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D. Q. Lu* & S. Q. Dai, “Flexural- and capillary-gravity waves due to fundamental singularities in an inviscid fluid of finite depth”, International Journal of Engineering Science, Vol. 46, No. 11, pp. 1183-1193, Elsevier B.V., Nov. 2008. The original publication is available at sciencedirect.com
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijengsci.2008.06.004

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijengsci

in an inviscid ﬂuid of ﬁnite depth

D.Q. Lu *, S.Q. Dai

Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai University, Yanchang Road, Shanghai 200072, China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Wave motion due to line, point and ring sources submerged in an inviscid ﬂuid are analyt-

Received 28 March 2008 ically investigated. The initially quiescent ﬂuid of ﬁnite depth, covered by a thin elastic

Accepted 3 June 2008 plate or by an inertial surface with the capillary effect, is assumed to be incompressible

Available online 14 July 2008

and homogenous. The strengths of the sources are time-dependent. The linearized ini-

tial-boundary-value problem is formulated within the framework of potential ﬂow. The

perturbed ﬂow is decomposed into the regular and the singular components. An image sys-

Keywords:

tem is introduced for the singular part to meet the boundary condition at the ﬂat bottom.

Flexural

Capillary

The solutions in integral form for the velocity potentials and the surface deﬂexions due to

Fundamental singularities various singularities are obtained by means of a joint Laplace–Fourier transform. To ana-

Asymptotic representation lyze the dynamic characteristics of the ﬂexural- and capillary-gravity waves due to

unsteady disturbances, the asymptotic representations of the wave motion are explicitly

derived for large time with a ﬁxed distance-to-time ratio by virtue of the Stokes and Scorer

methods of stationary phase. It is found that the generated waves consist of three wave

systems, namely the steady-state gravity waves, the transient gravity waves and the tran-

sient ﬂexural/capillary waves. The transient wave system observed depends on the moving

speed of the observer in relation to the minimal and maximal group velocities. There exists

a minimal depth of ﬂuid for the possibility of the propagation of capillary-gravity waves on

an inertial surface. Furthermore, the results for the pure gravity and capillary-gravity

waves in a clean surface can also be recovered as the ﬂexural and inertial parameters tend

to zero.

Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The ice-cover in the polar region [1,2] and the very large ﬂoating structures [3] in the offshore region are usually idealized

as thin elastic plates ﬂoating on an inviscid incompressible ﬂuid in the theoretical investigations. A simple linear model for

the thin plate includes the effects of ﬂexural rigidity and vertical inertia [1], Eq. (3.18). Flexural-gravity waves can be ob-

served due to the elasticity effect of the plate. For small-amplitude waves, the kinematic and dynamic boundary conditions

can be linearized, by completely or partially neglecting the nonlinear convective term in the Bernoulli equations, at the

undisturbed plate-water interface. Under the assumptions of inviscidy, irrotationality, incompressibility and uniformity of

density, the continuity equation for the ﬂuid motion reduces to the Laplace equation, being taken as the governing equation

for the problem considered. Such a modelling leads to a linear problem. The limits of this classical model were discussed by

Părău and Dias [4]. In particular, as the ﬂexural rigidity of the plate tends to zero, the plate-covered surface reduces to the

inertial surface [5] which represents the effect of a thin uniform distribution of non-interacting ﬂoating matter, for example,

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +86 21 5633 8372; fax: +86 21 3603 3287.

E-mail addresses: dqlu@shu.edu.cn, dqlu@graduate.hku.hk (D.Q. Lu), sqdai@shu.edu.cn (S.Q. Dai).

0020-7225/$ - see front matter Ó 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijengsci.2008.06.004

1184 D.Q. Lu, S.Q. Dai / International Journal of Engineering Science 46 (2008) 1183–1193

broken ice. Once the inertial parameter is given, progressive waves with a sufﬁciently large frequency will not be able to

appear since ‘‘the inertial surface is too heavy” [6]. However, the propagation of progressive waves with any frequency is

possible if the surface tension [6] or the ﬂexural rigidity [7,8] is included in the mathematical formulation for the waves

on the inertial surface.

Of the few analytical approaches available for solving linear problems, one is the singularity method, of which the basic

idea is to express a general solution as the convolution product of the distribution function and the fundamental solutions.

Therefore, it is essential to seek the corresponding fundamental solution as the ﬁrst step to solve the whole problem. In the

spatial domain, the fundamental solution is due to an inhomogenous term associated with the Dirac delta function repre-

senting a concentrated disturbance. In the temporal domain, the solutions due to an instantaneous and oscillatory distur-

bance are of preliminary interest since they can be used to construct a general solution for a body with a prescribed

unsteady motion. The present work aims to study the fundamental solution problem for the ﬂexural- and capillary-gravity

waves in an inviscid ﬂuid of ﬁnite depth, taking the inertial effect on the surface into consideration.

Although the fundamental solution problems for the ﬂuid with an ice cover [7,8] or with an inertial surface [9–11] have

been considered in the literatures, there are four remarkable differences between the previous and present studies. Firstly,

non-zero initial values for the velocity potential and the plate deﬂexion are considered here while only zero initial values

were considered previously. Secondly, Chowdhury and Mandal [7,8] introduced an image point with respect to the mean

plate-water interface. Thus, three undetermined functions and three equations are directly involved to calculate the velocity

potential and the surface elevation [7,8]. To make a simpler calculation, we introduce an image point with respect to the

level bottom and only two undetermined functions and two equations are directly employed. Thirdly, the models for ﬂex-

ural- and capillary-gravity waves are considered in parallel owing to their similarity in analytic form. Finally, the solutions

obtained previously [7–11] were expressed in terms of the unevaluated Fourier integrals only, from which the corresponding

physical interpretation was not provided explicitly. Both exact solutions in integral form and asymptotic solutions in alge-

braic form are derived here to reveal some unreported features of the wave motion.

This paper is organized as follows: In Section 2, the general mathematical formulation is given. Four types of concentrated

disturbance are included, namely a mass source immersed in the ﬂuid, a dynamic load on the surface, an initial impulse and

an initial displacement on the surface of the ﬂuid. In Section 3, the fundamental solutions in integral form for the velocity

potentials and the wave proﬁles due to line, point and ring sources with a time-dependent strength are exactly derived for

the ﬂexural- and capillary-gravity wave problems. Two kinds of unsteadiness are considered, namely instantaneous or time-

harmonic singularities. All the solutions can be expressed as a single integral with different integrands. In Section 4, the

asymptotic representations of the wave motion are explicitly obtained for large time with a ﬁxed distance-to-time ratio

R=t by making use of the Stokes and Scorer methods of stationary phase. The ratio can be regarded as the moving speed

of an observer. As R=t approaches two critical values, namely the minimal and maximal group velocities of the wave, the

Stokes method predicts an inﬁnite wave amplitude and thus the Scorer method should be employed. A combination

of the Stokes and Scorer methods gives uniformly valid results over the panoramic region. In Section 5, conclusions are

reached.

Without loss of generality, a Cartesian coordinate system is used in which the z axis points vertically upward while z ¼ 0

represents the mean ice-water interface. Therefore, the governing equation is

r2 U ¼ MðtÞdðx x0 Þ; ð1Þ

where Uðx; t; x0 Þ is the velocity potential for the perturbed ﬂow, MðtÞ time-dependant strength of the simple mass source,

dðÞ the Dirac delta function, and x an observation point, x0 the source point, t the time. For two-dimensional cases,

x ¼ ðx; zÞ and x0 ¼ ðx0 ; z0 Þ with z0 6 0 while for three-dimensional cases, x ¼ ðx; y; zÞ and x0 ¼ ðx0 ; y0 ; z0 Þ.

The linearized kinematical and dynamical ice-cover conditions at z ¼ 0 are given by

of oU

¼ 0; ð2Þ

ot oz

oU o2 f

q þ qgf þ Dr4 f þ qe h 2 ¼ PðtÞdðz z0 Þ; ð3Þ

ot ot

where f is the vertical deﬂexion of the ice-water interface; q and qe are the uniform densities of the ﬂuid and the plate,

3

respectively; g is the acceleration of gravity; D ¼ Eh =½12ð1 m2 Þ is the ﬂexural rigidity of the plate; E; h and m are Young’s

modulus, the thickness and Poisson’s ratio of the plate, respectively. PðtÞ is the time-dependant strength of the applied load. z

and z0 are the ﬁeld and source points at z ¼ 0, respectively. z ¼ ðx; 0Þ and z0 ¼ ðx0 ; 0Þ for two-dimensional cases while

z ¼ ðx; y; 0Þ and z0 ¼ ðx0 ; y0 ; 0Þ for three-dimensional cases. The bottom condition at z ¼ H is given by

oU

j ¼ 0; ð4Þ

oz z¼H

D.Q. Lu, S.Q. Dai / International Journal of Engineering Science 46 (2008) 1183–1193 1185

where H is a positive constant. It is assumed that the entire ﬂuid is at rest for t < 0. Therefore, the initial conditions at z ¼ 0

are

I0

Ujt¼0 ¼ dðz z0 Þ; ð5Þ

q

fjt¼0 ¼ E0 dðz z0 Þ; ð6Þ

of

j ¼ 0: ð7Þ

ot t¼0

Eq. (7) represents the initial vertical velocity of the inertial surface is zero, which is consistent with the assumption that the

entire ﬂuid is at rest for t < 0. Moreover, since the ﬁnite disturbance must die out at inﬁnity, it is required that rU ! 0 as

z ! 1, which imposes the uniqueness on the problem considered.

It should be noted that the problems considered by Chowdhury and Mandal [7,8] are special cases in the present formu-

lation with P ¼ I0 ¼ E0 ¼ 0. In this case, elimination of f between Eqs. (2) and (3) yields one single boundary condition at

z ¼ 0 for U only and Eqs. (5)–(7) reduce to two combined initial conditions, as given by Chowdhury and Mandal [7], Eqs.

(2.4) and (2.5). The elimination of f is correct if and only if the pressure at the instant t ¼ 0 is equal to zero, as stated by Miles

[12].

Now let the entire solution be written as

S I S

where U and U are, respectively, the potentials due to the simple source at x0 and at x1 . U is the known fundamental solu-

tion for Eq. (1) in an unbounded domain. In order to satisfy the requirement of Eq. (4), UI is introduced in such a way that

o

ðUS þ UI Þjz¼H ¼ 0: ð9Þ

oz

Thus, x1 should be the image point of x0 with respect to the ﬂat bottom (z ¼ HÞ, and x1 ¼ ð0; z1 Þ for two-dimensional case

while x1 ¼ ð0; 0; z1 Þ for three-dimensional one, where z1 ¼ 2H z0 . UR in Eq. (8), an undetermined continuous function

everywhere in the corresponding domain, represents the effect of surface boundary. For the singular components it holds

that

For the regular component, we have

r2 UR ¼ 0: ð11Þ

From Eqs. (4), (8) and (9) it follows that

oUR

j ¼ 0: ð12Þ

oz z¼H

Therefore, the boundary conditions at z ¼ 0 can be re-written as

of oUR o

¼ ðUS þ UI Þ; ð13Þ

ot oz oz

oUR o2 f o

þ gf þ cg r4 f þ r 2 ¼ ðUS þ UI Þ PðtÞdðz z0 Þ; ð14Þ

ot ot ot

where c ¼ D=qg and r ¼ qe h=q.

Thus, Eqs. (11)–(14) along with the initial conditions (5)–(7), hereinafter referred to as Model (I), constitute a well-posed

problem for UR and f, mathematically as well as physically. A special case of the present formulation with r–0 and D ¼ 0

corresponds to the gravity waves on an inertial surface. When the surface tension is further taken into consideration, Eqs.

(3) and (14) are, respectively, replaced by

oU o2 f

q þ qgf T r2 f þ qe h 2 ¼ PðtÞdðz z0 Þ; ð15Þ

ot ot

oUR 2 o2 f o

þ gf sg r f þ r 2 ¼ ðUS þ UI Þ PðtÞdðz z0 Þ; ð16Þ

ot ot ot

where T is the surface tension and s ¼ T=qg. Eqs. (11)–(13), Eq. (16) and the initial conditions (5)–(7) are hereinafter referred

to as Model (II). A special case of Eq. (16) with r ¼ 0 and s–0 corresponds to the capillary-gravity waves in a clean free sur-

face, which was considered by Chen and Duan [13]. It is evident that Eqs. (14) and (16) have the similar form. Therefore, the

solutions for Models (I) and (II) will be derived in parallel. Model (I) is concerned with the ﬂexural-gravity waves in an invis-

cid ﬂuid of ﬁnite depth with an elastic plate cover. Model (II) is concerned with the capillary-gravity waves in an inviscid

ﬂuid of ﬁnite depth with an inertial surface. The discrepancy between Eqs. (14) and (16) yields two different dispersion rela-

tions for the two models.

1186 D.Q. Lu, S.Q. Dai / International Journal of Engineering Science 46 (2008) 1183–1193

First we consider MðtÞ ¼ M0 dðt 0 Þ and PðtÞ ¼ P0 dðt 0 Þ with t 0 ¼ t t0 , where t0 the instant at which the disturbances are ap-

plied, M0 and P0 are constant. Then US and UI in Eq. (8) for line and point singularities can be given as

Z cþi1 Z þ1

M 0 dðt 0 Þ 1 1 1

fUS ; UI g ¼ log ; log ¼ ds da expðf ÞfS0 ; S1 g; ð17Þ

2p r0 r1 4p2 i ci1 1

Z cþi1 Z þ1 Z þ1

M 0 dðt 0 Þ 1 1 1

fUS ; UI g ¼ ; ¼ ds dadb expðf ÞfS0 ; S1 g; ð18Þ

4p r0 r1 8p i ci1

3

1 1

respectively, where

M0

fS0 ; S1 g ¼ fexpðkjz z0 jÞ; expðkjz z1 jÞg; ð19Þ

2k

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃfx0 ; y0 g ¼ fx x0 ; y y0 g, and fr 0 ; r 1 g ¼ fjjx x0 jj; jjx x1 jjg. k ¼ jaj and f ¼ iax0 þ st 0 for

c the Laplace convergence abscissa,

line singularities while k ¼ a2 þ b2 and f ¼ iax0 þ iby0 þ st 0 for point singularities. With a change of variables

fx; yg ¼ Rfcos h; sin hg; fx0 ; y0 g ¼ R0 fcos h0 ; sin h0 g; fa; bg ¼ kfcos u; sin ug; ð20Þ

Eq. (18) can be represented as

Z cþi1 Z þ1

1

fUS ; UI g ¼ ds dk exp½ikR0 cosðh0 uÞ þ st0 kJ 0 ðkRÞfS0 ; S1 g; ð21Þ

4p 2 i ci1 0

where J 0 ðkRÞ is the zeroth-order Bessel function of the ﬁrst kind. For a single point source we may move the origin of the

coordinate system to the source point to simplify Eq. (21) by setting R0 ¼ 0. The solution for a ring source with a constant

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

radius R0 ¼ x20 þ y20 can be constructed by integrating fUS ; UI g in Eq. (21) with respect to the source point along the ring

path as follows:

Z cþi1 Z 2p Z þ1

1

fUS ; UI g ¼ ds R0 dh0 dk exp½ikR0 cosðh0 uÞ þ st 0 kJ 0 ðkRÞfS0 ; S1 g

4p 2i

ci1 0 0

Z cþi1 Z þ1

1

¼ ds dk expðst0 ÞkR0 J 0 ðkR0 ÞJ 0 ðkRÞfS0 ; S1 g: ð22Þ

2pi ci1 0

As MðtÞ ¼ 4p; US in Eq. (22) reduces to the cases considered by Hulme [14] for an inviscid ﬂuid and Chowdhury & Mandal

[7] for an ice-covered ﬂuid.

A combination of the Laplace transform with respect to t and the Fourier transform with respect to the spatial variables is

introduced for fUR ; fg as

Z cþi1 Z þ1

1

fUR ; fg ¼ ds ~ R cosh½kðz þ HÞ; ~fg;

da expðf ÞfU ð23Þ

4p 2i

ci1 1

Z cþi1 Z þ1 Z þ1

1

fUR ; fg ¼ ds ~ R cosh½kðz þ HÞ; ~fg;

dadb expðf ÞfU ð24Þ

8p 3i

ci1 1 1

for two- and three-dimensional problems, respectively. Then Eqs. (11) and (12) are automatically satisﬁed. By substituting

the integral representations of fUS ; UI ; UR g into the Laplace–Fourier transforms of kinematical and dynamical boundary con-

ditions, two simultaneous algebraic equations are set up for two unknown functions, U ~ R and ~f, which can readily be solved

for the two models with a line/point/ring singularity. Consequently, the formal integral expression for fUR ; fg can be written

as

n o P n o I n o

0

fUR ; fg ¼ M0 URm ðx; t; x0 ; t 0 Þ; fm ðx; t; x0 ; t0 Þ þ URp ðz; t; z0 ; t0 Þ; fp ðz; t; z0 ; t 0 Þ þ 0 URi ðz; t; z0 Þ; fi ðz; t; z0 Þ

q q

n o

R

þ E0 Ue ðz; t; z0 Þ; fe ðz; t; z0 Þ : ð25Þ

2 Z þ1

1 X

dk exp½ð1Þmþ1 ikx b

0

L¼ L; ð26Þ

2p m¼1 0

Z þ1

1

L¼ dk exp½ikR0 cosðh0 uÞkJ 0 ðkRÞ b

L; ð27Þ

2p 0

Z þ1

L¼ dk kR0 J 0 ðkR0 ÞJ 0 ðkRÞ b

L; ð28Þ

0

D.Q. Lu, S.Q. Dai / International Journal of Engineering Science 46 (2008) 1183–1193 1187

where

n o

L ¼ URm ; URp ; URi ; URe ; fm ; fp ; fi ; fe ; ð29Þ

n o

b

L¼ U bR ; U

b R; U b R; Ub R ; bf m ; bf p ; bf i ; bf e : ð30Þ

m p i e

For the instantaneous sources associated with the Dirac delta function, the right-hand side of Eq. (29) can be expressed as

n o 1

bR ; U

U b R; U

b R; U

b R ¼ fBdðt 0 Þ C x sinðxt 0 Þ; k cosðxt 0 Þ; k cosðxtÞ; V x sinðxtÞg; ð31Þ

m p i e

U

n o

bf m ; bf p ; bf i ; bf e ¼ 1 C cosðxt0 Þ; k sinðxt 0 Þ; k sinðxtÞ; V cosðxtÞ ; ð32Þ

V x x

1

G ¼ ½expðkz0 Þ þ expðkz1 Þ; ð33Þ

2

B ¼Gð1 rkÞ; ð34Þ

C ¼G½1 þ cothðkHÞ; ð35Þ

U ¼k½coshðkHÞ þ rk sinhðkHÞ; ð36Þ

V ¼ cothðkHÞ þ rk: ð37Þ

The dispersion relation for Model (I) reads

4

!1=2

1 þ ck

xðk; r; cÞ ¼ gk : ð38Þ

V

The dispersion relation for Model (II) reads

!1=2

2

1 þ sk

xðk; r; sÞ ¼ gk : ð39Þ

V

The fundamental solutions for the pure gravity waves on an inertial surface and on a clean surface can be obtained from Eqs.

(26)–(28) by taking c ¼ 0 and c ¼ r ¼ 0, respectively.

As MðtÞ ¼ M 0 expðiltÞ and PðtÞ ¼ P 0 expðimtÞ; US and UI for line and point singularities can be obtained from Eqs. (17) and

R cþi1 R cþi1

(18) by replacing dðt 0 Þ and ci1 ds with expðiltÞ and ci1 ðs ilÞ1 ds, respectively. US and UI for a ring singularity can be

R cþ i1 R cþi1

obtained from Eq. (22) by replacing ci1 ds with ci1 ðs ilÞ1 ds. The mathematical procedure for the solutions is similar

to that for an instantaneous disturbance. The corresponding solutions can n be given in the o same form as Eqs. (26)–(28). How-

ever, the integrands involved are different. For oscillating disturbances U b R; b

bR ; U b in Eq. (29) reads

m p fm; fp

n o 1 n S S o 1 n T To

bR ; U

U bR ¼ /m ; /p þ /m ; /p ; ð40Þ

m p

U U

n o 1n o 1n o

bf m ; bf p ¼ nSm ; nSp þ nTm ; nTp ; ð41Þ

V V

where

S S expðiltÞ

/m ; nm ¼ 2 fVGðx2 l2 Þ C l2 ; ilCg; ð42Þ

x l2

n o expðimtÞ

/Sp ; nSp ¼ 2 fimk; kg; ð43Þ

x m2

T T C

/m ; nm ¼ 2 fx½x cosðxtÞ þ il sinðxtÞ; x sinðxtÞ il cosðxtÞg; ð44Þ

x l2

n o k

/Tp ; nTp ¼ 2 fx sinðxtÞ im cosðxtÞ; cosðxtÞ imx1 sinðxtÞg: ð45Þ

x m2 n o

S S S S

It can

n be seen that the o terms involving /m ; /p ; nm ; np represent the steady-state progressive waves while the terms involv-

ing /Tm ; /Tp ; nTm ; nTp the transient dispersive waves. As l ¼ m ¼ 0, Eqs. (40) and (41) reduce to the solutions due to the

sources with constant strengths.

To analyze the dynamic characteristics of the ﬂexural- and capillary-gravity waves due to unsteady disturbances, the

asymptotic solutions for the wave motion shall be considered for large time with a ﬁxed distance-to-time ratio by making

1188 D.Q. Lu, S.Q. Dai / International Journal of Engineering Science 46 (2008) 1183–1193

use of the Stokes and Scorer methods of stationary phase. This kind of asymptotic analysis has been applied to the classical

Cauchy–Poisson problems for transient gravity waves [15–19], transient capillary-gravity waves [13,20], and transient ﬂex-

ural-gravity waves [21–23] due to line and point sources. The asymptotic schemes and solutions for the transient ﬂexural-

gravity waves due to an instantaneous line disturbance in an inviscid ﬂuid of inﬁnite depth were studied by Lu and Dai [21]

and the corresponding results are simply quoted here and the method is extended to the three-dimensional cases. For a

point/ring singularity, we may replace J 0 ðkRÞ by its asymptotic formula for large kR

1=2

2 p

pkR 4

Thus, we have an approximate formulae for fm due to instantaneous singularities as follows

2 Z þ1

1X 2 X

fm ’ A expðitHmn Þdk; ð47Þ

2 m¼1 n¼1 0

where

ð1Þmþ1

Hmn ¼ w þ ð1Þnþ1 x; ð48Þ

t

1=2 1=2

C k C k C

A¼ ; ; R0 J 0 ðkR0 Þ ð49Þ

2pV 2pR 2pV 2pR V

for a ling, point and ring source, respectively. w ¼ kx for a ling source while w ¼ kR p=4 for a point and ring one.

According to the stationary phase approximation [24], Section 3.4, the dominant contribution to the integral in Eq. (47)

for large t stems from the stationary points of Hmn . It is easily seen that H12 and H21 have the same stationary points. The

solutions for the stationary points, denoted by kj , are determined by

oHmn

¼ 0: ð50Þ

ok

For a ling singularity, R hereinafter should be replaced with jxj. A straightforward derivation for Eq. (50) from Eqs. (38) and

(39) yields

pﬃﬃﬃ " 4 4 2 5

#

R g 1 1 ð1 þ 5ck Þ cothðkHÞ þ kHð1 þ ck Þcsch ðkHÞ þ 4crk

Qðk; r; cÞ ¼ C g ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 4

¼0 ð51Þ

t 2 k0 k ½cothðkHÞ þ rk3=2 ð1 þ ck Þ1=2

for Model (I) while

pﬃﬃﬃ " 2 2 2 3

#

R g 1 1 ð1 þ 3sk Þ cothðkHÞ þ kHð1 þ sk Þcsch ðkHÞ þ 2srk

Qðk; r; sÞ ¼ C g ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ pﬃﬃﬃ 2

¼0 ð52Þ

t 2 k0 k ½cothðkHÞ þ rk3=2 ð1 þ sk Þ1=2

for Model (II), where C g ¼ ox=ok is the group velocity, and k0 ¼ gt 2 =4R2 . It is noted that k0 is the exact solution of

Q ðk; 0; 0Þ ¼ 0 with H ¼ þ1, corresponding to the classical Cauchy–Poisson gravity waves on the clean surface of an inﬁnitely

deep ﬂuid.

Generally speaking, the explicit analytical solutions for Eqs. (51) and (52) cannot readily be given for arbitrary h; H; c; r; s,

and R=t. However, once the physical parameters are given, the nature of roots with respect to k for Eqs. (51) and (52) depends

on the value of R=t only. The physical parameters given by Squire et al. [1], p. 105,

3 3

E ¼ 5 GPa;m ¼ 0:3; q ¼ 1024 kg m ; qe ¼ 917 kg m and g ¼ 9:8 ms2 can be adopted for the graphical representation of

Eq. (51), as shown in Fig. 1. The surface tension coefﬁcient is taken as T ¼ 0:074 Nm1 for the graphical representation of

Eq. (52), as shown in Fig. 2. It can be seen that the group velocities for Models (I) and (II) reach their respective minimum

2

at kc , namely C g min ¼ C g jk¼kc , for which x00c ¼ o2 x=ok jk¼kc ¼ 0. It is noted that

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 2

lim ox=ok ¼ gH ¼ C g max and lim o2 x=ok ¼ 0 ð53Þ

k!0 k!0

for the two models. A close examination of C g ðk; r; sÞ of Model (II) shows that, as k tends to inﬁnity, there also exists a lim-

iting group velocity for r > 0 and s > 0, denoted by C g lim ðr; sÞ, which is determined by

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

C g lim ðr; sÞ ¼ lim C g ðk; r; sÞ ¼ g s=r: ð54Þ

k!þ1

Therefore the outgoing capillary-gravity waves can appear if and only if C g max > C g lim , namely

H > Hmin ¼ s=r: ð55Þ

Accordingly, there exists a minimal depth Hmin of ﬂuid for the possibility of the propagation of capillary-gravity waves on an

inertial surface. C g lim is independent of H. As H ! 1; C g max ! 1 and C g max > C g lim always holds.

It can be seen from Fig. 1 that Eq. (51) has two distinct real positive roots k1 and k2 with 0 < k1 < k2 < þ1 for

C g min < R=t < C g max and one real positive root k2 for R=t P C g max . It can be seen from Fig. 2 that Eq. (52) has two distinct real

D.Q. Lu, S.Q. Dai / International Journal of Engineering Science 46 (2008) 1183–1193 1189

8

h= 1.0 -4 m

h= 1.0 -3 m

h= 1.0 -2 m

6 h= 1.0 -1 m

x/t = Cg

Cg

4

0

0 2 4 6 8 10

k

Fig. 1. Group velocity curves for ﬂexural-gravity waves with H ¼ 5:0 m.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

0.2

Cg

x/t = Cg

0

0 250 500 750

k

Fig. 2. Group velocity curves for capillary-gravity waves with H ¼ 1:0 m. (i) s ¼ 0 m2 ; r ¼ 103 m; (ii) s ¼ 0 m2 ; r ¼ 102 m; (iii)

s ¼ 7:374 106 m2 ; r ¼ 103 m; (iv) s ¼ 7:374 106 m2 ; r ¼ 102 m; (v) C g lim with s ¼ 7:374 106 m2 and r ¼ 102 m.

positive roots k1 and k2 for C g min < R=t < C g lim , one real positive root k1 for C g lim < R=t 6 C g max , and no real solution for

R=t > C g max . Generally, k1 and k2 can be calculated numerically from Eq. (51) for ﬂexural-gravity waves and from Eq. (52)

for capillary-gravity waves. k1 is the wavenumber of gravity waves for the two models. k2 is the wavenumber of ﬂexural

waves for Model (I) and of capillary waves for Model (II). As D ¼ 0 and r–0, Eq. (51) has only one real positive root, of which

the analytical form can be exactly derived for the cases with inﬁnite depth [19]. The asymptotic and exact solutions of k1 and

k2 for capillary-gravity waves with r ¼ 0 were provided by Chen and Duan [13] and Lu and Ng [20] for the case with inﬁnite

depth, respectively. As r ¼ s ¼ 0, Eq. (52) has only one real positive root, corresponding to the pure gravity waves.

According to the Stokes stationary phase approximation, the expansion for the phase function near kj is taken as

1 o2 Hmn ðkj Þ

Hmn ðkÞ Hmn ðkj Þ þ 2

ðk kj Þ2 ; ðj ¼ 1; 2Þ: ð56Þ

2 ok

By a straightforward application of the method of stationary phase, the asymptotic representation of Eq. (47) on kj can be

given as

!1=2

2p

fmj ’ Aj cos uj ; ð57Þ

jx00j jt

1190 D.Q. Lu, S.Q. Dai / International Journal of Engineering Science 46 (2008) 1183–1193

where

p

uj ¼ wj xj t sgnðx00j Þ ; ð58Þ

4

2

fAj ; xj ; x00j ; wj g ¼ fA; x; o2 x=ok ; wgjk¼kj , and sgnðxÞ ¼ 1 as x?0. It should be noted that Eq. (57) holds for x00j –0 only. When

C g min < R=t < C g max for Model (I) and C g min < R=t < C g lim for Model (II), fm ¼ fm1 þ fm2 . When C g lim < R=t < C g max for Model

(II), fm ¼ fm1 .

As R=t decreases to C g min ; k1 and k2 move together toward kc while x00j tends to zero. Accordingly, Eq. (57) predicts an

3 3

inﬁnitely increasing wave amplitude. It is noted that x000 c ¼ o x=ok jk¼kc –0. In this case, according to Scorer [25], the expan-

sion for the phase function near kc is taken as

Hmn ðkÞ Hmn ðkc Þ þ ðk kc Þ þ 3

ðk kc Þ3 : ð59Þ

ok 6 ok

Thus, Eq. (47) can be approximately given as

1=3

2

fm ’ 2pAc AiðZ c Þ cos uc ; ð60Þ

jx000

c jt

where

1=3

2

Z c ¼ ðx0c t RÞ ; ð61Þ

x000c t

uc ¼ wc xc t; ð62Þ

and fAc ; xc ; x 0

¼ fA; x; ox=ok; wgjk¼kc ; AiðÞ is the Airy integral.

c ; wc g

As R=t is sufﬁciently close to C g max ; k1 tends to zero, we may expand the phase function with small k as follows

" 3

#

R oxð0Þ k o3 xð0Þ

Hmn ðkÞ ¼ ð1Þmþ1 k þ ð1Þnþ1 k þ þ : ð63Þ

t ok 6 ok3

1=3

2

fm ’ pA0 AiðZ 0 Þ þ fTm2 ; ð64Þ

jx000

0 jt

where

1=3

2

Z 0 ¼ ½R ðgHÞ1=2 t ; ð65Þ

x0000 t

3 3

A0 ¼ Ajk¼0 and x000

0 ¼ o x=ok jk¼0 . For Model (I),

while for Model (II),

Fig. 3 shows the ﬂexural- and pure gravity waves due to an instantaneous ring source predicted by above-mentioned asymp-

totic schemes. It can be seen that the short ﬂexural waves ride on long gravity waves in the region of C g min < R=t < C g max . The

Stokes and Scorer methods match well near the region of R=t C g min and R=t C g max .

The wave motion due to an oscillating line/point/ring source with a time-harmonic strength M0 expðiltÞ is considered in

this section. For the wave proﬁle fm , Eqs. (28), (40) and (41) will be employed. The steady-state and transient components of

fm are denoted by fSm and fTm , respectively. Replacing J 0 ðkRÞ by its asymptotic formula for large kR, we have the approximate

representations for fSm and fTm as follows

2 Z

X þ1

A

fSm ’ il expðiltÞ exp½ð1Þmþ1 iwdk; ð68Þ

m¼1 0 x2 l2

2 Z þ1

1X 2 X

A

fTm ’ ½ð1Þn ix il expðit Hmn Þdk; ð69Þ

2 m¼1 n¼1 0 x2 l2

where Hmn and A are given by Eqs. (48) and (49), respectively.

D.Q. Lu, S.Q. Dai / International Journal of Engineering Science 46 (2008) 1183–1193 1191

(i )

(ii)

0. 5 (iii)

(iv)

(v )

ζm

0

-0 .5

0 R min 30 R max 60

R

Fig. 3. Transient ﬂexural-gravity waves due to an instantaneous ring source of unit strength with R0 ¼ 1:0 m; z0 ¼ 1:0 m; h ¼ 0:01 m; H ¼ 10:0 m, and

t ¼ 5 s. (i) Flexural-gravity waves predicted by Eq. (57) for C g min < R=t < C g max ; (ii) Flexural-gravity waves predicted by Eq. (64) for R=t C g max and

R=t > C g max ; (iii) Flexural-gravity waves predicted by Eq. (60) for R=t C g max and R=t > C g max ; (iv) Pure gravity waves predicted by Eq. (57) for R=t < C g max ;

(v) Pure gravity waves predicted by Eq. (60) for R=t C g max and R=t > C g max .

The asymptotic representations of Eq. (69) can be derived by the aforementioned schemes and will not be repeated. It

should be noted that at a certain R=t, we have xj ¼ l and thus the asymptotic representations will break down at xj ¼ l.

The failure might be caused by the linear theory and the nonlinearity might be a possible explanation for this resonance.

The asymptotic representation of Eq. (68) for far-ﬁeld waves can be derived by means of Lighthill’s general theory for

water waves, as stated by Debnath [18], Section 3.6. The dominant contribution to the integral in Eq. (68) stems from the

poles of the integrand. By the Cauchy residue theorem, the approximation of Eq. (68) for the outgoing progressive waves

can be given as

where kl is the positive root of x ¼ l , and fAl ; wl g ¼ fA; wgjk¼kl . It follows from Eqs. (68) and (70) that the frequency of

2 2

steady-state response to an oscillating disturbance is the same as that of the disturbance. The steady-state wave propagates

outwards with a single wave number kl . Generally, kl can be obtained numerically from x2 ¼ l2 .

In some particular cases with inﬁnite depth, kl can be analytically obtained. As D ¼ 0 or s ¼ 0, it follows that [19]

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

xlim ¼ lim x ¼ g=r: ð71Þ

k!1

l2

kl ¼ : ð72Þ

g rl2

As r ¼ 0, Eq. (72) reduces to what Miles [12] obtained for pure gravity waves. Since kl > 0, it follows from Eq. (72) that

l < xlim . Accordingly, progressive gravity waves with l P xlim are not possible on an inertial surface (r–0). As D–0 or

s–0; xlim ! 1 and then kl always exists for any l > 0. As s–0 and H ¼ 1 for Model (II), x2 ¼ l2 becomes

2

g rl2 þ g sk ¼ l2 =k: ð73Þ

Rhodes–Robinson [6] showed the existence of solution for Eq. (73) by asserting that there always exists an intersection be-

2

tween the parabolic curve f1 ðkÞ ¼ g rl2 þ g sk and the hyperbolic curve f2 ðkÞ ¼ l2 =k for s > 0. As it is, the exact solution

for Eq. (73) can be given as

X 1=3 g rl2

kl ¼ ; ð74Þ

3g s X 1=3

where

pﬃﬃﬃﬃ

X ¼ ½27ðg lsÞ2 þ Y =2; ð75Þ

2 3 4

Y ¼ 108½gðg rl Þs þ 729ðg lsÞ : ð76Þ

1192 D.Q. Lu, S.Q. Dai / International Journal of Engineering Science 46 (2008) 1183–1193

A graphical representation of Eqs. (72) and (74) is given in Fig. 4. It should be noted that as

1

kl 6 klcrt ¼ ½3q1=3 þ sð4r2 þ 9sÞ þ 3q1=3 s3 ð8r2 þ 9sÞ ð77Þ

4r3

where

qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

q ¼ 8r4 s4 þ 36r2 s5 þ 27s6 þ 8 r6 s8 ðr2 þ sÞ; ð78Þ

we have Y P 0 and Eq. (74) predicts a real positive solution. For kl > klcrt ; Y < 0 and Eq. (74) predicts a complex solution

with a positive real part. One may check graphically that the real part is the solution for Eq. (73).

For general cases, the numerical solution of kl shows that kl decreases with increasing h and/or H for ﬁxed l while kl

increases with increasing l for ﬁxed h and H. It should be noted that the wave amplitude predicted by Eq. (70) is directly

proportional to l and R0 . The values of l and R0 should be taken under the assumption that the amplitude is small compared

with the wavelength. Fig. 5 shows that the steady-state ﬂexural-gravity waves predicted by Eq. (70). It can be seen from

Fig. 5 that with decreasing kl the ﬂexural-gravity wave amplitudes decease while the ﬂexural rigidity D increases. This is

also true for the capillary-gravity waves with increasing s.

100

(i )

(ii)

(iii)

75

kμ

50

25

0

0 10 20 30

μ

Fig. 4. Wave numbers of steady-state ﬂexural-gravity waves on a ﬂuid of inﬁnite depth. (i) Eq. (52) with s ¼ 7:374 106 m2 and r ¼ 0:01 m; (ii) Eq. (51)

with r ¼ 0:01 m; (iii) Eq. (51) with r ¼ 0 m.

(i)

(ii)

0. 5 (iii)

0

ζ Sm

-0 .5

-1

25 50 75 100

R

Fig. 5. Steady-state ﬂexural–gravity waves ðfSm Þ due to an oscillating ring source of unit strength with l ¼ 2:0 s1 ; R0 ¼ 1:0 m; z0 ¼ 1:0 m, and H ¼ 10 m.

(i) h ¼ 0:01 m; kl ¼ 0:421194 m1 ; (ii) h ¼ 0:1 m; kl ¼ 0:30458 m1 ; (iii) h ¼ 0:5 m; kl ¼ 0:148061 m1 .

D.Q. Lu, S.Q. Dai / International Journal of Engineering Science 46 (2008) 1183–1193 1193

5. Conclusions

Within the framework of linearized theory, the ﬂexural- and capillary-gravity waves can be investigated in parallel in

view of their analytical similarity. The wave proﬁles are signiﬁcantly affected by the presence of the ﬂexural rigidity or

the surface capillarity. As the system is subject to an instantaneous disturbance, the waves generated consist of the transient

response only. As the system is subject to an oscillating disturbance, the progressive waves generated on the surface consist

of the steady-state monochromatic ﬂexural/capillary-gravity waves and the transient waves. When the time approaches

inﬁnity, the transient components tend to zero and an ultimate steady-state can be attained. There exist maximal and min-

imal group velocities, for which the ﬁnite depth of the ﬂuid and the ﬂexural/capillary effect of the surface are, respectively,

responsible. The transient wave system observed depends on the relation between the moving speed ðR=tÞ of the observer

and the minimal and maximal group velocities (C g min and C g max ). As C g min < R=t < C g max , the transient response consists of

two components, namely the transient ﬂexural/capillary waves and the transient gravity waves. The short transient ﬂexural/

capillary waves ride on the long transient gravity waves. As R=t < C g min or R=t > C g max , the transient response consists of one

rapidly decaying component only. As the ﬂexural rigidity and/or surface capillarity tends to zero, the transient response con-

sists of transient gravity waves only and the near-ﬁeld waves due to a surface singularity predicted by the potential theory

go to inﬁnity, which is incompatible with the physical reality. Such an inconsistency can be avoided by the inclusion of the

ﬂexural rigidity or the surface capillarity that are responsible for the occurrence of a calm region in the near ﬁeld. As for the

steady–state component, the wave amplitudes decease and the wavelengths increase due to the effect of the ﬂexural rigidity

or the surface capillarity. Another remarkable feature of the capillarity is that there exists a minimal depth of ﬂuid for the

possibility of the propagation of capillary-gravity waves on an inertial surface.

Acknowledgements

This research was sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10602032 and the

Shanghai Rising-Star Program under Grant No. 07QA14022.

References

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[10] B.N. Mandal, K. Kundu, Ring source potentials in a ﬂuid with an inertial surface in the presence of surface tension, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 25 (11-12) (1987)

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[18] L. Debnath, Nonlinear Water Waves, Academic Press, Boston, 1994.

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[23] D.Q. Lu, J.C. Le, S.Q. Dai, Flexural-gravity waves due to transient disturbances in an inviscid ﬂuid of ﬁnite depth, J. Hydrodyn. 20 (2008) 131–136.

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