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D. Q. Lu*, J. C. Le & S. Q. Dai, “Flexural-gravity waves due to transient disturbances in an inviscid fluid of finite depth”, Journal of Hydrodynamics, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 131-136, Elsevier B.V. & Shanghai Publishing House for Journal of Hydrodynamics, Apr. 2008. The original publication is available at sciencedirect.com
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6058(08)60038-4

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2008,20(2):131-136

AN INVISCID FLUID OF FINITE DEPTH*

LU Dong-qiang, LE Jia-chun

Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072, China

DAI Shi-qiang

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mechanics in Energy and Environment Engineering, Shanghai 200072, China,

E-mail: dqlu@shu.edu.cn

Abstract: The dynamic response of an ice-covered fluid to transient disturbances was analytically investigated by means of integral

transforms and the generalized method of stationary phase. The initially quiescent fluid of finite depth was assumed to be inviscid,

incompressible, and homogenous. The thin ice-cover was modeled as a homogeneous elastic plate. The disturbances were idealized

as the fundamental singularities. A linearized initial-boundary-value problem was formulated within the framework of potential flow.

The perturbed flow was decomposed into the regular and the singular components. An image system was introduced for the singular

part to meet the boundary condition at the flat bottom. The solutions in integral form for the vertical deflexion at the ice-water

interface were obtained by means of a joint Laplace-Fourier transform. The asymptotic representations of the wave motion were

explicitly derived for large time with a fixed distance-to-time ratio. The effects of the finite depth of fluid on the resultant wave

patterns were discussed in detail. As the depth increases from zero, the critical wave number and the minimal group velocity first

increase to their peak values and then decrease to constants.

Very large floating structures in the offshore studied in detail in comparison with that for pure

region and the ice-cover in the polar region are usually gravity waves. It was found that there exists a minimal

idealized as thin elastic plates in the theoretical group velocity and the wave system observed depends

investigations [1-14]. Flexural-gravity waves occur at on the moving speed of the observer. For an observer

the surface of a fluid covered by an elastic plate. moving with the speed larger than the minimal group

Asymptotic solutions for the transient flexural waves velocity, there exist two trains of waves, namely, the

due to disturbances in an inviscid fluid of infinite long gravity waves and the short flexural waves, the

depth were considered by Maiti and Mandal[10], Lu latter riding on the former.

and Dai [11]. A well-posed initial-boundary-value In this article, the flexural-gravity waves

problem was formulated by Lu and Dai [11]. The generated by an instantaneous line and point source

submerged in an inviscid fluid of finite depth are

considered. The asymptotic representations of the

wave motions for large time with a fixed

* Project supported by the National Natural Science distance-to-time ratio are derived for different regions.

Foundation of China (Grant No.10602032), the Shanghai The partition of region depends on the intrinsic group

Rising-Star Program (Grant No. 07QA14022), and the velocities of the system under consideration. The

Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (Grant No.

Y0103). effect of finite depth on the wave system is studied.

Biography: LU Dong-qiang (1972- ), Male, Ph. D., Associate The other kinds of impulsive concentrated

Professor disturbances, for example, an instantaneous dynamic

132

the fluid, and an initial displacement of the ice plate, w]

can be dealt with by the method presented in this ) |t =0 = ] |t =0 = |t =0 = 0 (5)

article. The case with a point mass source can be

wt

studied by a straightforward application of the

Moreover, since the finite disturbance must die out at

procedure provided in Sections 2-3 and the method

infinity, it is required that ) o 0 as z o f ,

given in Ref. [11].

which imposes the uniqueness on the problem

considered.

2. Mathematical formulation Now, let the entire solution be written as

Without loss of generality, a Cartesian coordinate

system is used, in which the z axis points vertically ) = ) S ( x , t , x0 ) + ) I ( x , t , x1 ) + ) R ( x , t )

upward while z = 0 represents the mean ice-water (6)

interface. Therefore, the governing equation is

where ) S and ) I are the velocity potentials due to

) = M G ( x x0 )G (t )

2

(1) the simple source at x0 and at x1 , respectively,

) R is a continuous function everywhere in the

where ) ( x , t , x0 ) is the velocity potential for the corresponding domain, which represents the effect of

perturbed flow, M is the constant strength of the ice-cover boundary, x1 is the image point of x0

simple source, x is a field point, x0 is the source with respect to the flat bottom z = H and

point, and G ( ) is the Dirac delta function. For two- x1 = (0, z1 ) for two-dimensional case and

dimensional cases, x = ( x, z ) and x0 = (0, z0 ) with x1 = (0, 0, z1 ) for three-dimensional one, where

z0 0 while for three-dimensional cases, z1 = 2 H z0 , and ) I is introduced to meet the

x = ( x, y, z ) and x0 = (0, 0, z0 ) . requirement of Eq.(4). For a line source in the

The linearized kinematic and dynamic ice-cover two-dimensional cases, there holds

conditions at z = 0 are given by

M 1 1½

w] w) ^) S

, )I` = ®log , log ¾

2S ¯ r r1 ¿

= (2)

wt wz

M c +i f +f exp(i D x + st )

w) w 2] 2 ³ c i f

ds ³ dD <

U + U g] + D ] + U e h 2 = 0

4

(3) 8S i f k

wt wt

0 1 (7)

interface, U and Ue are the uniform densities of

the fluid and the plate, respectively, g is the where r = x x0 , r1 = x x1 , k = D , and c is

acceleration of gravity, D = Eh3 [12(1 Q 2 )] is the the Laplace convergence abscissa. Substitution of

Eq.(6) into Eq.(1) yields

flexural rigidity of the plate, and E , h , and Q are

the Young modulus, the thickness, and the Poisson

ratio of the plate, respectively. The bottom condition 2) R = 0 (8)

at z = H is given by

The boundary conditions at z = 0 can be re-written

w) as

=0 (4)

wz w] w) R w) S w) I

= + (9)

where H is a positive constant. It is assumed that the wt wz wz wz

entire fluid is at rest for t 0 . Therefore, the initial

conditions at z = 0 are w) R w 2]

U + U g] + D 4] + Ue h 2 =

wt wt

133

§ w) S w) I · D h Ue

U ¨ + ¸ (10) Z0 = gk , J= , V=

© wt wt ¹ Ug U

(18)

It follows from Eq.(7) that

To perform the k integration in Eq.(14), the

method of stationary phase is used for large t with a

w

wz

) S +) I =0 (11) fixed x t [10,11,15]. The solutions for the stationary

z= H points, denoted by k j , are determined by

w4 mn

=0 (19)

w) R wk

=0 (12)

wz z = H A straightforward derivation for Eq.(19) yields

x g 1/ 2

3. Asymptotic solutions Cg = {k0 k 1/ 2 <

For two-dimensional cases, a combination of the t 2

Laplace transform with respect to t and a Fourier

transform with respect to x is introduced for [coth(kH ) + V k ] 3/ 2 (1+ J k 4 ) 1/ 2 <

{) R , ] } as

[(1+ 5J k 4 ) coth(kH ) + kH (1+ J k 4 )<

1 c +i f f

{) R , ] } = 2 ³ c i f

ds ³ dD exp(i D x + st )<

4S i f

csch 2 ( kH ) + 4V J k 5 ]} = 0 (20)

^ ) R

cosh > k ( z + H ) @ , ] ` (13) where C g (k , h, H ) = wZ wk is the group velocity and

k0 = gt 2 4 x 2 is the solution of Eq.(19) with h = 0

By substituting Eq.(13) into the Laplace-Fourier and H = +f , corresponding to the wave numbers of

transforms of boundary conditions (9) and (10), two the pure gravity waves in a fluid of infinite depth.

simultaneous algebraic equations are set up for the

unknown functions ) R and ] , which can be

readily solved. Consequently, the formal integral

expression for the displacement of ice-water interface

can be given as

1 2 2 +f

] = ¦¦ A exp i t4 mn dk

4S m =1 n =1 ³ 0

(14)

where

A( k ) = Fig.1 Group velocity curves C g with h = 0.01 m

2[coth( kH ) + V k ]

(15) For a graphical representation of the theoretical

x results, hereinafter, the following physical parameters

4 mn = (1) m +1 k + (1) n +1Z (16) given by Squire [1] are adopted: E = 5GPa , Q = 0.3 ,

t

U = 1024 kgm 3 , U e = 917 kgm 3 , and

ª 1+ J k 4 º

1/ 2

g = 9.8ms . Figure 1 shows the curves for the group

2

¬ coth( kH ) + V k ¼

once h and H are given, there exists a minimal

134

w4 mn (kc )

which Eq.(20) has only one real positive root kc and 4 mn | 4 mn (kc ) + ( k kc )

wk

Zccc = w 2Z (kc ) wk 2 = 0 . It is noted that

Z0cc = lim w Z (k ) wk = 0 . When Cg min x t Cg max ,

2 2

1 w 34 mn (kc )

k o0

( k kc )3 (21)

where C g max = lim C g (k , h, H ) = gH , Eq.(20) has 6 wk 3

k o0

two real positive roots, k1 ( x t , h, H ) and Furthermore, according to Scorer [16], it is valid that

k2 ( x t , h, H ) with 0 k1 k2 +f . When

1/ 3

x t ! Cg max , Eq.(20) has only one real positive root, § 2 ·

] = ] c ~ Ac ¨¨ ¸¸ Ai( Z c ) cos kc x Zc t

k2 . The values for k1 , k2 , and kc can be obtained © Zcccc t ¹

numerically from Eq.(20). (22)

The effects of depth variation on the critical

wave number kc and the minimal group velocity where

Cg min are shown in Figs.2 and 3, respectively. It can

Ac = A(kc ) , Zc = Z (kc ) (23)

be seen that as H increases from zero, kc and

Cg min first increase to their peak values and then 1/ 3

§ 2 ·

decrease to constants. Z c = x Zcct ¨ ¸ (24)

© Zcccct ¹

When Cg min x t C g max , the expansion for

the phase function near k j ( j 1, 2) is taken as

1 w 4 mn (k j )

2

4 mn | 4 mn (k j ) + (k k j )2 (25)

2 wk 2

stationary phase, the asymptotic representation of

Fig.2 Critical wave numbers

Eq.(14) can be given as

] = ]1 + ] 2 (26)

where

Aj ª Sº

]j ~ 1/ 2

cos « k j x Z j t + (1) j »

2S Z cc t

j

¬ 4¼

(27)

A j = A(k j ) , Z j = Z ( k j ) (28)

Fig.3 Minimal group velocities

Z ccj = (29)

shown in Fig.1. However, as x t is lower than wk 2

Cg min and is sufficiently close to Cg min , the phase As x t is sufficiently close to C g max , k1 and

function near kc may be expanded as Z1cc tend to zero. According to Mei [17]

, the phase

135

function for small k may be expanded as x | xmax . The flexural-gravity waves at a given

instant are shown in Fig.5. It can be seen that there

x exists two critical positions for the flexural-gravity

4 mn = (1) m +1 k + (1) n +1 ( gH )1/ 2 <

t waves: xmin = C g min t and xmax = Cg max t . For

x d xmin and x | xmin , the wave profile is

ª k 3 H (1+ V H ) º

« k + "» (30) predicted by Eq.(22). In this region, there is only one

¬ 6 ¼ gravity wave. For xmin x xmax , the wave

In this case, Eq.(25) is still used for k2 . Thus, for profile is predicted by Eq.(27). In this region, there are

Eq.(14), there holds two wave systems, the short flexural one and the long

gravity one. For xmax x and x | xmax , the

] = ]1 + ] 2 (31) wave profile is predicted by Eq.(31). In this region,

the two waves decay as x increases.

where

a

]1 ~ Ai ^a [ x ( gH )1/ 2 t ]` (32)

2

M = 1 m, z0 = 0.1 m, and t = 5 s (1ʊ ] in Eq.(26),

2ʊ ] in Eq.(31), 3ʊ ] in Eq.(22), 4ʊ ] 1 in Eq.(27)

with h 0 , 5ʊ ] 1 in Eq.(32) with h = 0 )

component in Eq.(6) is

M M c +i f

Pure gravity waves with M = 0.5 m, z0 = 0.1 m, )S = G (t ) = ds <

16S3 i ³ c i f

Fig.4

and t = 5 s (1ʊ ] 1 in Eq.(27), 2ʊ ] in Eq.(32), 4S r

3ʊ ] in Eq.(27))

+f +f 1

³ ³ d D dE exp( K z z0 + i F + st )

f f K

4. Discussion and conclusions (34)

When h = 0 , the problem considered here where K = D + E 2

and F = D x + E y . The

2

asymptotic solutions for waves due to a simple point

fluid of finite depth, for which Eq.(20) has only one

source can be obtained by a straightforward

real positive root and C g max is the maximal group

application of the procedure provided in Section 3 and

velocity for the gravity waves. The gravity waves at a the method presented in Ref. [11].

given instant are shown in Fig.4. It can be seen that According to the relation between the moving

there exists one critical position xmax = C g max t for speed of an observer and the minimal group velocity

of waves on the fluids of finite depth with a thin

pure gravity waves. For x xmax , the wave profile

elastic plate, three asymptotic schemes are proposed

is predicted by Eq.(27). For x | xmax and for the phase function to derive the asymptotic

x t xmax , the wave profile is predicted by Eq.(32). solutions for the waves by means of the

stationary-phase method. The components and spatial

Two asymptotic solutions are in good agreement at

136

distribution of the wave system are analyzed. [9] CHOWDHURY R. G., MANDAL B. N. Motion due to

ring source in ice-covered water [J]. Int. J. Eng. Sci.,

2004, 42(15-16): 1645-1654.

[10] MAITI P., MANDAL B. N. Water waves generated due

References to initial axisymmetric disturbance in water with an

ice-cover [J]. Arch. Appl. Mech., 2005, 74(9): 629-636.

[1] SQUIRE V. A., HOSKING R. J. and KERR A. D. et al. [11] LU D. Q., DAI S. Q. Generation of transient waves by

Moving loads on ice plates [M]. Dordrecht, The impulsive disturbances in an inviscid fluid with an

Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996. ice-cover [J]. Arch. Appl. Mech., 2006, 76(1-2): 49-63.

[2] MIAO Guo-ping, LIU Ying-zhong. A dream to conquer [12] LU Dong-qiang, LE Jia-chun and DAI Shi-qiang.

the ocean: super large floating ocean structures [J]. Unsteady waves due to oscillating disturbances in an

Ziran Zazhi, 1996, 18(1): 26-30 (in Chinese). ice-covered fluid [J]. Journal of Hydrodynamics, Ser.

[3] KASHIWAGI M. Research on hydroelastic responses of B, 2006, 18(3 Suppl.): 177-180.

VLFS: Recent progress and future work [J]. Int. J. [13] BHATTACHARJEE J., SAHOO T. Interaction of

Offshore Polar Eng., 2000, 10(2): 91-90. current and flexural gravity waves [J]. Ocean Eng.,

[4] SAHOO T., YIP T. L. and CHWANG A. T. Scattering 2007, 34(11-12): 1505-1515.

of surface waves by a semi-infinite floating elastic plate [14] SQUIRE V. A. Of ocean waves and sea-ice revisited [J].

[J]. Phys. Fluids, 2001, 13(11): 3215-3222. Cold Regions Sci. Tech., 2007, 49(2): 110-133.

[5] TENG B., CHENG L. and LI S. X. et al. Modified [15] LU Dong-qiang, WEI Gang and YOU Yun-xiang.

eigenfunction expression methods for interaction of Unsteady interfacial waves due to singularities in two

water waves with a semi-infinite elastic plate [J]. semi-infinite inviscid fluids [J]. Journal of

Applied Ocean Res., 2001, 23(6): 357-368. Hydrodynamics, Ser. B, 2005, 17(6): 730-736.

[6] SUN Hui, SONG Hao and CUI Wei-cheng et al. On the [16] SCORER R. S. Numerical evaluation of integrals of the

x2

interaction of surface waves with an elastic plate of form I f ( x)exp(i I ( x))d x and the tabulation of

finite length in head seas [J]. China Ocean ³x1

the function Gi ( z ) = 1 S ³ sin uz + u 3 / 3 du [J].

[7] PARAU E., DIAS F. Nonlinear effects in the response of 0

a floating ice plate to a moving load [J]. J. Fluid Mech., Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math., 1950, 3: 107-112.

2002, 460: 281-305. [17] MEI C. C. The applied dynamics of ocean surface

[8] MILES J., SNEYD A. D. The response of a floating ice waves [M]. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing,

sheet to an acceleration line load [J]. J. Fluid Mech., 1994, 30-31.

2003, 497: 435-439.

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