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september-october 2008 issue 05

a specialized csr journal

10 cover story
pakistan’s water problems:
do we enough
care to act?

hearkens
13 the state
rainwater harvesting

1 6 hy
dropo we
water power r
in pakistan

rt
po corruption:
2 0 re ter and
wa ve partnership
cti
a destru

-retre ats & ec


o- m odels
2 6 eco
teri gram ecological retrea
t

tation al
3 6 csr: a repu opport
unity
social responsi
corporate bility:
a rep uta tion at risk
ORD
CROSSW

A Publication of Asiatic Public Relations Network (Pvt.) Ltd.


regulars
6 global briefs
people - planet - profits

20 report
water and corruption: a destructive partnership

24 social partnership
pani ghar - case study of a social enterprise

34 breather
CROSSWORD

strategic humour
Editor-in-Chief
47 book in focus Zohare Ali Shariff
the sustainable enterprise fieldbook
Editorial Director
48 musings Khadeeja Balkhi
whose water is it anyway? Managing Editor
Rutaba Ahmed

Research, Distribution & Development


features Raza Tahir
Mehfooz Aleem

9 letter Creatives
governance call Kamran Rauf
Umair Anwar
10 cover story Reprint
pakistan's water problems: do we care enough to act? In line with our mission,
we encourage reproduction of
13 the state hearkens material, provided tbl and content partners
are given credit
rainwater harvesting
Publisher
16 hydropower Asiatic Public Relations Network
(Private) Limited
water power in pakistan
Printed at
26 eco-retreats & eco-models Nikmat Printers, Karachi
teri gram ecological retreat Disclaimer
The views expressed in tbl are the
28 profile in sustainability authors’ and not necessarily shared by
tbl and/or APR
towards 'a truly water-sustainable business on a global scale' - coca-cola
Declaration
31 crossword From the office of
District Coordination Officer,
32 csr in africa City District Government Karachi
csr and sustainable development in africa: water of life NO.DCO/DDO/LAW/CDGK/109/2007,
Karachi
Dated May 22, 2007
36 csr: a reputational opportunity
corporate social responsibility: a reputation at risk Subscription, advertising and
feedback at:
39 urbanization and cities
megacities, megaproblems, megasolutions tbl: triple bottom-line

42 ethical consumerism Address: A-7, Street 1,


tackling the social impacts of consumerism today and not tomorrow Bath Island, Clifton,
Karachi, Pakistan.
44 carrots only, no sticks
Tel: (92-21)-5837674, 5823334
Fax: (92-21)-5867103
the carrot-trousered philanthropist E-mail: feedforward@tbl.com.pk
Web: www.tbl.com.pk
46 tbl ingress
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tbl sept-oct 08 1
acknowledgement
The tbl team expresses its profound gratitude to
the companies whose names appear here, for their
agreement to support this publication. Bringing
out a knowledge-based publication like tbl National Foods Limited
involves considerable effort and costs. It may not Founder Sponsor
have been possible to bring out tbl in its
present format without the invaluable support
and contribution of our Founder Sponsors.

Through their support to tbl our Founder


Sponsors have confirmed that they share our
Mission of disseminating triple bottom-line
knowledge to a diversified group including
corporate, social development and general
business groups. We believe that helping to spread
awareness of true CSR is in itself an element of English Biscuit Manufacturers
CSR. By becoming our sponsors, the following (Private) Limited
companies have taken that vital first step with us
Founder Sponsor
in our journey to facilitate awareness and
understanding of true CSR in our country.

mr tbl
Mr. Tanveer B. Lone is indeed a
busy man, laden with his strug-
gle for the truth in the
The term ‘Triple Bottom-Line’ (TBL), which Sustainability industry. His first
translates into “People, Planet, Profits,” name, Tanveer, according to our
captures an expanded spectrum of values and wonderful Ferozsons
criteria for measuring organisational (and Urdu-English dictionary means
societal) success - social, environmental and 'illuminating'. We feel he is sometimes the
economic. seeker of enlightenment, and at others, the
seemingly lone bearer. Driven towards his
destination – the true light of CSR – he
Through our masthead we personify the term sometimes feels like a lone voice buried amidst
TBL. Essentially, our ‘bottom line’ is a grey the complex factors he confronts on the way.
bar with a burgundy border which runs Yet as he sets forth, oft-alone on this journey,
through the masthead, at some points he knows he will meet companions along the
overlapping the letters and running under sub-paths his journey takes, merging at
them at others. Here ‘t’ stands for triple and is destinations common with him. There will be
represented through the three shades of the occasions where we can all relate to him. At
letter. The ‘b’ stands for bottom and it sits times, though his capitalist-training-bred
below our grey line with the line going financial focus may fluster us and his
understanding towards disseminating the true
through it - since this magazine is a below the
implications of the triple bottom-line. Watch
line activity, the two gel in together. The ‘l’ out for Mr. TBL, as he shares his views and
stands for line and the letter sits comfortably thoughts in articles and other features in this
on top of the grey ‘bottom’ line. issue! Feel free to share ideas with Mr. TBL that
might help clear the oft-murky waters he'll
encounter in his expedition at
feedforward@tbl.com.pk

2 sept-oct 08 tbl
editor’s note

every drop counts

S
tarting off with our previous issue, our This issue includes a write-up about The
editorial team had decided to dedicate Coca-Cola Company and its plans to
three consecutive issues to the three become water neutral globally by year 2010.
components of the triple bottom-line. Hence When you are informed that over a billion
the previous issue focused on people and servings of Coca-Cola are consumed in the
this one focuses on the planet. The next one, world every single day and when you are
which will also be the last issue of the cur- also told that besides the flagship brand
rent calendar year, will be about profits and Coke, the Company also produces about
we will have a great 'profits' story to tell 400 other brands, you can well imagine the
you. Not to be missed! amount of water The Coca-Cola Company
uses. Then, besides being the base for a number of
Coming back to the current issue, what better subject to brands, including Coke, water is also used by the
focus on than water - the element which gives Earth the Company for washing of glass bottles. So, if the
title of the Blue Planet. Apparently the most abundant Company has gone ahead and taken steps to become
planetary resource, used with gay abandon, water is an one hundred percent water neutral - put back as much
input in practically all human activities, be it agricul- water as it consumes - one needs to commend this. And
ture or industry or commerce or the home. But fresh one hope that other companies, across different indus-
water is only about 2.5 percent of all water on Earth tries and not only in the soft drinks business, will be
and like most other natural resources, fresh water too is similarly inspired to make their contribution to the
fast becoming scarce. The difference being that whereas preservation of what is ultimately the most valuable of
one can still envisage life without coal or oil or gas or all natural resources.
other minerals, life without water is inconceivable.
Water resources are becoming scant so fast that, as At a personal level and at the risk of sounding clichéd,
many experts put it, future wars will be fought over we need to remember that every drop counts. No one is
water, not oil. going to tell you or me to save that drop every time we
turn on the tap. Only our conscience will make the dif-
The unfortunate reality of life is that the value of ference.
anything is only really appreciated when it is not
available or when it is in short supply. And when it
comes to the Earth's natural resources, including water,
the even more unfortunate fact is that the people or Sincerely,
nations who can do something about alleviating short-
ages are also the ones who not only consume these the
most but who also seem to be least bothered to do any-
thing about it at all.

The corporate sector and especially industry has a dual


role to play as far as water is concerned. On the one
hand it needs to reduce its water consumption and on
the other hand it needs to develop and employ new
technologies to treat used water, to eliminate toxic sub- Zohare Ali Shariff
stances and make it reusable for different purposes. Editor in Chief

This publication is being sent complimentary to 1500 decision-makers and opinion-formers in the corporate sector, the government,
NGO sector, international institutions and academia. Recognising that your sphere of work has the potential to compliment and
reinforce the essence of our mission, we have taken the liberty to present tbl to you. It is also available at selected outlets.

We would love to hear from you. Please do contact us at feedforward@tbl.com.pk with your thoughts, feedback and input from your
corporate or social practices.

tbl strongly believes in knowledge dissemination and sharing. Please feel free to share tbl contents with your peers and teams - of
course we know you’ll give tbl the credit when you share our work.

tbl sept-oct 08 3
letters to the editor

T I
he content and layout is have written for your
excellent. TBL contains publication since the March Dear readers,
valuable content and issue. Overall, I have to say
material which will help corpo- that the publication is very
rate executives understand the good. It looks very professional Thank you for sharing with
dynamics of Corporate Social and the articles are very us your valuable comments
Responsibility (CSR) and also interesting. and feedback.
help them to apply it as one of
the guiding principles in their Miriam Katz Mr. Afridi, we appreciate
organisations. I congratulate Freelance Writer & Journalist your thoughts on TBL. TBL
you on this wonderful initiative. Canada is the key to the long-term
competitiveness and success
Brigadier Maqsood Ahmad of our business community
Afridi (Retd.) and will continue to serve as
Public Relations Department a platform for dissemination

I
Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited read TBL and had to write to of triple bottom-line
Rawalpindi commend you on an knowledge and tools.
excellent effort. I would,
however, like to read more on Mr. Ahmed, how encoura-
what local firms are doing and ging to read your thought-
what public sector support is ful, specific feedback. We're

I
received my fourth issue of being garnered in this respect. glad you enjoyed the
Triple Bottom-line and interview. And pleasantly
would like to compliment Seemin Shafi surprised to hear that to
you on the wide range of good Head Corporate Communications some, our content provides
articles that you have been able Faysal Bank Limited relief from the grueling
to collect for your magazine, Karachi battle for survival. Thank
which has pioneered a new you! Do continue to interact
direction of thought. with TBL.

In these times of stress when Ms. Katz, thank you for


the mind is focused on hard and taking the time to write to
tough nuts to crack, your maga- us and for sharing with us
zine provides a cool diversion your feedback on TBL.
in the battle for survival which
most of us are fighting these Ms. Shafi, thank you for
days. your compliments on TBL
and for your valuable
I remember along with the first suggestions. In future issues,
issue you asked me for my com- we will continue to publish
ments which I put off for a later material on local firms and
date and more issues, now your their CSR-related initiatives.
interview of Kerstin Dietrich in
this latest issue has prompted We look forward to our
me to felicitate you and readers' feedback and active
acknowledge the good work contribution and we hope
being done. that over time TBL will
become an important
Sohail P. Ahmed platform for the sharing of
Chief Executive knowledge and best
Thal Engineering practices.
Karachi

4 sept-oct 08 tbl
welcome on board
The tbl team is honoured to introduce our editorial
advisory board. Comprised of diverse leaders and
practitioners, our goal is that the board will steer
our efforts to their highest potential. In each issue
of tbl, we will highlight a member of our editorial
advisory board. Ayesha Tammy Haq
Member

Corporate lawyer, legal and media consultant.


Concurrently a freelance journalist and host of a
weekly current affairs television programme. Based
in Karachi.

Anwar Rammal
Chairperson

Chairman of Asiatic Public Relations (Private)


Limited, Pakistan’s leading communications and PR
Habiba Hamid
agency, affiliated internationally with Hill &
Member
Knowlton. Also Chairman of JWT, Pakistan. Based in
Karachi. Founder of Saracen Consulting, a corporate gover-
nance and responsibility consulting firm. Currently
articulating the Dubai Model of sustainable develop-
ment. Based in Dubai.

Khadeeja Balkhi
Executive Member

Sustainability and CSR consultant and international- Abrar Hasan


ly experienced business and gender journalist. Based Founder Sponsor Member
in Karachi.
Chief Executive of National Foods Limited,
Pakistan’s pioneering multi-category food company.
Innovative businessman and industry leader. Based
Khawar Masood Butt in Karachi.
Founder Sponsor Member

Khawar Masood Butt is


Chairman and MD of EBM since
1985. He also serves as
Chairman and MD of Sat Net,
an Internet Communication
Solutions Provider launched in 1999. Vivian Lines
Member
An active member of various cultural and social
entities, he is a life member of Layton Rehmatullah President and Chief Operating Officer of Hill &
Trust, WWF, Arts & Crafts Institute, among others. Knowlton’s Asia Pacific Region and concurrently
He is also a member of the Institute of Directors, President and CEO Southern Asia. Based in
London. He played cricket at the national level from Singapore.
1950 - 1960 and was selected to tour England as
Vice Captain of the Pakistan Juniors Cricket Eleven
in 1954.

vision and Vision: To steadily facilitate the germination of sustainable visions for organisational growth,
sharing specific triple bottom-line knowledge and tools

mission Mission Statement: To disseminate triple bottom-line knowledge to a diversified group including
corporate, social development and general business groups primarily through a specialised journal,
expanding in accordance with organisational capacity and market readiness

tbl sept-oct 08 5
global briefs

Framework at GRI said that GRI lines, maps, games, "create


PEOPLE will provide practical, hands-on
guidance for reporting on gender
your own report" capabilities,
and more.
issues through extensive consulta-
tions with GRI's global network. New reporters and those with
years of experience will benefit
The new guide is intended for from current case studies, statis-
companies that want to establish tics and useful visual examples in
themselves as leaders in manag- a number of areas of reporting.
IFC Partners with Global ing gender issues. It will demon- The CSR trends survey can help
Reporting Initiative to Improve strate the value of creating busi- companies create a framework for
Corporate Reporting on Gender ness opportunities for women, their own reports.
Issue provide guidance on improving
A 12-month research and consul- gender management through sus- Environmental Crimes Rampant
tation project has been launched tainability reporting, and help and Under-investigated, Report
in September by IFC, a member of improve the quality and scope of Says
the World Bank Group, and the gender reporting by including Environmental crimes such as ille-
Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) new categories such as "women as gal logging, trade in endangered
to help private enterprises world- consumers," "women as entrepre- species, illegal fishing, and trade
wide create new opportunities for neurs in the supply chain," and in banned refrigerants are ram-
women, adopt best practices in "women as part of the pant and growing, according to a
sustainability reporting, and community." report from the nonprofit
improve their bottom lines. Environmental Investigation
CSR TRENDS: A Practical, In- Agency. Organized crime net-
The project is expected to help depth Tool for CSR Reports works are raking in over $10
develop a Gender Sustainability CSR TRENDS 2008, a practical billion a year through commission
Reporting Resource Guide that and in-depth tool for organiza- of environmental crimes, and
will complement the GRI's inno- tions and practitioners, was national and international police
vative Sustainability Reporting released recently by Canadian organizations are doing little to
Framework, the most widely used Business for Social Responsibility stop them, the report charges.
and recognized global framework (CBSR) and Craib Design &
for nonfinancial reporting. The Communications. CSR TRENDS is "Even if we bring intelligence to
GRI framework links elements of an overview of trends and best the attention of authorities, often
effective sustainability manage- practices in the ever-expanding the political will is not there," said
ment systems with indicators that field of corporate social responsi- EIA's Debbie Banks. "We really
can drive continuous improve- bility reporting. It surveyed 75 need to see environmental crime
ment of company performance. Canadian and international treated as seriously as narcotics
reports and reviewed a larger and arms. At the moment, that's
This project is part of a larger IFC- group of 250 reports for best prac- not happening."
GRI partnership to help compa- tices. Best practice reports:
nies adopt sustainability reporting Some of the recent growth in
as a tool for improving environ- Address tough questions environmental crimes is due in
mental, social, and business per- posed by stakeholder groups - part to "the proliferation of inter-
formance. The governments of 91 percent of reporters national and regional environ-
Germany, Iceland, and described specific stakeholder mental agreements, [which lead]
Switzerland are lead sponsors of engagement methods and 64 to more controls on a range of
the project. percent provided results or commodities," the report says. "It
responses from engagement is also due to mutations in the
Rachel Kyte, IFC Vice President initiatives. operations of criminal syndicates
for Business Advisory Services, Place their information in which have been diversifying
said, "Adding a gender perspec- global context by using exter- their operations into new areas
tive to existing nonfinancial nal guidelines - 71 percent of like counterfeiting and environ-
reporting frameworks will help reporters used the Global mental crime.
private companies win recogni- Reporting Initiative (GRI)
tion as diversity leaders by work- guidelines, while 20 percent
ers, investors and consumers." used the UN Global Compact
principles.
Sean Gilbert, Director of Use the web effectively,
Sustainability Reporting including interactive time-

6 sept-oct 08 tbl
thinking". Technology experts
PLANET said it is an unexpected but clever
solution.
In the Wake of The Hurricane..
Hurricane Ike left a big mess
behind as it passed over
Galveston, Texas, and other Gulf
Microsoft is also looking into Coast areas, but the mess wasn't
building a data centre in the cold just from debris. Just as with
climes of Siberia, and in Japan, Hurricane Katrina, the combina-
Sun Microsystems, a technology tion of destructive high winds
firm, plans to send its computers and subsequent flooding have
Greening the Internet down an abandoned coal mine, created a toxic soup that's poten-
A recent study by McKinsey, a using water from the ground as a tially dangerous to residents,
consultancy firm, and the Uptime coolant. Sun said it could save $9 cleanup crews, and the environ-
Institute, a think tank, predicts million (£5 million) of electricity ment. Floodwaters have mixed
that by 2020 the carbon footprint costs a year and use half the with gasoline, paints, household
of the computers that run the power the data centre would have chemicals, and construction
internet will be larger than that of required if it were at ground debris (some containing asbestos)
air travel. Data centres consumed level. to make an unpleasant, icky,
1 percent of the world's electricity potentially hazardous mess that
in 2005. Green Power for Mobile could also cause respiratory
Programme in Developing problems when it dries into dust.
According to Google, "computing World "Quite frankly, we are reaching a
centres are located on a ship or The Green Power for Mobile health crisis for those that are
ships, anchored in a water body programme, an initiative of the remaining on the island," said
from which energy from natural GSM Association, will transition Galveston city manager Steve
motion of the water may be mobile phone towers which LeBlanc. Plenty of standing water
captured, and turned into electri- currently run on off-grid power to has also led to a boom in
city and/or pumping power for renewable energy. This pro- mosquitoes and the county has
cooling pumps to carry heat gramme will save about 600 been asked to spray the area to
away." The increasing number of million gallons of diesel. A news kill the larvae.
data centres necessary to cope story on treehugger, the leading
with the massive information media outlet dedicated to driving Hurricane Ike has also messed
flows generated on popular sustainability mainstream, states with area wildlife. Ike's storm
websites has prompted companies that the end objective of this ini- surge helped turn some fresh-
to look at radical ideas to reduce tiative is "to use renewable energy water wetlands as far as 20 miles
their running costs. to power 118,000 mobile phone inland into salty marshes hostile
base stations - the sites that to many freshwater fish, as well
The supercomputers housed in receive and transmit calls - by as other wildlife. "[The salt
the data centres use massive 2012. New and existing off - grid infusion] exasperates everything
amounts of electricity to ensure sites currently running on diesel that needs freshwater," said Jim
they do not overheat. As a result generators will be targeted first. Sutherlin, superintendent of a
the internet is not very green. Powering these base stations with Gulf Coast wildlife area. Algae
solar, wind or biofuel will save blooms have also been a problem;
Google has announced plans to 600 million gallons of diesel fuel caused by untreated sewage
launch its own "computer navy" - each year". rushing into Galveston Bay after
supercomputers which will the storm, algae blooms have
enable operation of its internet The Green Power for Mobile pro- been sucking oxygen out of the
search engines on barges gramme has already begun in water, leaving little available for
anchored up to seven miles some places: The Pacific Island of marine life. Ike's high winds also
(11km) offshore. The "water-based Vanuatu has 17 stations running shredded many mulberry trees
data centres" would use wave on wind or solar; 30 stations in that migrating birds depend on
energy to power and cool their Kenya are running on wind and for fuel to cross the Gulf of
computers, reducing Google's solar. In Andhra Pradesh, India Mexico.
costs. 350 stations are currently running
Shared by Grist, an online environmental news magazine
on an 80/20 mix of diesel and
Rich Miller, the author of the waste cooking oil, but in the
datacentreknowledge.com blog, future this is expected to be a
stated that Google's computer 50/50 mix, with sustainable
navy solution is: "Really grown biofuels replacing the
innovative, outside-the-box waste cooking oil.

tbl sept-oct 08 7
PROFITS The Department of Housing and
Urban Development (HUD) cur-
rently spends more than $4 billion
developed and emerging
economies alike. An estimated 2
billion consumers worldwide lack
each year to pay utilities in gov- access to basic financial services,
ernment-assisted properties. Yet, including nearly 50 percent of
these funds cover only a fraction citizens in new EU member states,
of the families and individuals in 70 percent of the population in
need of financial help. In contrast, Mexico and places like Tanzania
with an annual investment of $5 where bank account ownership
Recycled Messenger Bags Cut billion during a ten-year span to rates dip as low as 5 percent. The
Costs Considerably rehabilitate low-income homes, Clinton Global Initiative (CGI)
The new Hewlett-Packard laptop considerable gains can be made in aims to deliver accessible,
"will be displayed on shelves energy savings, carbon reduction affordable and empowering
wearing only the HP Protect and cost savings to the renters financial services to at least 5
Messenger Bag", at Wal-Mart. and homeowners. million consumers worldwide
Scandalous! But actually, there's who do not currently have
no need to avert your eyes: the CSRwire states that "the report adequate access to financial
HP Pavilion dv6929 is served up recommends a comprehensive, products and services that meet
in a recycled, reusable messenger 10-point plan that would, among their needs. CGI's objective is to
bag instead of a box, cutting card- other aspects, be able to: Build direct resources and focus
board and plastic packaging by 97 capacity to implement low-cost attention on improving access to
percent. Thinking outside the box improvements; Ensure climate financial services, a solution CGI
helped HP win Wal-Mart's Home change legislation supports low- views as key to alleviating
Entertainment Design Challenge, income home energy efficiency; poverty throughout the world.
which judged suppliers' products Green the revitalization of dis-
on attractive design, environmen- tressed public housing communi- MPOWER Ventures, a socially
tal innovation, and less-wasteful, ties; and Incentivize major finan- committed venture fund, today
less-toxic packaging. Wal-Mart cial institutions to finance energy- announced a five-year commit-
says 25 percent less truck space is efficient very low-income homes. ment to the CGI. "This commit-
now needed to schlep the com- These recommendations would ment keeps our mission in focus
puter to stores, cutting transporta- engage public-private partner- and the collective efforts of the
tion costs by 31 percent. In addi- ships to help overcome the mar- MPOWER group of companies
tion, purchasers of the $798 lap- ket barrier of financing the cost of squarely aimed at the positive
top, which is available only at improvements. The points also impact we seek to achieve by
Wal-Mart and Sam's Club, can offer suggestions for federal sup- providing affordable and
recycle an old PC for free. port to incorporate private capital accessible financial services..."
investment such as credit said Roy Sosa, founding partner,
Shared by Grist, an online environmental news magazine
enhancements and tax incentives MPOWER Ventures. Innovations
New Study Calls for National as structures to diversify direct like prepaid debit cards have been
Commitment to Increase governmental spending". a powerful solution for bringing
Energy Efficiency in Low- unbanked consumers into the
income Homes "A national commitment to bring financial mainstream in the U.S.
An estimated 25 million low- home the benefits of energy effi- and Europe.
income families in America strug- ciency to low-income families in
gle with increased utility and their homes would save families The venture fund aims to develop
energy costs due to inefficiently money, cut carbon emissions and more such innovative solutions
built housing. A new study by create hundreds of thousands of and breakthrough products
Enterprise Community Partners, good green jobs, " said Stockton capable of reaching previously
'Bringing Home the Benefits of Williams, senior vice president inaccessible markets and will
Energy Efficiency to Low-Income and chief strategy officer of bring underserved consumers
Households: A Case for a Enterprise Community Partners. around the world a broad range
National Commitment', calls for a of financial services, including the
national commitment to rehabili-
Shared by Grist, an online environmental news magazine ability to deposit and withdraw
tate and retrofit low-income hous- funds, transfer funds, make
ing with energy-efficient features Pledge to Deliver Access to purchases and accept payments
that will offer substantial financial Financial Services Worldwide anywhere, anytime.
savings for residents and ensure A pattern of exclusion from access
long-term gains in environmental to financial services persists
and energy sustainability. around the world and surfaces in Compiled by Rutaba Ahmed

8 sept-oct 08 tbl
letter

governance call
T
he Corporate Leaders Group
on Climate Change (CLG)
wrote a letter to the leaders
of the UK's major political parties,
to call for "transformational
change" across the economy to
meet the scale of the threat posed
by climate change.

The CLG brings together business


leaders from major UK, EU and
international companies who
believe that there is an urgent
need to develop new and longer-
term policies for tackling climate
change. The Group is developed
by the University of Cambridge
Programme for Industry and the
Prince of Wales's Business and
Environment Programme.

The letter states that: "Climate


change poses global social, envi- It describes some of the "key ele-
ronmental and economic risks ments" of the package, including Quotes from members of
and demands a transformational higher energy efficiency stan- the CLG on Climate
change in how we manage our dards, support for low-carbon Change
economy. Incremental change will technologies and products, "bold
not do... We must deliver deep new specifications" for public sec-
and rapid cuts in greenhouse gas tor procurement and measures to James Smith, Chairman of Shell
emissions to mitigate severe cli- deliver a robust carbon market. UK said: "Tackling climate change
mate change, and must adapt our On this last point, the group sup- is the pro-growth strategy for busi-
economy, environment and infra- ports the "progressive shift to auc- ness. The technological solutions
structure to cope with the climatic tioning of allowances" under the are broadly known. What we now
changes we are already predicted EU's Emissions Trading Scheme. need are projects to build a low
to face. The global economic CO2 energy system in the UK."
downturn may cause some to The Corporate Leaders Group
question whether the UK can recognises that international Lucy Neville-Rolfe, Group Director
afford to act so boldly, but we action is needed to tackle "this of Corporate and Legal Affairs,
believe that action cannot be global problem" but states that if Tesco said: "Consumers account
delayed, and furthermore, that the UK is to continue to offer directly and indirectly for 60% of
decisive action will stimulate eco- credible and effective global lead- carbon emissions. They are there-
nomic activity and job creation in ership, "Government and business fore key to achieving the revolution
certain key sectors as well as must now work together to in green consumption needed if we
reduce costs in the medium to demonstrate real change on the are to move to a low carbon econ-
long term." ground by delivering the new omy. Government and business
projects and practices that are are interdependent on climate
The group has recommended that needed to create a low climate- change and we must work togeth-
the UK adopt a 'working assump- risk economy". er to engage consumers - saving
tion' that a legally-binding deal energy, recycling and conserving
will be signed by all countries at resources."
the UN Framework Convention In conclusion, the CLG, in its
on Climate Change negotiations letter, emphasizes that: "Business
Neil Carson, CEO, Johnson
in Copenhagen next year, imply- and Government must now work
Matthey said: "Public procurement
ing that "the European Union together to ensure all parts of the
drives one third of the UK econo-
should cut greenhouse gas emis- country see the tangible change
my but, to date, attempts to 'green'
sions by 30 percent by 2020, not that is essential for climate change
mitigation and adaptation. Full procurement have largely failed.
20 percent". The public sector should be setting
transformation to a low climate-
risk economy will take several bold, new and sustainable specifi-
The CLG offers strong support for cations for the products and serv-
The Climate Change Bill currently decades, but it will be the steps
that are taken in the next five ices it buys. These would help
in Parliament as a "crucial frame- drive innovation and investment,
work for emissions reduction" but years that will be crucial if we are
calls for an "urgent cross-party to meet the scale of the threat and bring advanced products to
effort to develop a comprehensive posed by climate change and to the market, delivering real savings
package of policy measures to grasp the business opportunities in carbon and saving money for
change every major sector of the created by moving to a low both consumers and the taxpayer."
economy". climate risk economy."

tbl sept-oct 08 9
cover story

pakistan's water problems:

do we
care enough
to act?
by simi kamal
for tbl

Water pollution, discharge


of effluents and unsafe
drinking water are factors
among others that pose a
threat to human wellbeing
and Pakistan’s eco-
system. While some do
not have water to drink,
others waste it in vast
quantities. Witness the
women carrying water on
their heads for miles in
the scorching heat on one
hand, and crops under
flood irrigation and the
cars of the rich being
hosed down in the cities,
on the other.

10 sept-oct 08 tbl
Pakistan, A Water-Scarce Country managed irrigation. Unsafe drinking water is
An arid country, Pakistan depends heavily on responsible for numerous diseases including
annual glacier melts and monsoon rains. Water from dysentery, diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, malaria and
these sources flows down the rivers and out to the gastroenteritis. UNICEF estimates that 200,000
sea. En route, there are seepages into the ground, children in Pakistan die annually due to diarrhoeal
where water-bearing rocks or aquifers absorb and diseases alone.
store this water. Most parts of the country receive
scant rainfall and have little or no access to surface The Indus delta has been reduced to one partially
water. Pakistan Water Partnership (PWP) states that active creek and there is no water flowing down-
in Pakistan the total available surface water is about stream of the Kotri Barrage for almost the entire
153 million acre feet (MAF) and the total ground year. Our mangrove forests, previously some of the
water reserves are approximately 24 MAF, of which largest in the world, have been reduced from 0.6
a substantial part has been mined without allowing million acres to 0.25 million acres, said Simi Kamal
for natural recharge. Currently estimated at 160 and Jairath at the Asia Pacific Regional Consultation
million, the population of Pakistan is set to double in Dhaka. The mix of sweet and sea water maintains
in 2.5 decades. This means that the per capita a very critical balance in the coastlines. If that
availability of water will decrease. There is likely to balance is destroyed, then the entire water system is
be a net decrease, rather than an increase in the affected and will, over time, be felt right up to the
country’s water resources, due to a number of watersheds. Pakistan is dependent on a single river
factors including population growth, climate change, system and we cannot afford to take any more
and exploitation of water. chances with the water/sediment/salt balance of the
Indus Basin.
By international standards, Pakistan was already a
water-scarce country in 1992 at 1700m3 available per The Irrigation System of Pakistan
capita, according to UNFPA/Ministry of Population Pakistan has the largest contiguous irrigation system
Welfare. By 2003, Pakistan’s per capita availability in the world. However, owing to the poor state of

“ Everyone understands that water is essential to life. But many are only
just now beginning to grasp how essential it is to everything in life – food,
energy, transportation, nature, leisure, identity, culture, social norms, and
virtually all the products used on a daily basis.
World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD)

of water declined to the extent that it was catego-



infrastructure, about two-thirds is lost due to poor
rized as a water-stress country by the World Bank, transmission and seepage. This means that about 68
surpassing Ethiopia and on par with African coun- MAF is potentially usable water if the canal system
tries such as Libya and Algeria. Pakistan is now a is adequately repaired and maintained. Of the total
water-scarce country at 1200 m3 per capita per year. sweet water availability of approximately 144 MAF,
According to water specialist Simi Kamal, based on 97 percent is already used in agriculture. We have a
current projections, water availability (per capita) situation where instead of improving farming meth-
will be 855m3 by the year 2020. ods to conserve water and increase productivity,
agricultural landowners demand more water, only
We have already used up everything that exists in to maintain some of the lowest productivity rates in
our water cycle and we do not have additional the world per unit of water and per unit of land.
sources of water to mobilize. When we say we are
putting up another dam or reservoir, it doesn’t All debates on water conservation, however, are
necessarily mean there will be additional water cuffed by the constant refrain on dams and water
coming in; we are just re-appropriating what’s sharing among provinces. Safeguards are needed.
already in the system.
The Solution?
Hrdro Problems The seeds of conflict on water in Pakistan, therefore,
Our water resource base continues to be degraded are sowed by nothing more than hydrology and this
because of pollution, atrophy, overuse of surface needs to be recognized. We cannot solve a very
water and over-exploitation of groundwater. Large complex geographical, hydrological, economic and
tracts of land have been rendered uncultivable due environmental problem through politicking. The
to water logging and salinity, direct results of mis- discussion on water distribution, therefore, should

tbl sept-oct 08 11
“ The rain is plenteous but, by God's decree,
Only a third is meant for you and me;
Two-thirds are taken by the growing things
Or vanish heavenward on vapour's wings:
Nor does it mathematically fall
with social equity on one and all.
The population's habit is to grow
in every region where the water's low:
Nature is blamed for failings that are Man's,
and well-run rivers have to change their plans.
Sir Alan Herbert

be in relation to uses and users, not among political you and I are the government; and at the level of a
or administrative units. This means, a discussion in company or private enterprise, the heads are the
terms of head, middle and tail farmlands in irrigated government. The political process itself should
areas; and in terms of water for survival, subsistence hence be the will of the citizens. In the end, it is the
and pastoral livelihoods in non-irrigated areas. Rain- amalgamation of policies, regulations, guidelines
fed and arid areas should also be a part of the and actions that will help us solve water problems,
debate on water equity and water use. In addition, which are likely to get more complicated due to
uses of water other than agriculture - for domestic climate change and environmental instability.
use, for industry, for urban areas, and for the envi-
ronment - should all be incorporated for a robust
References
water policy for Pakistan.
Pakistan Water Vision, Pakistan Water Partnership, 2001, pp 5-6

There is a need to recognize that just because certain Population Stabilization - A Priority for Development, , Government of
Pakistan, 2003
water-related practices have gone on for centuries
Pakistan's Water Economy Running Dry, The World Bank, 2006, pp
does not mean that they are allowed to continue in xiv - xv
the face of a world in turmoil. We need to change Detailed discussion available in Kamal S, Women and Water: Issues
the way we think about water, the way we use of Entitlement, Access and Equity, in Pakistani Women in Context,
World Bank, Oct 2005, pp 79-106
water and the way we dispose off wastewater.
Vision and Programme Document, Indus Delta Partnership, 2001,
quoted in Kamal S and J Jairath, Addressing Water and Poverty at
the Grassroots, Asia Pacific Regional Consultation, Dhaka, 2002,
A Collective Approach is Needed pp 4
Individuals and corporate citizens must engage with
decision-makers across the board regarding rational
and responsible use of water. Industries, agricultural
industries and corporations must move to pollution
control, micro-irrigation, recycling and reuse of
water on bigger scales. Once these can be demon- About the Writer
strated, only then can the gigantic problems of
Simi Kamal is an internationally known geographer and
wastage through the irrigation system and through water specialist, who chairs many private and non-profit
leakages in municipal water supply be taken up. organizations, and is widely recognized for her research-
based contributions to water and environmental
conservation, building collaborative stakeholder platforms and citizens'
Our first hurdle is the unfortunate habit of laying action groups, as well as fundraising and campaigning. She has over 480
reports, papers, book chapters, articles and handbooks to her credit.
everything at the door of "the government". But
what is this government? At the level of the home,

12 sept-oct 08 tbl
the state hearkens

rainwater harvesting:
sustainable water supply solution in
pakistan's mountainous areas?

he areas affected by the

T 2005 earthquake com-


prise some of the most
idyllic places in Pakistan. by zaheer hussain gardezi
for tbl
However, life in these areas is
becoming increasingly
difficult, particularly in recent
years due to the increasing
scarcity of water. This has
forced several people to even
abandon their ancestral vil-
lages - something previously
unimaginable for them.

The earthquake further


deteriorated the water supply
situation, destroying over four
thousand existing water
supply schemes and affecting
yields of water sources. It is
estimated that the yields of
these sources decreased by
40 percent due to the
earthquake.

The Earthquake Rehabilita-


tion/Reconstruction Authority
(ERRA) took up the responsi-
bility of reconstruction and
rehabilitation of the affected
water supply schemes. And
the herculean task was
undertaken on war footings in
collaboration with develop-
ment partners and affected
communities.
Water Harvesting Pond for Livestock - Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu Kashmir

tbl sept-oct 08 13
Sustainable Solution to irrigation and for the drinking for daily washing, bathing
Water Scarcity needs of farm animals. and other activities.
ERRA realizes that rebuilding However, water stored in
the affected water supply these ponds was not consid- RWH benefits include:
schemes, even when new ered fit for human consump- Supplementing the existing
structures surpass the old tion. water schemes and provid-
structures in terms of quality ing water facilities in the
and reliability, is not the RWH in Northern Pakistan most decentralized man-
solution to the acute water provides a plausible alterna- ner.
scarcity in this region. What tive and supplementary
are needed are innovative source of water in this situa- The provision of an ample
structures that ensure a sus- tion: where existing water water supply for domestic
tainable supply of water. As sources are fast depleting. use will promote better
more than 90 percent people ERRA has decided to provide sanitation-related practices.
live in scattered rural hamlets, a sustainable and alternative
huge projects relying on solution by reviving and Plans to Extend RWH for
lifting water from large water developing the age old prac- Domestic, Agri Uses
bodies lying thousands of feet tice of rainwater harvesting. In accordance with its Build-
below in a valley or water The WatSan Programme at Back-Better Policy, ERRA has
sources high on the mountain ERRA estimates that no less prepared a plan to popularize
tops provide neither viable than 90,000 litres of water rainwater harvesting for
nor cost-effective solutions. (20,000 gallons) can easily be domestic as well as agri-
collected every year from a cultural purposes. Under this
Huge promise lies in rain- small house of roof-size 30 programme, 50 union councils
water. The earthquake affect- feet by 11 feet. facing acute water shortage
ed areas receive an average will be supported to set up
rainfall of 1,500 millimetres, RWH Success Pillars rainwater harvesting
higher than in any other part There are three basic compo- structures. A comprehensive
of Pakistan. Even if a small nents to rainwater harvesting: project worth Rs. 761 million
fraction of this rainfall is har- catchment, gutters and pipes has been prepared for this
vested, this can significantly and a storage system. purpose. Having received
help overcome the problem of The CGI sheet roof serves as approval from the ERRA
water scarcity. The rooftops of an effective catchment surface. board, project papers have
the new houses, constructed Rainwater flushes quickly and been forwarded to the
under ERRA's Rural Housing the accumulated water is Executive Committee of
programme, are made of CGI quite clean, compared to other National Economic Council
sheets. Rainwater flowing roofing systems. It can then be (ECNEC) for approval, and
down these sheets is clean and stored in water storage con- the project has passed the first
safe for human use after har- tainers or can even be charged tier of approval. The Planning
vesting. into aquifers through any Division of Pakistan has
structure like dug well, perco- greatly appreciated this
The residents here are familiar lation well, boreholes, initiative and assured
with the concept of rainwater recharge trenches or water mobilization of resources for
harvesting (RWH). Till twenty ponds. timely implementation of the
years ago, each household in project. ERRA has shared this
these areas would have a Proper care while collecting idea with all its partner
small pond at its disposal. water through sloping roofs organizations in the WATSAN
These small reservoirs, which yields high benefits. It is esti- sector. Donors and doers both
stored rainwater, were an mated by ERRA that around appear quite keen on
important pillar in the liveli- 10 to 15 percent of the water is supporting ERRA in
hood of the farming families utilized as drinking water transforming this dream into
as they provided water for while 85 to 90 percent is used reality.

14 sept-oct 08 tbl
Springs on Rooftops
Situated on the top of a mountain, the idyllic village of was able to obtain funding from Oxfam GB for a pilot
Chitrah Topi is located 17 kilometres from the city of project in Chitrah Topi village.
Bagh in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). As residents
of this village testify, living on a mountain top comes at Apart from two schools and a large mosque, a list of 25
a price. "A mountain top is not an easy place to live, houses was drawn for supporting construction of
because water flows downstream and you do not find rooftop rainwater harvesting facilities. The project,
many springs or streams flowing down your way," which started about four months back, benefits apart
explains a resident. from residents of these houses, more than 470 children
and teachers of two schools and a large section of com-
Until a few months ago, two thousand residents of munity visiting the Jamia Mosque for prayers.
Chitrah Topi, particularly women, faced a difficult situ-
ation. As gendered division of labour ordains, almost Soon after completion of the project, the heavy mon-
the entire burden of ensuring domestic water supply soon rains poured down from the skies. Residents of
fell on the shoulders of women, or, literally speaking, the village discovered that there were springs flowing
on their necks. Women had to walk four to five kilome- from the rooftops.
tres every day to fetch water, an ordeal that could take
up to eight hours, everyday. Some donkey carts Once harnessed, these springs ensure safe and clean
brought water to the village, charging Rs. 30 to 40 for a water. As a result of the project, women have been
5-gallon container. But buying water was not an option freed from the drudgery of carrying water everyday
for most residents of this low-income mountain village. and people are growing kitchen gardens in their
homes. For the school children, toilets have been made
This situation worsened as a result of the October 2005 useable for the first time.
earthquake, as most water sources in the area dried up
or changed their course, making it even harder to "Life has changed for the 200 girls studying at our
attain water for domestic consumption. It appeared schools. The lack of toilet facilities discouraged girl
that there was no end to this problem, until ERRA children from studying and it made life miserable for
introduced the rainwater harvesting project in the the teachers as well. Thanks to the new RWH facility,
village through its partner organization, the Maqsood we now have safe and fresh water available for all of
Welfare society. As a result of ERRA's initiative to our needs," says Haleema, a teacher at Government
promote RWH in earthquake affected areas, the society Girls High School at Chitrah Topi.

Water Scarcity: A Problem of The Past

Hullar Syedan, a picturesque village in district Bagh, own initiative, villagers started collecting water
AJK is one of the places where the practice of rooftop coming down from the rooftops in cans and pots. In a
RWH emerged and evolved, in response to people's few years, all houses with a sloping roof had a water
needs. Fifteen years ago, the villagers faced severe tank and toilet. These tanks could store a large volume
water shortages. The village had some communal of water. Periods of drought saw them using their
wells, which were kept locked and elderly women water carefully so that supply could last till the next
were made custodians of these keys to ensure equal rainy season.
distribution of water among the village residents. The
villagers also had four ponds built, generations ago. In 1996, with the collaboration of the local government
These ponds were used to store rainwater and were of Azad Kashmir, a large water pumping scheme was
cleaned every year. However, these ponds and wells completed with the capacity to provide water to 2,500
used to dry up if it did not rain for a month or so. people. The residents are running the water supply
When this happened, the villagers had to take their scheme on a self-help basis. They have set up a
cattle to distant places for grazing and watering. The committee for the maintenance of the water supply
women used to carry water from streams located miles schemes. Every household makes a monthly contri-
away. bution to keep the system running. Along with this
scheme, people are still using RWH to augment their
In the 1970's, many people from these villages moved water supplies. During the months of rain, pressure on
to the Middle East for better employment. This the water supply decreases as people switch to the
resulted in improved economic situation by 1980 and water collected through RWH. Water scarcity is now a
people built houses with sloping roofs. Upon their problem of the past.

About the Writer


Zaheer Hussain Gardezi is Director, WatSan Programme, Earthquake Rehabilitation/Reconstruction Authority (ERRA), Islamabad. He
has over 18 years of experience in community-based physical infrastructure and social sector projects in the areas of rural water supply
and sanitation. His valuable experiences include working with multiple community-based organisations to plan and design cost-effective
basic infrastructure development schemes.

tbl sept-oct 08 15
hydropower

water power
in pakistan
by miriam katz
for tbl

W
ith the realities of climate change and the
depletion of fossil fuels, renewable energy is
now in the spotlight. Currently, wind and solar
power have been in the news, but there are also many
other sources of energy that would benefit the environ-
ment and the developing world. These sources include
wave and tidal power in addition to small hydro. In
China and India, small hydro is quite popular and there
are also a few projects in Pakistan; however, the govern-
ment could do much more to promote water power.

This article will first examine wave and tidal power with
reference to its applicability in Pakistan. This will include
an analysis of the history of these technologies, the condi-
tions needed for successful projects and the benefits and
drawbacks. The second part of the article will look at

16 sept-oct 08 tbl
small hydro and why it is the best oped what is known today as off the coast of Cornwall,
option for Pakistan at this time. Salter's Duck. Salter's Duck England, will save 300,000 tons of
Wave and tidal power are good looked like very large boxes that carbon dioxide over 25 years.
technologies; however, the bene- were attached to the ocean floor. In addition, the net potential for
fits of small hydro are much As the waves moved them back both wave and tidal power is
greater, especially for Pakistan's and forth, the mechanical energy greater than wind and solar
developing economy. became electrical energy, which because water is 850 times denser
drove a generator. Salter's Duck than wind, which pushes the
An Explanation and History of was able to capture 90 percent of turbines faster, according to the
Wave Power the wave motion and 90 percent Ocean Energy Council (OEC).
Many companies have developed of that could be turned into elec-
different ways of using wave trical energy, which is very Also, because many cities are
power, but the two basic princi- impressive. In addition, at the situated in port areas, the power
ples behind the designs remain time the Duck was completed, the can be used right where it is
the same. The first design cost of the electricity was the needed. This is important
involves the waves moving into a same as nuclear power; however, because, as electricity moves
chamber where the water rises the nuclear power industry was through transmission systems,
and falls. At the top of the able to lobby the government to some of the power is lost and
chamber, there is a hole out of cancel financial support for wave cannot be recovered. Both tidal
which air is forced, which drives power in 1982, as stated in an and wave power are fairly
a generator. The other type of article on Economist.com. This inexpensive to maintain and tidal
design involves a long tube with set back the cause of wave power power is very predictable. Tidal
hinges, which moves up and for many years; however, other power cannot harm any marine
down due to the motion of waves. forms of energy such as tidal have life because underwater animals
This motion moves hydraulic shown promise. can often sense turbine movement
fluid, which drives a generator. and their sound. In addition,
A power cable then moves this Tidal Power because tidal power requires a
electricity to where it is needed. Tidal power is potentially very high current, there will never be
The first design was used for the useful because tides are very any animals feeding in those
very first commercial wave power reliable. However, only 40 sites in areas because plants cannot grow.
station, which is situated on Islay the world have been found that
island in Scotland. This project are suitable because there must be Challenges of Wave and Tidal
began producing power in a five meter difference between Power
November 2000 and provides high and low tides. Wave and tidal power also have
enough power for 400 homes, many challenges that need to be
according to Nayyer Alam There are two types of tidal resolved in order for these types
Zaigham, Professor & Director, power stations: the first is built of powers to be successful.
Institute of Environmental across an estuary and looks
Studies, University of Karachi. similar to a dam. Inside the dam, Generally, the best waves are
The second design was used for there are tunnels that the water situated in temperate zones,
the Pelamis, which was also passes through. The water then which means that Pakistan is not
developed in Scotland, but the turns a turbine. The other type of suitable for wave power. This is
first project will soon be installed tidal power station looks like because west winds are often
off the coast of Portugal. The underwater wind turbines, but found in the temperate zones,
Pelamis produces enough energy the size is usually limited to 25 to which are the best for wave
for 1500 Portuguese homes, as can 50 megawatts (MW), according to power. Also, strong winds over
be found using the Pelamis wave the Pembina Institute which large areas as well as a location
energy converter. Pelamis was works to advance sustainable near the continental shelf are
developed by the student of energy solutions in Canada. The much more favourable for wave
Professor Salter at the University largest tidal power station was power because it ensures a
of Edinburgh. built in northern France in 1966 disparity between wave height
and it produces 240 MW of and wave length.
Wave power began in France in electricity.
1799 with a patent that used wave Sites such as these are very rare,
power to drive heavy machinery; Benefits of Wave and Tidal as mentioned above. Wave power
however, it was not until the Power is also much younger than wind
1970s when wave power was Wave and tidal power have many or solar power and the cance-
taken seriously. At the University benefits. A 40 MW wave power llation of the UK wave power
of Edinburgh, Prof. Salter devel- station, which is being proposed programme did not aid that. The

tbl sept-oct 08 17
fact that wave power is young electricity, which includes large disguised by channeling them
also means that the power and small installations; at present, through agents or subcontractors.
generated costs more than other only 6459 MW are installed, states Irregularities with environmental
sources of power. Currently, engineer Abdul Waheed Bhutto. impact assessments can arise
wave power costs approximately Furthermore, he states that many during the planning phase. In
7.5 cents per kilowatt hour (kWh) people now realize that large India, an accounting firm commis-
compared to 3 cents for natural dams are not suitable for the sioned to conduct an EIA for two
gas, according to the OEC. environment, economy and dams was caught in 2000 copying
people because dams cause the large sections of an EIA for
Tidal power also faces many flooding of villages and towns, another project 145 kilometers
challenges. One of the main which means that the government away. After a civil society watch
problems is that shore birds must spend money to resettle group spotted the plagiarism and
depend on the tide to uncover people; the Kalabagh dam, for posted the information on its
mud flats in order for them to example, will cost the government website, the contractor said it
feed; tidal power changes this Rs. 2 billion in resettlement costs. would rewrite the document.
quite drastically. The cost of tidal In addition, because reservoirs Vulnerabilities continue during
power per kWh is 12 cents, which often contain decaying biomass, project operation and mainte-
is quite high. This cost would take greenhouse gases are emitted. nance. These can include corrup-
many years to recover, which is Large hydro is often accompanied tion related to service access and
not attractive for the developing by corruption, which is discussed provision, misappropriation or
world. Lastly, according to the in the next section. misuse of fees, illegal connections,
OEC, tidal power has a very low failure to honour social and
capacity factor of 20 to 35 percent Forms and Effects: What environmental mitigation
whereas nuclear power stations Corruption in Hydropower commitments, patronage and
experience a 90 percent capacity Looks Like abuse of funds in resettlement
factor, says E. Michael Blake in an Grand corruption can occur in the activities, and failure to honor
article published in the Nuclear form of bid-rigging and illicit benefit-sharing. If these vulnera-
News magazine of the American payments, which are often bilities were addressed, the bene-
Nuclear Society.
Why fighting corruption is a long-term interest of all stakeholders
Thus, although nuclear power is a
more questionable energy source, STAKEHOLDER GROUP CORROSIVE EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION
capacity factor is very important
because if the capacity factor is Electricity consumers Less affordable and reliable electricity
Less access for the poor
higher, it ensures that power will Slower pace of service expansion
be produced more frequently. The
Impacted communities More high-impact or ‘bad’ projects
reason why tidal power has such Higher adverse livelihood impacts and
a low capacity factor is that tides impoverishment risks
Fewer funds for compensation, mitigation and
are only predictable for part of the benefit-sharing
day and thus, there is no constant Fewer mitigation commitments for sustainable
management
supply of energy.
Electricity utilities Higher costs of bulk energy or own supply
Higher borrowing and equity costs
Small vs. Large Hydro Less money for service expansion and improvement
Due to the challenges just men- Delayed, overpriced or expensive infrastructure
tioned, Pakistan is not suitable for Governments Higher power sector costs
wave and tidal power. However, Higher repayments for sovereign loans or guarantees
Pakistan has had some experience Setbacks for social policies
Slower economic growth and job creation for projects
with small hydro and there is a that depend on improved electricity service
continuing interest in the
Public hydropower No level playing field for fair competition
technology. Currently, Pakistan developers/ operators and Approvals procured through bribes can be rescinded,
has 108 MW of small hydro, IPPs terminating the project
Disqualification from office or criminal prosecution
which consists of nine projects.
There are also 10 MW under Contractors and equipment Distorted and unfair competition
suppliers Higher and wasted tender expenses
construction and 180 MW Approvals procured through bribes can be rescinded,
planned, according to the terminating the project
International Energy Agency. Criminal prosecution, fines, blacklisting and
loss of reputation
Financial loss
However, Pakistan has the
potential for 46,000 MW of hydro- Source: Global Corruption Report 2008, Transparency International

18 sept-oct 08 tbl
fits that would flow to people and costs $20 and produces enough would allow people to purchase
the environment would be power for one family. these systems cheaply. If Pakistan
considerable. Direct cost savings is able to independently produce
may start at US$ 5-6 billion Benefits of Small Hydro power, this would greatly
annually if contractor bid prices Small hydro has many benefits, increase the number of jobs and
decreased by 10 percent, which both for the environment and for the benefit to society.
was suggested by Transparency Pakistani society. Small hydro
International. produces no greenhouse gas
emissions after it is built. In References

If corruption leads to cost over- addition, unlike tidal power, the Nayyer Alam Zaigham and Zeeshan Alam

runs that eat into funds originally ecosystem is not adversely Nayyer "Prospects of Renewable Energy
Sources in Pakistan"
earmarked for maintenance, affected. Pico hydro only requires <http://www.energy.com.pk/RenewEnerPak
proper functioning may be put at a 1-metre drop in height, which istanNAZ.pdf>

risk, reducing the long-term means the technology is guaran- Wikipedia "Pelamis Wave Energy
benefits. Corruption can also teed to work more of the time Converter"
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelamis_Wave
hamper the expansion of than wave power, which depends _Energy_Converter>
electricity ser-vices in developing on very large waves.
The Economist "The Coming Wave"
countries by driving up costs, <http://www.economist.com/search/dis-
delaying projects and lowering With regards to society, small playstory.cfm?story_id=11482565>

service quality and reliability, hydro guarantees that there will Pembina Institute "Energy Source: Tidal
especially in rural areas be electricity available more of the Power"
<http://re.pembina.org/sources/tidal>
considered low priorities. The time, which means that children
table, printed in the Global Water can study at night and women Ocean Energy Council "Wave Energy"
<http://www.oceanenergycouncil.com/index
Corruption 2008 report by can also make handicrafts for .php/Wave-Energy/Wave-Energy.html>
Transparency International, markets, which gives them more
summarizes the impact of economic power in society. In E. Michael Blake "U.S. Capacity Factors: A
small gain to an already large number"
corruption on hydropower. addition, women are given even <http://www.ans.org/pubs/magazines/nn/do
more free time because they do cs/2007-5-3.pdf>

How Small Hydro Works not have to collect firewood International Energy Agency "International

Most small hydro systems work anymore. Small Hydro Atlas: Pakistan"
<http://www.small-
on the same principle known as hydro.com/index.cfm?Fuseaction=coun-
tries.country&Country_ID=60>
run of river. One of the main Pakistan can also benefit from the
benefits of this is the absence of a experience and knowledge of its Abdul Waheed Bhutto "Small Hydro-power
Units for Remote Villages"
reservoir, which means no towns neighbour India, which has 1694 <http://my.reset.jp/~adachihayao/060829M.
are flooded. The water at the high MW of small hydro installed. htm>
point of the river is fed through a Lastly, it is very important to note Simon Taylor, Drona Upadhyay and Maria
pipe, which turns a small that many people in rural Laguna "Flowing to the East: Small Hydro
generator. After this, the water Pakistan do not have electricity in Developing Countries"
<http://www.esha.be/fileadmin/esha_files/d
re-enters the river, which means and small hydro is very well ocuments/publications/articles/REW_06-
that there are no environmental suited to many of these areas 1_Laguna.qxd.pdf>

consequences and the system because it does not have to be


needed is fairly small. connected to the grid. Another
option is to build grids that only
These systems last for about 25 cover one village or town, which
years and very little maintenance is a very popular option in China,
is needed. Small hydro has three India and Vietnam because small
different categories: pico, mini hydro can easily be connected to
and micro, which are below 5 this type of grid, state Taylor,
kilowatts (kW), 1 MW and 100 Upadhyay and Laguna.
kW respectively, explain Taylor, About the Writer
Dr. Upadhyay and Laguna Thus, small hydro is by far the
Miriam Katz is a freelance writer based in
(Project Manager, European Small best option available for Pakistan London. She currently writes for the
Hydro Association) in a review due to the presence of many Environmental Peace Review. Her areas of
on small hydro in developing rivers, the environmental and
interest include environmental issues, renewable
energy, biofuels and climate change. She holds
countries published on societal benefits as well as the a Bachelors in Arts degree in Political Science
Renewable Energy World. drawbacks of wave and tidal and Environmental Studies from the University of
Toronto. She can be reached at
Vietnam is one of Asia's leaders in power. It is now up to the govern- m.il.katz@gmail.com
pico hydro where a 300 watt unit ment to put in place policies that

tbl sept-oct 08 19
report: global water corruption

water and corruption:


a destructive partnership
report by Transparency International

he Global Corruption Report 2008 is the first report to assess how corruption affects

T all aspects of water - and reflects on what more can be done to ensure that
corruption does not continue to destroy this basic and essential resource, one that is
so fundamental to the lives of people all over the planet. This report shows that the
corruption challenge needs to be recognised in the many global policy initiatives for
environmental sustainability, development and security that relate to water.

Putting lives, livelihoods and sustainable devel- Water: a high-risk sector for corruption
opment at risk This Report draws some preliminary conclusions
Nearly 1.2 billion people in the world do not have about why water is especially vulnerable to
guaranteed access to water and more than 2.6 billion corruption.
are without adequate sanitation, with devastating
consequences for development and poverty Water governance spills across agencies.
reduction. In the coming decades the competition
for water is expected to become more intense. Due
Water management is viewed as a largely techni-
to overuse and pollution, water-based ecosystems
cal issue in most countries.
are considered the world's most degraded natural
resource. Water scarcity already affects local regions
on every continent, and by 2025 more than 3 billion Water involves large flows of public money.
people could be living in water-stressed countries.
Private investment in water is growing in
In developing countries, about 80 percent of health countries already known to have high risks
problems can be linked back to inadequate water of corruption.
and sanitation, claiming the lives of nearly 1.8
million children every year and leading to the loss Informal providers, often vulnerable to corrup-
of an estimated 443 million school days for the chil- tion, continue to play a key role in delivering
dren who suffer from water-related ailments. water to the poor.

This Report argues that the crisis of water is a crisis


Corruption in water most affects those with the
of water governance, with corruption as one root
weakest voice.
cause. Corruption in the water sector is widespread
and makes water undrinkable, inaccessible and
unaffordable. Water is scarce, and becoming more so.

20 sept-oct 08 tbl
process and enforcement of water policies are
Urgent action is needed to mobilise all manipulated to favour the interests of a few
stakeholders to develop practical influential water users or service providers at the
ways of tackling corrupt practices in the expense of the broader public.
many and varied parts of the water sector.
This is the central message of the Global Typically there are three sets of corrupt interac-
Corruption Report 2008. tions:
Between public officials and other public officials.
This includes corrupt practices in resource alloca-
The global water crisis: a crisis of governance tion. It can also involve using bribes to determine
The story of corruption in the water sector is a story the outcome of personnel management decisions -
of corruption in resources and services vital for life such as payments to individuals for transfers and
and development. It is also the story of a sector in appointments to lucrative positions.
crisis. Each year millions of people die of water-
borne diseases because access to safe drinking water Between public officials and private actors. This
and adequate sanitation has not been prioritized. In includes forms of bribery and fraud that occur in
2004 more than 1 billion people lacked access to safe relation to licensing, procurement and construc-
drinking water and 2 billion did not have access to tion. Collusion or bid-rigging is typical of
adequate sanitation - and, despite successes in many tendering processes in developed and developing
regions, the population without access to water serv- countries and involves both international and
ices is increasing. Corrupt practices exacerbate these national actors.
gaps, removing investment that might be used to
extend services to the poor, diverting finance from Between public officials and users/citizens/
the maintenance of deteriorating infrastructure and consumers. These practices, known as administra-
taking cash from the pockets of the poor to pay esca- tive or petty corruption, enable poor and non-poor
lated costs and bribes for drinking water. households, farmers and other users to get water,
get it more quickly or get it more cheaply. The
At the heart of these failures is the crisis of gover- series of corrupt practices in the sector extends
nance in water - a crisis in the use of power and from policy capture, to large and small public-
authority over water and how countries manage private transactions in construction and
their water affairs. And yet, despite the imperatives operations, to interactions at the point of service
of water for citizens' livelihoods and a country's delivery, which together can be plotted on a water
growth, water governance has not been prioritized. 'value chain'.
Institutional dysfunction, poor financial manage-
ment and low accountability mean that many gov- The framework shown in table 1 highlights these
ernments are not able to respond to the crisis, and three sets of interactions in terms of the functions of
weak capacity and limited awareness leave citizens the water sector: a cycle of policy-making and
and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in regulation, budgeting and planning, financing,
many countries unable to demand change. programme design and management, tendering and
procurement, construction, operation and mainte-
The nature and scope of corruption nance, and monitoring and enforcement functions.
Corruption - the abuse of entrusted power for The corruption risk map provides a framework for
personal gain - can be found in a vast range of identifying these stakeholder incentives, potential
interactions at all levels and in all aspects of the conflicts of interests and the points along the water
water sector. value chain that are most vulnerable to capture.

When bureaucratic or petty corruption occurs, a The impact of corruption: putting billions of lives
hierarchy of public servants abuse their power to at stake
extract small bribes and favours. A water meter The impact of corruption can be described in finan-
reader offers to reduce a customer's bill in return for cial, economic, environmental and sociopolitical
payment or a utility official only responds to water terms, and can also involve issues of security.
service complaints when favours are traded. When
grand corruption happens, a relatively small cadre Financial
of public and private sector actors are involved and Weak governance and endemic corruption exact a
the rewards are high. For example, public funds for social impact that financial calculations can never
a rural water network are diverted into the pockets estimate. The barriers to access fall disproportionate-
of ministry officials or a large dam construction ly on the poor in all regions. Chronically low levels
contract is captured by a group of colluding compa- of access are found among poorer households and,
nies. When state capture occurs, the decision-making accordingly, many households find ways - often

tbl sept-oct 08 21
creative ways - of obtaining water informally. They political frictions and regional disputes.
vary the sources from which they obtain water and
pay higher prices when they can afford it. The The drivers of corruption
poorest households in countries such as El Salvador, Government institutions are not well structured to
Jamaica and Nicaragua spend more than 10 per cent deal with these informal water providers or the
of their income on water while their cohorts in rich forms of bribery that develop. Another driver of
nations such as the United States pay only a third as corruption in the water sector is related to the fact
much. that the demand for accountability is very limited in
developing countries.
Economic
Poverty is multidimensional and household costs The existence of state and non-state actors, systems,
are not all financial. Whether poor households service levels and institutions creates a highly
engage in corrupt transactions or not, they suffer complex sector. The lack of clarity in the roles and
due to the inefficiencies that corruption produces. responsibilities of all these stakeholders results in a
Where corruption removes or increases the costs of lack of transparency and accountability and,
access to water effects can be measured in terms of inevitably, in a severe asymmetry of information
lost days, human development and lives. Close between user, provider and policy-maker.
linkages have been found between access to safe
water and infant mortality, girls' education and the In addition, water has many linkages to other
prevalence of waterborne disease. sectors that are particularly vulnerable to corruption.
As part of the high-risk construction sector, water
Water is also a key driver of growth, being an displays the resource allocation and procurement-
indispensable input to production (in agriculture, related abuses which arise when the public and
industry, energy and transport). Currently, the private sectors meet. As water services and resource
extremely low levels of hydraulic infrastructure and management is one of the functions of a country's
limited water resources management capacity in the administrative or civil service, the sector also
poorest countries undermine attempts to manage confronts a different set of obstacles: low capacity,
variability in water availability. Water reservoir low wages, lack of clear rules and regulations, and
storage capacity (per capita) in countries such as dysfunctional institutions. These conditions make it
Morocco or India is less than one-tenth of the susceptible to the common practices of fraud,
volume that Australia has in place. Corruption bribery, embezzlement and favouritism.
reduces the levels of investment in infrastructure,
reduces resilience to shocks and undermines growth. Understanding the channels where corruption can
occur helps in its prevention. Mapping makes it
Environmental possible to identify 'hot spots', in a particular
The impact of corruption in water can also be context, where corruption tends to concentrate along
environmental. The lack of infrastructure for water the water value chain framework shown in table 1.
management whether man-made (e.g. dams,
inter-basin transfers, irrigation, water supply) or Ultimately, however, corruption scenarios play out
natural (e.g. watersheds, lakes, aquifers, wetlands) very differently in different contexts. Political
in developing countries presents a management regimes, legal frameworks, the degree of decentra-
challenge almost without precedent. The lisation, regional disparities, power relations,
ever-increasing impact of climate change and the cultural norms and levels of accountability
lack of human and financial capacity to manage the (for example, between state and civil society) will
water legacy result in far greater shock in influence the patterns and risks.
developing countries, making the poorest countries
ever more vulnerable. Corrupt practices that
increase pollution, deplete groundwater and
increase salinity are evident in many countries and
are closely linked to deforestation and desertification
across the globe. Stemming the leakage of funds
from the sector is vital to address these issues.

Sociopolitical
The importance of water - on health, poverty,
development and the environment - underscores
how it is fundamentally linked to questions of The Global Corruption Report 2008 is by Transparency International,
power and security. Corruption can turn the control a global civil society organisation leading the fight against corruption.
It is edited by Dieter Zinnbauer and Rebecca Dobsan.
of water into a force that aggravates social tensions,

22 sept-oct 08 tbl
tbl sept-oct 08 23
social partnership

pani ghar
case study of a social enterprise
by ali salman
for tbl

Background provide this precious resource -


A pseudonym 'Paniwala' Potable water in Pakistan is pol- water - at a large scale to the poor
(PW) has been used to luted, and the health situation is in a for-profit business model. He
disguise the identity of getting worse. This has been con- thus analyzed various options
the leading entrepreneur firmed by National Water Quality including the government
behind 'Pani Ghar', a Monitoring reports issued by the expenditure and compared
social enterprise estab- Pakistan Council for Research in household costs per annum.
lished two years ago to Water Resources (PCRWR).
provide safe drinking Keeping this in mind, many
water at affordable companies have launched bottled Investment
prices. The social enter- water. However, they are catering Per Household
prise as a company was to the rich. A liter of bottled water (Rs.)
wounded up while the costs Rs. 22; in jumbo packs of 19
pilot outlet still functions liters, this price drops to Rs. 6 per Household 18,000
in Lahore. liter: still a price, which the poor Filters
and lower income groups cannot
afford. The Economist (November Pani Ghar 6,000
Mr. Paniwala (PW) looks 9, 2006) estimates that the
back to a year ago when spending on drinking water by an Government 8,464
his negotiations with a average household does not cross Plants
major international social over 5 percent of their monthly
venture fund were almost income. It translates into the fact Bottling Company 43,200
finalized, before they sud- that to afford clean drinking
denly collapsed and so water through bottled water
did his dream to start a Assumption:
companies, the monthly Everything else equal, the above table
revolutionary social household income should be compares household costs for each option.
enterprise for providing more than Rs. 50,000; whereas
safe drinking water to the according to the Economic Survey Next, PW undertook professional
poor in a financially of Pakistan, the per capita income market research to estimate the
sustainable way.
of Pakistan is $850 or Rs. 4,250 per demand of drinking water in
month as per 2006 prices. specified locations while keeping
a price point of Re. 1 per liter. The
Pani Ghar: Beginning of an Idea market research yielded several
Concerned about the water situa- insights and confirmed that a
tion (for example, lack of potable sizable demand exists at the
water) in poor communities, Mr. community level for buying clean
PW began to think of ways to drinking water regularly. Once

24 sept-oct 08 tbl
PW had determined the demand Unanticipated Problems in Pani systems and management. The
level in these areas, he explored Ghar and PW's Strategy partner was of the opinion that
technologies available in the Pani Ghar was located on Multan spending money on quality
market. His purpose was to find a road in Ittefaq town, a congested control and management support
'medium size ultra violet filtration urban area near Mansura, Lahore. was not needed at this stage and
plant, which could be placed in Although this outlet was should be put off. However, PW
an exclusive shop and could operational for almost a year, the insisted that for long-term benefit,
supply water to a community of number of customers was low. this short-term expenditure
around 1,000 households'. The management faced various should be absorbed. This conflict
unanticipated problems. These left both shareholders in bad
Competitive Analysis problems included unwillingness taste. PW was asked by his
PW also conducted a competitive of people to buy 'uncertified partner to quit and wind up the
analysis. He identified that water', slow sales, poor market- company. The potential social
household filters pose an ing, lack of monitoring and com- investor also took note of the
immediate threat to his idea. But petition from household filters. internal management conflicts
his research exposed the inade- and concluded that it is not a safe
quacy and uselessness of these When PW assumed charge of investment. Apart from learning
filters. Many target customers opt Pani Ghar, he took specific steps several lessons about the
to use boiled water; however, to address each issue. He marketing of a social enterprise,
boiling water is recommended appointed a business graduate PW also learnt an important
only for emergencies and scientifi- and delegated sales, quality lesson the hard way:
cally proven to be counter-pro- management and marketing to
ductive, if used regularly. A low- him. This brought positive results The social entrepreneur
cost technology is water purifying rather quickly. After six months, should remain independent
crystals. However, while this Pani Ghar's revenue doubled and at least until the pilot phase
technology may satisfy social con- the enterprise achieved self- of the product is successful.
cerns, it does not satisfy commer- sufficiency. Some sixty plus Dependency on an external
cial requirements. The govern- households became regular factor, including an organi-
ment has spent 12 billion rupees customers of Pani Ghar. These zation or an investment in
in its project 'Clean Drinking households belonged to the the initial phase can be fatal.
Water for All'. The project aims to lower-middle group and became
install more than 6,000 filtration loyal customers. In the last quarter of 2007, Pani
plants - one in each union council Ghar was wound up as a
of the country - by the end of Scaling up Pani Ghar company, though the lone outlet
2008. Only 600 were installed and When the house was put in still continues to operate
this project has unfortunately relative order, PW began to work profitably. PW's dream was not
taken the well-known downward on an investment which would realized but his initiative
trajectory associated with most help him scale up the project. He provided great insights and a
government-run projects. believed in the concept of useful knowledge base for similar
economies of scale and knew that initiatives.
Pani Ghar: Commissioning a well-paid professional manage-
Phase ment would make sense, once the
PW identified a local manufac- operations were wide enough.
turer of water filtration plants, PW prepared a plan to open ten
who had developed a prototype. outlets in Punjab and sought the
This, for PW was a dream come help of a major social investor. About the Writer
true. PW signed partnership Initial response was positive and
agreement with him and a a long, taxing process of Ali Salman currently works as a senior partner
at Development Pool - a consulting firm and
company was established: Pani communication ensued. teaches Economics. Ali specializes in economic
Ghar. Much to the disappoint- analysis, entrepreneurship, policy formulation
and business models. He has worked in the
ment of this young entrepreneur, Lack of Internal Coherence private, public and development sectors of
a year later, this would prove to While the enterprise was doing Pakistan for over ten years. Besides various
publications, the book 'Alternative Youth Policy'
be the beginning of an end. well at the operational and is to his credit. He engaged in good governance
business development levels, it reforms, citizens-government liaison and policy
research during a two year period at Planning
PW assumed charge of this faced an internal management Commission, Government of Pakistan. Ali did his
business and managed the sales, challenge. PW's partner began to Masters in Economics from Boston University as
operations and quality of the mistrust PW regarding his a Fulbright Scholar; his MA in Development
Studies as Royal Netherlands Fellow; and an
outlet. He also conducted a rapid engagement with the venture MBA from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.
assessment of Pani Ghar. fund and spending money on

tbl sept-oct 08 25
eco-retreats & eco-models

Phragmites Austraulis
These plants are responsible for breaking down material waste and absorbing its remaining
nutrients for its own growth, leaving clear, odourless water behind. The facility uses most of
the water on gardens around the retreat, some gets filtered further into drinkable water.

teri gram ecological retreat


by kurt archer
for tbl

I
rony of the times: a world was awarded for his work with horizon. As the main retreat
class ecological model of excel- an 'Inconvenient Truth’, which building nears, you will first
lence emerged in one of the made waves throughout out the notice its very modern and
top polluting cities in Asia. world raising awareness towards sophisticated design surrounded
the urgency of climate change. by forests and green fields.
Found in the outskirts of New The main foyer is lit only using
Delhi, in an upscale development Teri: A Model of Excellence sunlight, streaming in through a
town named Gurgaon, is the Teri Located far from urban noise, the skylight window that spans most
Gram campus. The Energy and Teri Gram campus is most of the roof; placed upon which
Resource Institute (TERI) was notably known as a retreat with are photovoltaic solar panels.
founded by the Tata family in the cricket, golf and other outdoor
1970s as a way to model India activities. However, what makes Solar Energy and Biomass
towards a more energy efficient it renowned is its complete Gasification
future. Today it is known as a reliance upon renewable The building uses no air
centre of excellence, in India and resources. conditioning facility, and relies
around the world, with offices in completely upon solar energy and
Europe, Asia and the Middle East. Arriving at the campus you must biomass gasification to provide
Dr. R.K. Pauchauri leads the park at the gate and to tour the the much needed energy for the
institute. He won a Nobel Prize compound, board an electronic building. In fact, the building
for environmental protection in car, its symbolic green colour consumes 10.7 kW per day of
2004 - the same year as Al Gore blending well with the campus solar energy from those photo-

26 sept-oct 08 tbl
voltaic panels, while up to 100 or removes the remaining microbes
150 kW are produced through the that were left in the fauna treated
process of biomass gasification. water and after passing through
this filter, it can easily be clean
The biomass gasification machine enough to drink. While research
is akin to an incinerator and burns is underway to find more efficient
natural products such as wood usages of the water produced
and cedar chips broken down into through this system, most of this
small nuggets. The heat produced water currently is used to water
is used to heat water tanks and gardens and fields.
power a generator. Burning at
temperatures of 1200ºC, very little GM to Conserve Plant
thermal energy is lost in the Species?
process. Most of the wood chips A trip to Teri usually ends with a
are taken from scraps on the visit to the tissue culture planta-
facility grounds, while others are Bio-gas Fuel inputs tion. Here thousands of plant
bought from outside producers. These timber and loose foliage pellets are used species are being cut and repro-
For those curious as to where the to power the Bio-Gasification unit. Some are
found on site, others are purchased through duced using genetic modification
ash is sent after the burning is suppliers. All products are 100 percent natural, (GM) techniques, essentially
complete, you might appreciate and chemical free.
cloning high yielding plants. This
knowing that some of it, if still does not contribute favourably to
high in its carbon content ratio, always rises, the Greeks designed biodiversity. In other words, they
can be used as a bond to stick heat chimneys that run up the are not interested in replicating
sawdust chips together into building emitting small amounts eco-systems but rather maintain-
nuggets. The unusable of heat that help suck any hot air ing certain species of plant that
remainders are dug into the earth. into the chimneys and out into the would have otherwise died out
Since the product had no fresh air. When used in combi- due to various reasons associated
chemical properties, there is no nation with the wind tunnels it with soil and ecological degrada-
risk to the soil. provides a cool and comfortable tion. The facility employed state
temperature, even in the heat of of the art methods at engineering
The generator itself is only run the Delhi afternoons. and growing high yield crops,
when needed, so there is no which are then sent all over India
unnecessary burning and wastage Waste Water Management and the world. This article of
of energy. The operating cost No self-contained facility is course cannot get into the
overtime for implementing such a complete without managing the controversies associated with GM
system is equal to about fourteen waste that it inevitably produces. technologies.
Indian Rupees per kilowatt hour, Aside from using only recyclable
including the purchasing of materials instead of plastics, The Teri Gram retreat can serve
woodchip material. waste itself is reduced dramati- as a role model in the world of
cally at Teri Gram. ecological design, and its place in
Ancient Greek Design Model Asia gives it a unique stronghold
for Conserving Energy However, the sewage waste is in an area where most of the
The design of the building itself is what is most alarming in how it is population is still quite unaware
modelled after an ancient Greek treated: completely naturally by of the harmful effects of environ-
design. Instead of air condition- plants from the Phramites mental degradation. One can only
ing, they run cooling pipes Austravlis family. Sewage water hope its model can be replicated
through the ground: dug to 4 enters a small pond where these throughout industry and design
meters below-surface, and run- water born plants grow, and over schools all over the
ning about 70 meters along the a short period of time, the plants continent - and beyond.
building. The only energy used begin consuming the waste
here is to run a large fan that produced until there is only water About the Writer
cools the air and blows it along left, and all traces of acidic
the pipes into the room chambers material or methane have been Kurt Archer has been passionate about youth
volunteerism since 2000 when he delivered
ahead. consumed by these carnivorous presentations on child rights awareness with
plants. What comes out from the UNICEF. He has experience in youth training,
public speaking and civil society engagement.
This alone will not fully cool other end is clear, usable water. Kurt is currently touring through Asia identifying
down the room, so based on the Teri does not stop here though. best case practises for positive environmental
changes. He studied Political Science from
simple science of thermodyna- They are also experimenting with Carleton University.
mics, and the rule that heat a special purification filter that

tbl sept-oct 08 27
profile in sustainability

towards 'a truly water-sustainable


business on a global scale'
- coca-cola

A
ccording to the currently lives in water-stressed "Without access to safe water sup-
International Water countries. This is set to increase to ply, our business simply cannot
Management Institute two-thirds within 25 years. Africa exist," says Coca-Cola's Chairman
(IWMI's) Comprehensive and Asia are already hard-hit by and CEO, Neville Isdell.
Assessment of Water Manage- water stress. Increasing popula-
ment in Agriculture, one-third of tions will create more pressure in Coca-Cola sells 1.5 billion bever-
the world population faces some the coming decades. ages a day in over 200 countries
form of water scarcity. A recent JP and territories across the planet.
Morgan Report states that by At Coke's bottling plants, it takes
2025, this is expected to rise to 2.5 litres of water to produce one
two-thirds, due to climate change litre of its product. In 2006, Coca-
and increasing urbanization and Cola and its bottlers used 290 bil-
population growth. The lion litres of water to produce its
Intergovernmental Panel on beverages - equivalent, for
Climate Change (IPCC) report on instance, to one-fifth of the daily
'Climate Change and Water' water usage of the U.S.A. Forty
predicts that global population percent of that went into drinks.
will rise from about six billion The other 60 percent was
today to 8.7 billion by year 2050; Source: United Nations Environment
consumed by the firm's supply
Programme (UNEP)
which means that much more will chain and in the production of
be needed to feed the growing ingredients.
population. Already about The Impact of the Water Crises
seventy percent of the water used on Sustainability of Businesses
worldwide is used for agriculture. In this scenario, everyone around Clearly Coca-Cola cannot do
the world, particularly in water- without water. No surprise there-
It is quite clear that the future for stress areas, needs to become fore that last year, Coca-Cola
fresh water does not look bright. increasingly aware of the water announced its bold commitment
Especially when you also consider challenges and needs to act now to achieve 'water neutrality' by
that all the fresh water there is to proactively address the loom- year 2010, in collaboration with
today will be all the fresh water ing water crisis. Within the corpo- the WWF. The concept of water
that will be there in the years to rate sector, industries that have neutrality was created by Pancho
come. It is a resource that will not water as a key input must partic- Ndebele at the 2002 Johannesburg
increase in quantity over time. ularly consider the impact of World Summit for Sustainable
decreasing water resources on the Development (WSSD).
The IPCC goes on to say that the sustainability of their businesses. Waterneutral.org defines water
unprecedented challenges from Such organizations must focus on neutrality as "reducing the water
population growth, pollution, developing strategies and solu- footprint of an individual (or
climate change and problems of tions now to counter future entity), and where appropriate,
allocation of water pose a severe expected water shortages, or face balancing (off-setting) the remain-
threat to ecosystems worldwide, the risk of closing down their ing use in a meaningful way".
posing a further serious threat to businesses.
fresh water availability as in Coca-Cola and WWF
water-stressed areas, people and For the international beverage Conservation Partnership
ecosystems are particularly vul- giant Coca-Cola, water is a vital At the WWF Annual Conference
nerable to decreasing and more resource. It is the main ingredient in Beijing last year, Coca-Cola
variable precipitation. An estimat- used in nearly every beverage pledged to increase water efficien-
ed third of the world's population that the company makes. cy in its global beverage

28 sept-oct 08 tbl
operations and become 'water To Reduce, Coca-Cola will set agement and community engage-
neutral'. That means that the com- "specific water efficiency targets ment in water stressed regions.
pany will work to replace all the for global operations by 2008 to
water it uses in production of its be the most efficient user of water CCC=CSR, Using Companies'
beverages - every drop of water it among peer companies". This is a Core Competences
uses to produce beverages would key element of the Coca-Cola - Understanding that water stew-
be returned to the earth or com- WWF partnership. ardship is essential for its busi-
pensated for through conserva- ness and safe water is vital to the
tion and recycling programmes. To Recycle, the company will sustainability of the communities
return "all the water that it uses it serves, forms the guiding prin-
Earlier, in June 2007, Coca-Cola for manufacturing processes to ciple for Coca-Cola to launch a
had already announced its collab- the environment at a level that comprehensive strategy to work
oration with WWF to help con- supports aquatic life and agricul- with partners worldwide on
serve and protect freshwater ture", by 2010. Coca-Cola's water water conservation initiatives.
resources. It committed $20 mil- treatment standards are more As we know, CSR is today recog-
lion over five years to WWF to stringent than many local stan- nized as being much more than
help conserve seven of the dards and nearly 85 percent of its corporate philanthropy, which
world's major freshwater river manufacturing facilities have gave birth to it. True CSR means
basins that span more than twen- implemented these standards. As that a company's responsibility to
ty countries in North America, part of its water neutrality pro- society first of all starts with
Europe, Africa and Asia. Their gramme, the Company has ensuring that it produces high
challenges vary greatly, from pledged to align 100 percent of its quality products, and it does this
dams that have outgrown their manufacturing facilities with with the least environmental
usefulness to agricultural run-off these stringent water treatment impact and with the most benefits
issues to loss of habitat due to standards by 2010. for its stakeholders and the com-
development and land reclama- munity. Jeff Seabright, Coca-
tion. According to WWF, these To Replenish, Coca-Cola will Cola's vice president of environ-
waters were chosen "because of "expand support of healthy water- ment and water resources,
their biological distinctiveness, sheds and sustainable communi- emphasizes that, "Increasingly the
opportunity for meaningful con- ties to balance the water used in real relevance is using the compa-
servation gains, and potential to its finished beverages". This will ny's core competence to address
advance issues of resource protec- include a wide range of initia- issues that are of societal con-
tion." tives, such as watershed protec- cern".
tion, community water access,
So how will Coca-Cola execute its rainwater harvesting, reforesta- Walking the Talk
commitment to Water Neutrality? tion and agricultural water use Coca-Cola's water-conservation
efficiency. efforts are to be seen as going
"For us that means reducing the beyond altruism: they relate
amount of water used to produce The company will focus, along directly to the company's own
our beverages, recycling water with its partners such as WWF, sustainability. Literally, as it is
used for manufacturing processes UNDP and USAID, to identify the trying to ensure the continuing
so it can be returned safely to the locations and projects where the availability of a crucial ingredient.
environment, and replenishing need is the greatest, and where it Businesses that do not address
water in communities and nature can have a positive impact on looming shortages of non-substi-
through locally relevant projects," communities and ecosystems. It tutable inputs run the risk of
said Isdell at the WWF Annual will also focus on reducing water plant closures and sullied reputa-
Conference. use in its supply chain, beginning tions, says Marc Levinson, lead
with sugar, where it will expand author of the JP Morgan Report.
Coca-Cola's Water Neutrality its existing collaboration on the Coca-Cola's vision is to 'establish
Initiative: The Three Rs 'Better Sugar' Initiative. a truly water-sustainable business
Coca-Cola's water neutrality pro- on a global scale'. Water steward-
gramme has 3 core components: Coca-Cola continues to work with ship is a growing global issue
Reduce, Recycle, and Replenish. - and learn from - its bottling whose impacts are felt at the local
These were explained by Isdell at partners in developing and imple- level. The Company realises that a
the WWF Annual Conference: menting responsible water man- strategy to combat water scarcity,

tbl sept-oct 08 29
conserve water and ensure a sustainable supply of clean water, must be driven by a global vision and
implemented in collaboration with local community stakeholders and other global partners like the WWF.
"WWF and Coca-Cola are two powerful brands with a history of building credible connections on the
initiatives we support. By working together, they intend to harness this power to address the freshwater
challenges we face in this century in a more impactful way than either of us could do alone", said Neville
Isdell at the WWF Annual Conference. The definition of synergy, realized.

Plachimada Plant Case: The Coca-Cola's Water Conservation Initiatives in China


Business Challenge for Coca-Cola is also working with partners on conservation projects in water-
Sustainability stressed areas throughout the world. Climate change is likely to impact fresh
water availability, particularly in South, East and Southeast Asia, specifically in
The Plachimada Plant Case is an exam- large river basins such as Changjiang in China. According to the IPCC Report,
ple of how Coca-Cola overcame and 'Climate Change and Water', there is ample evidence (observational records
handled a business challenge success- and climate projections) that freshwater resources are vulnerable and have the
fully. In 2002, residents of Plachimada, potential to be strongly impacted by climate change, with wide-ranging
a village in India's southern state of consequences for human societies and ecosystems.
Kerala, accused the company's bottling
Coca-Cola continues to partner with major multinational companies in funding
plant there of depleting and polluting
groundwater. Two years later, the local
social and environmental projects across China. The country is home to roughly
government forced Coke to shut down 20 percent of the world's population, but has only about 7 percent of the world's
the plant. In 2006, when a New Delhi water. Water scarcity could constrain China's future development if not
research group found high levels of effectively managed, environmentalists say. That kind of pressure is one of the
pesticides in Coca-Cola and PepsiCo's reasons why Coke has partnered with local NGOs to promote environmental
locally produced soft drinks, several education, rainwater harvesting and river conservation in China, and why the
Indian states banned their sale. company's Chinese bottling plants are on the cutting-edge of the company's
conservation and recycling efforts. Between 2004 and 2007, Coke's 37 bottling
The incidents were particularly worri- plants in China reduced water usage by a substantial 27 percent.
some because they hurt Coca-Cola's
brand in a market that is key to future Coca-Cola has its biggest bottling plant in Shanghai, China. At this plant, plastic
growth. Coca-Cola denied polluting bottles and aluminium cans zoom by on conveyer belts, weaving in and out of
water and sucking wells dry in India and massive machines that shape, clean and fill them. Grimy wastewater generated
presented evidence to support this, but from the cleaning of water filters and the heating and cooling of drinks, is
Jeff Seabright admits it mishandled the
shunted to a separate building behind the factory where it is treated so it can be
controversy on the PR front.
utilised for street-cleaning, car-washing and other secondary uses. Leaking
"If people perceive that we're using
pipes have been fixed to save water, and a dry lubricant is used to keep
water at their expense, that's not a conveyer belts running smoothly with less water.
sustainable operation," Seabright said,
highlighting the importance of Physical water scarcity: More
perception-management. "We sell a than 75 percent of river flows
brand. For us, having goodwill in the are allocated to agriculture,
community is an important thing." industries or domestic purposes
(accounting for recycling of
In December 2007, Coca-Cola spent
return flows). This definition of
$10 million to establish the Coca-Cola
scarcity - relating water availabil-
India Foundation, which has installed, to
date, 320 rainwater harvesting ity to water demand - implies
structures, to collect and recharge the that dry areas are not necessari- Little or no water scarcity Not estimated Approaching physical
water scarcity
groundwater tables. Rainwater ly water-scarce, e.g., Mauritania. Physical water scarcity Economic water scarcity

harvesting facilities are constructed to Approaching physical water scarcity: More than 60 percent of river flows are
maximize yield and are designed to allocated. These basins will experience physical water scarcity in the near
channel runoff into holding reservoirs future.
that recharge ground water throughout
the dry season, hence turning India's Economic water scarcity: Water resources are abundant relative to water use,
rain-rich monsoon season into a with less than 25 percent of water from rivers withdrawn for human purposes,
year-round water asset. but malnutrition exists. These areas could benefit by development of additional
blue and green water, but human and financial capacity are limiting.
Coca-Cola continues to work with the
Little or no water scarcity: Abundant water resources relative to use. Less than
local government and the community to
help combat water scarcity, ensure a
25 percent of water from rivers is withdrawn for human purposes.
Source: International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
sustainable supply of and access to
clean water and expand the use of
rainwater harvesting technology in India.
References
The above example demonstrates how Kirby, Alex. Water Scarcity: A looming About the Writer
crises. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sci-
a company realized that its sustainability
ence/nature/ 3747724.stm> Rutaba Ahmed is Managing Editor
is built on the growth of its business and of TBL. She holds a Bachelors in
equally important, its' triple bottom-line IPCC Technical Paper IV on Climate Business Management from
initiatives. Change and Water. University of Georgia, USA and a Masters in
<http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/technical- Communications Studies from University of
papers/ccw/chapter1.pdf> Leeds, UK.

30 sept-oct 08 tbl
crossword

CROSSWORD

Across Down
2. Power derived from the force or energy of moving water 1. Exercising authority
4. The effort to increase the well-being of humankind 3. To enable or permit
5. To treat or process so as to make suitable for reuse 6. To keep up or keep going, as an action or process
7. A person or group that has an investment, share etc 7. ...Of change
10. A situation favourable for attainment of a goal 8. Social and cultural forces that shape the life of a person
12. Combination or interaction of social and economic factors 9. Too many of these, but it is all for their sake
16. The only CSR magazine in Pakistan 11. Make more of this, to do more
17. The difference between ethical and non ethical returns 13. What we must do to keep everyone on board
18. Without this function, your CSR may go wild 14. Save it, to save yourself
15. Bottomlines corporate citizens usually have

tbl sept-oct 08 31
csr in africa

csr and sustainable


development in
africa:
water of life
by camila flatt
for tbl

ccording to the traditional African philosophy of Ubuntu, we discover and affirm our own humanity

A through our interactions with others. This concept of 'a person is a person through other persons'
provides an insight into how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is applied in Africa and how
businesses can stimulate sustainable development.

African companies see themselves as integral to their society, not a separate entity bordered by rigid
walls. They consider their business to be responsible in and of itself, because it provides employment,
salaries and products to its community. Even the process of paying taxes is an important feature of
responsible companies in Africa because the informal sector is so omnipotent in many African countries,
often carving out 50 percent of the economy.

Why Africa? that determines how CSR is played out is the lack of
When africapractice was set up, people asked why a publicly-listed companies. There are only 19 stock
communications company would want to involve exchanges on the 56-country continent and apart
themselves with corporate citizenship or CSR in from the Johannesburg, Egyptian and Nigerian
Africa. What people didn't realise was that Stock Exchange, African stock markets are relatively
communication is vital in promoting responsible small and unsophisticated. Most businesses
development and investment into Africa. therefore do not feel the pressure from socially
africapractice, headquartered in London, provides responsible investors or international civil society
strategic communications, corporate citizenship and groups to apply global CSR standards.
environmental consulting services and works with
clients to enhance their performance and communi-
Governance and Communications
cate their commitment to African development.
African businesses in general, especially private
companies, do not face the same level of pressure
We believe that an ethical and responsibly acting and scrutiny as those in the West. Outside South
private sector can do incredible things to alleviate Africa and some North African countries,
poverty in Africa, particularly in Sub-Saharan government regulation on environmental and social
Africa. It generates wealth, increases productivity, impacts are weakly enforced and civil society
and accounts for its environmental and social groups have a relatively quiet voice when it comes
impacts. Our view is that businesses should aim to to corporate injustice.
act ethically and responsibly in order to be a
sustainable business in Africa. The upshot is that by
Though African businesses see themselves as the
being a good corporate citizen, you can play your
community and therefore any action they do as
part in alleviating poverty and delivering
socially responsible, this does not mean they should
sustainable development.
not be held accountable for their actions. Barring
NGOs, multinational corporations are leading this
Another distinguishing feature of African economies movement by localising their global CSR strategies

32 sept-oct 08 tbl
and policies to their African being reached and understanding holders. It allows consistency of
operations and instilling values of the impact clean drinking water messages and helps their African
respect and responsibility. They has on these beneficiaries. businesses to lobby national
do this by using three communi- governments to prioritise water
cation tools to engage and At the end of 2007, Diageo was and sanitation issues up the
enthuse their employees, from reaching just over 840,000 people national agenda. A Water of Life
directors to employees. with clean drinking water and the Handbook is also in the making.
company was beginning to see This handbook is an A to Z guide
The first is to raise awareness other benefits accruing to the for Diageo's operating businesses
within the company about beneficiaries, such as increased to implement Water of Life
issues as wide-ranging as school attendance due to projects. It covers everything from
codes of conduct, environ- improved health, increased crop selecting the appropriate projects,
mental impact, accountability, production for their subsistence the do's and don'ts of engaging
and consumer satisfaction. farms, and less incidences of with partners and what
abuse and attacks at night while sustainability means.
The second is to align corpo- women went to fetch water.
rate values with a company's Sustainable Development
non-financial activities. For Because Diageo started to
example, Cadbury's value of United Nations Millennium measure and monitor the impact
Development Goals
'working together to create of its CSR project, it is now able to
brands people love' is an 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and
see how this initiative - which
umbrella for its CSR activities hunger started as a philanthropic contri-
like ethical sourcing and 2. Achieve universal primary bution - is now contributing to the
procurement. education sustainable development of its
3. Promote gender equality and communities. Diageo's emphasis
The third is recognition and empower women on communicating their results
celebration. Two-way 4. Reduce child mortality was central to them wanting to
communication and feedback 5. Improve maternal health make a real and meaningful
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and
is vital to instil respect and impact to their communities.
other diseases
learn about what works for a
7. Ensure environmental sustainability
particular group of people or 8. Develop a global partnership for It is the combination of companies
situation. development promoting responsible and ethical
standards to their operations and
Leading multinationals also set viewing themselves as part of the
themselves targets and monitor What was also important to communities in which they
their progress towards these Diageo was communicating these operate - the Ubuntu philosophy,
targets. We are familiar with the results, both internally and which challenges traditional
types of targets companies have externally. Diageo created a social concepts of CSR into one that fos-
set themselves such as reducing network called the 'Water of Life ters sustainable development on
water use or carbon emissions by Social Network'. Members consist the continent. We believe that
a certain percentage or donating a of Diageo employees and Diageo communication, through
certain amount to community partners who help implement the stakeholder engagement and
investment projects. In Africa, programme. The network allows advocacy is the lynchpin to
due to the current state of affairs, employees to discuss with each transforming philanthropic
these initiatives can have a other and understand what corporate donations into sustain-
profound impact in helping to challenges they each face and able poverty reducing activities.
alleviate poverty. what best practices are out there.
It is particularly useful for the
About the Writer
Water of Life Global Diageo team to communi-
Since 2006, Diageo, a leading cate with their operating business Camilla Flatt is a CSR consultant working for
premium drinks company, has set in Africa, such as Guinness africapractice, a strategic communications and
corporate citizenship consultancy working to
itself a target to reach one million Nigeria or East African Breweries promote responsible investment and
people in Africa with clean to stay abreast with updates. development in Africa. Her work currently
focuses on water supply and sanitation as well
drinking water each year until as carbon, trends and development in African
2015. It began measuring the To empower their operating CSR legislations, and stakeholder engagement.
She read Geography at the University College
impact of this initiative in 2007, businesses, Diageo also created an London and attained her Masters in Environment
commissioning an external advocacy toolkit to communicate and Development at the London School of
Economics. She can be reached at
evaluation of their projects to find the results and impact of the 1 cflatt@africapractice.com.
out exactly how many people are Million Challenge to key stake-

tbl sept-oct 08 33
breather

34 sept-oct 08 tbl
tbl sept-oct 08 35
csr: a reputational opportunity

corporate social
responsibility:
a reputation at risk
by arif zaman
for tbl

why it matters, what it means and where it is going

A
s the economic world turns upside down, the an umbrella term for a variety of activities, which
issue of trust - in business, governments, share the following features:
media and pressure groups in particular -
has returned as perhaps one of the most urgent chal- Companies have a responsibility for their impact
lenges of our time and one that has no borders. This on society and the natural environment,
can also be seen in the broader context of confidence sometimes beyond legal compliance and liability
- by customers, employees, shareholders, and also of individuals.
communities - in business policy and its translation Companies have a responsibility for the
into practice. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) behaviour of others with whom they do busi-
has provided opportunities for companies to align ness (for example, suppliers).
their activities with broader societal expectations. Business needs to manage its relationship with
However, there is still a view that this is window- wider society, whether for reasons of
dressing and does not go to the heart of the busi- commercial viability or to add value to society.
ness.
There are seven reasons why CSR matters:
There are many different definitions of 'corporate
citizenship' and 'corporate social responsibility'. The 1. Moral and ethical reasons - to 'do the right
Commonwealth Business Council (CBC) uses the thing'.
term corporate citizenship with a definition devel-
2. Sustainability of the markets companies rely
oped from the work of the World Business Council
upon for income.
on Sustainable Development: "Corporate citizenship
is the commitment of business to contribute to sus- 3. Brand image and reputation.
tainable economic development, working with
employees, their families, the local community and 4. Employee/stakeholder motivation.
society at large to improve the quality of life of all
stakeholders". For the Federation of Pakistani 5. To enable the company to respond proactively
Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FPCCI), CSR to changing stakeholder agendas and be able to
is "the strategic and practical link between inclusive cooperate effectively under a range of business
development and economic growth realised by conditions.
business behaviour that generates a trustworthy rep-
6. To account positively on its performance to
utation with the commitment of key stakeholders. Its
stakeholders in a way that will enhance the
effectiveness is directly dependent upon an organi-
company's reputation.
sation's implementation of its values, corporate
governance, business relationships and impacts". 7. To provide managers with a framework for
managing the business in a more holistic
According to the FPCCI, CSR should be viewed as manner.

36 sept-oct 08 tbl
heightened awareness of the issues, has significant
drawbacks which are seldom acknowledged.

Eight Problems with CSR Today


1. Reputational risks of CSR advocates: variable
standards and a lack of transparency by a grow-
ing number of (western) NGOs which undertake
advocacy, consultancy and third-party auditing,
all too often in tandem, continues to constrain
confidence in the processes involved.

2. A lack of understanding of how corporate gov-


ernance links to CSR: There is an imbalance in
the CSR debate which fails to distinguish where
CSR relates - and does not relate - to corporate
governance. In this area recent developments by
the CBC and also the OECD are of note. At the
same time, the significance of developments in
Asia, especially Japan, which links the two areas
Stakeholders and Society is being increasingly recognised. Moreover, in
developing countries it is important to highlight
not just why but how responsible behaviour and
There is currently an almost bewildering array of good governance can contribute to a more
international CSR initiatives. However, stakeholders favourable investment climate.
such as governments, businesses, and civil society
3. A lack of understanding of what CSR means -
groups have identified a range of significant
and how it is perceived - outside a European/
weaknesses in current approaches to promoting
North American / Christian context: This has
CSR. These need to be remembered as an increasing
several dimensions. As Canon in Japan has
number of companies in Pakistan pursue a 'beyond
noted, "the Anglo-Saxon debate on corporate
philanthropy' model of CSR:
responsibility seems to be centred only on their
An over-proliferation of CSR initiatives at the
historical and social criteria, which naturally
international level and lack of clarity about how
deal with Catholicism, Protestantism and
these initiatives relate to each other;
Western European Individualism". In addition,
An excessive focus on getting businesses to
there is a risk that a strong and sustained focus
make commitments to CSR and not enough
on China and India does not crowd out visibility
focus on enabling them to implement them;
for innovative practice - and an appetite to learn
An absence of credible monitoring and
- in other countries in South Asia.
verification processes;
A lack of effective mechanisms of redress for 4. A weak understanding of the dynamics of
communities affected by companies that flout international trade and how diversified exports
national or international norms on sustainable from developing countries for supply chains of
development or human rights; global companies can contribute to SME
A lack of engagement with developing country development and poverty alleviation: The
governments and their sustainable development private sector is the main driving force of
priorities (for example, economic development industrial development in virtually all countries
and poverty reduction); and - through changing patterns of international
A failure to bridge the governance gap created production, investment and trade - shapes the
by weak public sector governance of the private economic globalisation process. A vibrant pri-
sector in many developing countries; vate sector building on the combined strength,
Limited impact on sustainable development linkages and relationships between large, medi-
goals; and um, small and micro enterprises, is an essential
A lack of government involvement and/or prerequisite for triggering economic dynamism,
investment in international CSR initiatives, enhancing productivity, transferring and diffus-
which is contributing significantly to their ing new industrial technologies, maintaining
underperformance. competitiveness, contributing to entrepreneur-
ship development and ultimately poverty
Despite the volumes of paper and the number of reduction, and reduced social and business risk.
events, the CSR (and corporate governance debate)
in Europe and the USA, while contributing to 5. A lack of sectoral specific context: A profusion

tbl sept-oct 08 37
of questionnaires from a growing number of change shown by a range of international CSR
(western) rating agencies with a 'one size fits all' initiatives;
approach for diverse sectors is resulting in ques- The openness of leadership companies and CSR
tionnaire fatigue on the part of companies. initiatives to working in partnership with a wide
range of stakeholders; and
6. A lack of explicit focus on productivity: The growing recognition that a CSR agenda
Traditionally, the productivity debate has must address public sector governance issues
focused on its input-oriented economic and tech- and scale up the impact of CSR activities to
nological aspects. This view is being increasingly improve the delivery of sustainable
challenged. The increasing focus on sustainable development at a systemic level.
development, corporate governance, social
responsibilities and ethics, and social auditing The elephant in the room is getting bigger
and standards represents a significant shift in There is one area where CSR - certainly as perceived
the growth paradigm which acknowledges that in the West - has too long been ignored but where
social conditions also affect the rates of produc- alienation, articulation and anger make this no
tivity growth. The approach of the Asian longer possible: minority rights and status. As
Productivity Organisation (APO), of which Amartya Sen, a Nobel laureate and chair of the
Pakistan and India are founder members, has Commonwealth Commission on Respect and
helped to highlight the link between CSR and Understanding (2007) said, "civil paths to peace also
productivity in an Asian context. demand the removal of gross economic inequalities,
social humiliations and political disenfranchisement,
7. An insufficient focus on capacity-building, train-
which can contribute to generating confrontation
ing, and development, especially in developing
and hostility".
countries: A unique gathering of global compa-
nies, major investors and international policy-
The business case for connecting CSR to the status
makers at the UN in Tokyo in November 2003
and empowerment of minorities is clear - it is based
agreed that there has been too little focus in CSR
on moral fairness, the need for social stability and
and governance in these areas. Management
cohesion but also recognises that as economic power
education can play a critical role - by building
shifts, India and the UK will need to connect more,
the human capacity and management capability.
not less, to centres in the Gulf and beyond. As the
Events on CSR and corporate governance,
CBC Guidelines on Business Principles (2007) made
whether in Europe or Asia where experts para-
clear, "a wide perspective is now seen as essential
chute in with set piece presentations and negli-
for directors of high performing boards in which
gible understanding of context, are no substitute
diversity is not just desirable in itself but also for
for activities which build the confidence and
ensuring an organisation is better equipped to
trust as well as develop the capabilities and
leverage opportunities from changing trading
harness the creativity of those directly involved,
relationships in emerging markets". By showing
especially decision-makers among policymakers,
leadership in this area, international and local
companies, and investors from developing
companies can change a reputational risk into a
countries. In this, a trusted regional inter-
reputational opportunity.
goernmental intermediary such as the APO
which now spans a range of 20 Asian countries References
is key and much-needed. The SAARC Chamber
can also play a role in sharing knowledge and A. Zaman, 'Made in Japan - Converging Trends in Corporate
Responsibility and Corporate Governance,' Royal Institute of
building capability at a regional level. International Affairs, London, 2003. See:
www.chathamhouse.org.uk/publications/papers/download/-
/id/137/file/3110_madeinjapan.pdf
8. An industry which has issues with training,
SustainAbility Gearing Up (report for UN Global Compact Meeting
quality, transparency, and measurement: 24/06/04)
Although now changing, many people who UN report available at: www.henleymc.ac.uk/henleyres03.nsf
work in CSR - as suppliers and consultants - /files/CORR_ReportUNIDO_041103.pdf/$FILE/CORR_ReportUNIDO
_041103.pdf. Meeting supported by UK Embassy in Japan, UN,
often lack a sufficiently broad or deep private Cable & Wireless, Japan Business Council in Europe and Reuters.
sector background and are too often from NGOs
or academia.
About the Writer
However, it is clear that the CSR agenda also has Arif Zaman is Adviser, Commonwealth Business
some important strengths: Council (CBC), and also serves as Principal of the
Reputation Institute and Visiting Faculty, Henley
The high levels of commitment shown by some Business School. He is also a member of the CSR
key leadership companies; Standing Committee at the Federation of Pakistan
Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
The capacity for innovation and openness to

38 sept-oct 08 tbl
m
urbanization and cities

egacities
egaproblems
egasolutions

by faye mallet
for tbl

he world's fastest growing cities are found in either Asia or Africa.

T Out of the 20 fastest growing cities in the world, ten, are in China.

Take emerging megacity, Shenzhen: A small town until 1980, Shenzhen


experienced an unparalleled population and economic boom after being
designated a free trade zone. Today, Shenzhen has more than 7 million
inhabitants, due largely to its prime location on the Pearl River delta - the
age-old trend of civilizations to gravitate towards water sources. This is
23 times its population only thirty years ago, according to the UN.

tbl sept-oct 08 39
Massive urbanization has arrived in China. If Urban Migrants
current trends prove correct, the country's urban A report released by Deutsche Bank Research in
population will reach 1 billion by 2030. March of this year, 'Megacities: Boundless Growth?'
cites the growth of cities as fastest in those countries
New research released by the McKinsey Global with a "big gap between rural and urban incomes."
Institute (MGI) estimates 320 million more people The larger the difference between urban incomes
will be added to China's cities by 2025. This is more and rural incomes, the faster cities expand.
than the entire population of the
United States today, just over 305
million. Megacities of
Currently, China has a hundred
cities with a population of over one Rank Urban Area Population
million. In 20 years, it will add more
than a hundred more cities of this c. 2005
size, and at least six more mega-
cities containing populations over 1. Tokyo, Japan 35.2 million
10 million people.
2. Mumbai, India 18.2 million
While this exponential growth will
have a positive impact on the coun- 3. Mexico City, Mexico 19.4 million
try's GDP (MGI estimates increases
up to 20 percent), it also carries seri- 4. Sao Paulo, Brazil 18.3 million
ous challenges and consequences.
5. New York, United States 18.7 million
To meet what is considered an
"unprecedented transformation" in 6. Delhi, India 15.0 million
history, governments at both
national and local levels must 7. Shanghai, China 14.5 million
proactively implement policies now.
8. Calcutta, India 14.3 million
Decisions that China makes today
will determine whether its cities 9. Jakarta, Indonesia 13.2 million
struggle to cope with growth (e.g.
like Mexico City, Mumbai or Sao 10. Dhaka, Bangladesh 12.4 million
Paulo) or emerge as "world-class"
megacities, with new markets and With 230 million migrants expected to move from
opportunities for business. the countryside into China's "new" cities, MGI
forecasts that migration will account for about 70
"To understand the dynamics of the megacities is percent of urban population growth over the next
also to understand their dilemmas," writes Dr. two decades. Most people migrate to cities expecting
George Bugliarello, University Professor and higher wages and an improvement in their standard
Chancellor , Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New of living.
York.
In many instances, they also don't have much of a
Megacities are where both problems and opportu- choice. One of the reasons why more megacities are
nities are visible on a larger scale. What happens in forming at this particular time is history is because
megacities have a greater impact on the rest of the of the loss of arable land. In China alone some 3,000
world. The UN's 'State of the World Population to 6,0000 square kilometers of farmland are estima-
2007' notes that: "No country in the industrial age ted to be lost each year, cites Deutsche Bank
has ever achieved significant economic growth with- Research.
out urbanization."
The reasons? Industrialization, unsustainable
"Urbanization is unavoidable," states Chief of the farming methods, and climate change.
UN Populations Fund's Resource Mobilization
Branch, Jean-Noel Wetterwald. "The concentration of The Deutsche Bank research cites other reasons why,
people concentrate the problems, but also concen- soon, most of the world will live in cities. Among
trate the solutions." these include:

40 sept-oct 08 tbl
Population Growth: become one of China's major economic hubs, and
Megacities are largely the result of longer life spans out of all the megacities in China, is purported to be
due to advances in hygiene and medicine. the "fastest-growing urban center on the planet."

Technological Revolution: If the day he spent in Chongqing is "typical," says


"Globalization and digitization" drive the economic The Guardian writer Jonathan Watts, then "builders
development of megacities because of the way they will lay 137,000 square meters of new floor space for
cluster markets and skilled workers together. residential blocks, shopping centres and factories.
The economy will grow by 99
million yuan. There will be 568
the Future deaths, 813 births and the arrival of
1,370 people from the countryside."
Projected Population Watts points out the incongruities
2015 in this emerging metropolis. From
the "bangbang army" -a 100,000-
strong crew of porters who carry
35.5 million heavy bundles of goods between
Chongqing's markets and earn
21.9 million approximately 20 Yuan a day (USD
$2.9) - to the new, richer urbanites
21.6 million who have moved "off the land and
into the sky."
20.5 million
Implications
19.9 million Urbanites tend to produce less and
consume more, making demand
18.6 million for energy and water one of the
biggest dilemmas of our times.
17.2 million
MGI forecasts the demand for
17.0 million energy in China's urban areas is
likely to more than double; and
16.8 million demand for water will increase by
70 to 100 percent.
15.2 million Source
Forbes.com

Opportunities for Investment:


More investment opportunities are to be found in
cities than in rural areas.

Mega-problems
Dr. Bugliarello, Editor-in-Chief of The Bridge, the
quarterly publication of the National Academy of
Engineering, states that "Megacities are currently
experiencing rapid growth with which they cannot
cope."

This creates a host of problems, including:


population growth; poverty increase; infrastructure
problems in transportation and communications;
land and housing pressures (that is, on average,
China "concentrates" 5.7 persons to a room, as
compared to 0.5 in the US); environmental concerns;
economic dependence; and capital scarcity.
This article is under © Copyright 2003-08 of Galt
Western Personnel and has been tailored for TBL
Staggering Urbanization with permission from the Galt Global Review,
Chongqing is a good illustration: Built along the www.galtglobalreview.com.
Yangtze River, this former port town has grown to

tbl sept-oct 08 41
ethical consumerism

tackling the social impacts of consumerism

today and not tomorrow


n the context of an increasingly globalised

I world, Pakistani corporations face the chal-


lenge of protecting the rights of both their con-
sumers and their workers. The nature of con-
sumerism implies a lack of consciousness on
the consumer's part in relation to the ethical
nature of the products they buy. It is therefore up
to the Pakistani business community to awaken
the social conscience of consumers in order to
protect the rights of people at both ends of the
value chain.

Consumerism and its Social people's


Impact unconscious
Consumerism can be described as consumer
the idea that people consume as a choices are
means of satisfying their wants encouraging
and happiness. They consume the the manipulation of a worker's as human rights and the
products that they believe reflect rights on the other side of the environment. As a result, they are
and reinforce their personal world. gradually assessing society's
identity. It is consumption that consumption habits in relation to
transcends consuming 'what you An apt example from Pakistan: In these challenges.
need' in favour of consuming the late 1990's a number of stories
'what you want' exposed the use of child labour in This is especially the case in much
the Sialkot football production of Europe and North America. A
This consumer culture is evident industry. For consumers of foot- recent study by GFK NOP looked
in most areas of the world. balls in the U.S., this came as a at consumers attitudes to ethical
However, the social consequences complete surprise - not business within Europe.
of such an unconscious consumer necessarily because the con-
culture are being magnified with sumers didn't know about child According to the study, con-
the increasing geographical reach labour but more because they sumers are most interested in
of supply chains spanning across never considered how or where three things when judging how
different countries. their product was made in the ethical a company is:
first place. Such an attitude is
At the heart of this problem is the unsustainable for the company, 1) Do they ensure fair treatment
alienation of the consumer from the consumer and the producer. of employees?
the producer in favour of a 2) Do they promote care for the
relationship between the Awakening the Awareness of environment?
consumer and a commodity. All Consumers 3) Do they ensure good working
notions of a moral relationship The fact that such a report on the conditions and fair prices for
between the consumer and the football industry in Pakistan came local producers / suppliers?
producer are forgotten in favour to light is evidence that some
of the price and desirability of a consumers are awakening to the In addition, the study found
certain product. Not on the realities of consumer culture. trends suggesting people are
integrity of value chain invested taking these factors more into
in delivering that product. People are becoming more aware account. For example, nearly one
of the global challenges the world third (31 percent) of consumers
The impact of this is that often is facing in relation to issues such claim they are willing to pay a

42 sept-oct 08 tbl
5-10 percent premium for an safety and child labour. Although these reporting mecha-
ethical product over a conven- nisms may have little impact on
tional one. 60 percent said they It was in fact abiding to these consumer choice for some
would be more open to buying standards that allowed Pakistani industries at the moment, they are
ethical brands if they had better suppliers to attract Nike back to aware of the rising awareness of
information on what companies Sialkot. Silver Star Group, Nike's consumers and so are proactively
are doing. suppliers, now requires all their meeting consumer rights as
workers to be registered as full- opposed to reacting to them later.
Although consumers' ability to time employees. They are paid
take action through their con- hourly wages and are eligible for Marketing - Appealing to the
sumption habits depends on social benefits. It was only when Senses
factors such as social status and these standards were enforced Corporations are beginning to see
geographical location, this is a that Nike agreed to start the marketing opportunity pre-
trend that companies worldwide producing in Pakistan once more. sented by ethical products and so
need to take into account. are bringing the ethical angle into
Adequate Reporting - Enforcing their marketing approaches.
Taking Action Now Rather Than Consumer Rights Marks & Spencer alone are
Later Enforcing consumer rights is investing £200 million in a
The challenge this poses for dependent on a relationship five-year plan to become per-
Pakistan is two-fold. Not only do between the consumer and ceived as a truly ethical business.
Pakistani corporations need to retailer. Unbeknown to many,
ensure they are protecting the there is an organisation in The reason for this is that
rights of the consumer; they also Pakistan that recognises the companies are realising that as
need to ensure they are protecting importance of this relationship. global problems are increasingly
the rights of the producer. connected to consumption habits,
Although the consequences of not The 'Consumer Rights people strive to identify
doing so are not imminent, the Commission of Pakistan', an inde- themselves as socially responsible
trends of increasing consumer pendent non-governmental entity citizens. Such an identity shapes
awareness in the face of consumer working to promote consumer their consumption habits. This
and worker rights violations rights, outlines what it believes to means that ethical goods are not
cannot be ignored. be 'consumer rights' and 'con- being consumed purely because
sumer responsibilities'. they are ethical, but also because
Employee Rights of the feel good factor they bring
In the wake of the football Especially important when it to the consumer. This feel good
scandal, top brands such as Nike comes to consumer rights is 'con- factor can be targeted in the mar-
cancelled their contracts with sumer information' and 'con- keting of various commodities.
suppliers in Pakistan. Just as sumer education'. Consumers
exploitation of workers can bring have the right to know how the Investing in the Future
financial benefit (at the cost of the products they consume are Social awareness and activism is
workers) to parts of the supply produced so they are able to not currently at a place in
chain, public accountability can make an informed consumption Pakistan where it will majorly
bring the supply chain altogether choice. Not providing this impact consumer habits, just as
to a halt. information calls into question the worker mobilisation and rights
social integrity of a company. isn't at a place where it will pro-
Suppliers in Pakistan face the mote and enforce better labour
challenge of remaining compe- Realisation of this is evident in standards. However it is up to
titive in a global market place at many multinational companies companies to secure the social
the same time as ensuring human who report on their supply rights of their stakeholders and it
rights standards are met. chains. Cadbury, for instance, is far better to get into the habit of
reports on their supply of cocoa doing this now rather than later.
A good benchmark being used by through initiatives such as the
many suppliers is the Cadbury Cocoa Partnership
International Labour code set by geared at securing the economic, About the Writer
the United Nations through the social and environmental Andrew is currently based in Karachi and works
International Labour sustainability of Cocoa farmers in with the JS Group's CSR Initiatives. He has
come here through the AIESEC leadership
Organisation. Although the Ghana, India, Indonesia and the development programme and has actively been
conventions it contains remain Caribbean. involved in connecting students with companies
contentious, it does offer a guide- in CSR based forums in the UK. He has also
written about his experiences of Pakistan for the
line to standards on issues such as The point is that these companies BBC.
freedom of association, health and are staying ahead of the game.

tbl sept-oct 08 43
carrots only, no sticks

the carrot-trousered
philanthropist
by sarah wakefield
for tbl

"…And it was there I


learnt that to grow the
best carrots you should
put the compost in the
bottom of the hole…now
my carrots go down to
Australia!"

M
ichael Hopkins, eminent expertise on vegetables, Hopkins lent to 4 percent the New York
socio-economist, ex- was in Manchester to share his City Annual Budget - the cost of
International Labour ideas, on development and the their fire department. I sat next to
Organisation, Professor at role that corporations should Kofi Anann [ex UN Secretary-
Middlesex University, now have, with the UMSU General] on a plane a few weeks
Managing Director of his own Challenging Orthodoxies Society. ago; I turned to him and said
Corporate and Social Research ‘Kofi, what happened to eradicat-
Company, spoke over a spicy din- Grey suited with red tie and ing povert?’”
ner about visiting Sri Lanka. Here matching triangular hanky, his
he not only discovered how to dress was that of smart eccentrici- After half a century and $1 trillion
make his carrots grow, but also ty, mirroring his chosen role as in development aid, 2.65 billion
what difference a major corpora- academic businessman. With the people, or nearly half of mankind,
tion could make in a poor village same relish he employed when live on less than $2 a day and the
through investing in a local farm- crunching on his popadoms later, figures have grown over the past
ing project. Hopkins spoke of one he peppered his rather dense talk decade as some of the poorest
local villager who he named 'Mr. with slick, controversial headline economies travel backwards.
Magic' due to his amazing veg- winners.
etable-growing abilities and his Hopkins' general stance is that
commitment to the project. “The UN's core budget is $1.25 governments and international
billion per year, how can they be organizations grouped under the
Despite his world-traveled effective with this? That's equiva- UN have failed to curb the

44 sept-oct 08 tbl
increase of poverty and under- ice cap and resolve to help, than world still developing backwards.
development. Now is the time for look at a picture of a person However, when he talks down
corporations to step in and use stretched past humanity due to international schemes he's keen to
Corporate Social Responsibility horrific circumstances (war, impress he has worked within the
(CSR) to assist development and famine, genocide, sweatshops) system. When in the UN depart-
help the most disadvantaged in and find the empathy to support ment of the International Labour
the world get a leg up. Hopkins them. Organization he became notori-
feels that development in a ous for writing a paper in which
country is best measured by an One may be forgiven for he suggested they all take a 50
increase in life expectancy, as this becoming skeptical about the way percent pay cut and the profits go
indicates higher quality of life in Hopkins believes the world can into development. Here the ghost
terms of medical care and food, be changed when told that his of socialism drifts into his outlook
and controversially enough, he company writes the CSR pro- which has very much adapted to
doesn't think happiness is a factor grammes for many big players, play within the capitalist system.
in this (perhaps implying that including the UN. This is a game
developed nations don't rank all for the academic businessman: His latest book puts forward a
that high in happiness anyway). analyze what companies should practical plan about how corpo-
be doing and then get them to rations can best use their billions
In one of his books, The Planetary pay you for implementing it. to help the poor. Given that many
Bargain, Hopkins suggests, "CSR corporations hold turnovers
is concerned with treating the greater than that of individual
However, when asked about what
stakeholders of the firm ethically countries, it makes sense to
his aims are, he employed an
or in a responsible manner. involve them in investing in areas
almost childish charm in the only
'Ethically or responsible' means that need it the most - in a year
softly spoken sentence of the
treating stakeholders in a manner Ford Motor Company sales are
night saying, "To leave the world
deemed acceptable in civilized greater than Norway's Gross
a better place than it was when I
societies…" Domestic Product (GDP), and
came." It seems a strange thing in
Philip Morris's tobacco sales
today's world to find an
In non-economist speak, this every year are greater than the
economist with ethical views and
means that massive businesses GDP of New Zealand.
dreams, beyond the giddy heights
should start looking after their
(or plummeting vales) of the stock
workers, shareholders and the Perhaps it is misguided to dismiss
market.
environment around them. This the international community and
may involve training workers in Non Governmental
more efficient farming methods, Hopkins was pushed into ques- Organisations, as so often they
offsetting carbon emissions, or in tioning dialogue by members of lead the way when it no longer
the case of beverage manufactu- the Challenging Orthodoxies becomes profitable for a corpo-
rers, not encouraging poor people Society. "Are massive corpora- ration to stay in an area. They
with no access to dental care to tions really the answer when they often are the ones left to pick up
buy a sugary, fizzy drink. have trampled their developing the debris of disloyal and fickle
world producers into the ground capitalist ventures.
The reason they should start to through sweatshops and aggres-
look at their CSR is because sive marketing? Can we, at a Hopkins' ideals seem to be free of
there's profit to be made in it; grass roots level either as students the usual business desire for
consumers like to feel they have or employees, make a difference profit alone, but as he walked
invested 'ethically' by purchasing to these huge corporations' away from the glowing lights of
from a corporate citizen. We only policies?" Rusholme it remains to be seen if
need to look at the growth of the dreams of an economist and
fair-trade and organic labelled The answer was "No," as it is his carrots will take root, or
products on our shelves to apparently a top down decision, become riddled with the rot ever
acknowledge that consumers are at least at the moment. present in the capitalist world of,
becoming more aware of where The Corporation.
the goods they buy come from. But surely the steps being made
in international policy are
In spite of this, Hopkins' worry groundbreaking and hold much About the Writer
now is that corporations are promise? Hopkins countered that
getting away with investing in there have always been ground- Sarah Wakefield is Student Direct’s Features
Editor. Student Direct is the largest student
'green' initiatives rather than in breaking developments and here newspaper in the UK, and its serves the
people. He argued it is far easier we still are, with Sub-Saharan University of Manchester.
to look at a picture of a melting Africa the only continent in the

tbl sept-oct 08 45
tbl content

tbl ingress
TBL gives you the
opportunity to share your
company's and/or your
individual initiatives and
achievements. We will be
happy to publish your
CSR related initiatives,
given that they fall within
the general parameters
and guidelines of the
publication.

TBL encourages
individuals, public and
private corporations, sole
proprietors and
educational institutions to
communicate their

"
corporate citizenship,
sustainability, and socially A good company delivers excellent
responsible activities and
initiatives. Share your products and services, and a great
thoughts, comments,
questions. company does all that and strives to make

"
the world a better place.
"Never doubt that a
small group of thought- - William Ford Jr., Chairman, Ford Motor Co.
ful, committed citizens
can change the world.
Indeed it is the only
thing that ever has."
- Margaret Mead, American
Cultural Anthropologist.

We all have our strengths.


Assess them. Analyze
them. Criticize them.

We can all be mentors in


our fields and encourage
others to take their stance
for building a socially
responsible society.

46 sept-oct 08 tbl
book in focus

sustenance of enterprise
"In the world of today, managers and leaders of organizations, in both
the private sector and civil society, are being challenged as never
before to find ways to play a pro-active role in addressing the concerns
of sustainable development". They are often overwhelmed by a shower
of conflicting messages from the media, shareholders, customers,
employees, and NGOs.

T
he Sustainable Enterprise [the true condition of our world
Fieldbook is useful for today], sustainability practices, etc.,
managers as it “teaches them and an overview of the book,
how to strike a better balance, part-wise, can be found in this
moving from an "either/or" section of the book. by fariha rashed
mind-set to one that holistically for tbl
embraces social, environmental and In Section 2, titled 'Preparing the
economic issues simultaneously”. Foundation for a Sustainable Integrating, and Aligning Toward
Enterprise', John D. Adams the Future', features sections such as
The Sustainable Enterprise describes Mental Models as "the Sustainable globalization and
Fieldbook, a realistic and practical constructs we bring to any situation Transorganizational collaboration
hardback, has been put together by that we are attempting to impact. and sustainability networks.
an outstanding assortment of They include what we know - what Sustainable globalization represents
experts from business (Microsoft, we value - what we believe - what a breakthrough and a fundamental
Sony, Philips, and AIG), consultan- we assume - out of which emerges a change in how people approach
cies, and academia. It has been context for action or inaction'". A doing business in a global world in
edited by Jeana Wirtenberg [PhD] case study [Appreciative Inquiry the 21st century.
with William G. Russell and David case study: Executive MBA candi-
Lipsky [PhD] in collaboration with dates] is cited by Theresa McNichol. Part 5 is the final part of the book
The Enterprise Sustainability Action and it includes one section: 'A New
Team. Its aim is to teach and guide Appreciatibe Inquiry (AI) “focuses Beginning - When it All Comes
leaders, managers, practitioners, on assets, resulting in the uncover- Together'. Written by Jeana
students, and professors in every ing of a wealth of latent talent and Wirtenberg, David Lipsky and
sector of society, and in every creativity that was just waiting to be William G. Russell, they talk about
industry, to create a successful and tapped”. Using AI, individuals in arriving at a new beginning, which
sustainable enterprise. systems start to work beyond mere "contains the crucial possibilities of
function and co-create an entity that creating a sustainable future;
Each chapter demonstrates - excels. success is our only option". The
through models, tools, cases, stories, writers discuss the common threads
and examples from a wide range of Section 3 focuses on the topic of that run through the entirety of the
companies - how to integrate 'Developing a Sustainability book that hold some keys to
sustainability into the day-to-day Strategy'. In essence, this chapter accelerating the progress of sustain-
realities of running a business. defines the unique qualities of ability. They also discuss sharing of
sustainability strategies, lays out the the Sustainability Pyramid with the
Managers are coached, facilitated, business case for corporate sustain- readers, which was developed as a
and guided to enable them to create ability, provides examples of part of a study of the world's most
a better balance between the short customized ways in which firms are sustainable companies.
and long-term, to help them become pursuing a sustainability advantage,
change agents in their organizations and describes a seven-step model The Sustainable Enterprise
and to provide answers to the ques- for structuring the sustainability Fieldbook offers an ingredient that
tion 'How do I make a difference?'. strategy formulation process. has been missing in the vast
outpouring of information on
The Fieldbook begins with Part 1, Part 3 of the book, titled 'Embracing organizations and sustainability: a
titled 'Understanding Reality', and Managing Change holistic integration of solutions,
which includes an inspiring intro- Sustainability', features sections on which will make the journey
duction and overview. It is stated managing the change to a sustain- personal for each reader. It is
that the book “captures the essence, able enterprise, employee engage- comprehensive and focuses on the
energies, experiences and best prac- ment for a sustainable enterprise, human side of sustainable
tices that emerged through the col- and sustainable enterprise metrics enterprise. It is a must-read for
laborative efforts of our community and measurement systems. anyone trying to make sustain-
of co-authors”. The purpose of the ability happen in the real world.
book, how to use it, current reality Part 4, titled 'Connecting,

tbl sept-oct 08 47
musings

whose water is it
anyway?
by praetor
for tbl

I
heard this crazy idea for water Getting back to water and the individual.
harvesting, which on reflection did not Ever considered spending just a little money
seem that crazy after all. If one is able to to upgrade your domestic water outflows to
collect all the water flow from all the air- conserve water? Okay, here is what it takes.
conditioners operating night and day in a A separate sink in the kitchen in which
large city like Karachi, how many MGD everything is washed that requires only
water can one generate? Yours truly was an water for washing and no soap or deter-
instant convert to the idea at an individual gents. Like fruits, vegetables, meat, poultry,
level. Now my bedroom air-conditioner's some crockery and cutlery and your hands
water flow goes into a garden bucket, which too. 'Dirty' water from this sink flows into a
invariably is at least half-full by the 200 litres capacity fibreglass tank outside. A
morning, and my wife uses the 'harvested' flexible hose pipe leads from the tank to
resource to water her potted plants soon your garden. Two hundred litres of water is
after dawn. (Yes, she's a committed early effectively re-used.
riser!)
If you want to go the whole hog, have the
There is a lot of talk around about rainwater water from your bathroom sinks, showers
harvesting. Indeed there are already and tubs go into a holding tank and from
sufficient success stories around the world to there into a basic sand filter. And then into
not only prove that it can be done, but more another tank which holds the filtered water
importantly to emphasize that it must be for various domestic uses. Spend a little
done, wherever it rains. more on multi-stage filtering and you will
have recycled water you can wash your
Ultimately water conservation needs to be a floors with every day. I can almost feel some
habit at the individual level. In the same of you out there snorting in derision.
way locking your front door at night-time is. Probably because you can afford not to go
I wish one could say also: in the same way through all this. Enough water to waste,
as stopping at red traffic lights is. But that's enough money to keep the tanker mafia
history in the land of the five (mostly dry) happily in business. But hey, give someone
rivers. It's also another story. Perhaps even a else a break! The water you recycle saves
CSR opportunity for an OMC or a vehicles water elsewhere, which somebody more in
manufacturing company to run a public need can use. So make a start, because
service message campaign on television, to Praetor says so.
inculcate a responsible, law-abiding driving
habit in our worthy citizens.

48 sept-oct 08 tbl