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96

SCIENCE (52)
PAPER 3: BIOLOGY
Aims:
1. To acquire the knowledge oI the economic
importance oI plants and animals.
2. To develop an understanding oI the
inter-relationship between sustainability and
environmental adaptations.
3. To develop an understanding oI the
interdependence oI plants and animals so as to
enable pupils to acquire a clearer comprehension
oI the signiIicance oI liIe and its importance in
human welIare.
4. To understand the capacities and limitations oI all
the biological and economic activities so as to be
able to use them Ior a better quality oI liIe.
5. To acquire the ability to observe, experiment,
hypothesise, inIer, handle equipment accurately
and make correct recordings.
CLASS IX
There will be one paper oI one and halI-hours duration
oI 80 Marks and Internal Assessment oI Practical
Work Carrying 20 Marks.
The paper will be divided into two sections, Section I
(40 marks) and Section II (40 marks).
Section I (compulsory) will contain short answer
questions on the entire svllabus.
Section II will contain six questions. Candidates will
be required to answer anv four of these six questions.
1. Basic Biology
(i) The cell, a unit oI liIe, protoplasm, basic
diIIerence between prokaryotic and
eukaryotic cell; diIIerences between an animal
and a plant cell.
A basic understanding of the cell theorv,
structure of plant and animal cell with
functions of various cell organelles.
(Protoplam, Cvtoplasm, Cell Wall, Cell
Membrane, Nucleus, Nucleolous,
Mitochondria, Endoplasmic Reticulum,
Ribosome, Golgibodies, Plastids, Lvsosomes,
Centrosome and Jacuole). Difference
between a plant cell and an animal cell
should be mainlv discussed with respect to
cell wall, centrosome and vacuoles and
plastids.
(ii) Tissues: Types oI plant and animal tissues.
To be taught in brief with respect to location,
basic structure and function, giving tvpical
examples of their location so as to enable
pupils to understand their role in different
phvsiological processes in plants and
animals.
2. Flowering Plants
(i) Vegetative Propagation: ArtiIicial methods,
advantages and disadvantages. Economic
importance oI artiIicial propagation,
Hybridisation.and Micro Propagation. BrieI
idea oI Biotechnology and its applications
role in medicine and industry.
The concept in brief with suitable examples.
Artificial methods. cutting, grafting and
lavering with examples. Advantages and
disadvantages of vegetative reproduction to
be discussed.
Economic importance of artificial
propagation.
Hvbridi:ation. Meaning and benefits.
Micro Propagation. meaning, uses and
limitations.
Brief idea of biotechnologv (example -human
insulin from E.coli). Applications of
biotechnologv. in medicine - penicillin and
tetracvcline. In industrv (example - cheese,
vinegar, vogurt, alcoholic beverages;
svnthesis of vitamins namelv vitamin C and
en:vmes - namelv lipase).
97
(ii) Flower: Structure oI a bisexual Ilower,
Iunctions oI various parts.
A brief introduction to complete and
incomplete flowers. Essential and non-
essential whorls of a bisexual flower, their
various parts and functions. Use of charts or
actual specimens help enhance claritv of
concepts.
Inflorescence and placentation (tvpes are not
required in both cases).
(iii) Pollination: selI and cross-pollination.
Explanation, advantages and disadvantages
of self and cross-pollination, agents of
pollination and the characteristic features of
flowers pollinated bv various agents to be
discussed.
(iv) Fertilisation.
Events taking place between pollination and
fertilisation should be discussed up to fusion
of male gamete with egg cell in the embrvo
sac. Students should be familiar with the
terms double fertili:ation and triple fusion.
Fruit and Seed (definition) and significance of
Fruit and Seed.
3. Plant Physiology
(i) Structure oI dicot and monocot seeds,
Germination oI seeds, types, and conditions
Ior seed germination.
Structure and germination of Bean seed and
Mai:e grain. Differences between hvpogeal
and epigeal germination. Conditions for seed
germination should be dealt with bv
experiments.
(ii) Respiration in plants: outline oI the process,
gaseous exchange.
A brief outline of the process mentioning the
term Glvcolvsis, Krebs cvcle and their
significance. Reference to be made to Aerobic
and anaerobic respiration with chemical
equations in each case. Experiments on
gaseous exchange and on heat production.

4. Diversity in living organisms
(i) A brieI outline oI Iive Kingdom classiIication:
Main characteristics of each kingdom with
suitable examples Monera, Protista, Fungi,
Plantae (Thallophvta, Brvophvta,
Pteridophvta and Spermatophvta) and
Animalia (Non-chordates from Porifera to
Echinodermata and Chordates - all five
Classes)
(ii) Economic importance oI Bacteria:
Economic importance of bacteria.
Useful role of bacteria - medicine
(antibiotics, serums and vaccines),
agriculture, (nitrogen fixing, nitrifving and
denitrifving bacteria) and industrv (curing of
tea, tanning of leather)
Harmful role of bacteria in spoilage of food,
disease in plants and animals, bio-weapons,
denitrification.
(iii) Economic importance oI Fungi:
Economic importance of Fungi.
Useful role of Fungi in breweries, bakeries,
cheese processing, mushroom cultivation
(Processes of manufacture not required in
each case).
5. Human Anatomy and Physiology
(a) Nutrition:
(i): Classes oI Iood: balanced diet. Malnutrition
and deIiciency diseases.
Functions of carbohvdrates, fats, proteins,
mineral salts (calcium, iodine, iron and
sodium), vitamins and water in proper
functioning of the bodv to be discussed.
Sources of vitamins, their functions and
deficiencv diseases to be discussed. Students
should be familiar with the term Balanced
Diet. Importance of cellulose in our diet
should be discussed. Students should be
taught about Kwashiorkor and Marasmus.
(ii) the structure oI a tooth, diIIerent types oI
teeth.
Structure of a tooth to be discussed with the
help of a diagram. Functions of different tvpes
of teeth must also be taught.
(iii) Digestive System: Organs and digestive
glands and their Iunctions (including enzymes
and their Iunctions in digestion; absorption,
98
utilisation oI digested Iood); tests Ior reducing
sugar, starch, protein and Iats.
Organs and their functions, functions of
saliva, brief idea of peristalsis, digestion in
various parts of alimentarv canal. Tests for
sugar, starch, protein and fats.
(b) Movement and Locomotion:
(i) Functions of human skeleton
(ii) Axial and Appendicular Skeleton
(iii) Tvpes of foints immovable, slightlv movable
and freelv movable (hinge foint, ball and
socket foint, gliding foint, pivot foint.)
(c) Structure and Iunctions oI skin.
Jarious parts of the skin and their functions to be
taught with the help of diagrams, heat regulation,
vasodilation, vasoconstriction to be explained.
(d) Respiratory System: Organs; mechanism oI
breathing; tissue respiration, heat production.
Differences between anaerobic respiration in
plants and in man. Brief idea of respiratorv
volumes, effect of altitude on breathing and
asphvxiation should be taught. Role of diaphragm
and intercostals muscles in breathing must be
explained to provide a clear idea of breathing
process. Brief idea of gaseous transport and
tissue respiration to be given.
6. Health and Hygiene
Cause oI diseases:
(i) Bacteria - tvpes of bacteria, bacterial control,
three examples of diseases caused bv bacteria
e.g. Tuberculosis, Tetanus, Svphilis (Jeneral
disease).
(ii) Virus - nature of viruses, three examples of
viral diseases e.g. Poliomvelitis, Mumps,
Rabies, etc. Introduction to HIJ, its outline
structure and spread.
(iii)Parasites - two examples, roundworm,
tapeworm and their control.
(iv) BrieI idea oI endemic, epidemic, pandemic,
and sporadic.
(v) Hygiene. simple personal hvgiene and social
conditions affecting this. Disease carriers
(vectors) flies, rats and cockroaches,
contamination of water, waterborne diseases.
General idea of personal hvgiene, public
hvgiene and sanitation, control of houseflv,
mosquitoes, cockroaches and rats (life historv
not required). Water borne diseases like
cholera, dvsenterv and Hepatitis.
INTERNAL ASSESSMENT OF
PRACTICAL WORK
The practical work will be designed to test the abilitv
of the candidates to make accurate observations from
specimens of plants and animals. For this, candidates
should be familiar with the use of a hand lens of not
less than x 6 magnification. Thev should be trained to
make both simple and accurate drawings and brief
notes as a means of recording their observations.
The practical examiners will assume that candidates
would have carried out the practical work outlined
below.
AO1E: Candidates are expected to have a basic idea
of plant morphology.
PLANT LIFE
(i) The examination oI an onion peel under the
microscope to study various parts oI the cell.
Students should be given an idea of removal of
onion peel, staining, mounting the specimen and
handling the microscope. Thev should observe
the structures and draw labelled diagrams.
(ii) A cross-pollinated Ilower to be examined and
identiIied and the parts to be studied and labelled
e.g. Hibiscus.
Specimens should be provided to the students
from which thev should be asked to draw
diagrams showing the various parts.
The flower to be discussed in order of the four
whorls with diagrams of the complete flower,
reproductive parts and T.S of ovarv to show the
arrangement of ovules. Students should draw
directlv from the specimen provided so that thev
have a clear idea of the whorls and their location.
(iii) Specimens oI germinating seeds with plumule
and radicle ( the bean seed and maize grain) Ior
99
examination, identiIication, drawing and
labelling the parts.
Seeds soaked in water should be provided. The
students themselves should see the external and
internal structure so that thev can identifv the
various parts and draw and label them.
ANIMAL LIFE
(i) The examination oI a human cheek cell under
the microscope to study various parts oI the cell.
Students should be given an idea of staining,
mounting the specimen and handling the
microscope. Thev should observe the structures
and draw labelled diagrams
(ii) IdentiIication oI sugar, starch, protein and Iat.
Students should perform different tests for
identification and write down their observations
and inference in tabular form.
(iii) Examination and identiIication oI specimens
belonging to the Iollowing groups oI animals:
PoriIera, Coelenterata, Annelida,
Platyhelminthes, Nemathelminthes, Arthropoda.
Mollusca and Echinodermata.
The specimens or models of the given groups of
animals should be shown to the students and
reasons for their identification in that particular
group should be given. Diagrams should be
drawn as observed in the specimens and not
from the books. Onlv those structures that are
observed should be drawn and labelled.
(iv) Study oI diIIerent types oI movable joints in
human beings.
(v) IdentiIication oI the structure oI the Iollowing
organs through specimens/models and charts:,
Lung.and skin.
(vi) Experiments to show the mechanism oI breathing.
Bell far experiment should be discussed.
Comparison should be made with the human
lungs and respiratorv tract to show the
mechanism of breathing.

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