2

0.1

0
0 5 10 15 20 (mm) Distance from the
center of the frame

Spatial Maximum aperture f/8


frequency S M S M
10 lines/mm
30 lines/mm
The more the S and M curves are in line, the more natural the
blurred image becomes.

Resolving power and contrast are Contrast is good and resolving Resolving power is good and
both good power is bad contrast is bad

209
Single Focal Length Lenses
EF 15mm f/2.8 Fisheye EF 14mm f/2.8L USM EF 20mm f/2.8 USM EF 24mm f/1.4L USM
1 1 1 1
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 24mm f/2.8 EF 28mm f/1.8 USM EF 28mm f/2.8 EF 35mm f/1.4L USM
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 35mm f/2 EF 50mm f/1.2L USM EF 50mm f/1.4 USM EF 50mm f/1.8@
1 1 1 1
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 85mm f/1.2L@USM EF 85mm f/1.8 USM EF 100mm f/2 USM EF 135mm f/2L USM
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 135mm f/2.8 (with Softfocus) EF 200mm f/2.8L@USM EF 300mm f/2.8L IS USM EF 300mm f/4L IS USM
1 1 1 1
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 400mm f/2.8L IS USM EF 400mm f/4 DO IS USM EF 400mm f/5.6L USM EF 500mm f/4L IS USM
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

210
MTF Characteristics
EF 600mm f/4L IS USM EF 50mm f/2.5 Compact Macro EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM EF 180mm f/3.5L Macro USM
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

MP-E 65mm f/2.8 1-5 x Macro Photo TS-E 24mm f/3.5L TS-E 45mm f/2.8 TS-E 90mm f/2.8
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF-S 60mm f/2.8 Macro USM


1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 5 10 13

Zoom Lenses
EF 16-35mm f/2.8L USM WIDE EF 16-35mm f/2.8L USM TELE EF 17-40mm f/4L USM WIDE EF 17-40mm f/4L USM TELE
EF135mf/2LUSM

1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 20-35mm f/3.5-4.5 USM WIDE EF 20-35mm f/3.5-4.5 USM TELE EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM WIDE EF 24-70mm f/2.8L USM TELE
1 1 1 1
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 24-85mm f/3.5-4.5 USM WIDE EF 24-85mm f/3.5-4.5 USM TELE EF 24-105mm f /4L IS USM WIDE EF 24-105mm f /4L IS USM TELE
1 1 1 1
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

211
Zoom Lenses
EF 28-90mm f/4-5.6@USM WIDE EF 28-90mm f/4-5.6@USM TELE EF 28-90mm f/4-5.6# WIDE EF 28-90mm f/4-5.6# TELE
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 28-105mm f/3.5-4.5@USM WIDE EF 28-105mm f/3.5-4.5@USM TELE EF 28-105mm f/4-5.6 USM / EF 28-105mm f/4-5.6 WIDE EF 28-105mm f/4-5.6 USM / EF 28-105mm f/4-5.6 TELE
1 1 1 1
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 28-135mm f/3.5-5.6 IS USM WIDE EF 28-135mm f/3.5-5.6 IS USM TELE EF 28-200mm f/3.5-5.6 USM / EF 28-200mm f/3.5-5.6 WIDE EF 28-200mm f/3.5-5.6 USM / EF 28-200mm f/3.5-5.6 TELE
1 1 1 1
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6L IS USM WIDE EF 28-300mm f/3.5-5.6L IS USM TELE EF 55-200mm f/4.5-5.6 @ USM WIDE EF 55-200mm f/4.5-5.6 @ USM TELE
1 1 1
1
0.9 0.9 0.9
0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM WIDE EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM TELE EF 70-200mm f/2.8L USM WIDE EF 70-200mm f/2.8L USM TELE
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 70-200mm f/4L IS USM WIDE EF 70-200mm f/4L IS USM TELE EF 70-200mm f/4L USM WIDE EF 70-200mm f/4L USM TELE
1 1 1 1
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

212
MTF Characteristics

EF 70-300mm f/4-5.6 IS USM WIDE EF 70-300mm f/4-5.6 IS USM TELE EF 70-300mm f/4.5-5.6 DO IS USM WIDE EF 70-300mm f/4.5-5.6 DO IS USM TELE
1 1 1 1
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 75-300mm f/4-5.6#USM / EF 75-300mm f/4-5.6# WIDE EF 75-300mm f/4-5.6#USM / EF 75-300mm f/4-5.6# TELE EF 80-200mm f/4.5-5.6@ WIDE EF 80-200mm f/4.5-5.6@ TELE
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 90-300mm f/4.5-5.6 USM / EF 90-300mm f/4.5-5.6 WIDE EF 90-300mm f/4.5-5.6 USM / EF 90-300mm f/4.5-5.6 TELE EF 100-300mm f/4.5-5.6 USM WIDE EF 100-300mm f/4.5-5.6 USM TELE
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF-S 10-22mm f/3.5-4.5 USM WIDE EF-S 10-22mm f/3.5-4.5 USM TELE
EF 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6L IS USM WIDE EF 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6L IS USM TELE 1 1
1 1
0.9 0.9
0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8
0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7
0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 13 0 5 10 13

EF-S 17-55mm f/2.8 IS USM WIDE EF-S 17-55mm f/2.8 IS USM TELE EF-S 17-85mm f/4-5.6 IS USM WIDE EF-S 17-85mm f/4-5.6 IS USM TELE
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5


0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
0 0 0 0
0 5 10 13 0 5 10 13 0 5 10 0 5 10

EF-S 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6@ USM / EF-S 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6@ WIDE EF-S 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6@ USM / EF-S 18-55mm f/3.5-5.6@ TELE
1 1

0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1

0 0
0 5 10 13 0 5 10 13

213
Extenders

EF 1.4x@

EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM WIDE EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM TELE EF 70-200mm f/2.8L USM WIDE EF 70-200mm f/2.8L USM TELE
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 70-200mm f/4 IS USM WIDE EF 70-200mm f/4 IS USM TELE EF 70-200mm f/4L USM WIDE EF 70-200mm f/4L USM TELE
1 1 1 1
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6L IS USM WIDE EF 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6L IS USM (—:f/16) TELE EF 135mm f/2L USM EF 180mm f/3.5L Macro USM
1 1 1 1
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 200mm f/2.8L@USM EF 300mm f/2.8L IS USM EF 300mm f/4L IS USM EF 400mm f/2.8L IS USM
1 1 1 1
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 400mm f/4 DO IS USM EF 400mm f/5.6L USM (—:f/16) EF 500mm f/4L IS USM EF 600mm f/4L IS USM
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

214
MTF Characteristics

EF 2x@

EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM WIDE EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS USM TELE EF 70-200mm f/2.8L USM WIDE EF 70-200mm f/2.8L USM TELE
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 70-200mm f/4 IS USM WIDE EF 70-200mm f/4 IS USM TELE EF 70-200mm f/4L USM (—:f/16) WIDE EF 70-200mm f/4L USM (—:f/16) TELE
1 1 1 1
0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9
0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6L IS USM (—:f/22) WIDE EF 100-400mm f/4.5-5.6L IS USM (—:f/22) TELE EF 135mm f/2L USM EF 180mm f/3.5L Macro USM (—:f/16)
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 200mm f/2.8L@USM EF 300mm f/2.8L IS USM EF 300mm f/4L IS USM (—:f/16) EF 400mm f/2.8L IS USM
1 1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

EF 400mm f/4 DO IS USM (—:f/16) EF 400mm f/5.6L USM (—:f/22) EF 500mm f/4L IS USM (—:f/16) EF 600mm f/4L IS USM (—:f/16)
1 1 1

0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7

0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6

0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0 0 0 0
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

215
EF LENS WORK III The Eyes of EOS
September 2006, Eighth edition

Publisher and Planning Canon Inc. Lens Products Group


Production and Editorial Canon Inc. Lens Products Group
Printer Nikko Graphic Arts Co., Ltd.
Thanks for the Cooperation of : Brasserie Le Solférino/Restaurant de la Maison Fouraise, Chatou/
Hippodrome de Marseille Borély/Cyrille Varet Créations, Paris/Jean
Pavie, artisan luthier, Paris/Participation de la Mairie de Paris/Jean-
Michel OTHONIEL, sculpteur
©Canon Inc. 2003

Products and specifications are subject to change without notice.


The photographs in this book are the property of Canon Inc., or used with the permission of the photographer.

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