Research Project

Empirical study on Consumer Behavior and Psychology

Presented in partial fulfillment of the Post Graduate Diploma in Management Programme


Under the Supervision of Ms deepshikha kalra



I hereby take this opportunity to thank college of business studies for providing me an opportunity to do a research project on Westside Store. I express my sincere gratitude to my mentor and guide, Dr.Ronald Mani who always provided me with necessary inputs, guidance and direction to carry out this project. He provided me access to different domains of knowledge from where I collected inputs for this project. I would also like to thank Dr.Devraj Sir who gave me the first move towards retail by teaching. It was his knowledge that I was inspired upon to look forward to this project from early days. Last but not the least, my million thanks to all the people including customers, retailers whom I have conversed with and taken inputs from to move ahead and complete this project.




This is to certify that the Final Research Report titled ‘Impact of Shopper, Store and

Situational Factors on Store Image, Satisfaction and Loyalty of Customers’
has been submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement of MBA at College Of Business Studies,AAIDU, ALLAHABAD.

This Final Research Report is an original work and has not been submitted in part or full to this Institute or any other university for award of any degree or diploma course.

(ASHUTOSH KUMAR) 16th March 2009

(Dr.Ronald mani)


Table of Contents

Acknowledgment………………………………………………………………. 2 Executive Summary………………………………………….………………...5 Introduction…………………………………………………………………….6 Literature Review………………………………………………………………8 Retail Industry: An Overview………………………………………………...10 Objective of Study…………………………………………………………….16 Westside: Retail Giant………………………………………………………...18 Research Methodology………………………………………………………..25 Hypothesis…………………………………………………………………….26 Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………35 Consumer Pull Factors………………………………………………………..44 Recommendations…………………………………………………………….45 Limitations of Study…………………………………………………………..46 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………..47 Questionnaire…………………………………………………………………49

Executive Summary

The enormous retail boom in India has given space to many companies who have mushroomed out to benefit from this retail boom, which is nothing but a structured format of the unorganized retail business which is being done in India from ages. Many stores have come up with exquisite interiors, state of the art infrastructure and the best possible brands to the customer which has led to the growth of mall culture in India. The stores try and attract customers by providing them with such services and plethora of options in brands in different categories so that they can retail customers for long and make them loyal towards their retail stores. The retail business is booming in India and there has been remarkable shift in the buying behavior of the people from traditional stores to these departmental stores. It becomes important for the marketers to understand these relationships for successful design and execution of retail strategies. It would also enable the researcher to understand the organized retail formats and consumers buying attitude towards these stores. The data was collected by getting the questionnaire filled by the respondents who were loyalty card holders to find out that what makes them loyal towards Westside stores and makes them visit Westside again and motivates them to purchase more from here. The purpose of this paper is to raise the question of the relationship between the various factors and how they lead to store loyalty.


Especially in market like India the challenges is formidable because organizations need to cater to a wide and diverse group of customers . Retail establishments are often called shops or stores.So This put the question in the mind of the every retailer that is there is any gap between what customer expected from retailers and what retailer provides to customer during shopping. It is also find that many customer only used to shopping in own decided outlet rather from every outlets even there is homogenous among the product and service offer by the every retail outlet .shopping mall etc . In the retail outlet various type of good and service are provide to the customer but all the goods and services are generally homogenous in nature through all the other retail outlets . Customers take their time to first sketch their needs and then arrive at a specific decision. such as a department store . Delivery value and narrowing down the zone of tolerance is a tightrope walk for marketer in organized retail sector. Retailers are at the end of the supply chain.Thus building equity and generating volumes in such complex market tapers down to the function of managing customer expectation.Introduction Retailing consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a fixed location.”WHY”and “HOW” of each and every customer. Product and services of every company are available in every retail outlet.Especially in this competitive scenario where the customer are well informed. commanding and demanding at the same time it has become imperative for the organization to be updated on the “WHAT”. Manufacturing marketers see the process of retailing as a necessary part of their overall distribution strategy. and then sells smaller quantities to the end-user. At the end of the day the question is what does the customer expect? How to fulfill the glaring gap between need and expectations? The answers to this question are “by delivering the value “ But in many case retailers are not aware of what their customer expect. Hence they are unable to deliver the right value to the right customer and satisfy them .The retailer buys goods or products in large quantities from manufacturers either directly or through a wholesaler. No two customers have the identical likes and preferences. 6 . This calls for empathizing with the customer by indulging into their priorities and decision making.

and all this at an affordable price. is a competitive strategy many retailers aspire to achieve. good packaging fragrance. If expressed as a calculation. older consumers as well as time crunched individuals whose motives all tend to be conflicting as well as different. helpful staff. well-stocked shelves. 2001). The various determinants of retail outlet preference include cleanliness. herbal or medical benefit. recreational shoppers (shopping as a leisure activity) and apathetic consumers (who dislike shopping). not exceeded nor disappointed those expectations. personalized consumers (concern with relationships). Satisfaction in this sense could mean that a supermarket has just barely met the customer’s expectations. A daunting task but companies have no option but to offer the expected value. It is an affective reaction (Menon and Dubé.Even in the case of a product as simple as beauty soap. Following general expectations of a typical customer • • • • • Value of Money Availability and location Service expectations Quality in Product Need based solution So in other to deliver the value. need to cater for a wide range of motives. 7 . car parking. disabled access. glowing skin etc. that too by keeping the operating costs low. customer satisfaction might look something like this: Customer expectations = Companies Performance/ Companies Satisfaction Satisfaction is a consumer’s post-purchase evaluation of the overall service experience. Retailers need to establish a good image to prevent customers from shopping around. There is a recurrent struggle for existence and survival in the wake of deep competition. They must cater to shoppers need for pleasure and practicality. Retailers have to satisfy budding customers. These differing motives arise as retailers cater to different types of shoppers who include economic consumers (concern with value). and range of products. customer have versatile expectations like. wide aisles. multiple billing points and environmentally friendly goods. The benefits of taking the customer’s response beyond satisfaction at this level by exceeding expectations. drastically changing customer attitudes and expectation levels. Retail outlets in addition to providing products and services. 2000) in which the consumer’s needs. desires and expectations during the course of the service experience have been met or exceeded (Lovelock.

There are three main set of variables that have been found to have an impact on loyalty of customers: 1. The image of the store has also great effect on the loyalty of the customers. A loyal customer would give preference to a specific store and would tend to be far more forgiving of errors of the store..The consumers are favorably inclined to revisit a store where they have positive shopping experiences like a great range of assortments .(Arnold . Store Related Variables 2 . good environment etc.Shopper Related Variables 3. and Douglas 1983. 8 .’ Determining Attributes in Retail Patronage) Shop location is an influencing variable on loyalty as convenience of shopping is among the main criteria of the customers. journal of Consumer Research) .The study would enable us to understand the impact of various factors that influence a consumer’s shopping behavior in a departmental store. Situation and Shopper factors.’ A review of Selected Factors Conditioning Consumer Travel Behavior’.Store. Store loyalty refers to the tendency to repeatedly shop at the same store for similar or other products. Stephen J. It would also help in knowing the magnitude and direction of movement of these factors amongst each other. Store image reflects shopper’s perception of a store in terms of functional and psychological attributes. Raymond 1978. Ourn. assortment and variety come after convenience and price. Situation Related Variables Loyalty has been found to be greatly influenced by Store Related Variables. Literature Review The concept of store loyalty is derived from the concept of brand loyalty which refers to the tendency to make repeat purchases of products of the same brand. Location related variables are given importance in analyzing both trade areas and retail patronage behavior (Hubbard. Products Range and Store Image. Tigert. In consumer priorities. These factors have been divided into three heads. Tae H . Some of the important store related variables are Shop location.

These indicate the intensity of need and the comfort of the shopper in taking a purchase decision. level of involvement. (Pathak. which means the target segment. W. ‘ A research Note on major Retail Centre Patronage) Customers belonging to different age groups prefer different stores.’ Customer Image Versus the Retailers’ Anticipated Image.There is a direct linkage between personal values and desired consumer benefits. The store choice has been found to depend on buying situations that differ with the level of involvement (Moschis.P . These factors include task definition.’ Journal of Retailing.W Sweitzer 1974. and Joseph Barry Mason 1969. (Moore. Recognition of the need for a product or a service is the first stage that may lead to a consumer buying.E . This means different customers have different levels of desired consumer benefits which vary according to their own perceived values.. A key factor in understanding customers is identifying the customers for product or service.50). 9 . and R. Charles Thomas .S. shopping orientation and usage of information. the greater is the probability that the customer is loyal. Vol.Loyalty is also influenced by shopper related variables.1976.J. Loyalty is also influenced by the situation related variables. income and social class of the shopper have found to influence on customer’s decisions. There have been researches done which suggests that the greater the congruence between self image and store image. their needs and buying behavior.’ Shopping Orientations and Consumer Uses of Information) Thus we can say that the existence of the customer is integral to the existence of the retailer. D. Several factors such as age. G. The need may be psychological or functional. and the demographics of this segment. The ability to understand consumers is the key to developing a successful retail strategy.Crissy.

The impact can be best seen in countries like U. 4. France U.A. the retail industry is definitely one of the pillars of the Indian economy.S. retail sales are also expected to expand at a higher pace of nearly 10%.Retail Industry: An Overview Retailing is the interface between the producer and the individual consumer buying for personal consumption. Malaysia. Retail has played a major role world over in increasing productivity across a wide range of consumer goods and services . As such. retailing is the last link that connects the individual consumer with the manufacturing and distribution chain. recently identified India as the ‘second most attractive retail destination’ globally from among thirty emergent markets.A. Sri Lanka and Dubai are also heavily assisted by the retail sector.S. Inc. 3.S. Economies of countries like Singapore. U. With the upturn in economic growth during 2003. A retailer is one who stocks the producer’s goods and is involved in the act of selling it to the individual consumer. AT Kearney. This excludes direct interface between the manufacturer and institutional buyers such as the government and other bulk customers. The Home Depot. With a contribution of 14% to the national GDP and employing 7% of the total workforce (only agriculture employs more) in the country. Retail sales in India amounted to about Rs. Carrefour Group The Kroger Co. Hong Kong.. Germany The retail industry in India is of late often being hailed as one of the sunrise sectors in the economy.A. Across the 10 . Top Retailers Worldwide: Rank Retailer Home Country 1. U. 5. Thailand and more recently China. 2.7400 billion in 2002. Wal-Mart Stores. expanded at an average annual rate of 7% during 1999-2002. Metro U. It has made India the cause of a good deal of excitement and the cynosure of many foreign eyes.. Mexico. the well-known international management consultancy. Inc.A.S.K. at a margin of profit.

however. Panasonic.V. to make significant inroads into the vast consumer market by offering a wide range of choices to the Indian consumers. Reach of satellite T. etc. beverages and tobacco accounted for as much as 71% of retail sales in 2002. retail sales in real terms are predicted to rise more rapidly than consumer expenditure during 2003-08.8% by 2006-07. it is not surprising that food. down from 73% in 1999. This is not unexpected. compared with 7. Sony. a large chunk of consumer expenditure is on basic necessities. The factors responsible for the development of the retail sector in India can be broadly summarized as follows: • Rising incomes and improvements in infrastructure are enlarging consumer markets and accelerating the convergence of consumer tastes. with the rapid growth in numbers of such outlets due to consumer demand and business potential. Looking at income classification. places India 6th on a global retail development index. this is expected to decline to 17.1% for consumer expenditure. etc. Modernization of the Indian retail sector will be reflected in rapid growth in sales of is 8. T. because with income growth.3% per year. • Liberalization of the Indian economy which has led to the opening up of the market for consumer goods has helped the MNC brands like Kellogs. at almost a triple rate (about 30% per year during the review period). • Shift in consumer demand to foreign brands like McDonalds. especially food-related items. their sales have grown much more rapidly. In a developing country like India. This high acceleration in sales through modern retail formats is expected to continue during the next few years. Nestle. the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) classified approximately 50% of the Indian population as low income in 1994-95. Around 7% of the population in India is engaged in retailing. as compared to 20% in the USA.5. Indians. channels is helping in creating awareness about global products for local markets. The country has the highest per capita outlets in the world . Sales through supermarkets and department stores are small compared with overall retail sales.5 outlets per 1000 population. 11 . like consumers elsewhere. Nevertheless. • The internet revolution is making the Indian consumer more accessible to the growing influences of domestic and foreign retail chains. The forecast growth in real retail sales during 2003. departmental stores and hyper marts. Kearney Inc. a leading provider of global consumer-market intelligence. Sales from these large-format stores are to expand at growth rates ranging from 24% to 49% per year during 2003-2008. have started spending more on non-food items compared with food products. declined over the review period. Hence. The share of food related items had. Unilever. A. according to a latest report by Euro monitor International.

and would help in achieving higher GDP growth. This young population. A similar phenomenon has swept through all other Asian countries.who had been a key factor driving the growth of organized retail in the country. the expected demand for quality retail space in 2006 is estimated to be around 40 million square feet. Most of the organized retailing in the country has just started recently. the share of employment of retail in India is low. watch more than 50 TV satellite channels. the Indian consumer market has seen a significant growth in the number of modern-day shopping centers. As a result. ft. In Thailand. more than 40% of all consumer goods are sold through the super markets and departmental stores. As India continues to get strongly integrated with the world economy riding the waves of globalization. expects the organized retail industry to continue to grow rapidly. which is technology-savvy. organized retailers –with their modern. There is an increased demand for quality retail space from a varied segment of large-format retailers and brands. India is the last large Asian economy to liberalize its retail sector. Shopping-centre development has attracted real-estate developers and corporate houses across cities in India. Today. from just 3 malls in 2000. close to 25mn sq. the retail sector is bound to take big leaps in the years to come. Organized retailing in India has a huge scope because of the vast market and the growing consciousness of the consumer about product quality and services. but the organized sector represents only 2% share of this market. and this will increase to 55% by 2015.About 47% of India’s population is under the age of 20. Fuelling this growth is the growth in development of the retail-specific properties and malls. and has been concentrated mainly in the metro cities. of retail space is being developed and will be available for occupation over the next 36-48 months. According to the estimates available with Fitch. While previously it was the large. popularly known as ‘malls’. will immensely contribute to the growth of the retail sector in the country. Malls in India Over the last 2-3 years. now it is the malls which are playing the role. A McKinsey report on India says organized retailing would increase the efficiency and productivity of entire gamut of economic activities. even when compared to Brazil (14%). which include food and apparel chains. 12 . and display the highest propensity to spend. Fitch expects organized retail to capture 15%-20% market share by 2010. The Indian retail sector is estimated to have a market size of about $ 180 billion. At 6%. and direct consumer interface. especially through increased levels of penetration in larger towns and metros and also as it begins to spread to smaller cities and B class towns. up-market outlets. and Poland (12%). consumer durables and multiplex operators. India is all set to have over 220 malls by 2005. A study conducted by Fitch.

building loyalty by identifying regular shoppers and 13 . • Intrinsic complexity of retailing – rapid price changes.000 sq. while a mall in USA is 400. Bangalore. • Absence of developed supply chain and integrated IT management.000 to 1 million sq. are also expected to see a formidable growth in the growth of malls in the near future. • Taxation. But malls in India need to have a clear positioning through the development of differential product assortment and differential pricing. Chennai. proper planning. Jaipur. Challenges of Retailing in India Retailing as an industry in India has still a long way to go. Compared to other big cities. • Regulations restricting real estate purchases. and the right timing. retailing needs to cross the following hurdles: • Automatic approval is not allowed for foreign investment in retail. Kolkata. To become a truly flourishing industry. and campaigns to attract customers. Ludhiana.ft. its own definition of a ‘mall’. By 2005.000 sq. Gurgaon) is expected to increase to over 21. Indian retailers must use innovative retail formats to enhance shopping experience. Lucknow. Kolkata and Hyderabad are relatively new entrants in the mall segment. and try to understand the regional variations in consumer attitudes to retailing. in order to compete effectively in a growing mall market. Segmentation in malls. would Ensure the success of the ‘mall revolution’ in India. correct identification of needs. an Indian version can be anywhere between 80. Retail marketing efforts have to improve in the country . total mall space in the 6 cities of Mumbai. and cumbersome local laws. Chandigarh and Indore. city planning. mid-market malls. constant threat of product obsolescence and low margins. in size. and socio-economic parameters have driven the Indian market to evolve. Smaller cities like Pune. quality products at lower prices. the right store mix. which favors small retail businesses. and 500. The retailers in India have to learn both the art and science of retailing by closely following: How retailers in other parts of the world are organizing. etc. Ahmedabad. but are witnessing quick growth.1 million sq. • Lack of trained work force.ft.. ft. Noida. population densities.Factors such as availability of physical space. like up-market malls. • Low skill level for retailing management.ft. to a certain extent.advertising. and coping up with new challenges in an ever-changing marketplace. For example. promotions. Hyderabad. managing. and National Capital Region (Delhi.

in the major metros of the country. Experiences in the developed and developing countries prove that performance of organised retail is strongly linked to the performance of the economy as a whole. some of the roadblocks will remain and will continue to affect the smooth growth of this industry. especially. Despite the presence of the basic ingredients required for growth of the retail industry in India. not be at the same rapid pace as in other emerging markets. the industry remained in a rudimentary stage. during the last decade. lack of proper infrastructure and relatively high cost of real estate are the other impediments to the growth of retailing. Moreover. and monitoring customer needs constantly. has begun to change the face of retailing. The development of the organised retail sector. which is still regarded as a ‘Mecca of Indian Retail’. which have stymied its growth. While the industry and the government are trying to remove many of these hurdles. 14 . However. This is mainly on account of the reach and penetration of this business and its scientific approach in dealing with customers and their needs. Viveks (consumer durables) and Nallis (sarees) started their operations. Multiplicity and complexity of taxes. One of the key impediments is the lack of FDI status. most of these modern developments were restricted to south India. this growth would. Fitch believes that while the market share of organised retail will grow and become significant in the next decade. it still faces substantial hurdles that will retard and inhibit its growth in the future. however.offering benefits to them. which is a key for development and growth of food retailing and has also constrained access to world-class retail practices. as a result of the roadblocks (mentioned in Table 1). This has largely limited capital investments in supply chain infrastructure. Organised retailing in India is gaining wider acceptance. Early signs of organized retail were visible even in the 1970s when Nilgiris (food). little effort was made to introduce world-class customer care practices and improve operating efficiencies. Indian retailing faces some major hurdles (see Table 1). are some of the aspects which Indian retailers need to focus upon on a more pro-active basis. While these retailers gave the necessary ambience to customers. In spite of the positive prospects of this industry. efficiently managing high-value customers.

• Festivals like Dusherra. sports goods and music. Fall Season • • August and September are important months. Low sales are recorded during this period. • This season is good for promotions and launching new advertisement campaigns. Halloween. Spring Season • • It lasts from February to May Fewer footfalls are recorded in malls. “right-look” and the “dude” image is still important to them. Customers Men • While guys tend to prioritize fashion to a lesser degree than girls. Holiday Season • It begins usually at the end of October and carries through the fourth quarter ending in January. • Boys tend to spend more money on electronic gadgets. • Usually it’s the best time for retailers. food. 15 . Retailers are provided a good opportunity to increase their share. Christmas and New Year Eve bring more customers.Seasons of Retailing Summer Season • • It’s usually from May to July. Diwali.

but the whole look that the teen girls aspire to define. • “Teen” girls are more trend savvy. Objectives of the study SHOPPER FACTORS 1) What influences a shopper to patronize a National Brand or Private Label? 2) Which of the two ‘manifest satisfaction’ or ‘latent satisfaction’ has stronger impact on store loyalty? 3) Does the similarity between retail mix-elements and desired benefits of customer lead to higher shopper loyalty? SITUATIONAL FACTORS 1) Is there any impact of ‘recency of purchase experience’ and ‘frequency of visit to a store’ on probability of repurchase from that store? 2) Is there any impact of ‘buying situations’ and ‘level of involvement’ on the store choice? 3) Of the three.’ and ‘store format’ of shoppers. It’s not just the clothes and accessories. ‘mall image’ (tenancy mix). which has the highest impact on ‘store image’? STORE FACTORS 1) How convenience and location influences a shopper’s loyalty for a store? 2) How differentiation in type and quality of assortment offered by a store affects the buying behavior of shopper? 3) How similarity between self-image and store-image leads impacts store loyalty? 16 .Women • “Tween” girls represent a lucrative opportunity for retailers. They are going to become the future buyers. • ‘Post teen” girls spend more on jewellery and household items and thus they contribute a lot more in terms of revenue. ‘socio-economic status.

Types of Locations Various options are available to the retailer. merely choosing the right location can’t be considered adequate. or 3. adjust prices. While a retailer can change his merchandise mix. It also influences the merchandise mix and the interior layout of the store. 1. depends on the target audience and the kind of merchandise to be sold. Over the years. 17 . owned and manager as a single property”. For ex. the retail location is an important part of the retail strategy. 2. However. The availability of parking is an important feature of every shopping center. The choice of the location of the store again. as the location of the store conveys a fair amount of its image. it was considered to be adequate assurance for success. a store maybe. Westside Mall in Rajouri is a part of the shopping center. developed. If a retail store was located in the right place. Typically.4) How store image impacts store loyalty and how it influences store satisfaction in shaping shoppers’ overall store loyalty? The location of the retail store had. Moving from one location to another may result in the loss of customers and employees. for choosing the location of this store. improve communication with consumers and offer better services. with advent of non-store retailing and the rise in webbased retail. been considered the most important ‘P’ in retailing. the location of a convenience store would not be suitable for that of an expensive jewellery boutique. Part of a Shopping Center. once a store comes into existence. Moreover.A shopping center has been defined by the International Council of Shopping Centers as “a group of retail and other commercial establishments that is planned. for a long time. Part of a business district. the new location may not always have the benefits of the earlier one. Freestanding/ Isolated Store. it is fairly difficult to change the location.

Rajkot. Gurgaon. Bangalore. Ghaziabad & Noida (to be considered as 1 city). Household Accessories. Delhi. Jaipur. Perfumes and Handbags. Kid’s wear. Vadodara and Jammu. Indore. Mysore.000 square feet each) in Ahmedabad. and Gifts. providing an ample assortment of products made available at the 18 . Trent Ltd. Ludhiana. Footwear. Cosmetics.000-30. Chennai. lingerie. Kolkata. The company has already established 36 Westside departmental stores (measuring 15. Hyderabad. Nagpur. operates Westside. The company hopes to expand rapidly with similar format stores that offer a fine balance between style and price retailing. Lucknow. Surat. one of India's largest and fastest growing chains of retail stores. These include Menswear. Mumbai. Pune.Westside-Retail Giant Established in 1998 as part of the Tata Group. Trent ventured into the hypermarket business in 2004 with Star Bazaar. Women’s wear. The Westside stores have numerous departments to meet the varied shopping needs of customers.

to 45. and greeting cards. consumer electronics and household items at the most affordable prices. dairy products. one of the largest books & music retail chains in the country.lowest prices.000 sq. Mumbai. health and beauty products. Lucknow and Ahmedabad. women and children. fruits. Gurgaon. Lambi Shopping’ motto. stationery. ft. aptly exemplifying its ‘Chota Budget. Pune. vegetables. Vadodara. Landmark’s product portfolio comprised books. At present Landmark have 10 stores. At present Star Bazaar has 4 stores in 3 cities located in Ahmedabad. Landmark also sparked the trend of stocking curios. Until 1996. beverages. toys and other gift items. exclusively available at the store.000 sq. It was later that music was added to it. 3 in Chennai and 1 each in Bangalore. Star Bazaar also includes a largerange of fashionable in-house garments for men. Gurgaon. Trent recently acquired a 76% stake in Landmark. varying in size from 12. ft. ft. In addition. What separates Landmark from 19 . Landmark began operations in 1987 with its first store in Chennai with a floor space of 5500 sq. This store offers customers an eclectic array of products that include staple foods. Mumbai and Bangalore.

women and children to well-co-coordinated table linens. Most Admired Large Format Retail Chain of the Year .000-30. footwear and accessories for men. artifacts. Westside has garnered numerous accolades 1. India Brand Summit – Brand Leadership Retail 3. the company has 36 Westside stores measuring 15. Littlewoods was subsequently renamed Westside. Westside has carved a niche for its brand of merchandise creating a loyal following. home accessories and furnishings. everything at Westside is exclusively designed and the merchandise ranges from stylized clothes. With a variety of designs and styles. NDTV Profit Business Leadership Awards 2006 . sprawling space.000 square feet each across 20 cities. Well-designed interiors. Simone N. 2002 – Mrs. In a rapidly evolving retail scenario.Lycra Images Fashion Awards 2005 5. prime locations and coffee shops enhance the customers’ shopping experience.other stores of its kind is the range and depth of its stock. IFA Visionary of the Year Award. This story began circa 1998 when The Tatas acquired Littlewoods – a London based retail chain.Retail Category Mission Statement “To be regarded by our customers as the most relevant retailer in the country. Tata 4. Balanced Scorecard Hall of Fame 2. This acquisition was followed by the establishment of Trent Ltd (a Tata enterprise that presently operates Westside).” 20 . Currently.

quality and service consciousness. quality: these are the factors that have shaped Westside’s success story in the retail fashion stores business. Westside has recently expanded its range of merchandise by offering outfits from some of India’s best-known fashion designers. quality and value of the products we offer. in an atmosphere that encourages creativity and innovativeness. among them 21 . we shall develop a comprehensive understanding of their needs.In order to achieve this goal. been setting the standards for other fashion retailers to follow. Westside stands out from the competition for a variety of reasons. affordable prices. It is their policy to satisfy our customers with the range. and they cater to different customer segments. We will continue to scale new heights of excellence through teamwork. About 90 per cent of Westside’s offerings are home-grown. and offer them best-in-class products and services at affordable prices. ever since. cosmetics and lingerie. Style. if they are dissatisfied with any item that they might have purchased they would take the necessary measures to assist them. we would be happy to address them once they are brought to our attention” said an employee. strive to win their confidence. the Westside chain has. We shall always be in the forefront of fashion and services by anticipating and exceeding the expectations of our customers. The other 10 per cent includes toys. We have complete confidence in the quality of our merchandise however should our customers have any grievances. However. One is that a majority of the brands the chain stocks and sells are its own. “We would exchange the returned items or give our customers a complete refund. Launched in 1998 in Bangalore. Our leadership will be the product of our styling. The customers are expected to return unused merchandise along with its receipt within 30 days. In the event that they do not have the receipt we would offer them an exchange or provide them a gift voucher to the current or last known selling price. unlike retailers who store multiple labels.

Ist Floor • • • Women Section Children Section Household items 3. Ground Floor • • • • Cosmetics Jewellery Watches Bags 2. since it means moving away from the chains only-our-own-brands concept. This is an interesting marketing shift. Westside is a departmental store having several product line & according to ET 500 list out of top four retail companies Trent ranked 3rd as     Pantaloon retail Shoppers shop Trent Provogue India Arrangement 1. Krishna Mehta and Mona Pali. Anita Dongre. IInd Floor (Men Section) • • • • Casual Clothing Formal Wear Ethnic Wear Shoes Private Brands in Westside 22 .Wendell Rodericks.

And it is convenient for customers to choose and for the attendants to support buying. Services & Store Atmosphere in Westside  Prepurchase services include accepting telephone & mail orders. Westside has lined up a bonanza of surprise gifts. gift wrapping. fashion shows  It provides post purchase service including shipping & delivery. repairs. alteration & tailoring  It also provides ancillary services including general information. Profitability of Westside Delhi is more than that in Pune and Bangalore because youth here have much spending power. hosting a festival bright.           2F4U SRC Gia Urban angel Intima David Jones Ascot Blackberry Lee Spykar Provogue To irrigate the space better Westside have the entrance on the ground floor and exit on the first floor. Every shopper gets a scratch-and-win card which entitles them entry into 23 . advertising. window & interior display. adjustments & returns. It is also driven from strong demand backed by quality products and latest fashion. parking. The Westside stores wear a bright. restaurants. in keep with the mood of the season. With the sole objective of rewarding its loyal customers for their patronage. check cashing. In case of visual merchandising all the category of clothes of all sizes and varieties are displayed and hence the consumption of space for shelves is reduced. credit etc. festive look and. interior decorating. fitting rooms.

and best of 24 . Another winning Westside idea is Club West. Primus Globus. The other challenge for Westside is that the retail fashion business in the country is becoming increasingly crowded with new players. Those making purchases above Rs 1. Crocodile. Club west card program An assured return-and-exchange policy reinforces customer confidence in the chain. home delivery of alterations. Lifestyle. floral motifs and paisley design. Facing the challenge The greatest challenge for Westside in its quest for a place in the retail sun is not the competition from similar organized players. Raymond’s (Be). Among the new entrants have been Wills Sport.000-plus members of this club get rebates at restaurants and on holiday packages from the Taj Group of Hotels. a customer loyalty programme launched in May 2001. shapes and sizes. The store has also introduced a new range of furniture and other household goods. urns.a contest. Mango and the latest. including cabinets.500 are also entitled to receive other pleasant surprises The trendy household section has a complete new range of bed linen in elephant motifs. The 30. butler trays and mirrors in wood with an antique finish. Indian and foreign. but from the unorganized sector (98 per cent of India’s retail garment industry operates in the unorganized sector). folding stools. jam pots on trays and Ganesha in brass and terracotta. Nike. An innovative range in wrought iron and rope has been introduced in utility items which include magazine racks. The color palette for the festive collection includes flaming orange. knick-knacks and diyas in beautiful colors. The gift section has a plethora of gifts — terracotta pots. Promotions 1. Marks & Spencer. royal blue and other vibrant colors to depict festivity.

The campaign is designed to provide the buyer with not just clothing. The wish list.all. 25 . with decorations to match. where color. cannot be realized immediately. styling and accessorizing. Only if there is an optimum demand can the store look at fulfilling it. The campaign sees on-ground activities and promotions designed to interact with the consumer about their style It includes women’s corporate wear. girls wear. Westside’s brand for larger-sized requirements. Crispness and Coordination. Fashion Logy Westside has launched a new ad campaign titled 'Fashion Logy'. The emphasis here is on the three Cs: Comfort. Westside employees are given regular training for better interaction. more important are its in-house promotions. was the outcome of one such need. 2. The promotions are mostly theme based. and glam denim. clothes and accessories are mixed and matched in a manner that creates harmony between the person and the clothes he or she wears. Important benefits of club west card • • • • • Most attractive rewards shopping Instant use of the card Easy to operate Extra convenience Validity at all stores Westside does its regular brand building through advertisements in the media with brand ambassador Yuvraj Singh and other young models. Some things may take longer. The Three Cs Corporate clothing is a major component of Westside merchandise. but also guides and aid on dressing smart. and the goal is to provide the complete corporate look. Gia. live bands and other attractions. Diwali and Christmas. a tool for customers to let Westside know their preferences. special shopping hours on the first day of any discount sales event organized by the chain. which peak during the three main festive seasons: summer.

 Full Service.Self service is the corner stone of all discount operations. Research Methodology Sample and data collection 26 .Customer find own goods. Today.Westside also offers services like credit. Customers who like to be waited own prefer these types of stores. although they can ask for assistance  Limited Service. Many customers are willing to carry out their own locate compare select process to save money. Westside provides four levels of service  Self service. The success of this programme has made it a benchmark for all Tata Group companies.The company identifies star employees in each store and designates them as coaches responsible for the training of their own store staff.  Self selection. an IT skills coach and a product knowledge coach. merchandizing etc.Sales people are ready to assist to any phase of the locate compare select process. each store has three kinds of coaches — a customer service coach.

27 . The major type of information used is primary data. printed literature etc. questions related to satisfaction.This survey was conducted in the context of retail. For the remaining 30 percent. because certain retailers prohibit the interviewing of their clients exiting their stores. The sources include books. The literature review is a secondary data type. interviews took place in the subjects' homes. For 70 percent of the interviews. In order to reckon with possible multi-loyalty. The sample would be surveyed on the basis of questionnaire and data would be quantified for further analysis. loyalty and behavior were asked for the regular main store visited (at least once a week). as a function of the store they attended most frequently. data were collected in face-to-face interviews of customers coming to Westside while exiting point-of-sale venues. Research design The research design would be descriptive and cross sectional Data collection The data would be collected from primary source through questionnaires. These would be further divided amongst the stores for an evenly distributed data collection. A sample of 100 respondents would be used in the research. Sample size The sample would be selected on random basis at the store itself. interviews. websites. Data Sources Both Secondary and Primary Sources of data will be used. This is done thru primary survey. periodicals. The study provides a representative sample of the main Shopping centre in Delhi. observations etc.

1966). Hypothesis Based on Store Related Factors Loyalty is affected by factors that are related to the store. The Huff Model states that consumer patronage is directly proportional to utility factors given by square feet and inversely proportional to disutility factors given by physical distance. we formulate the given hypotheses: 28 . Generally speaking. situation related factors and shopper related factors. 1978). These studies most often count the benefits of locating a store in a shopping center/ mall to increase the store’s ‘destination’ traffic rather than just stay with the convenience pull. These studies assume that convenience is the primary reason for loyalty.Hypothesis The various hypotheses are based on the store related factors. The limits to enhancing loyalty are essentially seen as limited centripetal pull of a store/ shopping center (Applebaum. Trade Area Related Convenience is the primary reason that customers show patronage towards a particular store. these studies have resulted in the formation of the Theory of Gravitational Pull in the field of retailing patronage studies. several other factors such as income and social class perceptions have also been studied from the perspective of retail center patronage decisions (Moore and Barry. 1971). includinga. 1969). From above. Huff’s model has subsequently been studied by introducing trade overlap areas for effects on store patronage (Bucklin. Apart from distance. 1981). Most work in this area stems from a model proposed by Huff (1964). Location-related factors are given importance in analyzing both trade areas and retail patronage behaviour (Hubbard. In fact these studies determine shopping center traffic more accurately than single store traffic (Gautschi.

the significance level is very low i. which means that there is no correlation between these two factors. (2-tailed) . It also shows that the two factors are low correlated and significance of this is also very low.528 1 1 100 Hypothesis 2 : 29 . Is a loyal patron of this store brand .e.528.Hypothesis 1: Convenience of location is primary factor shaping customer loyalty. which is equals to 0.064 brand Sig. (2-tailed) N 100 is a loyal patron of this store Pearson Correlation .528 so the hypothesis can’t be accepted.528 N 100 According to this table. 0.064 . Convenience would be given special attention Convenience would be given Pearson Correlation 1 special attention Sig.

these stores suggest that competing stores need to differentiate themselves based on type and quality of assortment offered. Consumers have distinct perceptions of national and local brands vis-à-vis the retail private store brands. (2-tailed) N From the table we can see that the significance level is 0. and food products have high penetration of private brands. studies emphasize the ‘uniqueness of assortment’ as a way of influencing store loyalty and patronage.818 100 1 100 Convenience would be given Pearson Correlation special attention Sig. 1987). 26 October 2003). and McLafferty. b. private brands are found in more than fifty percent of stores. It has been observed that the impact of the store brands on the consumer loyalty is lower in product categories where the ‘quality believability’ of national brands is higher. The lowest share is observed in case of cosmetics and baby foods. Convenience would be given special attention 1 100 .023 .023 . The emphasis here is on tailoring the environmental clues using retail mix elements to foster patronizing. We can also see that 30 . Categories such as paper. which is very low. of times visiting the retail Pearson Correlation outlet per week Sig. plastic and wraps. and Douglas. (2-tailed) N No. Product Related. we cannot accept this hypothesis.Convenience is the main motive for shoppers repeat buying at a store.818 100 No. Category such as grocery and washing products show a higher presence of such brands (Business Today. 1978. Tae.Within a given trade area. Therefore. 1984.818. This shows a very low confidence level. Louviere and Gaeth. Given that consumers are favourably inclined to revisit a store where they have had positive shopping experiences (found something they could not find anywhere else). One of the used strategies is to develop own store Private labels. Craig. Gosh. assortment and variety comes after convenience and price (Arnold. In India. In consumer priorities. of times visiting the retail outlet per week .

Thus the hypothesis is not accepted.668 100 100 Product assortment no.023 which shows that there is no significant relation between the consumer loyalty and number of times the retail outlet is visited. This shows that the above two factors are least correlated to each other. varying 31 .043 . income and social class of the shopper have been found to influence retail patronage decisions (Moore and mason. Retail Outlet visits Product assortment let per week 1 -. Hypothesis Based on Shopper Related Factors Several factors such as age. It has been found that shopper seeking more hedonic gratification from the shopping tends to patronize ‘new’ format stores that focus on experimental marketing and offer better ambience and service (Sinha. This means that the degree of differentiation in type and quality of assortment doesn’t make the shopper revisit the store.043 1 . This shows very low confidence level. The orientation of the shopper also impacts the preference of a store. 2003).668 which means is very low significance level. We can also see that the Pearson correlation coefficient is -0.the Pearson Correlation Coefficient is 0. 1969). of times visiting the retail outlet per week Pearson Correlation Sig. Several studies have found a correlation between shopping orientations and lifestyle and with store loyalty and preference for stores. (2-tailed) N From the above table we can see that that the significance level is 0. Shopping orientation correlates differently with the information mix elements.043. Hypothesis 3: Higher the degree of differentiation in type and quality of assortment offered higher is the likeability to shoppers’ revisiting the store.668 100 100 -. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig.

1972). Research has shown the greater the congruence between self-image and store-image.first there are certain factors used to make a choice among clusters and then. 1968. 1971). 1993). within the chosen cluster. the greater is the probability that the customer is loyal (Pathak. 1984). Past experience with the outlet has also emerged as one of the major drivers of loyalty. This theory states that consumers do not distinguish between objective and subjective evaluation criteria. 1990). The more recent the purchase experience and more frequent the visits to the store. Several theories can be applied to study information processing by consumers. The aspect of congruity between the retail mix elements as designed by the retailer and the self-image/ self-concept of the consumer has received much attention. the more is the likelihood of repurchasing that product in that store (Aaker and Jones. Another set of theories hold that the process happens sequentially. To assess store perception on attributes that are meaningless to consumers can be misleading to a retailer. Crissy and Sweitzer. 1976). the hierarchical process becomes more relevant (Black. Dornoff and Tatham. the consumer has to process vast amounts of information before making a choice. A consumer’s selection of a store is not completely random. 1988). and preference for a source by some consumers and usage of such information (Moschis.with source. It has also been found that if retail mix elements are in congruence with the desired benefits. They tend to use both simultaneously when arriving at a decision (Hirschman and Krishnan. These theories draw significantly from automatic cognitive information processing models and the threshold model of consumer behaviour and examine how attitude leads to behaviour/ 32 . other parameters are used for decision-making (Fotheringham. It acts as an influencer in forming expectations about desired benefits from purchasing at a store (Guttman. The third set of theories states that consumers use a limited set of evaluative criteria when making a choice and this varies depending on personality. 1981). source credibility. McClure and Ryans. One set of theories assumes that evaluation criteria are considered simultaneously. There is a direct linkage between personal values and desired consumer benefits. context and product. It is generally agreed that as dimensions of comparison among stores increase and. it results in customer loyalty (Osman. 1974.

1972. Hypothesis 5: 33 . Therefore hypothesis is not accepted. 1997). We formulate the following hypothesis. Timmermans and Harry. Self image of the store in the customer mind Self image of the store in the customer mind Pearson Correlation Sig. This shows very low confidence level. Hypothesis 4: There is a similarity between self-image of the store before the visit and store-image after the visit to that store. and Hill. 1983.329 which is very Low significance level. Malhotra.patronage (Kau. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation Sig. This means that from our study we can show that the self image of the store before the visit is very different from the store image after the visit to that store.329 100 1 100 Store image in customer mind after thei visit From the above table we can see that the significance level is 0. Pokowiski.329 100 Store image in customer mind after thei visit -. Paul. (2-tailed) N 1 100 -.099 . We can also see that the Pearson Correlation Coefficient is -0.099 .099 which shows very weak correlation between the two factors.

of times visiting the retail outlet per week .821 100 1 100 Increase the purchase from this Pearson Correlation store Sig. (2-tailed) N No. Therefore hypothesis isn’t accepted. and usage of information. These indicate the intensity of need and the comfort of the shopper in taking a purchase decision. of times visiting the retail Pearson Correlation outlet per week Sig. a consumer segment identified as using a highly complex cognitive process of decision-making for a product could exhibit significant deviations for the same product at a different store (Kline and Wagner. (2-tailed) N From the above table we can clearly see that the significance level is 0. The store choice has been found to depend on buying situations that differ with the level of involvement. These are manifested in the task definition by the shopper and his involvement with shopping.023 . These factors include task definition. From above the following hypotheses are formulated: 34 . Increase the purchase from this store 1 100 . Hypothesis Based on Situation Related Factors Another set of factors that has been found to impact on customer loyalty consists of situational factors.023 . Thus.Likelihood of repurchase from a store depends on recency of purchase experience and frequency of visit to that store. We can also see that the Pearson Correlation Coefficient is 0.821 which is very low significance level.023 which shows slightly +ive correlation. shopping orientation.821 100 No. This means that the possibility of repurchase from a store somewhat depends upon the recency of purchase experience and frequency of visit to that store. This shows very low confidence level. Shopping orientation correlates differently with the information mix elements. The relative importance of the information sources differs by the level of product specific buying experiences. level of involvement. 1994).

Source of information Source of Information Pearson Correlation Sig. Therefore hypothesis isn’t accepted. satisfaction is believed to occur through a matching of expectations and perceived performance.073 which means that there is a slight correlation between the information sources in a retail store and the product buying experiences.. 481) as: The outcome of the subjective evaluation. 1983).073 .468 100 100 1 Product buying experience .073 . 1980). Store satisfaction can be defined (Engel et al. that the chosen alternative (the store) meets or exceeds expectations.468 100 1 From the above table we can see that the significance level is 0. he or she elaborates on the evaluation of a store. According to this paradigm. (2-tailed) N Product Buying Experience Pearson Correlation Sig. 1990). This shows low confidence level. a consumer must both have the motivation and the ability to evaluate the store relative to the reference point employed (Petty et al.Hypothesis 6: The importance of information sources in retail differs by level of product specific buying experiences. (2-tailed) N 100 . p. This definition is within the tradition of conceptualizations of satisfaction that are used in the product literature. 1990.468 which is again very low significance level. 35 . The basis for the definition forms the disconfirmation paradigm (Oliver. Hypothesis Based on Store Satisfaction Satisfaction has often been regarded as an antecedent of store loyalty (Bitner. We can also see that the Pearson correlation coefficient is 0. In order to do so.. In case a consumer makes this comparison.

the consumer is likely to be aware of the outcome of this evaluation.021 which is highly significant. We can also see that the Pearson Correlation Coefficient is 0. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation 1 100 . Hypothesis 7: The degree of loyalty to a particular store differs with the satisfaction level of customers. and Reynolds. 1968. Manifest satisfaction is the result of an evaluation. 1985. Korgaonkar. Store image reflects shoppers’ perception of a store in terms of functional and psychological attributes.021 100 1 100 is a loyal patron of this store brand Sig. We label it as manifest satisfaction. However. in some cases it may be very hard for consumers to generate expectations to evaluate store performance and to compare the expectations and performance as if they were independent elements. Hypothesis Based on Store image The image of store is found to drive loyalty. From the above table we can see that the significance level is 0. (2-tailed) N *. Thus the hypothesis is accepted.231* .However. These can also be classified as tangible 36 . Correlation is significant at the 0. 1974). to the extent that an explicit comparison is made between expectations and performance. This shows high confidence level. Overall Is a loyal patron satisfaction level of this store brand Overall satisfaction level Pearson Correlation Sig.05 level (2-tailed). Several studies report direct linkages between store image and intensity of store loyalty (Kunkel and Berry. which is well elaborated on.021 100 . the greater is the degree of loyalty. The more positive the store image.231 which means there is somewhat relation between the degree of loyalty of customer to a particular store and the satisfaction level of customers. Lund and Price. Darden and Martin.231* .

The retail literature also discusses the congruence between self-image and store image. Latent satisfaction is the result of an implicit evaluation of the store choice. Satisfaction and Loyalty In our view. The study propounds that store image should be seen as a result of an interaction between the mall image. hypothesis 61 can be formulated as follows: The fact that the amount of consumer satisfaction and store loyalty in general are positively related. latent satisfaction may also be positively related to store loyalty. coshoppers and other psychosocial factors are difficult to measure and hence manage (Martineau). So. St-James. 2000). but less strongly than manifest satisfaction. are explicit and observable. M. absorb the image of the store. J. manifest satisfaction is directly and unequivocally related to store loyalty.and intangible attributes. such as merchandise. socio-economic status of shoppers. Nevertheless. 1994). Studies show that this congruence leads to loyalty. which is not elaborated on and of which the consumer is not fully aware. and store type. such as ambience.J. Therefore. The intangible aspects. It has also been found that shopping at an upscale mall is more likely to create high level of self-congruity. location. Manifest store satisfaction means that an explicit evaluation of the store is made.. The Relationship between Image. which in case of a positive evaluation leads to store commitment. The tenant mix also affects the store image. manifest satisfaction will be positively related to store loyalty. and displays. Latent satisfaction means mere acceptance of the store. The tangible attributes of the store. Sirgy and V. Shoppers belonging to high economic strata are more likely to perceive stores housed in downscale mall to have a lower quality image (Chebal. A mall with a department store as an anchor reflects an image of high quality merchandise and customer service. which will not necessarily lead to commitment. Grewal and Mangleburg. sales people. 2006). A mall a price format store as an anchor has an image of a low service mall (Kirkup and Mohammad. as we expect. Shoppers select cues from the store environment and draw inferences about the characteristics of a typical shopper of the store (Joseph. Malls. is hardly supported 37 . which anchor stores tend to.

there is little empirical evidence to support the explicit relationship between store satisfaction and store loyalty (Hummel and Savitt. 1995. Garfein. Lindquist.0 11.0 45. The more favourable the store image. However. the higher the valence of the store to the customer. Although a number of studies address the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty as related to products and services (Bloemer and Lemmink.0 44. Kasper. 1974.. Bloemer and Kasper. 1973). 1987.0 100.0 28.0 17.0 16. There is both evidence for a direct relationship and an indirect relationship whereby store satisfaction acts as a mediator (Doyle and Fenwick. Houston and Nevin. 1974. 1992. 1981. 1988). Customers’ patronage behaviour towards a particular store is dependent on their image of that particular store (Osman. Stanley and Sewall.0 38 . Kraft et al. 1988. the exact relationship between store image and store loyalty has remained inconclusive. 1993).0 100.0 Cumulative Percent the literature. 1976).0 89. Data Analysis Price of the items Frequency Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Moderate Satisfied Very Satisfied Total 1 16 28 44 11 100 Percent 1.

0 Cumulative Percent 11.0 20.0 17.Store ambience Frequency 11 17 52 20 100 Percent 11.0 80.0 100.0 Dissatisfied Moderate Satisfied Very Satisfied Total 39 .0 28.0 100.0 52.

0 40.0 78.0 Dissatisfied Moderate Satisfied Very Satisfied Total 40 .0 27.Ease of availaibilty Frequency 11 27 40 22 100 Percent 11.0 100.0 100.0 38.0 22.0 Cumulative Percent 11.

0 96.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 12.0 4.0 28.0 45.0 100.0 23.Sales Promotion Offers Frequency 12 33 28 23 4 100 Percent 12.0 Very dissatisfied Dissatisfied Moderate Satisfied Very Satisfied Total 41 .0 33.0 73.

0 63.0 26.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 10.0 Not at all Weak Moderate Strongly Very Strongly Total 42 .Ambience would be an important factor Frequency 10 27 26 10 27 100 Percent 10.0 27.0 73.0 100.0 37.0 10.0 27.

0 43 .0 80.0 Weak 20 20.0 Strongly 34 34.Convenience would be given special attention Frequency Percent Not at all 6 6.0 Cumulative Percent 6.0 100.0 46.0 26.0 Very Strongly 20 20.0 Moderate 20 20.0 Total 100 100.

0 68.0 8.0 20.0 Not at all Weak Moderate Strongly Very Strongly Total 44 .0 14.Word of mouth is important Frequency 6 14 48 24 8 100 Percent 6.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 6.0 100.0 92.0 24.0 48.

Consideration to Rebate and Discounts on Purchase Frequency 7 22 16 21 34 100 Percent 7.0 Not at all Weak Moderate Strongly Very Strongly Total 45 .0 34.0 16.0 45.0 22.0 100.0 66.0 100.0 Cumulative Percent 7.0 21.0 29.

In having understood the pulse of the customers in India.the amount of time shoppers spend in a store is perhaps the single most important factor in determining how much they will buy. Westside has clearly established itself as a brand with an Indian heart.CONSUMER PULL FACTORS A critical factor in Westside’s success has been its strategy to attract shoppers & keep them in stores.  Over the years Westside has also developed and successfully introduced a range of new brands especially  46 . .

Their fully skilled and trained staff caters to the needs of the public in the right way. Ist floor and IInd floor caters exclusively to Women and Men respectively. baby products.  They are catering to different age groups under one roof. On the IInd floor which is men’s section both formal and college wear is available. This way the customer gets acclimatize with the store and the environment. They wait till the time a customer starts selecting and then they come and help. household items.  Price of brands available at Westside is not too high as compared to its competitor’s brands. This way they are able to build a huge customer loyal base.  Westside has been able to create a brand image and is consistently maintaining its brand identity by new additions in products and catering to the market need.  Westside caters to not only the clothing needs and desires of its customers. perfumes. Lee and Fast Track they also offer the option of a less known brands for low budget customers. What has also given Westside a competitive edge is that in addition to an extensive range of internationally renowned brands like Spykar. At Westside sofas have been placed in the women section so as to make the females more comfortable. jewellery.suited to the Indian palate.  The in-store experience in Westside is very delightful.  All the three floors are carefully structured. They are less likely to buy if the place is congested and makes them feel uncomfortable. These brands like 2F 4U have been a tremendous success amongst the new generation. They don’t pounce upon the customer as soon as he enters the store.  Women’s need more space and look for comfort. Thus giving them privacy and more freedom to look into their products. This is due to their cost effective supply chain management. They directly pick up the goods from the manufacturer thus ensuring low price tag at their store. etc. They have bed sheets. kitchenware. This way a customer who enters Westside just to buy one or two items usually ends up buying a lot more. For ex. 47 .

Recommendations • To increase more footfalls more promotional activities must be carried out. • Install more full length mirrors inside the store so as to Play light music inside the store to make the shopping a They can also exhibit their new line of clothing through Baskets should be scattered throughout the store. The demand for the above products is always in the market. 48 . wherever shoppers might need them. • The number of trial rooms available at Westside is very less as compared to the number of people coming. It builds a little visual anticipation. • • • pleasurable experience. assist the customers to make better purchase decisions. Music items. Increase in the number of footfalls will lead to increase in sales. • Allowing more space between the entrance of a store and a product gives it more time in the shopper’s eye as he or she approaches it. • Since Westside is not only catering to apparel need of the society a few additions like Books. events like fashion shows. For this Westside can either offer more discounts or increase their advertisements. This usually results in long queues and waiting by customers. Many customers don’t begin seriously considering merchandise until they have browsed a bit. Electronic gadgets etc can also be added to the products available inside their store.

the sample used for this study consisted mostly of college students. the results of this study are limited to a specialty retail branded purchasing context. these results may not be applicable to the wider population in general. There are studies which have contributed for extending the consumer benefit/loyalty framework to the retail branding context.Limitations This research has a number of limitations that must be acknowledged. • Secondly. customer loyalty. All of the hypotheses in the study were supported by the data. • Lastly. Customer satisfaction is an antecedent of word of mouth communication. Therefore. but customer loyalty (favorable relative attitude) must be present to mediate the relationship. and word of mouth communication which are briefly touched upon below. • First. This finding is important for theory building in this and other marketing and consumer contexts. 49 . it must be acknowledged that there may be numerous other variables that contribute to the development of customer satisfaction. The results also indicate that customer repurchase is positively associated with customer loyalty and word of mouth communication. The hypothesis test results indicated that both utilitarian and hedonic shopping benefits have a positive effect on customer satisfaction.

In addition. Retailers should understand this if they expect to provide utilitarian benefits to consumers by way of having the right product on hand at the right place and time. satisfaction. fantasy.In the increasingly competitive environment faced by today's retailers. they must recognize that the consumer also desires a hedonic benefit in terms of the shopping experience. they must satisfy the desires and needs of the consumer. word of mouth communication). The results of this study doesn’t indicate that consumers expect the purchase experience to offer hedonic qualities such as excitement. entertainment. word of mouth communication) because satisfaction contributes to these outcomes.e. loyalty. Retailers that utilize the store-as-the-brand strategy should recognize this and work to deliver hedonic value throughout the purchase experience. Retailers should recognize that they must meet or exceed the consumer's expectations in terms of the benefits the consumer is seeking. satisfaction appears to be an important antecedent. attitudinal loyalty.e. the pursuit of consumer loyalty is paramount. 50 . retailers should recognize that in order to create a loyal customer base. In order to be competitive. escapism. This study doesn’t identify two types of benefits mostly desired by the consumer: utilitarian and hedonic. Another important finding not undertaken in this study indicates that consumer satisfaction is linked to attitudinal loyalty. and word of mouth communication. Although one could argue that other variables not examined in this study contribute equally to attitudinal loyalty. It is also important for retailers to understand the link between satisfaction and other important outcome variables (i. retailers should recognize that their performance in the delivery of these consumer benefits is linked to important outcomes such as satisfaction. retailers must identify the key ingredients of consumer loyalty and the relationships between the benefits delivered to the consumer and important outcomes (i. loyalty. One way that retailers can provide satisfaction to the consumer is through the delivery of value in the form of utilitarian and hedonic benefits associated with the purchase experience. In addition. Therefore. and fun.

Delivering a satisfying purchase experience can lead to attitudinal loyalty. A large survey of consumers of various backgrounds in various geographic areas could help to make the findings of this study more generalizable to the overall population. The primary goal for future research should be to identify and examine the various types of consumer benefits that influence consumers' satisfaction. contribute to the development of better measures to capture each type of benefit. The extant body of literature on the consumer benefits/loyalty framework is in an early stage of development. and in turn. In their pursuit of customer loyalty. Future research should also focus on replicating this study with a different target respondent.emeraldinsight. customer loyalty. customer satisfaction. loyalty. Bibliography CII Report on Retail 2008. In-depth qualitative research in the form of personal interviews and focus groups would provide a better understanding of the benefits desired by 51 . In turn.g. in turn. A particularly important area of investigation is the role of attitudinal loyalty as a mediator between customer satisfaction and word of mouth communication. This qualitative research would.The finding of this study doesn’t talk about the attitudinal loyalty which serves as a mediator between consumer satisfaction and consumer word of mouth communication. and word of mouth communication). it is important to continue to examine the relationships between consumer benefits and outcome variables that are crucial to the success of the retail firm (e. it is important for retailers to understand this relationship and the associated implications. It is reasonable that attitudinal loyalty would mediate the relationship between these constructs because it is a more enduring concept when compared to consumer satisfaction. and word of mouth communication. that attitudinal loyalty can lead to the consumer engaging in word of mouth communication about the retail store brand. Journals from www.

Tech-Hua Ho. and A. ‘ An Experimental Approach to Making Retail Store Environment Decisions’. 35. Parasuraman and B. Bitner. David R. 63-85. Journal of Retailing. www. pp. Winter. ‘Determining Where to Shop: Fixed and Variable Cost of Shopping’. (1990). Baker. Vol. pp 29-38. Bell. Journal of Marketing. ‘Choice-set Definition in Patronage Modeling’. Grewal. www.445-60 Baker. ‘Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses’. Glenn 2002. and Levy 1992.S. April. Danny N. Tang 1998. J.mywestside.66. Search engine used www. 120-41. Journal of www. J. 52 . M. ‘The Influence of Multi-Store Environmental Clues on Perceived Merchandise Value and Patronage Intentions’.scribd. pp. pp. 352-69. August.wikipedia. Bellenger. ‘Shopping Center Patronage Motives’.esnips. Black. 54.retailinsights. D.J. Vol. 1980. pp. Journal of Retailing. William C. 69-82. 68. Vol. Vol.. QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Respondent. and C.. Journal of Marketing Research. 1984.www. Summer. Suggestions from Why We Buy? By Paco Underhill www. 53. No. Grewal. Journal of Retailing. Vol..

A. Through which source did you come to know about this retail outlet? Advertisements (Media) Friends/Relatives Company Outlet Internet 2.Not at all A b. l Statement Availability of Literatures/Brochures Ambience would be an important factor I would give special attention to convenience and location I would give special consideration to the product range Degree of differentiation in type and quality of products is important I would give special consideration to uniqueness of assortments available in a store I would give special consideration to rebate and discounts on purchase For me salesperson services would be an important consideration For me Word of Mouth is important Advice of friends and relatives influence my Visit Decision Handling Product related Queries Customer Grievance cell 53 1 2 3 4 . Your cooperation is deeply solicited to provide the relevant information.Strongly 3.I am a student of Apeejay School Of Management . store & situational factors on store image. d.______________ Please tick at the place that matches your opinion. i J k. Details 1. Name of Customer _______________ Mobile No.Agree 4. How strongly would you consider the factors while opting for a particular retail outlet? 1. satisfaction and loyalty of customers . e f.Very Strongly 2. 2. c.Delhi and doing a research for a study for which I intend to pose a questionnaire aimed at analyzing the Impact of shopper. g h. I assure that information will be kept confidential.

where 5 is extremely good and 1 is extremely bad)| Statement Easily approachable Humble and Soft Spoken Able to provide Complete solution to your problems Initiative of salesman to solve the problem 1 2 3 4 5 1 Rate Overall salesperson Services 2 3 4 5 a. How do you perceive quality of service provided by your retail outlet (Using Semantic Scale 1-7. Are the salesperson (Rate the salesperson services according to you from 1 to 5. 7 being the highest) 7 RELIABLE UNRELIABLE CUSTOMER FRIENDLY PROACTIVE HOSTILE REACTIVE 1 54 . c. b. Salesperson Services 3. 4. 1 being the lowest.B. d.

Store Ambience k. Convenience in approach c. 5. Overall – how much are you satisfied with the service of your 1 2 3 4 2.Dissatisfied 3. 55 . Home delivery service f. Sales person Services Sales Promotion Offers i.Very Dissatisfied Satisfied 6. Retail outlet factors How far are you satisfied with the following factors for your retail outlet? 1. Extra services provided e. Assortment d. Transparency In Billing g. Overall Satisfaction Level l. Ease of availability h. Advertisement j.C.Very retail outlet? Statement a.Satisfied 4. Price of the items b.

Strongly Agree Statement Consider buying from this store Increase the purchase from this sectors 1 2 3 4 A B E.Strongly Disagree 2.Strongly Agree Statement Find products reliability I trust the services by the store 1 2 3 4 A B 56 .Strongly Disagree 2. Rank the following from 1 to 4 where 1.Agree 4. Trust 9.Extremely Satisfied Moderately Moderately Satisfied Satisfied Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Extremely Dissatisfied If Not Satisfied. Have you faced any problem with your store? ___________ If yes.Disagree 3. Specify Reason(s)? 7. Rank the following from 1 to 4 where 1. Future relationship 8. what type of problem you faced? Quality of products After sales service Assortment size Employee behavior Any Other (Specify) __________________________ D.Disagree 3.Agree 4.

Rs. 5.Disagree Strongly Agree A B C Statement I am proud to be a customer of this retail outlet. Student Private Employee Government Employee Other Occupation: Professional Self Employed (Please Mention)________________________ 13. 10. 20.) Gender 14.000 Rs. Disposable Income Male female Matriculation Senior Secondary Bachelor Degree PG Degree < Rs. (p. Education 15. < 18 years 18 –25 years 25 – 40 years 40 above Age 12.001. I am a loyal patron of this company.m.F. 10. 3.000 Rs.000 plus 57 . Company gets feedback from me from time to time.001. 5. Commitment level 10. Rank the following from 1 to 4 where 1.000 Rs. 20.Agree 41 2 3 4 G.Rs.Strongly Disagree 2. Customer’s profile (kindly tick the suitable box) 11.

of times visiting the retail outlet per week Less than once 1-2 times 2-4 times More than 4 times (Thanks operation) for Co- 58 .16. No.

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