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# Acta Mech Sin (2008) 24:267–275

DOI 10.1007/s10409-008-0155-0

RESEARCH PAPER

Generation of unsteady waves by concentrated disturbances
in an inviscid fluid with an inertial surface
D. Q. Lu · S. Q. Dai

Received: 17 May 2007 / Revised: 5 February 2008 / Accepted: 3 March 2008 / Published online: 8 May 2008

Abstract The surface waves generated by unsteady concen- free-surface waves. The explicit expressions for the free-
trated disturbances in an initially quiescent fluid of infinite surface gravity waves can readily be recovered by the present
depth with an inertial surface are analytically investigated results as the inertial surface disappears.
for two- and three-dimensional cases. The fluid is assumed
to be inviscid, incompressible and homogenous. The inertial Keywords Waves · Inertial surface · Concentrated
surface represents the effect of a thin uniform distribution disturbances · Asymptotic representation
of non-interacting floating matter. Four types of unsteady
concentrated disturbances and two kinds of initial values are
considered, namely an instantaneous/oscillating mass source 1 Introduction
immersed in the fluid, an instantaneous/oscillating impulse
on the surface, an initial impulse on the surface of the fluid, As is well known, the oceans in polar regions are gener-
and an initial displacement of the surface. The linearized ally covered by ice. According to the physical nature of the
initial-boundary-value problem is formulated within the problem considered, two kinds of mathematical models for
framework of potential flow. The solutions in integral form the ice-covered ocean surface are customarily employed [1].
for the surface elevation are obtained by means of a joint When an ocean area is covered by a thin uniform distribution
Laplace–Fourier transform. The asymptotic representations of non-interacting floating matter, for example, broken ice,
of the wave motion for large time with a fixed distance- the ocean surface is mathematically modeled as an inertial
to-time ratio are derived by using the method of stationary surface [2–6]. When an ocean area is covered by an ice sheet
phase. The effect of the presence of an inertial surface on of small thickness, the ocean surface is mathematically ide-
the wave motion is analyzed. It is found that the wavelengths alized as a thin homogenous elastic plate [1,7–14]. As the
of the transient dispersive waves increase while those of the flexural rigidity of the plate tends to zero, the inertial surface
steady-state progressive waves decrease. All the wave ampli- model will be useful. The generation of the gravity waves
tudes decrease in comparison with those of conventional due to the initial elevation and impulse at the surface of an
inviscid fluid with an inertial surface was first considered by
The project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of
Mandal and Mukherjee [4,5] for two- and three-dimensional
China (10602032), the Shanghai Rising-Star Program (07QA14022), cases. However, it seems that the general characteristics of
and the Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (Y0103). the wave responses to disturbances acting on the fluid with
an inertial surface have not been fully elucidated.
D. Q. Lu (B)
Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics,
In this paper, dynamic responses of a fluid with an iner-
Shanghai University, 200072 Shanghai, China tial surface to line- and point-concentrated disturbances will
e-mail: dqlu@shu.edu.cn; dqlu@graduate.hku.hk be considered. The fluid is initially quiescent, infinitely deep
and is assumed to be inviscid, incompressible and homoge-
S. Q. Dai
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy
nous. Four types of unsteady concentrated disturbances and
and Environment Engineering, 200072 Shanghai, China two kind of initial values are considered, namely an instan-
e-mail: sqdai@shu.edu.cn taneous/oscillating mass source immersed in the fluid, an

123

eration of gravity. In Sect. Thus. Thus. The special case with ε = 0 corresponds to a We impose the initial conditions on . (8) ing equation is where S is the potential due to the singularity while R is a continuous function everywhere in the corresponding ∇ 2  = Mδ(x − x 0 ). z) and x 0 = (0.5.[16. x 0 = (0. x an observation point. the solutions for the three-dimensional which imposes a uniqueness on the problem considered. Dai instantaneous/oscillating load on the surface. (7) waves. the linearized boundary conditions will be applied on the undisturbed inertial sur- 3 Transient waves due to instantaneous line face. the entire fluid is at rest for t < 0. 0. and z the field point at the undisturbed inertial inertial surface of area density ερ with 0 ≤ ε < 1. which is consistent with the assumption that waves are dispersive. z 0 ).4].11–14. 0). 3. All the types of disturbances are derivative of η in order to meet the requirement for Eqs. ∂t ∂t ρ ∂t parison with the wavelength. (10) It is assumed that the wave amplitude is very small in com. the govern. (9) ∂t ∂z ∂z x = (x.  and η. been successfully used to study the classical Cauchy–Poisson where I0 and E 0 are the corresponding constant magnitudes. For two-dimensional cases. the general mathematical model is formu. The ∂η  = 0. In Sect. Equation (6) shows that the initial velocity of the inertial ized cases [1. The fluid is assumed to be covered by an applied load. (5) physical features of the wave motion. and (3) to be a well-posed initial-boundary-value problem. 3. 5. and x 0 the source point. Moreover. y. η and the first time fluid with a clean surface. the instantaneous line disturbances are con- − = 0. x = (x. According to Rhodes-Robinson [2. the initial conditions at z = 0 are the transient waves due to impulsive line disturbances and I0 initial concentrated disturbances are given by use of a joint |t=0 = − δ(z).268 D. 2. where ρ is surface. (1) domain and ∇ 2 R = 0. Therefore. (3) impulse on the surface. t the ∂η ∂R ∂S time. For the two-dimensional cases. problems [15. The time-dependent strengths of the simple source 123 . a Cartesian system is used. where η is the elevation of the inertial surface. 0) while for the density of the fluid and ε is a parameter having the dimen. Finally.4. P(t) the time-dependent strength of the dimensional cases. 6. (4) Laplace–Fourier transform. since the finite tations for the unsteady waves due to oscillating line distur. t. In order to obtain the principal ρ η|t=0 = E 0 δ(z). This approximation has to a surface impulse and elevation concentrated at the origin. The assumption of linearity allows us to envisage the per- turbed flow as the superposition of a singular flow and a 2 General mathematical formulation regular flow. the asymptotic represen. sion of length. boundary conditions at z = 0: δ(·) the Dirac delta function. (6) method of stationary phase shall be employed to obtain the ∂t t=0 asymptotic representation of the wave motion for large time Equations (4) and (5) imply that the fluid is initially subject with a fixed distance-to-time ratio. mathematically as well as physically. Sect. we write which the z axis points vertically upward while z = 0 repre- sents the undisturbed inertial surface.3] the kinematic and disturbances dynamic conditions at z = 0 are given by ∂η ∂ In this section. tion. It is found that the unsteady waves consist of steady-state progressive waves and transient dispersive ∇ → 0 as z → ∞.and three.7] and their general. z 0 ) and ∂/∂ y = 0 while for three- ∂R ∂ 2η P ∂S dimensional cases. the three-dimensional cases. it is necessary to adopt  the asymptotic analysis for the integral-form solution.  = S (x. it is required that bances are derived. In Sect. cases are provided. 4. Lu. M(t) the time-dependent strength of the simple source. t). g the accel- lated as an initial-boundary-value problem for two. y. exact solutions in closed integral forms for Therefore. + gη + ε 2 = − δ(z) − . disturbance must die out at infinity. and an initial displacement of the ∂t ∂t ρ surface. z). z = (x. − = . It is found that the transient surface is zero. Q.17–23]. (2) ∂t ∂z sidered. (2) simultaneously included in the linear mathematical formula. discussion and conclusions are Thus. (1) to (7) constitute a well-posed problem for given in Sect. S. Thus. x 0 ) is the velocity potential for the perturbed gular and regular components can be established through the flow. t. in influence of the boundary. Q. x 0 ) + R (x. In Sect. Eqs. z = (x. Sect. an initial ∂ ∂ 2η P + gη + ε 2 = − δ(z). the relation between the sin- where (x. 6. The former represents the effect of the mov- ing singularity in an unbounded domain while the latter the Without loss of generality.

ηe } = dα 2π 1 + εk −∞  k × exp(kz 0 ) cos(ωt). t.1 m 123 . (iii) ε = 0.05 m. t) + ηi (z. (12) and (13) into the Laplace–Fourier ω 2(1 + εk) transforms of boundary conditions (9) and (10). x 0 ) + ηp (z. one can also obtain the dispersion equation by means where r = ||x − x 0 ||. progressive waves with ω ≥ ωlim will not be able to Fourier transform with respect to spatial variables. two-dimensional cases. ηi . problem for an inviscid fluid of infinite depth. Once ε bination of the Laplace transform with respect to t and the is given. − sin(ωt). (19) where k = |α|. ω  k − sin(ωt). ηp . (15) ω ω0 ω(k. t) + E 0 ηe (z. (11) derived by using the Laplace–Fourier integral transform. t). (12) ω2 k= . Since k > 0. A special case of Eq. By taking the Laplace–Fourier trans. The dispersion   relation for gravity waves on the inertial surface is herein M0 1  =− S ln δ(t). η̃} exp(iαx + st). of the method of separation of variables. respectively. the in Fig. (19) that ω < ωlim . However. ε) = . (16) (1 + εk)1/2  Fig. Consequently. it follows from Eq. g − εω2 In order to obtain the formal solution of this initial- boundary-value problem. ×{ R (13) kC g 1 σ = = . (i) ε = 0 m. (16) with ε = 0 corresponds to singular component in Eq. η} = R ds dα 4π 2 i for the gravity waves on the inertial surface is given by c−i∞ −∞ ˜ exp(kz). (v) ε = 0. it is convenient to introduce a com. (11) can be given by  ωlim (ε) = lim ω(k. two simul- taneous algebraic equations are set up for the unknown func. (ii) ε = ω0 = ω(k. c is the Laplace convergence abscissa.005 m. an alternative representation for Eq. (17) 0. (1 + εk) cos(ωt) . (1) and applying the Jordan lemma and the Eq. For the appear since “the inertial surface is too heavy” [2]. Accordingly. 1 Wave frequencies versus wave-number. 0) = gk. 1. (20) By substituting Eqs. ε) = g/ε. we have the propagation of progressive waves with any frequency is  c+i∞ +∞ possible if the surface tension is included in the mathematical 1 formulation [2]. (16) that Cauchy residue theorem.Generation of unsteady waves by concentrated disturbances 269 and applied load are mathematically represented as M(t) = Equation (16) is known as the dispersion relation. 2. It can be seen from form over Eq. as shown M0 δ(t) and P(t) = P0 δ(t).01 m. (iv) ε = 0. (18) k→∞  c+i∞ +∞ M0 1 S = − ds dα 8π 2 i k Equation (16) can be re-written as c−i∞ −∞ × exp(−k|z − z 0 | + iαx + st). ˜ R and η̃. (8) is the fundamental solution of the dispersion relation for the classical Cauchy–Poisson wave two-dimensional Laplace equation in an unbounded domain. and is shown in Fig. The ratio of group velocity to phase velocity { . which can readily be solved. tions  the formal integral expression for the surface elevation can be written as P0 I0 η = M0 ηm (z. ρ ρ (14) where +∞ 1 exp(iαx) {ηm . In 2π r fact.

(28) dominant contribution to the integral in Eq.005 m. 2 The ratio of group velocities to phase speeds. It is noted that Eq. Lu. (iv) ε = 0. ε). (15) as with respect to k. (29) ωε |x| Q(k. and 11 have stationary points. (23)  ∂k (2π |ωε |t) (1 + εkε ) 1/2   A straightforward derivation for Eq. ηp . (−1) . (24) can be transformed into a holds for |x|/t > 0. ηp . 123 . (26) × exp(kz 0 ). (15) is identical with ηp and will biquadratic equation. We re-write Eq. Eq.01 m. It is easily seen that for x > 0. can be exactly given as 2 +∞   1/2 1  2 exp(it mn ) 1 3 1 {ηm . 1 + εk .005 m. Dai Fig.1 m It is noted that ηi in Eq. Q. S. ε) = − Cg where t √ g 1 1 1 = √ −√ · = 0. (21) stems from the stationary points of mn . 4. (31) where C g (k. kε decreases from k0 with increasing ε.01 m. k0 . (32) k0 = gt 2 /4x 2 (25) ∂k 2 4kε (1 + εkε )5/2 is the root of Q(k. ηe }  1 = 0. (29) Fig.05 m. denoted by kε . for which the single real positive root not be shown next. 0) = 0. (24) ψ = kε |x| − ωε t + π/4. (27) t 3b 18 According to the stationary-phase approximation. (1 + εkε ) cos ψ . sin ψ. 22 shown in Fig. ε) g(1 + 4εkε ) ωε = = − 3/2 . (21) 2 4 4 ω where where  2 2 1/3   x 2ε k0 εk0 b 1/3 mn (k) = (−1)m+1 k + (−1)n+1 ω. (30) 2 k0 k (1 + εk)3/2 ωε = ω(kε . (v) ε = 0. The solutions for the stationary phase. the b = −9 + (81 + 768εk0 )1/2 . (i) ε = 0 m. 3. ε) = ∂ω/∂k is the group velocity and √  ∂ 2 ω(kε . Q. as 12 and 21 have stationary points while for x < 0. and the stationary points for By a straightforward application of the Stokes method of both x > 0 and x < 0 are the same. Thus. the asymptotic representation of Eq.270 D.1 m 0. (iv) ε = 0. (i) ε = 0 m. ηe } = dk k = kε = − + −a 4π 1 + εk 2ε 2 4 m=1 n=1 0  −1/2 1/2    1 1 1 n+1 ik + +a+ −a . (23) yields kε × exp(kε z 0 ) cos ψ.05 m. (v) ε = 0. (iii) ε = 0. Fig. For a fixed x/t. (iii) ε = 0. k0 . (22) a=4 − . Equation (24) is shown in It is noted that ωε < 0 holds for all kε > 0. (21) stationary points are determined by can be given as ∂ mn {ηm . 3 Group velocities versus wave-number. (ii) ε = (ii) ε = 0.

we  +∞ c+i∞  have 1 exp(kz 0 )s k {ζm . (1 + εk)(s 2 + ω2 ) ωε2 − µ2  kε (cos ψ + iωε−1 ν sin ψ) By taking a contour integration in the complex s plane. It can be seen from Eqs. ω2 − µ2  k[1 + (−1)n+1 ω−1 ν] . (v) ε = 0. ζpS } + {ζmT . (40) ωε2 − ν 2 Eq. where ered.05 m. . ωε and ψ are given in Sect. Finally. 3. (34) can be re-written as where kε . the formal integral expression for the surface µ ≥ g/ε or ν ≥ g/ε. (1) to (3) while the initial conditions (g − εν 2 )/ν and the group velocities (g − εµ)2 /2gµ and are Eqs. the oscillating line disturbances are consid. (37) is similar to that in Sect. 1 + εkµ  ikν exp(−ikν x + iνt) 4 Unsteady waves due to oscillating line disturbances .01 m. (38) 1 + εkν In this section. (ii) ε = Debnath [24].1 m  µ exp(kµ z 0 − ikµ x + iµt) {ζm . (37). x 0 ) + ζp (z. (38) Upon the integral transform and other mathematical and (39) that no outgoing progressive waves are possible for √ √ manipulation. The where mathematical procedure for the asymptotic representation of Eq. µ and ζmS and ζpS represent the progressive waves with frequencies ν are constant. ζmT and ζpT represent the transient dispersive η = M0 ζm (x. (iv) ε = 0. (37) is similar to that P0 of Eq. where H(t) is the Heaviside step function. the wave motion consists of the written as transient component (37) only. (36) with large |x| are given by Debnath [24. (37) ω2 − ν 2 Two approaches available for the asymptotic representa- tion of Eq. the governing equation and the bound. we have 0. the method of sta- tionary phase is used for large t with |x|/t held fixed.005 m. kν } = .− 2 . ζp } = {ζmS . µ and ν. 2. . t. ωε . (i) ε = 0 m. Sect. (34) × − . (36) ω2 − µ2 ω − ν2 2 +∞ 1  2 exp(it mn ) {ζmT . (4) to (6) with I0 = E 0 = 0. (g − εν)2 /2gν. the analytic form of Eq. (21).− 1 4π 2 i s − iµ s − iν {ζmT . ζpT }   c−i∞ −∞ (2π |ωε |t) (1 + εkε ) 1/2  exp(iαx + st) exp(kε z 0 )(ωε sin ψ − iµ cos ψ) × dαds.5] and will not be reproduced here. respectively. respectively. (21). (39) g − εµ2 g − εν 2 as M(t) = M0 exp(iµt)H(t) and P(t) = P0 exp(iνt)H(t).Generation of unsteady waves by concentrated disturbances 271 where 2  +∞ 1  exp[(−1)n+1 ikx] {ζmS . Following Fig. ζpT } = dk 4π 1 + εk m=1 n=1 0  exp(kz 0 )[(−1)n+1 iω + iµ] × − . Obviously. For the k integration in Eq. (35) derived for large |x| while the asymptotic solution (40) is 123 . (iii) ε = 0.   µ2 ν2 ple source and applied load are mathematically represented {kµ . ζpT }. the time-dependent strengths of the sim. ζpS } = dk 2π 1 + εk n=1 0   iµ exp(kz 0 + iµt) k exp(iνt) × . ζp } = . as was remarked by Rhodes- elevation due to the oscillating line disturbances can be Robinson [2. In this case. It should be noted that the asymptotic solution (38) is {ζm . 3 for Eq. t). 4 Wave-numbers versus x at t = 15 s.3]. traveling with the phase speeds (g − εµ2 )/µ and ary conditions are Eqs. Thus. ζp }  S S . (33) ρ waves. Accordingly.

Next. (45) πk R 4 Firstly. Lu. ζpT }. 3 for Eq. a special asymptotic device should be invoked {ηm . ηe } = dK 2π 1 + εK [24]. ηp . {α. (44) without change in its exactness. F = αx + βy. (−1)n+1 . sin φ}. (42) K The mathematical procedure to obtain the asymptotic rep- resentation of Eq. (46) M ω S = − δ(t) 4πr  c+i∞ +∞ +∞ where M =− ds dαdβ   16π 3 i (−1)m+1 π c−i∞ −∞ −∞ mn = kR − + (−1)n+1 ω. ηp . (36) and the stationary points for Eq. as we have the solutions for the transient waves due to the instan. ηe }  exp(kε z 0 ) cos ϕ. (50) 123 . m=1 n=1 0   ik × exp(kz 0 ). It is noted that × exp(K z 0 ) cos(t). Thus. k and ω for Eq. sin θ }.  where K = α 2 + β 2 . (1 + εkε ) cos ϕ . respectively. (43) mal integral expression for the surface elevation due to the oscillating point disturbances can be written as where (K . ζpS H(t − 2gν|x|/(g − εν)2 )} + {ζmT . (44) sufficiently large time [25]. The time-dependent strengths of the simple source and app. ζp } = {ζmS H(t − 2gµR/(g − εµ)2 ).   Upon a similar mathematical manipulation as above. the asymptotic representation of Eq. and (ii)  K kε > kµ and kε > kν .272 D. ε) = ω(K . (46) follows that in Sect. (21). Thus. case (ii) is always possible for (1 + εK ) cos(t) . where the poles for Eq. the for- (1 + εK ) cos(t) . ηe }  dk 4π 2π R 1 + εk dimensional Laplace equation in an unbounded domain. ζp } = {ζmS H(t − 2gµ|x|/(g − εµ)2 ). we have an approximation for Eq. (46) can be given By taking a Laplace–Fourier transform similar to Eq. (i) kε < kµ and kε < kν . In combining these two solutions. (49) −∞ −∞  K × exp(K z 0 ) cos(t). (37) are +∞ 1 K J0 (K R) merged. two possible cases 0 for the region of validity. (48) 1 exp(iF) {ηm . Q. (47) t 4 1 × exp[−K |z − z 0 | + iF + st]. Therefore. (8) is the fundamental solution of three. we replace K and  with {ζm . Q. respectively.  case (i) is inadmissible for the steady response in view of  the group velocity. β} = K {cos φ.  1/2 taneous point disturbances: kε {ηm . ηp . (41) Furthermore. the formal solutions for the wave profiles due to an oscillating disturbances are where J0 (K R) is the zeroth-order Bessel function of the first kind. 1 + εk .  1/2   5 Waves due to point disturbances 2 π J0 (k R)  cos k R − . y} = R{cos θ. However. ζpT }. (13). respec- tively. ε). For the sake of consistency. Dai obtained for large t with |x|/t fixed. (44) as follows lied load are mathematically represented as M(t) = M0 δ(t) 2 +∞  and P(t) = P0 δ(t). ζpS H(t − 2gν R/(g − εν)2 )} + {ζmT . the singular 1  2 k 1/2 exp(itmn ) component in Eq. the oscillating point disturbances are considered. − sin(t). {x. Thus. S. ηe } = dαdβ ωε 4π 2 1 + εK ϕ = kε R − ωε t. the instantaneous point disturbances are considered. − sin(t). ζmT and ζpT break down at Equation (43) can be re-written as the critical points ωε = µ2 and ωε = ν 2 . With a change of variables {ζm . should be considered. {ηm . 2π(|ωε |Rt)1/2 (1 + εkε )  +∞ +∞ kε sin ϕ. ηp . we may replace J0 (k R) by its asymptotic formula for large k R. Accordingly.

5. 7. (53) 1 + εkν 1/2 kε {ζmT . the solution given by Stoker [15. (2π R) 1/2 1+εkµ 3/2  ikν exp[i(νt − kν R + π/4)] . 8. (3. ζp } = T T kJ0 (k R)dk the wavelength increases with increasing ε. (53) and (54). (41). The wave profiles in ω2 − µ2  k[1 + (−1)n+1 ω−1 ν] . 5 Two-dimensional transient waves ηm versus x at t = 15 s. ωε and ωε with k0 .e. respectively. 2 and 3 that for a fixed k. 6 Two-dimensional transient waves ηp versus x at t = 15 s 123 . (6. and 9. Eq. z 0 = −1 m 6 Discussion and conclusions We might check the present results by taking a correspond- ing limit to recover the previous results for the pure gravity waves. the solution obtained by Miles [26. (51) wave frequency. (6. the result obtained by Debnath [24. kε . where ω0 = ∂ 2 ω0 (k0 )/∂k 2 . ζpS }  1/2 1 µkµ exp[kµ z 0 +i(µt −kµ R +π/4)]  . The effect of the 2π 1 + εk n=1 0 presence of an inertial surface on the transient and steady-  state wave profiles due to the line disturbances is shown in exp(kz 0 )[(−1)n+1 iω + iµ] × − .e. Eq.13) and (6. (48). (54) ωε2 − ν 2 Fig. the wave profiles due to a submerged source are derived. kµ and kν ) and the +∞ asymptotic representations for the wave profiles (i. Figs.5. the iµ exp(kz 0 + iµt) k exp(iνt) × . and the ratio of group veloc- ω2 − µ2 ω2 − ν 2 ity to phase velocity for the dispersive waves decrease as the 2  +∞ ε increase from zero. 6. The exact Fig. group velocity. (29) by replacing kε . In addition.5. When ε = 0. respectively. − . 5. the asymptotic solutions given by Stoker [15.12)] can be recovered from ζp in Eq. ω0 and ω0 . (3. 1. Figure 4 shows that for fixed x and t. Eqs. ηp .7)] can be recovered from ζp in Eqs. 1  exp[(−1)n+1 iωt] {ζm .12)] can be recovered from ηp and ηe in Eq.5. (52) ω2 − ν 2 The asymptotic representations of Eqs. 0   It can be seen from Figs. ζpS } = dk 2π 1 + εk centrated disturbances have been analytically obtained. ζpT }  2π(|ωε |Rt)1/2 (1 + εkε )  exp(kε z 0 )(ωε sin ϕ − iµ cos ϕ) × − .15)] can be recovered from ηp in Eq. The principal interest herein is to study the effect of the pres- ence of an inertial surface on the dispersion relation and the generation and propagation of the gravity waves. 1 kJ0 (k R) ηe . ωε2 − µ2  kε (cos ϕ + iωε−1 ν sin ϕ) . The procedure presented here for obtain- ing the wave elevations with an inertial surface provides an alternative method to obtain the free-surface gravity waves formulated in the Cauchy–Poisson problem.Generation of unsteady waves by concentrated disturbances 273 where solutions for the wave numbers (i. (51) and (52) are {ζmS . Eq. ζm and ζp ) due to the instantaneous and oscillating con- {ζmS . ηm .

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