ISO SAP041709M13 Rev.

2 Version 14
Berkeley, California, USA February 2010

Concrete Frame
Design Manual
ACI 318-05/IBC 2006
For SAP2000
®













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CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE
DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER,
THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS
EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON
THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.
THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL
DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN
ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT
ADDRESSED.
THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY
A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST
INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL
RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.



i
Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1-1
1.1 Organization 1-2
1.2 Recommended Reading/Practice 1-3
Chapter 2 Design Prerequisites 2-1
2.1 Design Load Combinations 2-1
2.2 Seismic Load Effects 2-3
2.3 Design and Check Stations 2-4
2.3.1 Identifying Beams and Columns 2-4
2.3.2 Design of Beams 2-4
2.3.3 Design of Columns 2-5
2.3.4 Design of Joints 2-6
2.4 P-Delta Effects 2-7
2.5 Element Unsupported Length 2-8
2.6 Choice of Input Units 2-8
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006
ii
Chapter 3 Design Process 3-1
3.1 Notation 3-1
3.2 Design Load Combinations 3-4
3.3 Column Design 3-6
3.3.1 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surface 3-7
3.3.2 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio 3-11
3.3.2.1 Determine Factored Moments and
Forces 3-11
3.3.2.2 Determine Moment Magnification
Factors 3-12
3.3.2.3 Determine Capacity Ratio 3-14
3.3.3 Required Reinforcing Area 3-16
3.3.4 Design Column Shear Reinforcement 3-16
3.3.4.1 Determine Section Forces 3-16
3.3.4.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity 3-23
3.3.4.3 Determine Required Shear
Reinforcement 3-24
3.4 Beam Design 3-26
3.4.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 3-26
3.4.1.1 Determine Factored Moments 3-27
3.4.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforce-
ment 3-27
3.4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-37
3.4.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment 3-37
3.4.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity 3-40
3.4.2.3 Determine Required Shear
Reinforcement 3.40
3.4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3-42
3.4.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion 3-42
3.4.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties 3-43
3.4.3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity 3-44
3.4.3.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement 3-44
3.5 Joint Design 3-46
3.5.1 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force 3-47
3.5.2 Determine the Effective Area of Joint 3-49
Contents

iii

3.5.3 Check Panel Zone Shear Stress 3-50
3.5.4 Beam-Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 3-50
Chapter 4 Design Output 4-1
4.1 Overview 4-1
4.2 Graphical Display of Design Information 4-2
4.2.1 Input/Output 4-2
4.3 Tabular Display of Design output 4-4
4.4 Member Specific Information 4-6
4.4.1 Interactive Concrete Frame Design 4-8
4.5 Errors Messages and Warnings 4-9

Appendix A Second Order P-Delta Effects
Appendix B Member Unsupported Lengths and Computation
of K-Factors
Appendix C Concrete Frame Design Preferences
Appendix D Concrete Frame Overwrites
Appendix E Error Messages and Warnings
References


1 - 1
Chapter 1
Introduction
The design of concrete frames is seamlessly integrated within the program. Ini-
tiation of the design process, along with control of various design parameters,
is accomplished using the Design menu.
Automated design at the object level is available for any one of a number of
user-selected design codes, as long as the structures have first been modeled
and analyzed by the program. Model and analysis data, such as material prop-
erties and member forces, are recovered directly from the model database, and
no additional user input is required if the design defaults are acceptable.
The design is based on a set of user-specified loading combinations. However,
the program provides default load combinations for each design code sup-
ported. If the default load combinations are acceptable, no definition of addi-
tional load combinations is required.
In the design of columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal and
shear reinforcement. However, the user may specify the longitudinal steel, in
which case a column capacity ratio is reported. The column capacity ratio gives
an indication of the stress condition with respect to the capacity of the column.
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

1 - 2 Organization
The biaxial column capacity check is based on the generation of consistent
three-dimensional interaction surfaces. It does not use any empirical formula-
tions that extrapolate uniaxial interaction curves to approximate biaxial action.
Interaction surfaces are generated for user-specified column reinforcing con-
figurations. The column configurations may be rectangular, square or circular,
with similar reinforcing patterns. The calculation of moment magnification
factors, unsupported lengths, and strength reduction factors is automated in the
algorithm.
Every beam member is designed for flexure, shear, and torsion at output sta-
tions along the beam span.
All beam-column joints are investigated for existing shear conditions.
For special moment resisting frames (ductile frames), the shear design of the
columns, beams, and joints is based on the probable moment capacities of the
members. Also, the program will produce ratios of the beam moment capacities
with respect to the column moment capacities, to investigate weak beam/strong
column aspects, including the effects of axial force.
Output data can be presented graphically on the model, in tables for both input
and output data, or on the calculation sheet prepared for each member. For
each presentation method, the output is in a format that allows the engineer to
quickly study the stress conditions that exist in the structure and, in the event
the member reinforcing is not adequate, aids the engineer in taking appropriate
remedial measures, including altering the design member without rerunning the
entire analysis.
1.1 Organization
This manual is designed to help you quickly become productive with the con-
crete frame design options of ACI 318-05/IBC 2006. Chapter 2 provides de-
tailed descriptions of the Deign Prerequisites used for ACI 318-05/IBC 2006.
Chapter 3 provides detailed descriptions of the code-specific process used for
ACI 318-05/IBC 2006. Chapter 4 documents the design output produced by
program. The appendices provide details on certain topics referenced in this
manual.

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Recommended Reading/Practice 1 - 3
1.2 Recommended Reading/Practice
It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applica-
ble “Watch & Learn” Series™ tutorials, which are found on our web site,
http://www.csiberkeley.com, before attempting to design a concrete frame.
Additional information can be found in the on-line Help facility available from
within the program’s main menu.

2 - 1
Chapter 2
Design Prerequisites
This chapter provides an overview of the basic assumptions, design precondi-
tions, and some of the design parameters that affect the design of concrete
frames.
In writing this manual it has been assumed that the user has an engineering
background in the general area of structural reinforced concrete design and fa-
miliarity with ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 codes.
2.1 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are used for determining the various combina-
tions of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed/checked.
The load combination factors to be used vary with the selected design code.
The load combination factors are applied to the forces and moments obtained
from the associated load cases and are then summed to obtain the factored de-
sign forces and moments for the load combination.
For multi-valued load combinations involving response spectrum, time history,
moving loads and multi-valued combinations (of type enveloping, square-root
of the sum of the squares or absolute) where any correspondence between in-
teracting quantities is lost, the program automatically produces multiple sub
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

2 - 2 Design Load Combinations
combinations using maxima/minima permutations of interacting quantities.
Separate combinations with negative factors for response spectrum cases are
not required because the program automatically takes the minima to be the
negative of the maxima for response spectrum cases and the above described
permutations generate the required sub combinations.
When a design combination involves only a single multi-valued case of time
history or moving load, further options are available. The program has an op-
tion to request that time history combinations produce sub combinations for
each time step of the time history. Also an option is available to request that
moving load combinations produce sub combinations using maxima and min-
ima of each design quantity but with corresponding values of interacting quan-
tities.
For normal loading conditions involving static dead load, live load, snow load,
wind load, and earthquake load, or dynamic response spectrum earthquake
load, the program has built-in default loading combinations for each design
code. These are based on the code recommendations and are documented for
each code in the corresponding manuals.
For other loading conditions involving moving load, time history, pattern live
loads, separate consideration of roof live load, snow load, and so on, the user
must define design loading combinations either in lieu of or in addition to the
default design loading combinations.
The default load combinations assume all load cases declared as dead load to
be additive. Similarly, all cases declared as live load are assumed additive.
However, each load case declared as wind or earthquake, or response spectrum
cases, is assumed to be non additive with each other and produces multiple lat-
eral load combinations. Also wind and static earthquake cases produce separate
loading combinations with the sense (positive or negative) reversed. If these
conditions are not correct, the user must provide the appropriate design com-
binations.
The default load combinations are included in design if the user requests them
to be included or if no other user-defined combination is available for concrete
design. If any default combination is included in design, all default combina-
tions will automatically be updated by the program any time the design code is
changed or if static or response spectrum load cases are modified.
Chapter 2 - Design Prerequisites

Seismic Load Effects 2 - 3
Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load
case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load
to the factored loading.
The user is cautioned that if moving load or time history results are not re-
quested to be recovered in the analysis for some or all of the frame members,
the effects of those loads will be assumed to be zero in any combination that
includes them.
2.2 Seismic Load Effects
IBC 2006 requires that all structural element design resist earthquake motions
in accordance with ASCE 7-05. The software allows users to activate Special
seismic load effects using appropriate commands on the Define menu. The
special seismic loads are computed in accordance with ASCE 7-05 sections
12.3.4 and 12.4.
By default, the program uses the reliability factor, ,  as 1.0 unless overwritten
by the user. The reliability factor, ,  and DL multiplier are automatically ap-
plied to all program default design combinations when the ACI 318-05/IBC
2006 code is selected. The DL multiplier represents the 0.2S
DS
factor in Equa-
tion 12.4-4 of ASCE 7-05. The program default value is 0.2. When seismic
load E is combined with the effects of other loads, the following load combina-
tion shall be used in lieu of the seismic load combinations in section 9.2.1 of
ACI 318-05.
(0.9 - 0.2S
DS
) D   E
(1.2 + 0.2S
DS
) D + 1.0L   E
(1.2 + 0.2S
DS
) D + 1.0L + 0.2S   E
Where specifically required, the program also applies the overstrength factor,
0
,  as follows:
(0.9 - 0.2S
DS
) D 
0
 E
(1.2 + 0.2S
DS
) D + 1.0L 
0
 E
(1.2 + 0.2S
DS
) D + 1.0L + 0.2S 
0
 E
The preceding combinations are marked as special combos when design details
are displayed in the program.
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

2 - 4 Design and Check Stations
2.3 Design and Check Stations
For each load combination, each element is designed or checked at a number of
locations along the length of the element. The locations are based on equally
spaced segments along the clear length of the element. The number of seg-
ments in an element is requested by the user before the analysis is performed.
The user can refine the design along the length of an element by requesting
more segments.
When using the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 design code, requirements for joint de-
sign at the beam-to-column connections are evaluated at the top most station of
each column. The program also performs a joint shear analysis at the same sta-
tion to determine if special considerations are required in any of the joint panel
zones. The ratio of the beam flexural capacities with respect to the column
flexural capacities considering axial force effect associated with the
weak-beam/strong-column aspect of any beam/column intersection are re-
ported.
2.4 Identifying Beams and Columns
In the program, all beams and columns are represented as frame elements, but
design of beams and columns requires separate treatment. Identification for a
concrete element is accomplished by specifying the frame section assigned to
the element to be of type beam or column. If any brace element exists in the
frame, the brace element also would be identified as a beam or a column ele-
ment, depending on the section assigned to the brace element.
2.5 Design of Beams
In the design of concrete beams, in general, the program calculates and reports
the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments,
shears, load combination factors, and other criteria, which are described in de-
tail in the code-specific manuals. The reinforcement requirements are calcu-
lated at a user-defined number of stations along the beam span.
All the beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear and torsion only.
Effects due to any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in
the beams must be investigated independently by the user.
Chapter 2 - Design Prerequisites

Design of Columns 2 - 5
In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular
section of a particular beam, the steps involve the determination of the maxi-
mum factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel. The
beam section is designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative
factored moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations. Nega-
tive beam moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is always de-
signed as a Rectangular section. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel.
In such cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular beam or a T beam.
For the design of flexural reinforcement, the beam is first designed as a singly
reinforced beam. If the beam section is not adequate, the required compression
reinforcement is calculated.
In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set
of loading combinations at a particular station due to the beam major shear, the
steps involve the determination of the factored shear force, the determination
of the shear force that can be resisted by concrete, and the determination of the
reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.
Special considerations for seismic design are incorporated into the program for
the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 code.
2.6 Design of Columns
In the design of the columns, the program calculates the required longitudinal
steel, or if the longitudinal steel is specified, the column stress condition is re-
ported in terms of a column capacity ratio, which is a factor that gives an indi-
cation of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the
column. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the
structure involves the following steps:
 Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the dif-
ferent concrete section types in the model.
 Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending
moments obtained from each loading combination at each end of the col-
umn. This step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none
was specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1.0.
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

2 - 6 Design of Joints
The generation of the interaction surface is based on the assumed strain and
stress distributions and some other simplifying assumptions. These stress and
strain distributions and the assumptions are documented in Chapter 3.
The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that
for beams, except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear capac-
ity must be considered.
For certain special seismic cases, the design of columns for shear is based on
the capacity shear. The capacity shear force in a particular direction is calcu-
lated from the moment capacities of the column associated with the factored
axial force acting on the column. For each load combination, the factored axial
load is calculated using the load cases and the corresponding load combination
factors. Then, the moment capacity of the column in a particular direction un-
der the influence of the axial force is calculated, using the uniaxial interaction
diagram in the corresponding direction as documented in Chapter 3.
2.7 Design of Joints
To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames pos-
sesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis of the
beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the
joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.
Only joints that have a column below the joint are designed. The material prop-
erties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the
joint. The joint analysis is performed in the major and the minor directions of
the column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:
 Determine the panel zone design shear force
 Determine the effective area of the joint
 Check panel zone shear stress
The joint design details are documented in Chapter 3.
Chapter 2 - Design Prerequisites

P-Delta Effects 2 - 7
2.8 P-Delta Effects
The program design process requires that the analysis results include P-delta
effects. The P-delta effects are considered differently for “braced” or
“non-sway” and “unbraced” or “sway” components of moments in columns or
frames. For the braced moments in columns, the effect of P-delta is limited to
“individual member stability.” For unbraced components, “lateral drift effects”
should be considered in addition to individual member stability effect. The
program assumes that “braced” or “nonsway” moments are contributed from
the “dead” or “live” loads, whereas, “unbraced” or “sway” moments are con-
tributed from all other types of loads.
For the individual member stability effects, the moments are magnified with
moment magnification factors, as documented in Chapter 3 of this manual.
For lateral drift effects, the program assumes that the P-delta analysis is per-
formed and that the amplification is already included in the results. The mo-
ments and forces obtained from P-delta analysis are further amplified for
individual column stability effect if required by the governing code, as in the
ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 codes.
Users of the program should be aware that the default analysis option is turned
OFF for P-delta effect. The user can turn the P-delta analysis ON and set the
maximum number of iterations for the analysis. The default number of iteration
for P-delta analysis is 1. Further details about P-delta analysis are provided in
Appendix A of this design manual.
2.9 Element Unsupported Lengths
To account for column slenderness effects, the column unsupported lengths are
required. The two unsupported lengths are l
33
and l
22
. These are the lengths be-
tween support points of the element in the corresponding directions. The length
l
33
corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis), and l
22
corresponds
to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis).
Normally, the unsupported element length is equal to the length of the element,
i.e., the distance between END-I and END-J of the element. The program,
however, allows users to assign several elements to be treated as a single
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

2 - 8 Choice of Input Units
member for design. This can be accomplished differently for major and minor
bending, as documented in Appendix B of this design manual.
The user has options to specify the unsupported lengths of the elements on an
element-by-element basis.
2.10 Choice of Input Units
English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The codes
are based on a specific system of units. All equations and descriptions pre-
sented in the subsequent chapters correspond to that specific system of units
unless otherwise noted. For example, the ACI code is published in
inch-pound-second units. By default, all equations and descriptions presented
in the “Design Process” chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units. How-
ever, any system of units can be used to define and design a structure in the
program.

3 - 1
Chapter 3
Design Process
This chapter provides a detailed description of the code-specific algorithms
used in the design of concrete frames when the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 codes
have been selected. For simplicity, all equations and descriptions presented in
this chapter correspond to inch-lbs-second units unless otherwise noted.
3.1 Notation
The various notations used in this chapter are described herein:
A
cp

Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section, in
2
A
cv

Area of concrete used to determine shear stress, in
2

A
g

Gross area of concrete, in
2

A
o

Gross area enclosed by shear flow path, in
2

A
oh

Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse
torsional reinforcement, in
2

A
s

Area of tension reinforcement, in
2

A'
s

Area of compression reinforcement, in
2

Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 2 Notation
A
l

Area of longitudinal torsion reinforcement, in
2

A
t
/s
Area of transverse torsion reinforcement (closed stirrups) per unit
length of the member, in
2
/in
A
s(required)

Area of steel required for tension reinforcement, in
2

A
st

Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement, in
2

A
v

Area of shear reinforcement, in
2

A
v
/s
Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member, in
2
/in
C
m

Coefficient, dependent upon column curvature, used to calculate
moment magnification factor
E
c

Modulus of elasticity of concrete, psi
E
s

Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement, assumed as 29x10
06
psi
I
g

Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis,
neglecting reinforcement, in
4

I
se

Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of
member cross section, in
4

L
Clear unsupported length, in
M
a

Smaller factored end moment in a column, lb-in
M
b

Larger factored end moment in a column, lb-in
M
c

Factored moment to be used in design, lb-in
M
ns

Non-sway component of factored end moment, lb-in
M
s

Sway component of factored end moment, lb-in
M
u

Factored moment at a section, lb-in
M
u2

Factored moment at a section about 2-axis, lb-in
M
u3

Factored moment at a section about 3-axis, lb-in
P
b

Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions, lb
P
c

Critical buckling strength of column, lb
P
max

Maximum axial load strength allowed, lb
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Notation 3 - 3
P
0

Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity, lb
P
u

Factored axial load at a section, lb
V
c

Shear force resisted by concrete, lb
V
E

Shear force caused by earthquake loads, lb
V
D+L

Shear force from span loading, lb
V
max

Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section, lb
V
p

Shear force computed from probable moment capacity, lb
V
s

Shear force resisted by steel, lb
V
u

Factored shear force at a section, lb
a
Depth of compression block, in
a
b

Depth of compression block at balanced condition, in
a
max

Maximum allowed depth of compression block, in
b
Width of member, in
b
f

Effective width of flange (T beam section), in
b
w

Width of web (T beam section), in
c
Depth to neutral axis, in
c
b

Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions, in
d
Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement, in
d'
Concrete cover to center of reinforcing, in
d
s

Thickness of slab (T beam section), in
f'
c

Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
f
y

Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement, psi. The value
of f
y
used in design calculation is limited to a torsional longitudi-
nal reinforcement of 80,000 psi for both tension and compression
(ACI 9.4).
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 4 Design Load Combinations
f
ys

Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement, psi. The value of
f
ys
used in design calculations is limited to 60,000 psi for both
shear and torsion (ACI 9.4, 11.5.2, 11.6.3.4, 21.2.5) .
h
Overall depth of a column section, in
k
Effective length factor
p
cp

Outside perimeter of the concrete cross-section, in
p
h

Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional
reinforcement, in
r
Radius of gyration of column section, in
o
Reinforcing steel overstrength factor
|
1

Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete
|
d

Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to
maximum factored axial total load
o
s

Moment magnification factor for sway moments
o
ns

Moment magnification factor for non-sway moments
c
c

Strain in concrete
c
c, max

Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete
fiber (0.003 in/in)
c
s

Strain in reinforcing steel
c
s, min

Minimum tensile strain allowed in steel rebar at nominal strength
for tension controlled behavior (0.005 in/in)
|
Strength reduction factor
3.2 Design Load Combinations
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed
response cases for which the structure is to be checked. The program creates a
number of default design load combinations for a concrete frame design. Users
can add their own design load combinations as well as modify or delete the
program default design load combinations. An unlimited number of design
load combinations can be specified.
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Design Load Combinations 3 - 5
To define a design load combination, simply specify one or more response
cases, each with its own scale factor. The scale factors are applied to the forces
and moments from the analysis cases to form the factored design forces and
moments for each design load combination. There is one exception to the pre-
ceding. For spectral analysis modal combinations, any correspondence between
the signs of the moments and axial loads is lost. The program uses eight design
load combinations for each such loading combination specified, reversing the
sign of axial loads and moments in major and minor directions.
As an example, if a structure is subjected to dead load, DL, and live load, LL,
only, the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 design check may need one design load com-
bination only, namely, 1.2 DL +1.6 LL. However, if the structure is subjected
to wind, earthquake, or other loads, numerous additional design load combina-
tions may be required.
The program allows live load reduction factors to be applied to the member
forces of the reducible live load case on a member-by-member basis to reduce
the contribution of the live load to the factored responses.
The design load combinations are the various combinations of the analysis
cases for which the structure needs to be checked. For this code, if a structure is
subjected to dead load (D), live load (L), pattern live load (PL), wind (W),
earthquake (E), and snow (S) loads, and considering that wind and earthquake
forces are reversible, the following load combinations may need to be defined
(ACI 9.2.1):
1.4D (ACI 9-1)
1.2D + 1.6L (ACI 9-2)
1.2D + 1.6(0.75 PL) (ACI 13.7.6.3)
0.9D ± 1.6W
1.2D + 1.0L ± 1.6W
(ACI 9-6)
(ACI 9-4)
0.9D ± 1.0E
1.2D + 1.0L ± 1.0E
(ACI 9-7)
(ACI 9-5)
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 6 Column Design
1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5S
1.2D + 1.0L + 1.6S
1.2D + 1.6S ± 0.8W
1.2D + 1.0L + 0.5S ± 1.6W
1.2D + 1.0L + 0.2S ± 1.0E
(ACI 9-2)
(ACI 9-3)
(ACI 9-3)
(ACI 9-4)
(ACI 9-5)

These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever
the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 code is used. The user should use other appropriate
design load combinations if roof live load is separately treated, or if other types
of loads are present. PLL is the live load multiplied by the Pattern Live Load
Factor. The Pattern Live Load Factor can be specified in the Preferences.
Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load
analysis on a member-by-member basis to reduce the contribution of the live
load to the factored loading.
When using the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 code, the program design assumes that
a P-delta analysis has been performed.
3.3 Column Design
The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. If the
geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section
has been defined, the program will check the column capacity. Alternatively,
the program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the
column based on provided reinforcing bar configuration. The reinforcement
requirements are calculated or checked at a use-defined number of
check/design stations along the column span. The design procedure for the re-
inforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps:
 Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the
different concrete section types of the model. A typical biaxial interacting
diagram is shown in Figure 3-1. For reinforcement to be designed, the
program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable re-
inforcement; 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate Moment Re-
sisting Frames (ACI 10.9.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special Moment
Resisting Frames (ACI 21.4.3.1).
 Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the fac-
tored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Column Design 3 - 7
each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capac-
ity ratio is taken as the Utilization Factor Limit when calculating the re-
quired reinforcing area.
 Design the column shear reinforcement.
The following four sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
3.3.1 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces
The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of
discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure
surface. In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending, the formulation
allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations. A typical interac-
tion surface is shown in Figure 3-1.

Figure 3-1 A typical column interaction surface
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 8 Column Design
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c

Figure 3-2 Idealized strain distribution for generation of interaction surface

The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear
strain in three dimensions on the section of the column, as shown in Figure 3-2.
The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain, c
c
, at the extrem-
ity of the section, to 0.003 (ACI 10.2.3).
The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate
strength design (ACI 10.3).
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Column Design 3 - 9
The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel
modulus of elasticity, c
s
E
s
, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, f
y
(ACI
10.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed
at the actual location of the center of the bar, and the algorithm does not as-
sume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of steel
over the cross-section of the column, as shown in Figure 3-2.
The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a
stress value of 0.85f'
c
(ACI 10.2.7.1), as shown in Figure 3-3. The interaction
algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced
by the reinforcement in the compression zone. The depth of the equivalent rec-
tangular block, a, is taken as:
a = |
1
c (ACI 10.2.7.3)
where c is the depth of the stress block in compression strain and,
|
1
= 0.85 ÷ 0.05
'
4000
1000
c
f | | ÷
|
\ .
, 0.65 s |
1
s 0.85. (ACI 10.2.7.3)
The effect of the strength reduction factor, |, is included in the generation of
the interaction surface. The value of | used in the interaction diagram varies
from compression controlled | to tension controlled | based on the maximum
tensile strain in the reinforcing at the extreme edge, c
t
(ACI 9.3.2.2).
Sections are considered compression controlled when the tensile strain in the
extreme tension steel is equal to or less than the compression controlled strain
limit at the time the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of
c
c.max
, which is 0.003. The compression controlled strain limit is the tensile
strain in the reinforcement at balanced strain condition, which is taken as the
yield strain of the steel reinforcing,
y
f
E
(ACI 10.3.3).
Sections are tension controlled when the tensile strain in the extreme tension
steel is equal to or greater than 0.005, just as the concrete in compression
reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.003 (ACI 10.3.4).
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 10 Column Design
Concrete Section Strain Diagram Stress Diagram Concrete Section Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

Figure 3-3 Idealization of stress and strain distribution in a column section
Sections with c
t
between the two limits are considered to be in a transition re-
gion between compression controlled and tension controlled sections (ACI
10.3.4).
When the section is tension controlled, a | factor for tension-control is used.
When the section is compression controlled, a | factor for compression control
is used. When the section is within the transition region, | is linearly interpo-
lated between the two values (ACI 9.3.2), as shown in the following:
( )
if
0 005
if 0 005
0 005
if 0 005 where
c t y
t
c t t c y t
y
t
.
. ,
.
. ,
| c c
c
| | | | c c
c
| c
¦ s
¦
÷ | | ¦
= ÷ ÷ < s
´
|
÷
¦ \ .
¦
>
¹
(ACI 9.3.2)
|
t
= | for tension controlled sections,
which is 0.90 by default (ACI 9.3.2.1)
|
c
= | for compression controlled sections
= 0.70 (by default) for column sections
with spiral reinforcement (ACI 9.3.2.2a)
= 0.65 (by default) for column sections
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Column Design 3 - 11
with tied reinforcement (ACI 9.3.2.1)
Default values for |
c
and |
t
are provided by the program but can be overwritten
using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command.
The maximum compressive axial load is limited to | P
n(max)
, where
|P
n(max)
= 0.85| [0.85f
'
c
(A
g
÷ A
st
) + f
y
A
st
], spiral (ACI 10.3.6.1)
|P
n(max)
= 0.80| [0.85 f
'
c
(A
g
÷ A
st
) + f
y
A
st
], tied (ACI 10.3.6.2)
In calculating the| P
n(max)
, the | for a compression controlled case is used.
3.3.2 Calculate Column Capacity Ratio
The column capacity ratio is calculated for each design load combination at
each output station of each column. The following steps are involved in calcu-
lating the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular design load
combination at a particular location:
 Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis cases and the
specified load combination factors to give P
u
, M
u2
, and M
u3
.
 Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments.
 Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Deter-
mine whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial
moment set, lies within the interaction volume.
The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the
identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway.”
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
that process.
3.3.2.1 Determine Factored Moments and Forces
The loads for a particular design load combination are obtained by applying the
corresponding factors to all of the analysis cases, giving P
u
, M
u2
, and M
u3
. The
factored moments are further increased, if required, to obtain minimum eccen-
tricities of (0.6 + 0.03h) inches, where h is the dimension of the column in the
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 12 Column Design
corresponding direction (ACI 10.12.3.2). The minimum eccentricity is applied
in only one direction at a time.
3.3.2.2 Determine Moment Magnification Factors
The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall
stability effect), o
s
, and for non-sway (individual column stability effect), o
ns
.
Also, the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are,
in general, different (ACI R10.12.1, R10.13).
The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the
sway M
s
and the non-sway M
ns
components. The non-sway components, which
are identified by “ns” subscripts, are primarily caused by gravity load. The
sway components are identified by the “s” subscript. The sway moments are
primarily caused by lateral loads and are related to the cause of sidesway.
For individual columns or column-members, the magnified moments about two
axes at any station of a column can be obtained as
M = M
ns
+o
s
M
s
(ACI 10.3.3)
The factor o
s
is the moment magnification factor for moments causing
side-sway. The program takes this factor to be 1 because the component mo-
ments M
s
and M
ns
are assumed to be obtained from a second order elastic ( P-A )
analysis (ACI R10.10, 10.10.1, R10.13, 10.13.4.1). For more information about
P-A analysis, refer to Appendix A.
For the P-A analysis, the analysis combination should correspond to a load of
1.2 (dead load) + 1.6 (live load) (ACI 10.13.6). See also White and Hajjar
(1991). The user should use reduction factors for the moments of inertia in the
program as specified in ACI 10.11.1. The moment of inertia reduction for sus-
tained lateral load involves a factor |
d
(ACI 10.11.1). This |
d
for sway frames
in second-order analysis is different from the one that is defined later for
non-sway moment magnification (ACI 2.1, R10.12.3, R10.13.4.1). The default
moment of inertia factor in this program is 1.
The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability
effect (ACI 10.12.3, 10.13.5) by the non-sway moment magnification factor,
o
ns
, as follows:
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Column Design 3 - 13
M
c
= o
ns
M (ACI 10.12.3)
M
c
is the factored moment to be used in design.
The non-sway moment magnification factor, o
ns
, associated with the major or
minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10.12.3)

1.0,
1
0.75
o = >
÷
m
ns
u
c
C
P
P
where (ACI 10.12.3)
0.6 0.4 0.4, = + >
a
m
b
M
C
M
(ACI 10.12.3)
M
a
and M
b
are the moments at the ends of the column, and M
b
is numerically
larger than M
a
. M
a
/M
b
is positive for single curvature bending and negative for
double curvature bending. The preceding expression of C
m
is valid if there is no
transverse load applied between the supports. If transverse load is present on
the span, or the length is overwritten, C
m
= 1. The user can overwrite C
m
on an
object-by-object basis.
( )
2
2 c
u
EI
P
kl
t
= (ACI 10.12.3)
k is conservatively taken as 1; however, the program allows the user to over-
write this value (ACI 10.12.1). l
u
is the unsupported length of the column for
the direction of bending considered. The two unsupported lengths are l
22
and l
33
,
corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the object, re-
spectively, as shown in Figure B-1 in Appendix B. These are the lengths be-
tween the support points of the object in the corresponding directions.
Refer to Appendix B for more information about how the program automati-
cally determines the unsupported lengths. The program allows users to over-
write the unsupported length ratios, which are the ratios of the unsupported
lengths for the major and minor axes bending to the overall member length.
EI is associated with a particular column direction:
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 14 Column Design

0.4
1
c g
d
E I
EI
|
=
+
(ACI 10.12.3)

maximumfactored axial sustained (dead) load
maximumfactored axial total load
d
| = (ACI 2.1, R10.12.3)
The magnification factor, o
ns
, must be a positive number and greater than one.
Therefore, P
u
must be less than 0.75P
c
. If P
u
is found to be greater than or equal
to 0.75P
c
, a failure condition is declared.
The preceding calculations are performed for major and minor directions sepa-
rately. That means that o
n
, o
ns
, C
m
, k, l
u
, EI, and P
c
assume different values for
major and minor directions of bending.
If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member, the
user can explicitly specify values of o
n
and o
ns
.
3.3.2.3 Determine Capacity Ratio
As a measure of the stress condition of the column, a capacity ratio is calcu-
lated. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the
stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.
Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity, the mo-
ment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain P
u
, M
u2
,
and M
u3
. The point (P
u
, M
u2
, M
u3
) is then placed in the interaction space shown
as point L in Figure 3-4. If the point lies within the interaction volume, the
column capacity is adequate. However, if the point lies outside the interaction
volume, the column is overstressed.
This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the lo-
cation of point C. Point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended
outwards) will intersect the failure surface. This point is determined by
three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure
surface, as shown in Figure 3-4. The capacity ratio, CR, is given by the ratio
OL/OC.
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Column Design 3 - 15

Figure 3-4 Geometric representation of column capacity ratio
 If OL = OC (or CR = 1), the point lies on the interaction surface and the
column is stressed to capacity.
 If OL < OC (or CR < 1), the point lies within the interaction volume and
the column capacity is adequate.
 If OL > OC (or CR > 1), the point lies outside the interaction volume and
the column is overstressed.
The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each design load com-
bination is reported for each check station of the column along with the con-
trolling P
u
, M
u2
, and M
u3
set and associated design load combination name.
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 16 Column Design
3.3.3 Required Reinforcing Area
If the reinforcing area is not defined, the program computes the reinforcement
that will give a column capacity ratio equal to the Utilization Factor Limit,
which is set to 0.95 by default.
3.3.4 Design Column Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each design combination in the major
and minor directions of the column. The following steps are involved in de-
signing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular design
load combination resulting from shear forces in a particular direction:
 Determine the factored forces acting on the section, P
u
and V
u
. Note that
P
u
is needed for the calculation of V
c
.
 Determine the shear force, V
c
, which can be resisted by concrete alone.
 Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.
For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames), the
shear design of the columns is also based on the maximum probable moment
strengths and the nominal moment strengths of the members, respectively, in
addition to the factored shear forces (IBC 2006, ACI 21.4.5.1, 21.12.3). Col-
umns of Ordinary moment frames that have a clear-height-to-maximum-
plan-dimension ratio of 5 or less and that are assigned a Seismic Design Cate-
gory B are designed for capacity shear force in addition to the factored shear
force (IBC 1910.3.1, ACI 21.12.3). Effects of the axial forces on the column
moment capacities are included in the formulation.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
3.3.4.1 Determine Section Forces
 In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment
resisting concrete frame, the forces for a particular design load combina-
tion, namely, the column axial force, P
u
, and the column shear force, V
u
,
in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the analysis cases with
the corresponding design load combination factors.
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Column Design 3 - 17
 For stations located less than a distance d from the ends of the column,
the design is performed for the same shear V
u
as that computed at a dis-
tance d (ACI 11.1.3.1). The shear force V
u
is calculated at a distance d by
interpolating between stations.
 For Ordinary moment resisting frames that are assigned a Seismic Design
Category B and columns for which the design has a clear-span-
to-maximum-plan-dimension ratio of 5 or less, the shear design of those
columns is similar to that of an Intermediate moment resisting frame (IBC
2006, ACI 21.12.3)
 In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i.e., seismic de-
sign), the shear capacity of the column is checked for capacity shear in
addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames.
The capacity shear force in the column, V
u
, is determined from considera-
tion of the maximum forces that can be generated at the column. Two
different capacity shears are calculated for each direction (major and mi-
nor). The first is based on the probable moment strength of the column,
while the second is computed from the probable moment strengths of the
beams framing into the column. The design strength is taken as the
minimum of these two values, but never less than the factored shear ob-
tained from the design load combination.
V
u
= min{
c
e
V ,
b
e
V } > V
u
,
factored
(ACI 21.4.5.1, IBC 2006)
where
c
e
V = Capacity shear force of the column based on the probable
maximum flexural strengths of the two ends of the column.
b
e
V = Capacity shear force of the column based on the probable
moment strengths of the beams framing into the column.
In calculating the capacity shear of the column, ,
c
e
V the maximum probable
flexural strength at the two ends of the column is calculated for the existing
factored axial load. Clockwise rotation of the joint at one end and the associ-
ated counter-clockwise rotation of the other joint produces one shear force. The
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 18 Column Design
reverse situation produces another capacity shear force, and both of these situa-
tions are checked, with the maximum of these two values taken as the .
c
e
V
For each design load combination, the factored axial load, P
u
, is calculated.
Then, the maximum probable positive and negative moment capacities,
pr
M
+
and ,
÷
pr
M of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the
axial force P
u
is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corre-
sponding direction. Then the capacity shear force is obtained by applying the
calculated maximum probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of
the column acting in two opposite directions. Therefore,
c
e
V is the maximum of
1
c
e
V and
2
,
c
e
V ,

{ }
1 2
max ,
c c c
e e e
V V V = (ACI 21.4.5.1, R21.4.5.1, Fig. 21.3.4)
where,

1
I
J c
e
M M
V
L
÷ +
+
= , (ACI 21.4.5.1, Fig. R21.3.4)

2
c I J
e
M M
V
L
+ ÷
+
= , (ACI 21.4.5.1, Fig. R21.3.4)
,
I I
M M
+ ÷
= Positive and negative probable maximum moment capacities
( )
,
p p
M M
¸ ¸
+ ÷
at end I of the column using a steel yield stress
value of of
y
and no reduction factor (¢ =1.0),
,
J J
M M
+ ÷
= Positive and negative probable maximum moment capacities
( )
,
p p
M M
¸ ¸
+ ÷
at end J of the column using a steel yield stress
value of of
y
and no reduction factor (¢ =1.0), and
L = Clear span of the column.
The probable moment capacities are determined using a strength reduction
factor of 1.0 and the reinforcing steel stress equal to o

f
y
, where o is set equal
to 1.25 (ACI 2.1, 21.4.5.1, Fig. R21.3.4, R21.4.5.1). If the column section was
identified as a section to be checked, the user-specified reinforcing is used for
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Column Design 3 - 19
the interaction curve. If the column section was identified as a section to be de-
signed, the reinforcing area envelope is calculated after completing the flexural
(P-M-M) design of the column. This envelope of reinforcing area is used for
the interaction curve.
If the column section is a variable (non-prismatic) section, the cross-sections at
the two ends are used, along with the user-specified reinforcing or the envelope
of reinforcing for check or design sections, as appropriate. If the user over-
writes the length factor, the full span length is used. However, if the length
factor is not overwritten by the user, the clear span length will be used. In the
latter case, the maximum of the negative and positive moment capacities will
be used for both the positive and negative moment capacities in determining
the capacity shear.
In calculating the capacity shear of the column based on the flexural strength of
the beams framing into it,
b
e
V , the program calculates the maximum probable
positive and negative moment capacities of each beam framing into the top
joint of the column. Then the sum of the beam moments is calculated as a re-
sistance to joint rotation. Both clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations are
considered separately, as well as the rotation of the joint in both the major and
minor axis directions of the column. The shear force in the column is deter-
mined assuming that the point of inflection occurs at mid-span of the columns
above and below the joint. The effects of load reversals are investigated and the
design is based on the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two
cases.
{ }
1 2
max ,
b b b
e e e
V V V = (ACI 21.4.5.1)
where,
=
1 e
V Column capacity shear for clockwise joint rotation,
=
2 e
V Column capacity shear for counter-clockwise joint rotation,
H
M
V
r
e
1
1
= .
It should be noted that the points of inflection shown in Figure 3-5 are taken at
midway between actual lateral support points for the columns, and H is taken
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 20 Column Design
as the mean of the two column heights. If there is no column at the top of the
joint, H is taken to be equal to one-half of the height of the column below the
joint.
2
2
=
r
e
M
V
H
,
=
1 r
M Sum of beam moment resistances with clockwise joint rotations,
=
2 r
M Sum of beam moment resistances with counter-clockwise joint
rotations, and
= H Distance between the inflection points, which is equal to the mean
height of the columns above and below the joint. If there is no
column at the top of the joint, the distance is taken as one-half of
the height of the column at the bottom of the joint.
For the case shown in Figure 3-5,
1 e
V can be calculated as follows:
H
M M
V
R
u
L
u
e
+
=
1

The expression for
b
e
V is applicable for the determination of both the major
and minor direction shear forces. The calculated shear force is used for the de-
sign of the column below the joint. When beams are not oriented along the
major and minor axes of the column, appropriate components of the flexural
capacities are used. If the beam is oriented at an angle u with the column major
axis, appropriate component, M
pr
cosu or M
pr
sinu, of the beam flux capacity is
used in calculating M
r1
and M
r2
. Also the positive and negative moment capaci-
ties are used appropriately based on the orientation of the beam with respect to
the column local axis.
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Column Design 3 - 21

Figure 3-5 Column shear force V
u


 For Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames, the shear capacity of the
column is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal mo-
ment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads, in addition to
the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design
shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (| =
1.0) moment capacity and modified factored shear force.
{ }
,
min ,
u e ef u factored
V V V V = > (ACI 21.12.3, R21.12, IBC 2006)
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 22 Column Design
where, V
e
is the capacity shear force in the column determined from the nomi-
nal moment capacities of the column and the beams framing into it.
min ,
c b
e e e
V V V
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
(ACI 21.12.3, Fig. R21.12.3)
where,
c
e
V is the capacity shear force of the column based on the nominal flex-
ural strength of the column ends alone.
b
e
V is the capacity shear force of the
column based on the nominal strengths of the beams framing into it. The cal-
culation of
c
e
V and
b
e
V is the same as that described for special moment resisting
frames, except that in determining the flexural strengths of the column and the
beams, the nominal capacities are used. In that case, | is taken as 1.0 as be-
fore, but o is taken as 1.0 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.12.3, Fig. R21.12.3).
V
ef
is the shear force in the column obtained from the modified design load
combinations. In that case, the factored design forces (P
u
, V
u
, M
u
) are based on
the specified design load factors, except that the earthquake load factors are
doubled (ACI 21.12.3b). When designing for this modified shear force, the
modified P
u
and M
u
are used for calculating concrete shear strength. However,
the modified P
u
and M
u
are not used for the P-M-M interaction.
In designing for V
e
, the factored P
u
and M
u
are used for calculating concrete
shear strength. In no case is the column designed for a shear force less than the
original factored shear force.
 For Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames that are assigned a Seismic De-
sign Category B and columns for which the clear-height-to-maximum-
plan-dimension ratio is 5 or less, the shear capacity for those columns is
checked based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the fac-
tored gravity loads, in addition to the check required for other Ordinary
moment resisting frames (IBC 2006, ACI 21.12.3). This special case is
similar to the Intermediate moment resisting frames. The design shear
force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal (| = 1.0)
moment capacity and modified factored shear force.
{ }
,
min ,
u e ef u factored
V V V V = > (ACI 21.12.3, R21.12, IBC 2006)
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Column Design 3 - 23
V
e
, V
ef
, and V
u,factored
are calculated exactly in the same way as that for a column
in an Intermediate moment resisting frame.
3.3.4.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
Given the design force set P
u
and V
u
, the shear force carried by the concrete, V
c
,
is calculated as follows:
 If the column is subjected to axial compression, i.e., P
u
is positive,
cv
g
u
c c
A
A
P
f V
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
000 , 2
1 2
'
, where (ACI 11.3.1.2)
'
3.5 1
500
u
c c cv
g
P
V f A
A
| |
s + |
|
\ .
(ACI 11.3.2.2)
The term
u
g
P
A
must have psi units.
cv
A is the effective shear area, which is
shown shaded in Figure 3-6. For circular columns,
cv
A is taken to be equal to
the gross area of the section (ACI 11.3.3, R11.3.3).
If the column is subjected to axial tension, P
u
is negative
'
2 1 0
500
u
c c cv
g
P
V f A
A
| |
= + >
|
|
\ .
(ACI 11.3.2.3)
 For Special Moment Resisting Concrete Frame design, if the factored ax-
ial compressive force, P
u
, including the earthquake effect, is small
( )
'
20
u c g
P f A < , if the shear force contribution from earthquake, V
E
, is
more than half of the total factored maximum shear force
( ) 0.5
u E u
V V V > over the length of the member, and if the station is
within a distance l
o
from the face of the joint, then the concrete capacity
V
c
is taken as zero (ACI 21.4.5.2). Note that for capacity shear design, V
e

is considered to be contributed solely by earthquakes, so the second con-
dition is automatically satisfied. The length l
o
is taken as the section
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 24 Column Design
width, one-sixth the clear span of the column, or 18 in, whichever is lar-
ger (ACI 21.4.5.2; 21.4.4.4).
RECTANGULAR
d
d'
b
d
d'
b
cv
A
SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR
cv
A
cv
A
CIRCULAR
d
d'
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
RECTANGULAR
d
d'
b
d
d'
b
cv
A
SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR
cv
A
cv
A
cv
A
CIRCULAR
d
d'
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
RECTANGULAR
d
d'
b
d
d'
b
cv
A
SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR
cv
A
cv
A
CIRCULAR
d
d'
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
RECTANGULAR
d
d'
b
d
d'
b
cv
A
SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR
cv
A
cv
A
cv
A
CIRCULAR
d
d'
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE
DIRECTION
OF SHEAR
FORCE

Figure 3-6 Shear stress area,
cv
A
3.3.4.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
Given V
u
and V
c
, the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties
within a spacing, s, is given for rectangular and circular columns by the fol-
lowing:
 The shear force is limited to a maximum of
( )
'
max
8
c c cv
V V f A = + (ACI 11.5.7.9)
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Column Design 3 - 25
 The required shear reinforcement per unit spacing, A
v
/s, is calculated as
follows:
If ( ) 2 , | s
u c
V V
0, =
v
A
s
(ACI 11.5.6.1)
else if ( )
max
2 , | | < s
c u
V V V
( )
u c
v
ys
V V
A
s f d
|
|
÷
= , (ACI 11.5.7.1, 11.5.7.2)
'
0.75
50
max ,
c
v
w w
y y
f A
b b
s f f
| |
|
>
|
\ .
(ACI 11.5.6.3)
else if
max
, | >
u
V V
a failure condition is declared. (ACI 11.5.7.9)
In the preceding expressions, for a rectangular section,
w
b is the width of the
column, d is the effective depth of the column, and
cv
A is the effective shear
area, which is equal to
w
b d . For a circular section,
w
b is replaced with D, which
is the external diameter of the column, and d is replaced with 0.8D and
cv
A is
replaced with the gross area
2
4
D t
(ACI 11.5.7.3, 11.3.3, R11.3.3).
In the preceding expressions, the strength reduction factor | is taken by default
as 0.75 for non-seismic cases (ACI 9.3.2.3), and as 0.60 for seismic cases (ACI
9.3.4.a). However, those values can be overwritten by the user, if so desired.
If V
u
exceeds its maximum permitted value |V
max
, the concrete section size
should be increased (ACI 11.5.7.9).
The maximum of all the calculated
v
A s values, obtained from each design
load combination, are reported for the major and minor directions of the col-
umn, along with the controlling combination name.
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 26 Beam Design
The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are
based purely on shear strength consideration. Any minimum stirrup require-
ments to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumetric
considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.
3.4 Beam Design
In the design of concrete beams, the program calculates and reports the re-
quired areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments, shear
forces, torsions, design load combination factors, and other criteria described in
the text that follows. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a
user-defined number of check/design stations along the beam span.
All beams are designed for major direction flexure, shear and torsion only.
Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may
exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user.
The beam design procedure involves the following steps:
 Design flexural reinforcement
 Design shear reinforcement
 Design torsion reinforcement
3.4.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement
The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations
along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural
reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular sec-
tion:
 Determine the maximum factored moments
 Determine the reinforcing steel
3.4.1.1 Determine Factored Moments
In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special, Intermediate, or Ordinary
moment resisting concrete frame beams, the factored moments for each design
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Beam Design 3 - 27
load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the
corresponding moments for different analysis cases with the corresponding de-
sign load combination factors.
The beam section is then designed for the factored moments obtained from all
of the design load combinations. Positive moments produce bottom steel. In
such cases, the beam may be designed as a Rectangular or a T beam. Negative
moments produce top steel. In such cases, the beam is always designed as a
rectangular section.
3.4.1.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement
In the flexural reinforcement design process, the program calculates both the
tension and compression reinforcement. Compression reinforcement is added
when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a
singly reinforced section. The user has the option of avoiding the compression
reinforcement by increasing the effective depth, the width, or the grade of con-
crete.
The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block, as
shown in Figure 3-7 (ACI 10.2). Furthermore, it is assumed that the net tensile
strain of the reinforcing steel shall not be less than 0.005 (tension controlled)
(ACI 10.3.4). When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this
design condition, the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the
assumption that the additional moment will be carried by compression and ad-
ditional tension reinforcement.
The design procedure used by the program for both rectangular and flanged
sections (T beams) is summarized in the following subsections. It is assumed
that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed |(
'
0.1
c g
f A ) (ACI 10.3.5);
hence, all of the beams are designed ignoring axial force.
3.4.1.2.1 Design for Rectangular Beam
In designing for a factored negative or positive moment, M
u
(i.e., designing top
or bottom steel), the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure
3-7), where,
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 28 Beam Design
2
'
2
0.85
u
c
M
a d d
f b |
= ÷ ÷ , (ACI 10.2)
where, the value | is taken as that for a tension controlled section, which is
0.90 by default (ACI 9.3.2.1) in the preceding and the following equations.

A
s
Beam Section Strain Diagram Stress Diagram
A
s
Beam Section Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

Figure 3-7 Rectangular beam design
The maximum depth of the compression zone, c
max
, is calculated based on the
limitation that the tensile steel tension shall not be less than c
s,min
, which is equal
to 0.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.3.4):
max
max
, max , min
c
c s
c d
c
c c
=
+
where, (ACI 10.2.2)
c
c,max
= 0.003 (ACI 10.2.3)
c
s,min
= 0.005 (ACI 10.3.4)
The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, a
max
, is
given by
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Beam Design 3 - 29
max 1 max
a c | = (ACI 10.2.7.1)
where |
1
is calculated as follows:
'
1
4000
0.85 0.05
1000
|
| |
÷
= ÷
|
|
\ .
c
f
, 0.65 s |
1
s 0.85 (ACI 10.2.7.3)
 If a s a
max
(ACI 10.3.4, 10.3.5), the area of tensile steel reinforcement
is then given by
2
u
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
=
| |
÷
|
\ .

This steel is to be placed at the bottom if M
u
is positive, or at the top if M
u

is negative.
 If a > a
max
, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.4, 10.3.5) and
is calculated as follows:
The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by
'
max
0.85 , =
c
C f ba (ACI 10.2.7.1)
the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is
max
.
2
|
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
uc
a
M C d
Therefore, the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is
. = ÷
us u uc
M M M
So the required compression steel is given by
( )( )
'
' ' '
0.85
us
s
s c
M
A
f f d d |
=
÷ ÷
, where
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 30 Beam Design
'
' max
max
max
. c
( ÷
= s
(
¸ ¸
s s c y
c d
f E f
c
(ACI 10.2.2, 10.2.3, 10.2.4)
The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is
1
max
2
us
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
=
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
, and
the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by
( )
2
'
us
s
y
M
A
f d d |
=
÷

Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement is A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
, and the total
compression reinforcement is
'
s
A . A
s
is to be placed at the bottom and
'
s
A
is to be placed at the top if M
u
is positive, and
'
s
A
is to be placed at the
bottom and A
s
is to be placed at the top if M
u
is negative.
3.4.1.2.2 Design for T Beam
In designing a T beam, a simplified stress block, as shown in Figure 3-8, is as-
sumed if the flange is under compression, i.e., if the moment is positive. If the
moment is negative, the flange comes under tension, and the flange is ignored.
In that case, a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-8 is as-
sumed in the compression side (ACI 10.2).
Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment
In designing for a factored negative moment, M
u
(i.e., designing top steel), the
calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as described for a rectangular
beam, i.e., no T beam data is used.
Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment
If M
u
> 0, the depth of the compression block is given by
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Beam Design 3 - 31

2
'
2
0.85
u
c f
M
a d d
f b |
= ÷ ÷
where, the value of | is taken as that for a tension controlled section, which is
0.90 by default (ACI 9.3.2.1) in the preceding and the following equations.
The maximum depth of the compression zone, c
max
, is calculated based on the
limitation that the tensile steel tension shall not be less than c
s,min
, which is equal
to 0.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.3.4):
,max
max
,max ,min
c
c s
c d
c
c c
=
+
where, (ACI 10.2.2)
c
c,max
= 0.003 (ACI 10.2.3)
c
s,min
= 0.005 (ACI 10.3.4)
The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, a
max
, is
given by
a
max
= |
1
c
max
(ACI 10.2.7.1)
where |
1
is calculated as follows:
|
1
= 0.85 – 0.05
'
4000
1000
c
f | | ÷
|
\ .
, 0.65 s |
1
s 0.85 (ACI 10.2.7.3)
 If a s d
s
, the subsequent calculations for A
s
are exactly the same as previ-
ously defined for the Rectangular section design. However, in that case, the
width of the beam is taken as b
f
, as shown in Figure 3-8. Compression re-
inforcement is required if a > a
max
.
 If a > d
s
, the calculation for A
s
has two parts. The first part is for balancing
the compressive force from the flange, C
f
, and the second part is for bal-
ancing the compressive force from the web, C
w
, as shown in Figure 3-8. C
f

is given by

Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 32 Beam Design
Beam Section Strain Diagram Stress Diagram Beam Section Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

Figure 3-8 T beam design

( ) ( )
'
max
0.85 * min ,
f c f w s
C f b b d a = ÷ (ACI 10.2.7.1)

Therefore,
1
f
s
y
C
A
f
= and the portion of M
u
that is resisted by the flange is
given by
( )
max
min ,
2
s
uf f
d a
M C d |
| |
= ÷
|
\ .

Again, the value for | is 0.90 by default. Therefore, the balance of the
moment, M
u
, to be carried by the web is given by
uw u uf
M M M = ÷
The web is a rectangular section of dimensions b
w
and d, for which the de-
sign depth of the compression block is recalculated as
2
1 '
2
0.85
uw
c w
M
a d d
f b |
= ÷ ÷ (ACI 10.2)
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Beam Design 3 - 33
 If a
1
s a
max
(ACI 10.3.5), the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given
by
2
1
2
uw
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
=
| |
÷
|
\ .
, and
1 2 s s s
A A A = +
This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T beam.
 If a
1
> a
max
, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.4, 10.3.5) and
is calculated as follows:
The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by
'
max
0.85
c w
C f b a = (ACI 10.2.7.1)
Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tensile steel is
max
2
uc
a
M C d |
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
, and
The moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is
uc uw us
M M M ÷ =
Therefore, the compression steel is computed as
( ) ( )
'
' ' '
0.85
us
s
s c
M
A
f f d d |
=
÷ - ÷
, where
'
' max
max
max
s s c y
c d
f E f
c
c
( ÷
= s
(
¸ ¸
(ACI 10.2.2, 10.2.3, 10.2.4)
The tensile steel for balancing compression in the web concrete is
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 34 Beam Design
2
max
2
uc
s
y
M
A
a
f d |
=
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
, and
the tensile steel for balancing the compression steel is
( )
3
'
us
s
y
M
A
f d d |
=
÷

The total tensile reinforcement is
3 2 1 s s s s
A A A A + + = , and the total
compression reinforcement is
'
s
A .
s
A is to be placed at the bottom and
'
s
A
is to be placed at the top.
3.4.1.2.3 Minimum and Maximum Tensile Reinforcement
The minimum flexural tensile steel required in a beam section is given by the
minimum of the following two limits:
3 200
max
c
s w w
y y
f
A b d, b d
f f
¦ ¹
'
¦ ¦
>
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
(ACI 10.5.1)
) (
3
4
required s s
A A > (ACI 10.5.3)
An upper limit of 0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforce-
ment and the compression reinforcement is imposed as follows:
0 04 Rectangular Beam
0 04 T Beam
0 04 Rectangular Beam
0 04 T Beam
s
w
s
w
. bd
A
. b d
. bd
A
. b d
¦
s
´
¹
¦
' s
´
¹

3.4.1.2.4 Special Consideration for Seismic Design
For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design), the beam de-
sign satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 3-1):
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Beam Design 3 - 35
Table 3-1: Design Criteria
Type of
Check/
Design
Ordinary
Moment Resisting
Frames
(Non-Seismic)
Intermediate
Moment Resisting
Frames
(Seismic)
Special
Moment Resisting
Frames
(Seismic)
Column Check (interaction)

Specified
Combinations
Specified
Combinations
Specified
Combinations
Column Design (interaction)

Specified
Combinations
1% < µ < 8%
Specified
Combinations
1% < µ < 8%
Specified
Combinations
1% < µ < 6%
o = 1.0
Column Shears

Specified
Combinations
(If SDC = B,
and h/B s 5,
same as Intermediate)
Modified Combinations
(earthquake loads doubled)
Column Shear Capacity
| = 1.0 and o = 1.0
Specified

Combinations
Column shear capacity
| = 1.0 and o = 1.25
V
c
= 0 (conditional)
Beam Design Flexure

Specified
Combinations
µ s 0.04
y
f
'
c
f
ρ
3
> ,
y
f
ρ
200
>
y
f
'
c
f
ρ
3
> ,
y
f
ρ
200
>
Specified
Combinations
µ s 0.04
y
f
'
c
f
ρ
3
> ,
y
f
ρ
200
>

y
f
'
c
f
ρ
3
> ,
y
f
ρ
200
>
Specified
Combinations
0 025 . µ s
y
f
'
c
f
ρ
3
> ,
y
f
ρ
200
>

y
f
'
c
f
ρ
3
> ,
y
f
ρ
200
>
Beam Min. Moment Override Check

No Requirement 1
end end
3
M M
u u
+ ÷
>
{ }
end
1
max
span
5
M M , M
u u u
+ + ÷
>
{ }
span
max
1
max
5
u
M M , M
u u
÷ + ÷
>
1
end end
2
M M
u u
+ ÷
>
{ }
end
1
max
span
4
M M , M
u u u
+ + ÷
>
{ }
1
max
span
end
4
M M , M
u u u
÷ + ÷
>
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 36 Beam Design
Table 3-1: Design Criteria
Type of
Check/
Design
Ordinary
Moment Resisting
Frames
(Non-Seismic)
Intermediate
Moment Resisting
Frames
(Seismic)
Special
Moment Resisting
Frames
(Seismic)
Beam Design Shear

Specified
Combinations
Modified Specified Combinations
(earthquake loads doubled)

Beam Capacity Shear (V
e
)
with | = 1.0
and o = 1.0 plus V
D+L

Specified
Combinations

Beam Capacity Shear (V
e
)
with | = 1.0
and o = 1.25 plus V
D+L

V
c
= 0 (conditional)
Joint Design
No Requirement No Requirement Checked for shear
Beam/Column Capacity Ratio
No Requirement No Requirement Checked
 The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the
top and bottom. Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less
than A
s(min)
(ACI 21.3.2.1).
(min)
3 200
max and
c
s w w
y y
f
A b d b d
f f
¦ ¹
'
¦ ¦
>
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
or (ACI 21.3.2.1, 10.5.1)
s(min) s(required)
4
A A .
3
> (ACI 21.3.2.1, 10.5.3)
 The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by
0 025
s w
A . b d. s (ACI 21.3.2.1)
 At any end (support) of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity
(i.e., associated with the bottom steel) would not be less that 1/2 of the
beam negative moment capacity (i.e., associated with the top steel) at that
end (ACI 21.3.2.2).
 Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity
at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Beam Design 3 - 37
maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam
end (support) stations (ACI 21.3.2.2).
For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i.e., seismic design), the
beam design would satisfy the following conditions:
 At any support of the beam, the beam positive moment capacity would
not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end
(ACI 21.12.4.1).
 Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity
at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the
maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam
end (support) stations (ACI 21.12.4.1).
3.4.2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement
The shear reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at a
user-defined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are
involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular station because
of beam major shear:
 Determine the factored shear force, V
u
.
 Determine the shear force, V
c
, that can be resisted by the concrete.
 Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.
For Special and Intermediate moment frames (ductile frames), the shear design
of the beams is also based on the maximum probable moment strengths and the
nominal moment strengths of the members, respectively, in addition to the fac-
tored design. Effects of axial forces on the beam shear design are neglected.
The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with
this process.
3.4.2.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment
 In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment re-
sisting concrete frame, the shear forces and moments for a particular de-
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 38 Beam Design
sign load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by fac-
toring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding
design load combination factors.
 In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.e., seismic
design), the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity
shear resulting from the maximum probable moment capacities at the
ends along with the factored gravity load. This check is performed in ad-
dition to the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames.
The capacity shear force, V
p
, is calculated from the maximum probable
moment capacities of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces.
The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from the
maximum probable moment capacity is the same as that described for a
column earlier in this chapter. See Table 3-1 for a summary.
The design shear force is then given by (ACI 21.3.4.1, IBC 2006)
{ }
2 1
, max
e e u
V V V = (ACI 21.3.4.1, Fig R21.3.4)
L D p e
V V V
+
+ =
1 1
(ACI 21.3.4.1, Fig R21.3.4)
L D p e
V V V
+
+ =
2 2
(ACI 21.3.4.1, Fig R21.3.4)
where V
p
is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated maxi-
mum probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting
in two opposite directions. Therefore, V
p
is the maximum of V
p1
and V
p2
, where
L
M M
V
J I
p
+ ÷
+
=
1
, and
L
M M
V
J I
p
÷ +
+
=
2
, where
=
÷
I
M Moment capacity at end I, with top steel in tension, using a steel
yield stress value of of
y
and no reduction factors (| = 1.0).
=
+
J
M Moment capacity at end J, with bottom steel in tension, using a
steel yield stress value of of
y
and no reduction factors (| = 1.0).
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Beam Design 3 - 39
=
+
I
M Moment capacity at end I, with bottom steel in tension, using a
steel yield stress value of of
y
and no reduction factors (| = 1.0).
=
÷
J
M Moment capacity at end J, with top steel in tension, using a steel
yield stress value of of
y
and no reduction factors (| = 1.0).
L = Clear span of beam.
The moment strengths are determined using a strength reduction factor of 1.0
and the reinforcing steel stress equal to of
y
, where o is equal to 1.25 (ACI 2.1,
R21.3.4.1). If the reinforcement area has not been overwritten for ductile
beams, the value of the reinforcing area envelope is calculated after completing
the flexural design of the beam for all the design load combinations. Then this
enveloping reinforcing area is used in calculating the moment capacity of the
beam. If the reinforcing area has been overwritten for ductile beams, this area
is used in calculating the moment capacity of the beam. If the beam section is a
variable cross-section, the cross-sections at the two ends are used along with
the user-specified reinforcing or the envelope of reinforcing, as appropriate. If
the user overwrites the major direction length factor, the full span length is
used. However, if the length factor is not overwritten, the clear length will be
used. In the latter case, the maximum of the negative and positive moment ca-
pacities will be used for both the negative and positive moment capacities in
determining the capacity shear.
V
D+L
is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity
loads with the assumption that the ends are simply supported.
 For Intermediate moment resisting frames, the shear capacity of the beam
also is checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment ca-
pacities at the ends along with the factored gravity loads, in addition to the
check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. The design shear
force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal
moment capacity and modified factored shear force.
{ }
factored u ef e u
V V V V
,
, min > = (ACI 21.12.3, R21.12, IBC 1910.4.1)
where, V
e
is the capacity shear force in the beam determined from the
nominal moment capacities of the beam (ACI 21.12.3a). The calculation of
V
e
is the same as that described for special moment resisting frames, except
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 40 Beam Design
that in determining the flexural strength of the beam, nominal moment ca-
pacities are used. In that case, | is taken as 1.0 as before, but o is taken as
1.0 rather than 1.25 (ACI 21.12.3, Fig. R21.12.3).
V
ef
is the shear force in the beam obtained from the modified design load
combinations. In that case, the factored design forces (P
u
, V
u
, M
u
) are based
on the specified design loads, except that the earthquake factors are dou-
bled (ACI 21.12.3b). In no case is the beam designed for a shear force less
than the original factored shear force.
The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate
moment resisting frame is the same as described for columns earlier in this
chapter. See Table 3-1 for a summary.
3.4.2.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity
The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by
d b f V
w c c
'
2 = , where (ACI 11.3.1.1)
for Special moment resisting concrete frame design, if the factored axial com-
pressive force, P
u
, including the earthquake effect, is less than 20
'
g c
A f , if the
shear force contribution from earthquake, V
E
, is more than half of the total
maximum shear force over the length of the member V
u
(i.e., V
E
>0.5 V
u
), and if
the station is within a distance l
o
from the face of the joint, the concrete capac-
ity V
c
is taken as zero (ACI 21.3.4.2). The length l
o
is taken as 2d from the face
of the support (ACI 21.3.4.2, 21.3.3.1).
3.4.2.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement
Given
u
V and
c
V the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calcu-
lated as follows:
 The shear force is limited to a maximum of
( )
'
max
8 . = +
c c w
V V f b d (ACI 11.5.7.9)
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Beam Design 3 - 41
 The required shear reinforcement per unit spacing, A
v
/s, is calculated as fol-
lows:
If ( ) 2 , | s
u c
V V
v
A
0,
s
= (ACI 11.5.6.1)
else if ( )
max
2 , | | < s
c u
V V V
( )
u c
v
ys
V V
A
s f d
|
|
÷
= , (ACI 11.5.7.1, 11.5.7.2)
|
|
.
|

\
|
>
w
y
w
y
c
v
b
f
b
f
f
s
A 50
,
75 . 0
max
'
(ACI 11.5.7.1, 11.5.7.2)
|
|
.
|

\
|
>
w
y
w
y
c
v
b
f
b
f
f
s
A 50
,
75 . 0
max
'
(ACI 11.5.6.3)
else if
max
, | >
u
V V
a failure condition is declared. (ACI 11.5.7.9)
In the preceding equations, the strength reduction factor | is taken as 0.75 for
non-seismic cases (ACI 9.3.2.3), and as 0.6 for seismic cases (ACI 9.3.4.a).
However, those values may be overwritten by the user if so desired.
If V
u
exceeds the maximum permitted value of |V
max
, the concrete section
should be increased in size (ACI 11.5.7.9).
Note that if torsion design is performed and torsion rebar is needed, the equa-
tion given in ACI 11.5.6.3 does not need to be satisfied independently. See the
next section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details.
The maximum of all of the calculated A
v
/s values, obtained from each design
load combination, is reported along with the controlling shear force and associ-
ated design load combination name.
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 42 Beam Design
The beam shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based
purely on shear strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements to
satisfy spacing and volumetric consideration must be investigated independ-
ently of the program by the user.
3.4.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement
The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at a
user-defined number of stations along the beam span. The following steps are
involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular station because
of beam torsion:
 Determine the factored torsion, T
u
.
 Determine special section properties.
 Determine critical torsion capacity.
 Determine the reinforcement steel required.
Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider tor-
sion in the Preferences.
3.4.3.1 Determine Factored Torsion
In the design of torsion reinforcement of any beam, the factored torsions for
each design load combination at a particular design station are obtained by
factoring the corresponding torsion for different analysis cases with the corre-
sponding design load combination factors (ACI 11.6.2).
In a statistically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsional
moment in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon
cracking, the design T
u
is permitted to be reduced in accordance with code
(ACI 11.6.2.2). However, the program does not try to redistribute the internal
forces and to reduce T
u
. If redistribution is desired, the user should release the
torsional DOF in the structural model.
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Beam Design 3 - 43
3.4.3.2 Determine Special Section Properties
For torsion design, special section properties such as A
cp
, A
oh
, A
o
, p
cp
, and p
n
are
calculated. These properties are described as follows (ACI 2.1).
A
cp
= Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section
A
oh
= Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse
torsional reinforcement
A
o
= Gross area enclosed by shear flow path
p
cp
= Outside perimeter of concrete cross section
p
n
= Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse tor-
sional reinforcement
In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement, such as A
oh
, A
o
,
and p
n
, it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost
closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1.75 inches. This is
equivalent to 1.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup placement. For torsion de-
sign of T beam sections, it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the
flange area is inefficient. With this assumption, the flange is ignored for torsion
reinforcement calculation. However, the flange is considered during T
cr
calcu-
lation. With this assumption, the special properties for a Rectangular beam sec-
tion are given as follows:
A
cp
= bh, (ACI 11.6.1, 2.1)
A
oh
=
( )( ) 2 2 , b c h c ÷ ÷ (ACI 11.6.3.1, 2.1, R11.6.3.6(b))
A
o
= 0.85 A
oh,
(ACI 11.6.3.6, 2.1)
p
cp
= 2b + 2h, and (ACI 11.6.1, 2.1)
p
n
=
( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 , b c h c ÷ + ÷ (ACI 11.6.3.1, 2.1)
where, the section dimensions b, h and c are shown in Figure 3-9. Similarly,
the special section properties for a T beam section are given as follows:
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 44 Beam Design
A
cp
=
( )
,
w f w s
b h b b d + ÷ (ACI 11.6.1, 2.1)
A
oh
=
( )( ) 2 2 ,
w
b c h c ÷ ÷ (ACI 11.6.3.1, 2.1, R11.6.3.6(b))
A
o
= 0.85 A
oh
,

(ACI 11.6.3.6, 2.1)
p
cp
= 2b
f
+ 2h, and (ACI11.6.1, 2.1)
p
h
=
( ) ( ) 2 2 2 2 ,
c w c
h b ÷ + ÷ (ACI 11.6.3.1, 2.1)
where the section dimensions b
f
, b
w
, h, d
s
and c for a T beam are shown in
Figure 3-9.
3.4.3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity
The critical torsion limits, T
cr
, for which the torsion in the section can be ig-
nored, is calculated as follows:
2
'
1
4
|
| |
= + |
|
'
\ .
cp
u
cr c
cp cp c
A
P
T f
p A f
(ACI 11.6.1.c)
where A
cp
and p
cp
are the area and perimeter of concrete cross-section as de-
scribed in detail in the previous section, P
u
is the factored axial force (compres-
sion positive), | is the strength reduction factor for torsion, which is equal to
0.75 by default (ACI 9.3.2.3), and
c
f ' is the specified concrete strength.
3.4.3.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement
If the factored torsion T
u
is less than the threshold limit, T
cr
, torsion can be
safely ignored (ACI 11.6.1). In that case, the program reports that no torsion is
required. However, if T
u
exceeds the threshold limit, T
cr
, it is assumed that the
torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups, longitudinal bars, and com-
pression diagonals (ACI R11.6.3.6).
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Beam Design 3 - 45
c b
w
2 ÷
c
c
c c
c
c
c b 2 ÷
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2 ÷
w
b
b
f
c b
w
2 ÷
c
c
c c
c
c
c b 2 ÷
h
s
d
Closed Stirrup in
Rectangular Beam
Closed Stirrup in
T-Beam Section
c h 2 ÷
h
b
c h 2 ÷
w
b
b
f

Figure 3-9 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design
If, T
u
> T
cr
, the required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as follows:
0
2 tan
u h
l
y
T p
A
A f | u
= (ACI 11.6.3.7, 11.6.3.6)
and the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing, A
st
/s, is calculated as fol-
lows:
0
tan
2
t u
w
y
A T
b
s A f s
u
|
= (ACI 11.6.3.6)
where, the minimum value of A
st
/s is taken as follows:
25
l
y
A
bw
s f s
> (ACI 11.6.5.3)
and the minimum value of A
t
is taken as follows:
5
c cp
ys
t
t h
y y
f A
f
A
A p
f s f
'
| |
| |
> ÷
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
(ACI 11.6.5.3)
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 46 Joint Design
In the preceding expressions, u is taken as 45 degrees. The code allows any
value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11.6.3.6).
An upper limit of the combination of V
u
and T
u
that can be carried by the sec-
tion is also checked using the following equation.
2 2
2
8
1 7
u u h c
c
w w oh
V T p V
f
b d b d . A
|
| | | | | |
'
+ s +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
(ACI 11.6.3.1, 11.5.7.9)
For rectangular sections, b
w
is replaced with b. If the combination of V
u
and T
u

exceeds this limit, a failure message is declared. In that case, the concrete sec-
tion should be increased in size.
When torsional reinforcement is required (T
u
> T
cr
), the area of transverse
closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.
50
2 0 75
c v t
w
ys y w
f A A
max . b ,
s s f f b
¦ ¹
'
| | ¦ ¦
+ >
´ `
|
\ .
¦ ¦
¹ )
(ACI 11.6.5.2, 11.5.6.3)
If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated
v
A s and
t
A s ,
v
A s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case,
v
A s does not need to
satisfy ACI Section 11.5.6.3 independently.
The maximum of all the calculated
t
A and
t
A s values obtained from each de-
sign load combination is reported along with the controlling combination
names.
The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are
based purely on strength considerations. Any minimum stirrup requirements
and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be
investigated independently of the program by the user.
3.5 Joint Design
To ensure that the beam-column joint of Special moment resisting frames pos-
sesses adequate shear strength, the program performs a rational analysis of the
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Joint Design 3 - 47
beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the
joint. The program then checks this against design shear strength.
Only joints having a column below the joint are checked. The material proper-
ties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the
joint.
The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the
column. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:
 Determine the panel zone design shear force,
h
u
V

 Determine the effective area of the joint
 Check panel zone shear stress
The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the
following three sections.
3.5.1 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force
Figure 3-10 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column
intersection for a column direction, major or minor.
The force
h
u
V is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated.
The forces that act on the joint are P
u
, V
u
,
L
u
M , and
R
u
M . The forces P
u
and V
u

are axial force and shear force, respectively, from the column framing into the
top of the joint. The moments
L
u
M and
R
u
M are obtained from the beams
framing into the joint. The program calculates the joint shear force
h
u
V by re-
solving the moments into C and T forces. Noting that T
L
= C
L
and T
R
= C
R
,
u R L
h
u
V T T V ÷ + =
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 48 Joint Design

Figure 3-10 Beam-column joint analysis
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Joint Design 3 - 49
The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment.
The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic prin-
ciples of ultimate strength theory (ACI 10.2).
The moments and the forces from beams that frame into the joint in a direction
that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved
along the direction that is being investigated, thereby contributing force com-
ponents to the analysis.
In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames, the evaluation of
the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing steel
overstrength factor, o, where, o = 1.25 and no | factors) of the beams framing
into the joint (ACI 21.5.1.1). The C and T force are based on these moment
capacities. The program calculates the column shear force V
u
from the beam
moment capacities, as follows (see Figure 3-5):
H
M M
V
R
u
L
u
u
+
=
It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure 3-5 are taken as
midway between actual lateral support points for the columns. If no column
exists at the top of the joint, the shear force from the top of the column is taken
as zero.
The effects of load reversals, as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 3-10,
are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears
obtained from the two cases.
3.5.2 Determine the Effective Area of Joint
The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectangular
in plan view. The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major and mi-
nor dimensions of the column below the joint, except if the beam framing into
the joint is very narrow. The effective width of the joint area to be used in the
calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of the column.
The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the column below.
The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor directions is calculated
separately (ACI R21.5.3).
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 50 Joint Design
(ACI 21.5.1.2,
9.3.4).
It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically, the pre-
ceding assumptions may not be conservative and the user should investigate
the acceptability of the particular joint.
3.5.3 Check Panel Zone Shear Stress
The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force by the ef-
fective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear
strengths (ACI 21.5.3).
20 for joints confined on all four sides,
15 for joints confined on three faces or on two opposite faces
12 for all other joints,
c
c
c
f
v f ,
f
|
|
|
¦
'
¦
¦
' =
´
¦
'
¦
¹

where | = 0.85 (by default).
A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this
program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the face
of the joint is covered by the framing member (ACI 21.5.3.1).
For light-weight aggregate concrete, the design shear strength of the joint is
reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight
concrete by replacing the
'
c
f with
' '
,
3
min
4
cs factor c c
f f f
¦ ¹
´ `
¹ )
(ACI 21.5.3.1, 21.5.3.2)
Where the f
cs
factor is the shear strength reduction factor as defined by the user.
For joint design, the program reports the joint shear, the joint shear stress, the
allowable joint shear stress, and a capacity ratio.
3.5.4 Beam-Column Flexural Capacity Ratios
The program calculates the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to
the sum of the column moment capacities. For Special moment resisting
frames, at a particular joint for a particular column direction, major or minor
(ACI 21.4.2.2).
Chapter 3 - Design Process

Joint Design 3 - 51

¿ ¿
>
nb nc
M M
5
6
(ACI 21.4.2.2)

¿ nc
M = Sum of nominal flexural strengths of columns framing into
the joint, evaluated at the faces of the joint. Individual col-
umn flexural strength is calculated for the associated fac-
tored axial force.

¿ nb
M = Sum of nominal flexural strengths of the beams framing
into the joint, evaluated at the faces of the joint.
The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor o, o = 1,
and with no | factors (| = 1.0). The beam capacities are calculated for reversed
situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 3-10 and the maximum sum-
mation obtained is used.
The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is
not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along
the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added
to the summation.
The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column
below the joint. For each load combination, the axial force,
u
P , in each of the
columns is calculated from the program design load combinations. For each
design load combination, the moment capacity of each column under the in-
fluence of the corresponding axial load is then determined separately for the
major and minor directions of the column, using the uniaxial column interac-
tion diagram, see Figure 3-11. The moment capacities of the two columns are
added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding design load com-
bination. The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the design
load combinations is used for the beam-column capacity ratio.
The beam-column capacity ratio is determined for a beam-column joint only
when the following conditions are met:
 the frame is a Ductile moment resisting frame
 when a column exists above the beam-column joint, the column is con-
crete
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

3 - 52 Joint Design
 all of the beams framing into the column are concrete beams
 the connecting member design results are available
 the load combo involves seismic load
The beam-column flexural capacity ratios
( )
¿ ¿ nc nb
M M
are reported only for
Special moment resisting frames involving seismic design load combinations.
If this ratio is greater than 5/6, a warning message is printed in the output. The
ratio is also reported in the form of ( )
nc nb
M M
5
6
¿ and
nb nc
M M ¿ ¿ .

Figure 3-11 Moment capacity M
u
at a given axial load P
u


4 - 1
Chapter 4
Design Output
4.1 Overview
The program creates design output in different formats – graphical display,
tabular output, and member specific detailed design information.
The graphical display of design output includes input and output design infor-
mation. Input design information includes design section labels, K-factors, live
load reduction factors, and other design parameters. The output design infor-
mation includes longitudinal reinforcing, shear reinforcing, torsional reinforc-
ing and column capacity ratios. All graphical output can be printed.
The tabular output can be saved in a file or printed. The tabular output includes
most of the information that can be displayed. This is generated for added con-
venience to the designer.
The member specific detailed design information shows the details of the cal-
culation from the designer’s point of view. It shows the design forces, design
section dimensions, reinforcement, and some intermediate results for all of the
load combinations at all of the design sections of a specific frame member. For
a column member, it also can show the position of the current state of design
forces on the column interaction diagram.
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

4 - 2 Graphical Display of Design Information
In the following sections, some of the typical graphical display, tabular output,
spreadsheet output, and member specific detailed design information are de-
scribed. The ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 design code is described in this manual.
4.2 Graphical Display of Design Information
The graphical display of design output includes input and output design infor-
mation. Input design information includes design section label, K-factors, live
load reduction factor, and other design parameters. The output design informa-
tion includes longitudinal reinforcing, shear reinforcing, torsion reinforcing,
column capacity ratio, beam-column capacity ratio, joint shear check, and other
design information.
The graphical output can be produced in color or in gray-scaled screen display.
The active screen display can be sent directly to the printer.
4.2.1 Input and Output
Input design information for the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 code includes the fol-
lowing:
 Design sections
 Design framing type
 Live load reduction factors (RLLF)
 Unbraced length, L-factors, for major and minor direction of bending
 Effective length factors, K-factors, for major and minor direction of bend-
ing
 C
m
factors, for major and minor direction of bending
 
ns
factors, for major and minor direction of bending
 
s
factors, for major and minor direction of bending
The output design information that can be displayed consists of the following:
 Longitudinal reinforcing area
Chapter 4 - Design Output

Graphical Display of Design Information 4 - 3
 Longitudinal reinforcing area as percent of concrete gross area
 Shear reinforcing areas per unit spacing
 Column P-M-M interaction ratios

6
5
Beam-column capacity ratios
 Column-beam capacity ratios
 Joint shear capacity ratios
 Torsion reinforcing
 General reinforcing details
Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info
command to plot input and output values directly on the model in the active
window. Clicking this command will access the Display Design Results form.
Select the Design Output or Design Input option, and then use the drop-down
lists to choose the type of design data to be displayed, such as longitudinal re-
inforcement, rebar percentages, shear reinforcing and so on. Click the OK but-
ton on the form to close the form and display the selected data in the active
window.
The graphical displays can be viewed in 2D or 3D mode. Use the various tool-
bar buttons (e.g., Set Default 3D View, Set X-Y View) to adjust the view, or
use the View menu > Set 2D View or View menu > Set 3D View commands
to refine the display.
The graphical display in the active window can be printed by clicking the File
menu > Print Graphics command, the Print Graphics button on the toolbar,
or the Ctrl+G keyboard shortcut. The display also can be captured as a bit map
file (.bmp) using one of the subcommands on the File menu > Capture Pic-
ture command, or as a metafile (.emf) using one of the subcommands on the
File menu > Capture Enhanced Metafile command. The captured picture file
can then be used in popular graphics programs, including Paint and Power-
Point. Alternatively, the standard Windows screen capture command (click the
Print Screen button on the keyboard) can be used to create a screen capture of
the entire window, or use the Alt+Print Screen command to capture only the
"top layer," such as a form displayed from within the program.
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

4 - 4 Tabular Display of Design Output
By default, graphics are displayed and printed in color, assuming a color
printer is available. Use the Options menu > Colors > Output command to
change default colors, as necessary, including changing the background color
from the default black to white. A white background can be useful when print-
ing design output to save ink/toner. In addition, the Options menu > Colors >
Set Active Theme command can be used to view or print graphics in gray-
scale.
4.3 Tabular Display of Design Output
The tabular design output can be sent directly to a printer or saved to a file. The
printed form of the tabular output is the same as that produced for the file out-
put except that the font size is adjusted for the printed output.
The tabular design output includes input and output design information that
depends on the design code chosen. For the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 code, the
tabular output includes the following. All tables have formal headings and are
self-explanatory, so further description of these tables is not given.
Input design information includes the following:
 Concrete Column Property Data
- Material label
- Column dimensions
- Reinforcement pattern
- Concrete cover
- Bar area

 Concrete Beam Property Data
- Material label
- Beam dimensions
- Top and bottom concrete cover
- Top and bottom reinforcement areas
 Concrete Column Property Data
- Material label
- Column dimensions
- Reinforcement pattern
- Concrete cover
Chapter 4 - Design Output

Tabular Display of Design Output 4 - 5
- Bar area

 Load Combination Multipliers
- Combination name
- Load types
- Load factors

 Concrete Design Element Information
- Design section ID
- Factors for major and minor direction of bending
- Unbraced length ratios for major and minor direction of
bending, L-factors
- Live load reduction factors (RLLF)

 Concrete Moment Magnification Factors
- Section ID
- Element type
- Framing type
- 
ns
-factors
- 
s
-factors

The output design information includes the following:

 Column design Information
- Section ID
- Station location
- Total longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination
- Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination
- Minor shear reinforcement and the governing load combination

 Beam Design Information
- Section ID
- Station location
- Top longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination
- Bottom reinforcement and the governing load combination
- Longitudinal torsional reinforcement and the governing load combi-
nation
- Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination for
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

4 - 6 Member Specific Information
shear and torsion design

 Concrete Column Joint Information
- Section ID
- (6/5) Beam/column capacity ratios for major and minor direction and
the governing load combination
- Joint shear capacity for major and minor direction and the governing
load combination

Tabular output can be printed directly to a printer or saved in a file using the
File menu > Print Tables command. A form will display when this command
is used. Depress the F1 key on the keyboard to access the Help topic specific to
that form, which will identify the types of output available (e.g., plain text with
or without page breaks, rich text format Word document, and so on).
4.4 Member Specific Information
Member specific design information shows the details of the calculation from
the designer's point of view. It includes the geometry and material data, other
input data, design forces, design section dimensions, reinforcement details, and
some of the intermediate results for the selected member. The design detail in-
formation can be displayed for a specific load combination and for a specific
station of a column or beam member. For columns, member specific design
information also can show the position of the current state of design forces us-
ing a column interaction diagram.
After an analysis has been performed and the Design menu > Concrete
Frame Design > Start Design/Check command has been used, access the de-
tailed design information by right clicking a frame member to display the Con-
crete Column Design Information form if a column member was right clicked
or the Concrete Beam Design Information form if a beam member was right
clicked. Table 4-1 identifies the types of data provided by the forms.
The longitudinal and shear reinforcing area are reported in their current units,
which are displayed in the drop-down list in the lower right corner of the pro-
gram window. Typically, the longitudinal reinforcing area is reported in in
2
,
mm
2
, cm
2
and so on. Shear reinforcing areas typically are reported in in
2
/in,
mm
2
/mm, cm
2
/cm and so on.
Chapter 4 - Design Output

Member Specific Information 4 - 7

Table 4-1 Member Specific Data for Columns and Beams
Column Beam
 Load combination ID
 Station locations
 Longitudinal reinforcement area
 Major shear reinforcement areas
 Minor shear reinforcement areas
 Load combination ID
 Station location
 Top reinforcement areas
 Bottom reinforcement areas
 Longitudinal reinforcement for torsion design
 Shear reinforcement area for shear
 Shear reinforcement area for torsion design
Buttons on the forms can be used to access additional forms that provide the following data
 Overwrites
– Element section ID
– Element framing type
– Code-dependent factors
– Live load reduction factors
– Effective length factors, K, for major
and minor direction bending
– C
m
factors for major and minor bending
– 
s
factors for major and minor
directions
 Summary design data
– Geometric data and graphical
representation
– Material properties
– Minimum design moments
– Moment factors
– Longitudinal reinforcing areas
– Design shear forces
– Shear reinforcing areas
– Shear capacities of steel and concrete
– Torsion reinforcing
– Interaction diagram, with the axial
force and biaxial moment showing the
state of stress in the column
 Detailed calculations for flexural details,
shear details, joint shear, and beam/
column capacity ratios
 Overwrites
– Element section ID
– Element framing type
– Code-dependent factors
– Live load reduction factors
– Effective length factors, K, for major and
minor direction bending
– C
m
factors for major and minor bending
– 
s
factors for major and minor directions
 Summary design data
– Geometric data and graphical
representation
– Material properties
– Design moments and shear forces
– Minimum design moments
– Top and bottom reinforcing areas
– Shear capacities of concrete and steel
– Shear reinforcing area
– Torsion reinforcing area

The load combination is reported by its name, while station data is reported by
its location as measured from the I-end of the column. The number of line
items reported is equal to the number of design combinations multiplied by the
number of stations. One line item will be highlighted when the form first dis-
plays. This line item will have the largest required longitudinal reinforcing,
unless any design overstress or error occurs for any of the items. In that case,
Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

4 - 8 Member Specific Information
the last item among the overstressed items or items with errors will be high-
lighted. In essence, the program highlights the critical design item.
If a column has been selected and the column has been specified to be checked
by the program, the form includes the same information as that displayed for a
designed column, except that the data for a checked column includes the ca-
pacity ratio rather than the total longitudinal reinforcing area. Similar to the
design data, the line item with the largest capacity ratio is highlighted when the
form first displays, unless an item has an error or overstress, in which case, that
item will be highlighted. In essence, the program highlights the critical check
item.
The program can be used to check and to design rebar in a column member.
When the users specifies that the program is to check the rebar in the column,
the program checks the rebar as it is specified. When the user specifies that the
program design the rebar configuration, the program starts with the data speci-
fied for rebar and then increases or decreases the rebar in proportion to the
relative areas of rebar at the different locations of rebar in the column.
4.4.1 Interactive Concrete Frame Design
The interactive concrete frame design and review is a powerful mode that al-
lows the user to review the design results for any concrete frame design, to re-
vise the design assumptions interactively, and to review the revised results
immediately.
Before entering the interactive concrete frame design mode, the design results
must be available for at least one member. That means the design must have
been run for all the members or for only selected members. If the initial design
has not been performed yet, run a design by clicking the Design menu > Con-
crete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command.
There are three ways to initiate the interactive concrete frame design mode:
 Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check
of Structures command to run a design.
 Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info
command to access the Display Design Results form and select a type of
result.
Chapter 4 - Design Output

Error Messages and Warnings 4 - 9
 Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interactive Con-
crete Frame Design command.
After using any of the three commands, right click on a frame member to enter
the interactive Concrete Frame Design Mode and access the Concrete Column
Design Information form if a column member was right clicked or the Con-
crete Beam Design Information form if a beam member was right clicked.
These forms have Overwrites buttons that accesses the Concrete Frame De-
sign Overwrites form. The form can be used to change the design sections,
element type, live load reduction factor for reducible live load, and many other
design factors. See Appendix D for a detailed description of the overwrite
items. When changes to the design parameters are made using the Overwrites
form, the Concrete Beam or Column Design Information forms update imme-
diately to reflect the changes. Then other buttons on the Concrete Beam or
Column Design Information forms can be used to display additional forms
showing the details of the updated design. See the Member Specific Informa-
tion section of this chapter for more information.
In this way, the user can change the overwrites any number of times to produce
a satisfactory design. After an acceptable design has been produced by chang-
ing the section or other design parameters, click the OK button on the Concrete
Beam or Column Design Information forms to permanently change the design
sections and other overwrites for that member. However, if the Cancel button
is used, all changes made to the design parameters using the Concrete Frame
Design Overwrites form are temporary and do not affect the design.
4.5 Error Messages and Warnings
In many places of concrete frame design output, error messages and warnings
are displayed. The messages are numbered. A complete list of error messages
and warnings used in Concrete Frame Design for all the design codes is pro-
vided in Appendix E. However, all of the messages are not applicable to ACI
318-05/IBC 2006 code.

APPENDICES

A - 1
Appendix A
Second Order P-Delta Effects
Typically, design codes require that second order P-delta effects be considered
when designing concrete frames. They are the global lateral translation of the
frame and the local deformation of members within the frame.
Consider the frame object shown in Figure A-1, which is extracted from a story
level of a larger structure. The overall global translation of this frame object is
indicated by Δ . The local deformation of the member is shown asδ . The total
second order P-delta effects on this frame object are those caused by both
Δ andδ .
The program has an option to consider P-delta effects in the analysis. When
P-delta effects are considered in the analysis, the program does a good job of
capturing the effect due to the Δ deformation shown in Figure A-1, but it does
not typically capture the effect of theδ deformation (unless, in the model, the
frame object is broken into multiple elements over its length).
Design Manual Concrete Frame ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

A - 2 Appendix A

Figure A-1 The total second order P-delta effects on a
frame element caused by both Δ and δ
Consideration of the second order P-delta effects is generally achieved by
computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to that shown in
the following equation.
M
CAP
= aM
nt
+ bM
lt
where,
M
CAP
= Flexural design capacity required
M
nt
= Required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is no
joint translation of the frame (i.e., associated with the δ
deformation in Figure A-1)
M
lt
= Required flexural capacity of the member as a result of lateral
translation of the frame only (i.e., associated with the Δ
deformation in Figure A-1)
a = Unitless factor multiplying M
nt
b = Unitless factor multiplying M
lt
(assumed equal to 1 by the
program; see the following text)
When the program performs concrete frame design, it assumes that the factor
b is equal to 1 and calculates the factor a. That b = 1 assumes that P-delta ef-
fects have been considered in the analysis, as previously described. Thus, in
general, when performing concrete frame design in this program, consider
P-delta effects in the analysis before running the program.

B - 1
Appendix B
Member Unsupported Lengths and
Computation of K-Factors
The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slender-
ness effects. The program automatically determines the unsupported length ra-
tios, which are specified as a fraction of the frame object length. Those ratios
times the frame object length give the unbraced lengths for the members.
Those ratios also can be overwritten by the user on a member-by-member
basis, if desired, using the overwrite option.
There are two unsupported lengths to consider. They are L
33
and L
22
, as shown
in Figure B-1. These are the lengths between support points of the member in
the corresponding directions. The length L
33
corresponds to instability about the
3-3 axis (major axis), and L
22
corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (mi-
nor axis).
Design Manual Concrete Frame ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

B - 2 Appendix B

Figure B-1 Axis of bending and unsupported length

In determining the values for L
22
and L
33
of the members, the program recog-
nizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on those lengths, such
as member connectivity, diaphragm constraints and support points. The pro-
gram automatically locates the member support points and evaluates the corre-
sponding unsupported length.
It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame object to be evaluated by
the program as greater than the corresponding member length. For example,
assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction, but not the other,
at a floor level. In that case, the column is assumed to be supported in one di-
rection only at that story level, and its unsupported length in the other direction
will exceed the story height.



C - 1

Appendix C
Concrete Frame Design Preferences
Table C-1 Preferences
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value
Description
Time History
Design
Envelopes,
Step-by-Step
Envelopes
Toggle for design load combinations
that include a time history designed for
the envelope of the time history, or
designed step-by-step for the entire
time history. If a single design load
combination has more than one time
history case in it, that design load
combination is designed for the enve-
lopes of the time histories, regardless
of what is specified here.
Number
Interaction
Curves
Multiple of 4
≥ 4
24
Number of equally spaced interaction
curves used to create a full 360 deg
interaction surface (this item should be
a multiple of four). We recommend 24
for this item.
Design Manual Concrete Frame ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

C - 2 Appendix C
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value
Description
Number
Any odd value
≥ 5
11
Number of points used for defining a
single curve in a concrete frame;
should be odd.
Consider
Minimum
Eccentricity
No, Yes Yes
Toggle to specify if minimum eccen-
tricity is considered in design.
Seismic
A, B, C,
D, E, F
D
This item varies with the Seismic
Hazard Exposure Group and the
effective Peak Velocity Related
Acceleration.
Phi
(Tension
Controlled)
> 0 0.9
Strength reduction factor for tension
controlled sections.
Phi
(Compression
Controlled-Tied)
> 0 0.65
The strength reduction factor for
compression controlled sections with
spiral reinforcement.
Phi
(Compression
Controlled-Spiral)
> 0 0.70
The strength reduction factor for
compression controlled sections with
spiral reinforcement.
Phi
(Shear and/ or
Torsion)
> 0 0.75
The strength reduction factor for shear
and torsion.
Phi
(Shear - Seismic)
> 0 0.60
The strength reduction factor for shear
in structures that rely on special
moment resisting frames or special
reinforced concrete structural walls to
resist earthquake effects.
Phi (Joint Shear) > 0 0.75
The strength reduction factor for shear
and torsion.
Concrete Frame Design Preferences

Appendix C C - 3
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value
Description
Phi (Pattern Live
Load Factor)
≥ 0 0.60
The strength reduction factor for shear
in structures that rely on special
moment resisting frames or special
reinforced concrete structural walls to
resist earthquake effects.
Utilization Factor
Limit
> 0 0.95
Stress ratios that are less than or equal
to this value are considered accept-
able.

D - 1

Appendix D
Concrete Frame Overwrites
The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to
those elements to which they are assigned. Table D-1 lists concrete frame de-
sign overwrites for ACI 318-05/IBC 2006. Default values are provided for all
overwrite items. Thus, it is not necessary to specify or change any of the over-
writes. However, at least review the default values to ensure they are accept-
able. When changes are made to overwrite items, the program applies the
changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned.
Table D-1 Overwrites
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value
Description
Current
Design
Section
Any defined
concrete
section
Analysis
section
The design section for the selected frame
objects.
Design Manual Concrete Frame ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

D - 2 Appendix D
Item
Possible
Values
Default
Value
Description
Element
Type
Sway
Special, Sway
Intermediate,
Sway Ordinary
NonSway
From
Reference
Frame type per moment frame definition
given in ACI 21.1. The Framing Type is
used for ductility considerations in the
design. The program determines its de-
fault value based on the Seismic Design
Category (SDC) assigned for the struc-
ture in the Preferences. If the assigned
SDC is A or B, the Framing Type is set to
Ordinary. If the assigned SDC is C, the
Framing Type is set to Intermediate. If the
assigned SDC is D, E, or F, the Framing
Type is set to special (IBC 1908.1.2).
These are default values, which the user
can overwrite if needed.
Live Load
Reduction
Factor
≥ 0 Calculated
The reduced live load factor. A reducible
live load is multiplied by this factor to
obtain the reduced live load for the frame
object. Specifying 0 means the value is
program determined.
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Major)
≥ 0 Calculated
Unbraced length factor for buckling about
the frame object major axis. This item is
specified as a fraction of the frame object
length. Multiplying this factor times the
frame object length gives the unbraced
length for the object. Specifying 0 means
the value is program determined.
Unbraced
Length Ratio
(Minor)
≥ 0 0.60
Unbraced length factor for buckling about
the frame object minor axis. Multiplying
this factor times the frame object length
gives the unbraced length for the object.
Specifying 0 means the value is program
determined. This factor is also used in
determining the length for lateral-torsional
buckling.
Effective
Length
Factor
(K Major)
> 0 Calculated
See ACI 10.12, 10.13 and Figure
R10.12.1. Effective length factor for
buckling about the frame object major
axis. This item is specified as a fraction of
the frame object length.


E - 1

Appendix E
Error Messages and Warnings
Table E-1 provides a complete list of Concrete Errors messages and Warnings.
Table E-1 Error Messages
Error
Number
Description
1 Beam concrete compression failure
2 Reinforcing required exceeds maximum allowed
3 Shear stress exceeds maximum allowed
4 Column design moments cannot be calculated
5 Column factored axial load exceeds Euler Force
6 Required column concrete area exceeds maximum
7 Flexural capacity could not be calculated for shear design
8 Concrete column supports non-concrete beam/column
Design Manual Concrete Frame ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

E - 2 Appendix E
Error
Number
Description
9
115 ∗ / > k L r , 2 0 < zeta_ , 1 0 < . eta (GB50010 7.3.10)
10 Column is overstressed for P-M-M
11 Axial compressive capacity for concrete exceeded (TBM 6.4.2)
12 Beam frames into column eccentrically (11.6.3)
13 Torsion exceeds maximum allowed
14 Reinforcing provided is below minimum required
15 Reinforcing provided exceeds maximum allowed
16 Tension reinforcing provided is below minimum required
17 30 ∗ / > k L r (GB 7.3.10)
21
The column is not ductile. Beam/column capacity ratio is not
needed.
22
The load is not seismic. Beam/column capacity ratio is not
needed.
23
There is no beam on top of column. Beam/column capacity ratio
is not needed.
24
At least one beam on top of column is not of concrete.
Beam/column capacity ratio is not calculated.
25
The column on top is not concrete. Beam/column capacity ratio is
not calculated.
26
The station is not at the top of the column. Beam/column capacity
ratio is not needed.
27 The column is not ductile. Joint shear ratio is not needed.
Appendix E – Error Messages and Warnings

Appendix E E- 3
Error
Number
Description
28 The load is not seismic. Joint shear ratio is not needed.
29
There is no beam on top of column. Joint shear ratio is not
needed.
30
At least one beam on top of column is not concrete. Joint shear
ratio is not calculated.
31 The column on top is not concrete. Joint shear ratio is not needed.
32
The station is not at the top of the column. Joint shear ratio is not
needed.
33 Beam/column capacity ratio exceeds limit.
34 Joint shear ratio exceeds limit.
35 Capacity ratio exceeds limit.
36
All beams around the joint have not been designed.
Beam/column capacity ratio is not calculated.
37
At least one beam around the joint has failed. Beam/column ca-
pacity ratio is not calculated.
38
The column above the joint has not been designed. Beam/column
capacity ratio is not calculated.
39
The column above the joint has failed. Beam/column capacity
ratio is not calculated.
40
All beams around the joint have not been designed. Joint shear
ratio is not calculated.
41
At least one beam around the joint has failed. Joint shear ratio is
not calculated.
42
The column above the joint has not been designed. Joint shear
ratio is not calculated.
Design Manual Concrete Frame ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

E - 4 Appendix E
Error
Number
Description
43
The column above the joint has failed. Joint shear ratio is not
calculated.
45
Shear stress due to shear force and torsion together exceeds
maximum allowed.


References - i
References
ACI, 2005. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05)
and Commentary (ACI 318R-05), American Concrete Institute, P.O. Box
9094, Farmington Hills, Michigan.
CSI, 2005a. SAP2000 Getting Started, Computers and Structures, Inc., Berke-
ley, California.
CSI, 2005b. Welcome to ETABS,, Computers and Structures, Inc., Berkeley,
California.
CSI, 2005c. CSI Analysis Reference Manual, Computers and Structures, Inc.,
Berkeley, California.
ICC, 2006. International Building Code, International Code Council, Inc.,
Country Club Hills, Illinois.
PCA, 2005. Notes on ACI 318-05, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced
Concrete, with Design Applications, Portland Cement Association, Skokie,
Illinois.
White, D. W. and J. F. Hajjar, 1991. “Application of Second-Order Elastic
Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice,” Engineering Journal, American
Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Vol. 28, No. 4.

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Copyright  Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978-2010 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo®, SAP2000®, and ETABS® are registered trademarks of Computers and TM TM Structures, Inc. SAFE and Watch & Learn are trademarks of Computers and Structures, Inc. The computer programs SAP2000® and ETABS® and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers and Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

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CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE DEVELOPMENT AND DOCUMENTATION OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT. THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT ADDRESSED. THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.

3 2.4 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.Contents Chapter 1 Introduction 1.2 Organization Recommended Reading/Practice 1-1 1-2 1-3 Chapter 2 Design Prerequisites 2.3.3.3.1 1.5 2.6 Identifying Beams and Columns Design of Beams Design of Columns Design of Joints 2-1 2-1 2-3 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-8 P-Delta Effects Element Unsupported Length Choice of Input Units i .3.3 Design Load Combinations Seismic Load Effects Design and Check Stations 2.2 2.

Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 Chapter 3 Design Process 3.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity 3.4.2 Determine Moment Magnification Factors 3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 3.3.4.4.2 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surface Calculate Column Capacity Ratio 3.2.3.2 3.1 Determine Factored Moments and Forces 3.1 3.1 3.3.4.1 Determine Section Forces 3.40 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement 3.3.1.4.4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement 3-42 3-42 3-43 3-44 3-44 3-46 3-47 3-49 3.4.1 Determine Factored Torsion 3.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement 3-27 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement 3-37 3.3.3.4.3.5 Joint Design 3.4 3.3 3.4.4 Beam Design 3.2.4.2 Determine Special Section Properties 3.2.4.2 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Determine the Effective Area of Joint ii .4.4.3.3.5.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity 3-40 3.3 Notation Design Load Combinations Column Design 3.3 Determine Capacity Ratio Required Reinforcing Area Design Column Shear Reinforcement 3.1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement 3-26 3.2.1.1 Determine Factored Moments 3-27 3.4.5.4.1 Determine Shear Force and Moment 3-37 3.3.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement 3-1 3-1 3-4 3-6 3-7 3-11 3-11 3-12 3-14 3-16 3-16 3-16 3-23 3-24 3-26 3.3.2.3.2 3.1 3.3.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity 3.3.4.3 3.2.

3 4.2 4.1 Input/Output Tabular Display of Design output Member Specific Information 4.Contents 3.1 4.1 Interactive Concrete Frame Design Errors Messages and Warnings 4-1 4-1 4-2 4-2 4-4 4-6 4-8 4-9 Appendix A Second Order P-Delta Effects Appendix B Member Unsupported Lengths and Computation of K-Factors Appendix C Concrete Frame Design Preferences Appendix D Concrete Frame Overwrites Appendix E Error Messages and Warnings References iii .2.5 Overview Graphical Display of Design Information 4.5.4 4.3 3.5.4.4 Check Panel Zone Shear Stress Beam-Column Flexural Capacity Ratios 3-50 3-50 Chapter 4 Design Output 4.

The design is based on a set of user-specified loading combinations. as long as the structures have first been modeled and analyzed by the program. is accomplished using the Design menu. However. The column capacity ratio gives an indication of the stress condition with respect to the capacity of the column. such as material properties and member forces. However. no definition of additional load combinations is required. are recovered directly from the model database. the user may specify the longitudinal steel. If the default load combinations are acceptable. Initiation of the design process. along with control of various design parameters. Model and analysis data. and no additional user input is required if the design defaults are acceptable. 1-1 . Automated design at the object level is available for any one of a number of user-selected design codes. in which case a column capacity ratio is reported. In the design of columns.Chapter 1 Introduction The design of concrete frames is seamlessly integrated within the program. the program provides default load combinations for each design code supported. the program calculates the required longitudinal and shear reinforcement.

or on the calculation sheet prepared for each member. Also. the program will produce ratios of the beam moment capacities with respect to the column moment capacities. in tables for both input and output data. Interaction surfaces are generated for user-specified column reinforcing configurations. to investigate weak beam/strong column aspects. including altering the design member without rerunning the entire analysis. shear. with similar reinforcing patterns. For special moment resisting frames (ductile frames). It does not use any empirical formulations that extrapolate uniaxial interaction curves to approximate biaxial action.1 Organization This manual is designed to help you quickly become productive with the concrete frame design options of ACI 318-05/IBC 2006. Every beam member is designed for flexure. Output data can be presented graphically on the model. 1. unsupported lengths. and strength reduction factors is automated in the algorithm. Chapter 4 documents the design output produced by program. All beam-column joints are investigated for existing shear conditions. and joints is based on the probable moment capacities of the members. beams. aids the engineer in taking appropriate remedial measures. Chapter 2 provides detailed descriptions of the Deign Prerequisites used for ACI 318-05/IBC 2006. in the event the member reinforcing is not adequate. The column configurations may be rectangular. the shear design of the columns. including the effects of axial force. 1-2 Organization . Chapter 3 provides detailed descriptions of the code-specific process used for ACI 318-05/IBC 2006. the output is in a format that allows the engineer to quickly study the stress conditions that exist in the structure and. The appendices provide details on certain topics referenced in this manual. The calculation of moment magnification factors. For each presentation method. and torsion at output stations along the beam span.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 The biaxial column capacity check is based on the generation of consistent three-dimensional interaction surfaces. square or circular.

http://www. which are found on our web site. before attempting to design a concrete frame.com. Additional information can be found in the on-line Help facility available from within the program’s main menu.csiberkeley.Chapter 1 .Introduction 1.2 Recommended Reading/Practice It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applicable “Watch & Learn” Series™ tutorials. Recommended Reading/Practice 1-3 .

2. time history.1 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are used for determining the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be designed/checked. In writing this manual it has been assumed that the user has an engineering background in the general area of structural reinforced concrete design and familiarity with ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 codes. For multi-valued load combinations involving response spectrum. and some of the design parameters that affect the design of concrete frames. square-root of the sum of the squares or absolute) where any correspondence between interacting quantities is lost. The load combination factors to be used vary with the selected design code. the program automatically produces multiple sub 2-1 .Chapter 2 Design Prerequisites This chapter provides an overview of the basic assumptions. design preconditions. moving loads and multi-valued combinations (of type enveloping. The load combination factors are applied to the forces and moments obtained from the associated load cases and are then summed to obtain the factored design forces and moments for the load combination.

When a design combination involves only a single multi-valued case of time history or moving load. separate consideration of roof live load. 2-2 Design Load Combinations . The default load combinations assume all load cases declared as dead load to be additive. the program has built-in default loading combinations for each design code. and so on. snow load.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 combinations using maxima/minima permutations of interacting quantities. is assumed to be non additive with each other and produces multiple lateral load combinations. For other loading conditions involving moving load. or response spectrum cases. all cases declared as live load are assumed additive. Similarly. live load. and earthquake load. the user must provide the appropriate design combinations. For normal loading conditions involving static dead load. further options are available. Also wind and static earthquake cases produce separate loading combinations with the sense (positive or negative) reversed. The default load combinations are included in design if the user requests them to be included or if no other user-defined combination is available for concrete design. If any default combination is included in design. snow load. Also an option is available to request that moving load combinations produce sub combinations using maxima and minima of each design quantity but with corresponding values of interacting quantities. If these conditions are not correct. These are based on the code recommendations and are documented for each code in the corresponding manuals. or dynamic response spectrum earthquake load. Separate combinations with negative factors for response spectrum cases are not required because the program automatically takes the minima to be the negative of the maxima for response spectrum cases and the above described permutations generate the required sub combinations. time history. The program has an option to request that time history combinations produce sub combinations for each time step of the time history. all default combinations will automatically be updated by the program any time the design code is changed or if static or response spectrum load cases are modified. each load case declared as wind or earthquake. the user must define design loading combinations either in lieu of or in addition to the default design loading combinations. pattern live loads. wind load. However.

0L + 0.4-4 of ASCE 7-05.  .2 + 0. the program also applies the overstrength factor.Design Prerequisites Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.9 . (0.2SDS) D + 1. By default.  .0L   0 E (1.2SDS) D   E (1.4 and 12.0L + 0. as 1. The program default value is 0.2.0L   E (1.0.9 .2 Seismic Load Effects IBC 2006 requires that all structural element design resist earthquake motions in accordance with ASCE 7-05. The reliability factor. The software allows users to activate Special seismic load effects using appropriate commands on the Define menu.3. 2.0.2SDS) D + 1.2 + 0.2 + 0.2SDS) D + 1. The DL multiplier represents the 0. the effects of those loads will be assumed to be zero in any combination that includes them.0 unless overwritten by the user.1 of ACI 318-05.2SDS factor in Equation 12. the program uses the reliability factor. The user is cautioned that if moving load or time history results are not requested to be recovered in the analysis for some or all of the frame members. the following load combination shall be used in lieu of the seismic load combinations in section 9.2 + 0.Chapter 2 .2S   E Where specifically required.2S   0 E The preceding combinations are marked as special combos when design details are displayed in the program.2SDS) D   0 E (1.2. When seismic load E is combined with the effects of other loads.4. and DL multiplier are automatically applied to all program default design combinations when the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 code is selected. The special seismic loads are computed in accordance with ASCE 7-05 sections 12.2SDS) D + 1. as follows: (0.  0 . Seismic Load Effects 2-3 .

2. Identification for a concrete element is accomplished by specifying the frame section assigned to the element to be of type beam or column. the brace element also would be identified as a beam or a column element. Effects due to any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. All the beams are designed for major direction flexure. The program also performs a joint shear analysis at the same station to determine if special considerations are required in any of the joint panel zones. but design of beams and columns requires separate treatment. in general. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of stations along the beam span. The number of segments in an element is requested by the user before the analysis is performed. load combination factors. which are described in detail in the code-specific manuals. each element is designed or checked at a number of locations along the length of the element.4 Identifying Beams and Columns In the program. The locations are based on equally spaced segments along the clear length of the element. the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. The user can refine the design along the length of an element by requesting more segments. and other criteria. 2. When using the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 design code.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 2. If any brace element exists in the frame. all beams and columns are represented as frame elements. shear and torsion only.5 Design of Beams In the design of concrete beams. 2-4 Design and Check Stations .3 Design and Check Stations For each load combination. shears. requirements for joint design at the beam-to-column connections are evaluated at the top most station of each column. The ratio of the beam flexural capacities with respect to the column flexural capacities considering axial force effect associated with the weak-beam/strong-column aspect of any beam/column intersection are reported. depending on the section assigned to the brace element.

The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps:   Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types in the model. In designing the shear reinforcement for a particular beam for a particular set of loading combinations at a particular station due to the beam major shear. 2. Negative beam moments produce top steel. In such cases. If the beam section is not adequate. or if the longitudinal steel is specified. This step is also used to calculate the required reinforcement (if none was specified) that will produce a capacity ratio of 1. which is a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column. the program calculates the required longitudinal steel. and the determination of the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. In such cases. Check the capacity of each column for the factored axial force and bending moments obtained from each loading combination at each end of the column.6 Design of Columns In the design of the columns. the beam is always designed as a Rectangular section. the steps involve the determination of the maximum factored moments and the determination of the reinforcing steel. the beam may be designed as a Rectangular beam or a T beam. the determination of the shear force that can be resisted by concrete. Design of Columns 2-5 . the required compression reinforcement is calculated.0. the column stress condition is reported in terms of a column capacity ratio. The beam section is designed for the maximum positive and maximum negative factored moment envelopes obtained from all of the load combinations.Design Prerequisites In designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment at a particular section of a particular beam.Chapter 2 . the beam is first designed as a singly reinforced beam. Positive beam moments produce bottom steel. For the design of flexural reinforcement. Special considerations for seismic design are incorporated into the program for the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 code. the steps involve the determination of the factored shear force.

the program performs a rational analysis of the beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the joint. These stress and strain distributions and the assumptions are documented in Chapter 3. the moment capacity of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force is calculated.7 Design of Joints To ensure that the beam-column joint of special moment resisting frames possesses adequate shear strength. except that the effect of the axial force on the concrete shear capacity must be considered. For each load combination. using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction as documented in Chapter 3. The material properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint. 2-6 Design of Joints .Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 The generation of the interaction surface is based on the assumed strain and stress distributions and some other simplifying assumptions. The capacity shear force in a particular direction is calculated from the moment capacities of the column associated with the factored axial force acting on the column. the design of columns for shear is based on the capacity shear. The program then checks this against design shear strength. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:    Determine the panel zone design shear force Determine the effective area of the joint Check panel zone shear stress The joint design details are documented in Chapter 3. Only joints that have a column below the joint are designed. For certain special seismic cases. The shear reinforcement design procedure for columns is very similar to that for beams. the factored axial load is calculated using the load cases and the corresponding load combination factors. Then. The joint analysis is performed in the major and the minor directions of the column. 2.

as documented in Chapter 3 of this manual. the moments are magnified with moment magnification factors. and l22 corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis). The P-delta effects are considered differently for “braced” or “non-sway” and “unbraced” or “sway” components of moments in columns or frames. Users of the program should be aware that the default analysis option is turned OFF for P-delta effect. “lateral drift effects” should be considered in addition to individual member stability effect.9 Element Unsupported Lengths To account for column slenderness effects. allows users to assign several elements to be treated as a single P-Delta Effects 2-7 . the program assumes that the P-delta analysis is performed and that the amplification is already included in the results. For the braced moments in columns.Design Prerequisites 2. The moments and forces obtained from P-delta analysis are further amplified for individual column stability effect if required by the governing code. The program. the distance between END-I and END-J of the element.e. the column unsupported lengths are required. the effect of P-delta is limited to “individual member stability. The default number of iteration for P-delta analysis is 1. Normally. These are the lengths between support points of the element in the corresponding directions. 2.8 P-Delta Effects The program design process requires that the analysis results include P-delta effects. For the individual member stability effects. Further details about P-delta analysis are provided in Appendix A of this design manual. The two unsupported lengths are l33 and l22. i. “unbraced” or “sway” moments are contributed from all other types of loads.” For unbraced components. however. The program assumes that “braced” or “nonsway” moments are contributed from the “dead” or “live” loads. The length l33 corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis).Chapter 2 . the unsupported element length is equal to the length of the element. The user can turn the P-delta analysis ON and set the maximum number of iterations for the analysis. whereas. For lateral drift effects. as in the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 codes..

However. All equations and descriptions presented in the subsequent chapters correspond to that specific system of units unless otherwise noted. The user has options to specify the unsupported lengths of the elements on an element-by-element basis. the ACI code is published in inch-pound-second units. 2. For example. 2-8 Choice of Input Units . all equations and descriptions presented in the “Design Process” chapter correspond to inch-pound-second units.10 Choice of Input Units English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input. The codes are based on a specific system of units. By default.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 member for design. as documented in Appendix B of this design manual. This can be accomplished differently for major and minor bending. any system of units can be used to define and design a structure in the program.

in Gross area of concrete. in Area of concrete used to determine shear stress. 3. in 2 3-1 . in 2 Area of compression reinforcement. in Area of tension reinforcement. in 2 Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse 2 torsional reinforcement. For simplicity.1 Notation The various notations used in this chapter are described herein: Acp Acv Ag Ao Aoh As As Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section. in 2 2 2 Gross area enclosed by shear flow path.Chapter 3 Design Process This chapter provides a detailed description of the code-specific algorithms used in the design of concrete frames when the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 codes have been selected. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to inch-lbs-second units unless otherwise noted.

used to calculate moment magnification factor Modulus of elasticity of concrete. lb-in Non-sway component of factored end moment. psi Modulus of elasticity of reinforcement. in Smaller factored end moment in a column.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 Al At/s Area of longitudinal torsion reinforcement. lb-in Larger factored end moment in a column. assumed as 29x10 psi Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about centroidal axis. in /in 2 As(required) Area of steel required for tension reinforcement. lb-in Factored moment to be used in design. lb-in Axial load capacity at balanced strain conditions. in Ast Av Av/s Cm Ec Es Ig Ise L Ma Mb Mc Mns Ms Mu Mu2 Mu3 Pb Pc Pmax Total area of column longitudinal reinforcement. lb-in Factored moment at a section about 3-axis. lb Maximum axial load strength allowed. in 2 Area of transverse torsion reinforcement (closed stirrups) per unit 2 length of the member. in Moment of inertia of reinforcement about centroidal axis of 4 member cross section. lb Critical buckling strength of column. in 2 2 Area of shear reinforcement per unit length of the member. in Clear unsupported length. lb-in Sway component of factored end moment. 4 neglecting reinforcement. lb 06 2 3-2 Notation . lb-in Factored moment at a section. lb-in Factored moment at a section about 2-axis. in Area of shear reinforcement. dependent upon column curvature. in /in Coefficient.

in Maximum allowed depth of compression block. in Depth to neutral axis at balanced conditions. lb Shear force computed from probable moment capacity. in Depth of compression block at balanced condition.Design Process P0 Pu Vc VE VD+L Vmax Vp Vs Vu a ab amax b bf bw c cb d d ds f c fy Axial load capacity at zero eccentricity. lb Depth of compression block. lb Maximum permitted total factored shear force at a section. lb Shear force from span loading. lb Factored axial load at a section.Chapter 3 . in Width of web (T beam section). The value of fy used in design calculation is limited to a torsional longitudinal reinforcement of 80. psi Specified yield strength of flexural reinforcement.000 psi for both tension and compression (ACI 9. in Distance from compression face to tension reinforcement. in Thickness of slab (T beam section). lb Factored shear force at a section. lb Shear force caused by earthquake loads. in Concrete cover to center of reinforcing. lb Shear force resisted by steel. in Depth to neutral axis. lb Shear force resisted by concrete. in Width of member. Notation 3-3 . psi. in Effective width of flange (T beam section). in Specified compressive strength of concrete.4).

2.003 in/in) Strain in reinforcing steel Minimum tensile strain allowed in steel rebar at nominal strength for tension controlled behavior (0. Overall depth of a column section. in Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement. 21.2.5.3. 11.2 Design Load Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the prescribed response cases for which the structure is to be checked.005 in/in) Strength reduction factor h k pcp ph r  1 d s ns c c. 3-4 Design Load Combinations . Users can add their own design load combinations as well as modify or delete the program default design load combinations.4.000 psi for both shear and torsion (ACI 9. in Reinforcing steel overstrength factor Factor for obtaining depth of compression block in concrete Absolute value of ratio of maximum factored axial dead load to maximum factored axial total load Moment magnification factor for sway moments Moment magnification factor for non-sway moments Strain in concrete Maximum usable compression strain allowed in extreme concrete fiber (0. in Radius of gyration of column section. An unlimited number of design load combinations can be specified. The program creates a number of default design load combinations for a concrete frame design. psi. min  3. max s s. in Effective length factor Outside perimeter of the concrete cross-section.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 fys Specified yield strength of shear reinforcement. 11.4. The value of fys used in design calculations is limited to 60.6.5) .

75 PL) 0.6 LL. LL.7. DL. As an example. or other loads. For spectral analysis modal combinations.2 DL +1. live load (L). each with its own scale factor.9D  1. the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 design check may need one design load combination only.Chapter 3 . reversing the sign of axial loads and moments in major and minor directions.0E 1. and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.6L 1. and snow (S) loads. and live load.3) (ACI 9-6) (ACI 9-4) (ACI 9-7) (ACI 9-5) Design Load Combinations 3-5 .2D + 1.2D + 1.1): 1.4D 1. The design load combinations are the various combinations of the analysis cases for which the structure needs to be checked.6.2D + 1. any correspondence between the signs of the moments and axial loads is lost. The program allows live load reduction factors to be applied to the member forces of the reducible live load case on a member-by-member basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored responses.9D  1.6W 0. The scale factors are applied to the forces and moments from the analysis cases to form the factored design forces and moments for each design load combination. pattern live load (PL).2D + 1. wind (W). the following load combinations may need to be defined (ACI 9.6W 1. only. 1. The program uses eight design load combinations for each such loading combination specified.0L  1. For this code. However. if a structure is subjected to dead load.Design Process To define a design load combination. if the structure is subjected to wind. namely.0L  1. if a structure is subjected to dead load (D). numerous additional design load combinations may be required. There is one exception to the preceding.6(0. earthquake. earthquake (E).2. simply specify one or more response cases.0E (ACI 9-1) (ACI 9-2) (ACI 13.

8W 1. the program design assumes that a P-delta analysis has been performed.2D + 1. PLL is the live load multiplied by the Pattern Live Load Factor.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 1.6S 1. the program can calculate the amount of reinforcing required to design the column based on provided reinforcing bar configuration. For reinforcement to be designed.0E (ACI 9-2) (ACI 9-3) (ACI 9-3) (ACI 9-4) (ACI 9-5) These are also the default design load combinations in the program whenever the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 code is used.1) and 1 to 6 percent for Special Moment Resisting Frames (ACI 21.6L + 0. Alternatively. Calculate the capacity ratio or the required reinforcing area for the factored axial force and biaxial (or uniaxial) bending moments obtained from  3-6 Column Design .6S  0. The design procedure for the reinforced concrete columns of the structure involves the following steps:  Generate axial force-biaxial moment interaction surfaces for all of the different concrete section types of the model. The reinforcement requirements are calculated or checked at a use-defined number of check/design stations along the column span.5S  1.1). The Pattern Live Load Factor can be specified in the Preferences. When using the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 code.0L + 0. the program generates the interaction surfaces for the range of allowable reinforcement.6W 1.0L + 0. If the geometry of the reinforcing bar configuration of each concrete column section has been defined.4.3 Column Design The program can be used to check column capacity or to design columns. A typical biaxial interacting diagram is shown in Figure 3-1. or if other types of loads are present. the program will check the column capacity.2D + 1.5S 1. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load analysis on a member-by-member basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.0L + 1. 3.2S  1.3. The user should use other appropriate design load combinations if roof live load is separately treated.9.2D + 1.2D + 1. 1 to 8 percent for Ordinary and Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (ACI 10.2D + 1.

Figure 3-1 A typical column interaction surface Column Design 3-7 . In addition to axial compression and biaxial bending.3.Design Process each loading combination at each station of the column. The target capacity ratio is taken as the Utilization Factor Limit when calculating the required reinforcing area. the formulation allows for axial tension and biaxial bending considerations.1 Generation of Biaxial Interaction Surfaces The column capacity interaction volume is numerically described by a series of discrete points that are generated on the three-dimensional interaction failure surface. 3.  Design the column shear reinforcement. The following four sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process.Chapter 3 . A typical interaction surface is shown in Figure 3-1.

3). The formulation is based consistently upon the general principles of ultimate strength design (ACI 10. 3-8 Column Design .3).Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 c c c c c Figure 3-2 Idealized strain distribution for generation of interaction surface The coordinates of these points are determined by rotating a plane of linear strain in three dimensions on the section of the column. as shown in Figure 3-2.003 (ACI 10. to 0.2. at the extremity of the section. c. The linear strain diagram limits the maximum concrete strain.

Chapter 3 - Design Process

The stress in the steel is given by the product of the steel strain and the steel modulus of elasticity, sEs, and is limited to the yield stress of the steel, fy (ACI 10.2.4). The area associated with each reinforcing bar is assumed to be placed at the actual location of the center of the bar, and the algorithm does not assume any further simplifications with respect to distributing the area of steel over the cross-section of the column, as shown in Figure 3-2. The concrete compression stress block is assumed to be rectangular, with a stress value of 0.85fc (ACI 10.2.7.1), as shown in Figure 3-3. The interaction algorithm provides correction to account for the concrete area that is displaced by the reinforcement in the compression zone. The depth of the equivalent rectangular block, a, is taken as: a = 1 c (ACI 10.2.7.3)

where c is the depth of the stress block in compression strain and,

 f '  4000  1 = 0.85  0.05  c ,  1000 

0.65  1  0.85.

(ACI 10.2.7.3)

The effect of the strength reduction factor, , is included in the generation of the interaction surface. The value of  used in the interaction diagram varies from compression controlled  to tension controlled  based on the maximum tensile strain in the reinforcing at the extreme edge, t (ACI 9.3.2.2). Sections are considered compression controlled when the tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is equal to or less than the compression controlled strain limit at the time the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of c.max, which is 0.003. The compression controlled strain limit is the tensile strain in the reinforcement at balanced strain condition, which is taken as the yield strain of the steel reinforcing,

fy E

(ACI 10.3.3).

Sections are tension controlled when the tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is equal to or greater than 0.005, just as the concrete in compression reaches its assumed strain limit of 0.003 (ACI 10.3.4).

Column Design

3-9

Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

Concrete Section

Strain Diagram

Stress Diagram

Figure 3-3 Idealization of stress and strain distribution in a column section

Sections with t between the two limits are considered to be in a transition region between compression controlled and tension controlled sections (ACI 10.3.4). When the section is tension controlled, a  factor for tension-control is used. When the section is compression controlled, a  factor for compression control is used. When the section is within the transition region,  is linearly interpolated between the two values (ACI 9.3.2), as shown in the following:

c if t   y   0.005   t   c  t  t  c    if y   t  0.005,   0.005   y   if t  0.005, where 

(ACI 9.3.2)

t c

=  for tension controlled sections, which is 0.90 by default =  for compression controlled sections = 0.70 (by default) for column sections with spiral reinforcement = 0.65 (by default) for column sections

(ACI 9.3.2.1)

(ACI 9.3.2.2a)

3 - 10

Column Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

with tied reinforcement

(ACI 9.3.2.1)

Default values for c and t are provided by the program but can be overwritten using the Options menu > Preferences > Concrete Frame Design command. The maximum compressive axial load is limited to  Pn(max), where

Pn(max) Pn(max)

= 0.85 [0.85fc (Ag  Ast) + fy Ast], spiral = 0.80 [0.85 fc (Ag  Ast) + fy Ast], tied

(ACI 10.3.6.1) (ACI 10.3.6.2)

In calculating the Pn(max), the  for a compression controlled case is used.

3.3.2

Calculate Column Capacity Ratio
The column capacity ratio is calculated for each design load combination at each output station of each column. The following steps are involved in calculating the capacity ratio of a particular column for a particular design load combination at a particular location:

Determine the factored moments and forces from the analysis cases and the specified load combination factors to give Pu, Mu2, and Mu3. Determine the moment magnification factors for the column moments. Apply the moment magnification factors to the factored moments. Determine whether the point, defined by the resulting axial load and biaxial moment set, lies within the interaction volume.

 

The factored moments and corresponding magnification factors depend on the identification of the individual column as either “sway” or “non-sway.” The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with that process.

3.3.2.1

Determine Factored Moments and Forces

The loads for a particular design load combination are obtained by applying the corresponding factors to all of the analysis cases, giving Pu, Mu2, and Mu3. The factored moments are further increased, if required, to obtain minimum eccentricities of (0.6 + 0.03h) inches, where h is the dimension of the column in the

Column Design

3 - 11

For individual columns or column-members.2 Determine Moment Magnification Factors The moment magnification factors are calculated separately for sway (overall stability effect). The moment of inertia reduction for sustained lateral load involves a factor d (ACI 10. 3.2 (dead load) + 1. This d for sway frames in second-order analysis is different from the one that is defined later for non-sway moment magnification (ACI 2.12. as follows: 3 .5) by the non-sway moment magnification factor. which are identified by “ns” subscripts.2). Also.6 (live load) (ACI 10. The minimum eccentricity is applied in only one direction at a time. ns. For more information about P- analysis.13.3.3. are primarily caused by gravity load. The non-sway components. The moment obtained from analysis is separated into two components: the sway Ms and the non-sway Mns components.12.4.1. the magnified moments about two axes at any station of a column can be obtained as M = Mns +s Ms (ACI 10.11.6). refer to Appendix A. in general.1.13.10.1.13). The sway moments are primarily caused by lateral loads and are related to the cause of sidesway. the analysis combination should correspond to a load of 1.3. R10.2. See also White and Hajjar (1991).3.1).Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 corresponding direction (ACI 10.13. The user should use reduction factors for the moments of inertia in the program as specified in ACI 10. The default moment of inertia factor in this program is 1.13. R10.4. For the P- analysis. and for non-sway (individual column stability effect). different (ACI R10.12 Column Design . ns.10.1.1). R10. The sway components are identified by the “s” subscript.12.1). The computed moments are further amplified for individual column stability effect (ACI 10. 10.3. 10. 10. the moment magnification factors in the major and minor directions are.12. s. R10.11.3) The factor s is the moment magnification factor for moments causing side-sway.13. The program takes this factor to be 1 because the component moments Ms and Mns are assumed to be obtained from a second order elastic ( P- ) analysis (ACI R10.

12.12. as shown in Figure B-1 in Appendix B.Design Process Mc = nsM Mc is the factored moment to be used in design.3) Ma and Mb are the moments at the ends of the column. the program allows the user to overwrite this value (ACI 10.6  0.12.75Pc Ma  0.12.3) k is conservatively taken as 1. which are the ratios of the unsupported lengths for the major and minor axes bending to the overall member length. The user can overwrite Cm on an object-by-object basis. (ACI 10. The two unsupported lengths are l22 and l33. corresponding to instability in the minor and major directions of the object. Cm = 1.3) The non-sway moment magnification factor.3)  ns  Cm  1.1). Refer to Appendix B for more information about how the program automatically determines the unsupported lengths. The program allows users to overwrite the unsupported length ratios.12. associated with the major or minor direction of the column is given by (ACI 10. Mb (ACI 10. If transverse load is present on the span.0. however. Ma/Mb is positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature bending. or the length is overwritten. where Pu 1 0.Chapter 3 . lu is the unsupported length of the column for the direction of bending considered. and Mb is numerically larger than Ma.4. Pc   2 EI  klu  2 (ACI 10. These are the lengths between the support points of the object in the corresponding directions. EI is associated with a particular column direction: Column Design 3 . ns.4 (ACI 10. respectively.13 . The preceding expression of Cm is valid if there is no transverse load applied between the supports.12.3) Cm  0.

This capacity ratio is achieved by plotting the point L and determining the location of point C. The preceding calculations are performed for major and minor directions separately. 3 . If the point lies within the interaction volume. Therefore. ns. The capacity ratio is basically a factor that gives an indication of the stress condition of the column with respect to the capacity of the column.75Pc. if the point lies outside the interaction volume. the column is overstressed. EI. a failure condition is declared. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to 0. This point is determined by three-dimensional linear interpolation between the points that define the failure surface.12. k. and Pc assume different values for major and minor directions of bending. lu. Mu2.12.3. the user can explicitly specify values of n and ns.3 Determine Capacity Ratio As a measure of the stress condition of the column.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 EI  0. Point C is defined as the point where the line OL (if extended outwards) will intersect the failure surface. R10. That means that n. must be a positive number and greater than one. is given by the ratio OL/OC. Mu3) is then placed in the interaction space shown as point L in Figure 3-4. Before entering the interaction diagram to check the column capacity. CR. 3. the column capacity is adequate.3) The magnification factor.4 Ec I g 1  d maximumfactored axial sustained (dead) load maximum factored axial total load (ACI 10. Mu2.2. as shown in Figure 3-4.75Pc. Cm.1. and Mu3. If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular member. However.14 Column Design . ns. a capacity ratio is calculated. Pu must be less than 0. The point (Pu. The capacity ratio.3) d  (ACI 2. the moment magnification factors are applied to the factored loads to obtain Pu.

and Mu3 set and associated design load combination name.Design Process Figure 3-4 Geometric representation of column capacity ratio   If OL = OC (or CR = 1). Column Design 3 . the point lies on the interaction surface and the column is stressed to capacity. the point lies outside the interaction volume and the column is overstressed. The maximum of all the values of CR calculated from each design load combination is reported for each check station of the column along with the controlling Pu. If OL < OC (or CR < 1).15 .Chapter 3 . Mu2. the point lies within the interaction volume and the column capacity is adequate.  If OL > OC (or CR > 1).

3.4.4 Design Column Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each design combination in the major and minor directions of the column. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. the column axial force. Pu. Columns of Ordinary moment frames that have a clear-height-to-maximumplan-dimension ratio of 5 or less and that are assigned a Seismic Design Category B are designed for capacity shear force in addition to the factored shear force (IBC 1910.3).3.16 Column Design . the program computes the reinforcement that will give a column capacity ratio equal to the Utilization Factor Limit.3. Vu. in addition to the factored shear forces (IBC 2006. Determine the shear force.3.3 Required Reinforcing Area If the reinforcing area is not defined.4. respectively.1. 3 . For Special and Intermediate moment resisting frames (Ductile frames). which is set to 0. the forces for a particular design load combination. Effects of the axial forces on the column moment capacities are included in the formulation. ACI 21. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcing for a particular column for a particular design load combination resulting from shear forces in a particular direction:    Determine the factored forces acting on the section. 21.3). namely. Note that Pu is needed for the calculation of Vc.3.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 3.1. Vc. in a particular direction are obtained by factoring the analysis cases with the corresponding design load combination factors. Calculate the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance. the shear design of the columns is also based on the maximum probable moment strengths and the nominal moment strengths of the members. and the column shear force. Pu and Vu.12. ACI 21.95 by default.5. 3. which can be resisted by concrete alone.1  Determine Section Forces In the design of the column shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame.12.

Chapter 3 . Two different capacity shears are calculated for each direction (major and minor). Veb }  Vu. the shear design of those columns is similar to that of an Intermediate moment resisting frame (IBC 2006.17 . For Ordinary moment resisting frames that are assigned a Seismic Design Category B and columns for which the design has a clear-spanto-maximum-plan-dimension ratio of 5 or less.3. the shear capacity of the column is checked for capacity shear in addition to the requirement for the Ordinary moment resisting frames. Vu. is determined from consideration of the maximum forces that can be generated at the column. = Capacity shear force of the column based on the probable moment strengths of the beams framing into the column.1. The Column Design 3 . The capacity shear force in the column. but never less than the factored shear obtained from the design load combination.. In calculating the capacity shear of the column. the maximum probable flexural strength at the two ends of the column is calculated for the existing factored axial load.   Vu where = min{ Vec .e.12.Design Process  For stations located less than a distance d from the ends of the column. The design strength is taken as the minimum of these two values. Vec .3) In the shear design of Special moment resisting frames (i. factored (ACI 21.1.4.5. IBC 2006) Vec Veb = Capacity shear force of the column based on the probable maximum flexural strengths of the two ends of the column. Clockwise rotation of the joint at one end and the associated counter-clockwise rotation of the other joint produces one shear force. ACI 21. The first is based on the probable moment strength of the column. The shear force Vu is calculated at a distance d by interpolating between stations.1). seismic design). while the second is computed from the probable moment strengths of the beams framing into the column. the design is performed for the same shear Vu as that computed at a distance d (ACI 11.

R21.4) V  c e1 c e2  M I  M J L . Then the capacity shear force is obtained by applying the calculated maximum probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the column acting in two opposite directions. M p at end J of the column using a steel yield stress  value of fy and no reduction factor ( =1. For each design load combination. .Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 reverse situation produces another capacity shear force.   M pr and M pr .3. 1 Vec  max Vec .1).1.5. the maximum probable positive and negative moment capacities.   (ACI 21. with the maximum of these two values taken as the Vec . and L = Clear span of the column.1.1. M I  (ACI 21. M J  Positive and negative probable maximum moment capacities M  p  . the factored axial load. The probable moment capacities are determined using a strength reduction factor of 1. 21.1. 21.3. Vec is the maximum of Vec and Vec2 . Pu.4) M I  M J .3. Fig. If the column section was identified as a section to be checked.0).4.4.4.0).1.0 and the reinforcing steel stress equal to  fy .3. the user-specified reinforcing is used for 3 . Then. of the column in a particular direction under the influence of the axial force Pu is calculated using the uniaxial interaction diagram in the corresponding direction.4.4.5.18 Column Design .4) Positive and negative probable maximum moment capacities M  p  . Fig.5. where  is set equal to 1. Therefore.4.25 (ACI 2.5. R21. M p at end I of the column using a steel yield stress  value of fy and no reduction factor ( =1. (ACI 21. Fig.5.5.4. Fig.Vec2 1 where. R21. R21. V  L M I .1. R21. and both of these situations are checked. is calculated. M J .

If the column section is a variable (non-prismatic) section.Design Process the interaction curve. In the latter case. the program calculates the maximum probable positive and negative moment capacities of each beam framing into the top joint of the column. H It should be noted that the points of inflection shown in Figure 3-5 are taken at midway between actual lateral support points for the columns. In calculating the capacity shear of the column based on the flexural strength of the beams framing into it.19 . Ve1  M r1 . the clear span length will be used. Ve 2  Column capacity shear for counter-clockwise joint rotation. the full span length is used. Veb2 1 where.Chapter 3 .5. the maximum of the negative and positive moment capacities will be used for both the positive and negative moment capacities in determining the capacity shear. Veb  max Veb .4. If the column section was identified as a section to be designed. The shear force in the column is determined assuming that the point of inflection occurs at mid-span of the columns above and below the joint.   (ACI 21. and H is taken Column Design 3 . This envelope of reinforcing area is used for the interaction curve. Veb . the reinforcing area envelope is calculated after completing the flexural (P-M-M) design of the column. Then the sum of the beam moments is calculated as a resistance to joint rotation. if the length factor is not overwritten by the user. as appropriate. along with the user-specified reinforcing or the envelope of reinforcing for check or design sections. The effects of load reversals are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases. However. as well as the rotation of the joint in both the major and minor axis directions of the column. If the user overwrites the length factor.1) Ve1  Column capacity shear for clockwise joint rotation. Both clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations are considered separately. the cross-sections at the two ends are used.

Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 as the mean of the two column heights. H M r1  Sum of beam moment resistances with clockwise joint rotations. appropriate component. If there is no column at the top of the joint. and H Distance between the inflection points. Ve1 can be calculated as follows: M uL  M uR H The expression for Veb is applicable for the determination of both the major Ve1  and minor direction shear forces. appropriate components of the flexural capacities are used. M r 2  Sum of beam moment resistances with counter-clockwise joint rotations. If the beam is oriented at an angle  with the column major axis. of the beam flux capacity is used in calculating Mr1 and Mr2. Also the positive and negative moment capacities are used appropriately based on the orientation of the beam with respect to the column local axis. The calculated shear force is used for the design of the column below the joint. Ve 2  Mr2 . the distance is taken as one-half of the height of the column at the bottom of the joint. If there is no column at the top of the joint. which is equal to the mean height of the columns above and below the joint. 3 .20 Column Design . When beams are not oriented along the major and minor axes of the column. H is taken to be equal to one-half of the height of the column below the joint. For the case shown in Figure 3-5. Mpr cos or Mpr sin.

12.0) moment capacity and modified factored shear force.21 . IBC 2006) Column Design 3 . the shear capacity of the column is also checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads.3. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames. Vu  min Ve .Design Process Figure 3-5 Column shear force Vu  For Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames. factored (ACI 21.Chapter 3 . R21.12.Vef   Vu . The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal ( = 1.

In that case. Vu. This special case is similar to the Intermediate moment resisting frames. Vu  min Ve . IBC 2006) 3 . the modified Pu and Mu are used for calculating concrete shear strength.3b). the factored design forces (Pu.25 (ACI 21.Vef   Vu .   Ve  min Vec .12.3). However. the factored Pu and Mu are used for calculating concrete shear strength. Mu) are based on the specified design load factors.3. except that the earthquake load factors are doubled (ACI 21.12.12. R21. except that in determining the flexural strengths of the column and the beams.12. factored (ACI 21. The design shear force is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal ( = 1. Fig. the modified Pu and Mu are not used for the P-M-M interaction.3.3) where. Vec is the capacity shear force of the column based on the nominal flexural strength of the column ends alone. Ve is the capacity shear force in the column determined from the nominal moment capacities of the column and the beams framing into it. the shear capacity for those columns is checked based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends and the factored gravity loads.12. In no case is the column designed for a shear force less than the original factored shear force.3). In designing for Ve. in addition to the check required for other Ordinary moment resisting frames (IBC 2006.0) moment capacity and modified factored shear force.22 Column Design . R21.3. Vef is the shear force in the column obtained from the modified design load combinations.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 where.12.0 rather than 1.0 as before. The calculation of Vec and Veb is the same as that described for special moment resisting frames. Veb is the capacity shear force of the column based on the nominal strengths of the beams framing into it.12. Veb    (ACI 21.  is taken as 1. When designing for this modified shear force. In that case. but  is taken as 1.  For Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames that are assigned a Seismic Design Category B and columns for which the clear-height-to-maximumplan-dimension ratio is 5 or less.12. ACI 21. R21. the nominal capacities are used. Fig.

Vc  2   Pu  A cv . the shear force carried by the concrete. and if the station is within a distance lo from the face of the joint.23 .5. 000 A g    (ACI 11.3.factored are calculated exactly in the same way as that for a column in an Intermediate moment resisting frame.2) The term Pu must have psi units.4. Pu is negative  Pu Vc  2 f c'  1   500 Ag     Acv  0   (ACI 11.3. if the factored axial compressive force. Pu.3. and Vu.5Vu  over the length of the member.e.3. Vc. Vef. VE .1. is small Pu  f c' Ag 20 . 3. The length lo is taken as the section Column Design 3 . then the concrete capacity Vc is taken as zero (ACI 21. R11.Chapter 3 .2). For circular columns. Pu is positive.2. i. if the shear force contribution from earthquake.3.3) For Special Moment Resisting Concrete Frame design. which is Ag shown shaded in Figure 3-6.. Note that for capacity shear design.3).2.2) V c  3.5  Pu f c'  1   500 A g    Acv   (ACI 11. If the column is subjected to axial tension. Ve is considered to be contributed solely by earthquakes.Design Process Ve.3. is calculated as follows:  If the column is subjected to axial compression.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity Given the design force set Pu and Vu.3. Acv is taken to be equal to the gross area of the section (ACI 11. is   more than half of the total factored maximum shear force Vu VE  0.4. so the second condition is automatically satisfied. Acv is the effective shear area. including the earthquake effect. where f c'  1   2 .

9) 3 .Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 width.5. s. is given for rectangular and circular columns by the following:  The shear force is limited to a maximum of Vmax  Vc  8 f c' Acv   (ACI 11.3. d' DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE d A cv b RECTANGULAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE A cv b SQUARE WITH CIRCULAR REBAR d' d DIRECTION OF SHEAR FORCE A cv CIRCULAR Figure 3-6 Shear stress area.4. whichever is larger (ACI 21.4). one-sixth the clear span of the column.2. or 18 in.7.4.24 Column Design .3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given Vu and Vc.4.4. the required shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups or ties within a spacing.5. Acv 3. 21.

the strength reduction factor  is taken by default as 0.3.3.25 .7. bw is the width of the column. a failure condition is declared. Column Design 3 . bw is replaced with D. which is the external diameter of the column.5.Chapter 3 .5.4. and as 0.7. along with the controlling combination name.75 f ' Av 50  c bw .3. The maximum of all the calculated Av s values.6. In the preceding expressions. the concrete section size should be increased (ACI 11. Av  0.a).3). 11.3. Av /s. for a rectangular section.3).75 for non-seismic cases (ACI 9. and d is replaced with 0.6. d is the effective depth of the column.3.5.8D and Acv is replaced with the gross area  D2 4 (ACI 11. those values can be overwritten by the user. is calculated as follows: If Vu  Vc 2   .  s  f ys d  0.5.2) (ACI 11. which is equal to bw d .2.9) In the preceding expressions.7. However.3) (ACI 11. are reported for the major and minor directions of the column. obtained from each design load combination. (ACI 11. and Acv is the effective shear area.9). If Vu exceeds its maximum permitted value Vmax. s else if Vc 2   Vu  Vmax .5. (ACI 11.3.7.60 for seismic cases (ACI 9.5. 11. R11. if so desired. bw   max   s fy fy    else if Vu  Vmax .7.Design Process  The required shear reinforcement per unit spacing. For a circular section.5.1) Av Vu  Vc  .1.

1 Design Beam Flexural Reinforcement The beam top and bottom flexural steel is designed at check/design stations along the beam span. design load combination factors.1.1 Determine Factored Moments In the design of flexural reinforcement of Special. the factored moments for each design 3 .4 Beam Design In the design of concrete beams. All beams are designed for major direction flexure.4.4. or Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame beams. The beam design procedure involves the following steps:    Design flexural reinforcement Design shear reinforcement Design torsion reinforcement 3. Intermediate. torsions. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing considerations or transverse reinforcement volumetric considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user.26 Beam Design . the program calculates and reports the required areas of steel for flexure and shear based on the beam moments. and other criteria described in the text that follows. The reinforcement requirements are calculated at a user-defined number of check/design stations along the beam span. The following steps are involved in designing the flexural reinforcement for the major moment for a particular beam for a particular section:   Determine the maximum factored moments Determine the reinforcing steel 3. shear forces. Effects resulting from any axial forces and minor direction bending that may exist in the beams must be investigated independently by the user. shear and torsion only. 3.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 The column shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on shear strength consideration.

3. Compression reinforcement is added when the applied design moment exceeds the maximum moment capacity of a singly reinforced section.005 (tension controlled) (ACI 10. The design procedure used by the program for both rectangular and flanged sections (T beams) is summarized in the following subsections. where. the program calculates both the tension and compression reinforcement. or the grade of concrete. It is assumed that the design ultimate axial force does not exceed  ( 0. the depth of the compression block is given by a (see Figure 3-7).4). Positive moments produce bottom steel. Mu (i.27 . Furthermore.2). The user has the option of avoiding the compression reinforcement by increasing the effective depth. as shown in Figure 3-7 (ACI 10. In such cases.1 f c' Ag ) (ACI 10.Chapter 3 . the area of compression reinforcement is calculated on the assumption that the additional moment will be carried by compression and additional tension reinforcement. it is assumed that the net tensile strain of the reinforcing steel shall not be less than 0. all of the beams are designed ignoring axial force. 3.Design Process load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the corresponding moments for different analysis cases with the corresponding design load combination factors. the beam may be designed as a Rectangular or a T beam. In such cases. Negative moments produce top steel.3.e. The beam section is then designed for the factored moments obtained from all of the design load combinations. The design procedure is based on the simplified rectangular stress block. hence.3..1. Beam Design 3 .1. When the applied moment exceeds the moment capacity at this design condition.4.1 Design for Rectangular Beam In designing for a factored negative or positive moment.4.5). the width.2 Determine Required Flexural Reinforcement In the flexural reinforcement design process.2. designing top or bottom steel). the beam is always designed as a rectangular section.

Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

a  d  d2 

2 Mu 0.85 f c' b

,

(ACI 10.2)

where, the value  is taken as that for a tension controlled section, which is 0.90 by default (ACI 9.3.2.1) in the preceding and the following equations.

As

Beam Section

Strain Diagram
Figure 3-7 Rectangular beam design

Stress Diagram

The maximum depth of the compression zone, cmax, is calculated based on the limitation that the tensile steel tension shall not be less than s,min, which is equal to 0.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.3.4):

cmax 

 c max d where,  c ,max   s ,min

(ACI 10.2.2)

c,max = 0.003 s,min = 0.005

(ACI 10.2.3) (ACI 10.3.4)

The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block, amax, is given by

3 - 28

Beam Design

Chapter 3 - Design Process

amax  1cmax
where 1 is calculated as follows:

(ACI 10.2.7.1)

1  0.85  0.05  

 f c'  4000   , 0.65  1  0.85   1000 

(ACI 10.2.7.3)

 If a  amax (ACI 10.3.4, 10.3.5), the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by

As 

Mu a   fy  d   2 

This steel is to be placed at the bottom if Mu is positive, or at the top if Mu is negative.
 If a > amax, compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10.3.4, 10.3.5) and is calculated as follows:

The compressive force developed in concrete alone is given by

C  0.85 f c'bamax ,

(ACI 10.2.7.1)

the moment resisted by concrete compression and tensile steel is

a  M uc  C  d  max 2 

 . 

Therefore, the moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is

M us  M u  M uc .
So the required compression steel is given by

As' 

f

M us
' s

 0.85 f c' d  d ' 



, where

Beam Design

3 - 29

Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006

 cmax  d '  f  Es c max    fy.  cmax 
' s

(ACI 10.2.2, 10.2.3, 10.2.4)

The required tensile steel for balancing the compression in concrete is

As1 

M us , and amax    f y d  2   

the tensile steel for balancing the compression in steel is given by

As 2 

fy d  d' 

M us

Therefore, the total tensile reinforcement is As = As1 + As2, and the total ' ' compression reinforcement is As . As is to be placed at the bottom and As
' is to be placed at the top if Mu is positive, and As is to be placed at the

bottom and As is to be placed at the top if Mu is negative.

3.4.1.2.2 Design for T Beam
In designing a T beam, a simplified stress block, as shown in Figure 3-8, is assumed if the flange is under compression, i.e., if the moment is positive. If the moment is negative, the flange comes under tension, and the flange is ignored. In that case, a simplified stress block similar to that shown in Figure 3-8 is assumed in the compression side (ACI 10.2).
Flanged Beam Under Negative Moment In designing for a factored negative moment, Mu (i.e., designing top steel), the calculation of the steel area is exactly the same as described for a rectangular beam, i.e., no T beam data is used. Flanged Beam Under Positive Moment If Mu > 0, the depth of the compression block is given by

3 - 30

Beam Design

005 (ACI 10.Design Process a  d  d2  2M u 0. the subsequent calculations for As are exactly the same as previously defined for the Rectangular section design. Cw.4): cmax   c .003 s.2.4) The maximum allowable depth of the rectangular compression block.65  1  0.3) (ACI 10.max   s . is calculated based on the limitation that the tensile steel tension shall not be less than s.85 – 0. amax.3.85   (ACI 10. as shown in Figure 3-8.1)  1000 (ACI 10.Chapter 3 .min = 0.2. and the second part is for balancing the compressive force from the web. the width of the beam is taken as bf. 0.7. Cf is given by  Beam Design 3 . (ACI 10.31 .min where. which is 0.05  f c  4000  .85 f c'  b f where.3)   If a  ds. cmax.max d  c .2.2.7.90 by default (ACI 9. The maximum depth of the compression zone.2) c.3.1) in the preceding and the following equations. which is equal to 0. as shown in Figure 3-8. the calculation for As has two parts.max = 0. in that case. the value of  is taken as that for a tension controlled section. is given by amax = 1cmax where 1 is calculated as follows: ' 1 = 0. Compression reinforcement is required if a > amax. However. If a > ds. The first part is for balancing the compressive force from the flange.005 for tension controlled behavior (ACI 10.min. Cf.2.3.

the value for  is 0. As1  given by Cf fy and the portion of Mu that is resisted by the flange is  m in  d s .7.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 Beam Section Strain Diagram Figure 3-8 T beam design Stress Diagram C f  0. a m ax   M uf  C f  d    2   Again. the balance of the moment. to be carried by the web is given by M uw  M u  M uf The web is a rectangular section of dimensions bw and d.90 by default. Mu. Therefore.32 Beam Design .85 f c'  bw (ACI 10.85 f c'  b f  bw  * min  d s . for which the design depth of the compression block is recalculated as a1  d  d 2  2 M uw 0.2) 3 . amax  (ACI 10.2.1) Therefore.

3.2. the compression steel is computed as As'  f M us ' s  0. and a1    fy  d   2  As  As1  As 2 This steel is to be placed at the bottom of the T beam.Design Process  If a1  amax (ACI 10.33 .85 f c'bw amax (ACI 10.3.2. 10.Chapter 3 .3. the area of tensile steel reinforcement is then given by As 2  M uw .4) The tensile steel for balancing compression in the web concrete is Beam Design 3 .1) Therefore the moment resisted by the concrete web and tensile steel is a  M uc  C  d  max 2     .5). 10.85 f c'  d  d '     .2.2. and  The moment resisted by compression steel and tensile steel is M us  M uw  M uc Therefore.2.3.7. where  cmax  d '  f  Es c max    fy  cmax  ' s (ACI 10. compression reinforcement is required (ACI 10. 10.5) and is calculated as follows: The compression force in the web concrete alone is given by C  0.  If a1 > amax.4.

1.34 Beam Design . As is to be placed at the bottom and As' is to be placed at the top.4 Special Consideration for Seismic Design For Special moment resisting concrete frames (seismic design).2.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 As 2  M uc .5. 3.1) As  4 As ( required ) 3 (ACI 10.3) An upper limit of 0. the beam design satisfies the following additional conditions (see also Table 3-1): 3 .04bd As   0.5. and the total compression reinforcement is As' .3 Minimum and Maximum Tensile Reinforcement The minimum flexural tensile steel required in a beam section is given by the minimum of the following two limits: 3 f   200   c As  max  bw d. and amax    f y d  2    the tensile steel for balancing the compression steel is As 3  fy d  d'   M us  The total tensile reinforcement is As  As1  As 2  As 3 .4.4.04bw d 0.04bw d Rectangular Beam T Beam Rectangular Beam T Beam 3.2.1. bw d  fy  fy    (ACI 10.04bd  As   0.04 times the gross web area on both the tension reinforcement and the compression reinforcement is imposed as follows: 0.

ρ   0.0 and  = 1.Chapter 3 .025 200 fy 200 fy ρ ' 3 fc fy ' 3 fc fy . ρ   0. ρ Beam Min.04 ρ ' 3 fc fy ' 3 fc fy .25 Vc = 0 (conditional)   0. M u 4   end M uspan   1 5   max M u . M u   max M uspan   1 4   max M u . ρ 200 fy 200 fy ρ . M u  end Beam Design 3 . same as Intermediate) Beam Design Flexure Specified Combinations Specified Combinations Specified Combinations Modified Combinations (earthquake loads doubled) Column Shear Capacity  = 1. ρ .35 .0 Specified Combinations Column shear capacity  = 1.0 Specified Combinations Specified Combinations Column Shears Specified Combinations (If SDC = B. and h/B  5.0 and  = 1. M u end 5 1   M uend  M uend 2   1    M uspan  max M u .04 200 fy 200 fy ρ ρ ' 3 fc fy ' 3 fc fy . Moment Override Check No Requirement 1   M uend  M uend 3 1    M uspan  max M u .Design Process Table 3-1: Design Criteria Type of Check/ Design Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (Non-Seismic) Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) Special Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) Column Check (interaction) Specified Combinations Column Design (interaction) Specified Combinations 1% <  < 8% Specified Combinations 1% <  < 8% Specified Combinations 1% <  < 6%  = 1. ρ ρ .

025 bw d.e.2.1.1)  At any end (support) of the beam. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/4 of the  3 .2). 10.2. 10. associated with the bottom steel) would not be less that 1/2 of the beam negative moment capacity (i. associated with the top steel) at that end (ACI 21.2.1). Any of the top and bottom reinforcement shall not be less than As(min) (ACI 21. 3 f   200   c As (min)  max  bw d and bw d  or fy  fy    As(min)  4 As(required ) .1.3. (ACI 21.3.e..3)  The beam flexural steel is limited to a maximum given by As  0.0 plus VD+L Beam Capacity Shear (Ve) with  = 1.0 and  = 1.3.0 and  = 1.1) (ACI 21.5.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 Table 3-1: Design Criteria Type of Check/ Design Ordinary Moment Resisting Frames (Non-Seismic) Intermediate Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) Special Moment Resisting Frames (Seismic) Beam Design Shear Specified Combinations Modified Specified Combinations Specified (earthquake loads doubled) Combinations Beam Capacity Shear (Ve) with  = 1.25 plus VD+L Vc = 0 (conditional) Joint Design No Requirement Beam/Column Capacity Ratio No Requirement No Requirement Checked No Requirement Checked for shear  The minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall be provided at both the top and bottom..36 Beam Design .5. the beam positive moment capacity (i.3.3.2. 3 (ACI 21.2.

2 Design Beam Shear Reinforcement The shear reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at a user-defined number of stations along the beam span. Vc.37 . For Special and Intermediate moment frames (ductile frames). The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular station because of beam major shear:    Determine the factored shear force. Effects of axial forces on the beam shear design are neglected. Vu.e.1  Determine Shear Force and Moment In the design of the beam shear reinforcement of an Ordinary moment resisting concrete frame..4.12.3. that can be resisted by the concrete.1).4.2. Determine the shear force. Neither the negative moment capacity nor the positive moment capacity at any of the sections within the beam would be less than 1/5 of the maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21. in addition to the factored design.12. the beam design would satisfy the following conditions:  At any support of the beam. respectively. For Intermediate moment resisting concrete frames (i. The following three sections describe in detail the algorithms associated with this process. 3.Design Process maximum of positive or negative moment capacities of any of the beam end (support) stations (ACI 21. Determine the reinforcement steel required to carry the balance.2). the beam positive moment capacity would not be less than 1/3 of the beam negative moment capacity at that end (ACI 21.  3. the shear design of the beams is also based on the maximum probable moment strengths and the nominal moment strengths of the members. seismic design). the shear forces and moments for a particular de- Beam Design 3 .4.Chapter 3 .4.2.1).

where L V p2  M I  Moment capacity at end I.4. using a steel yield stress value of fy and no reduction factors ( = 1. with top steel in tension.1. See Table 3-1 for a summary. where V p1  M I  M J  . Therefore.4) where Vp is the capacity shear force obtained by applying the calculated maximum probable ultimate moment capacities at the two ends of the beams acting in two opposite directions. The design shear force is then given by (ACI 21. seismic design). using a steel yield stress value of  fy and no reduction factors ( = 1.. with bottom steel in tension.3.  In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames (i.3. IBC 2006) Vu  max e1 .3.0). Fig R21.1.4) (ACI 21.  M J  Moment capacity at end J.3.4) (ACI 21.e.4.0). This check is performed in addition to the design check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames.4. 3 .1.38 Beam Design .Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 sign load combination at a particular beam section are obtained by factoring the associated shear forces and moments with the corresponding design load combination factors.3.4. Fig R21.Ve 2  V Ve1  V p1  VD  L Ve 2  V p 2  VD  L (ACI 21. and L  M I  M J .1. the shear capacity of the beam is also checked for the capacity shear resulting from the maximum probable moment capacities at the ends along with the factored gravity load. Vp is the maximum of Vp1 and Vp2. The capacity shear force. is calculated from the maximum probable moment capacities of each end of the beam and the gravity shear forces.3. Vp. The procedure for calculating the design shear force in a beam from the maximum probable moment capacity is the same as that described for a column earlier in this chapter.3. Fig R21.

the value of the reinforcing area envelope is calculated after completing the flexural design of the beam for all the design load combinations. Vu  min e . However.1. using a steel yield stress value of  fy and no reduction factors ( = 1.3.Design Process M I  Moment capacity at end I. where  is equal to 1.Chapter 3 . IBC 1910. using a steel yield stress value of  fy and no reduction factors ( = 1.0). the cross-sections at the two ends are used along with the user-specified reinforcing or the envelope of reinforcing. with top steel in tension.  M J  Moment capacity at end J. The design shear force in beams is taken to be the minimum of that based on the nominal moment capacity and modified factored shear force. If the reinforcing area has been overwritten for ductile beams. except Beam Design 3 .12. this area is used in calculating the moment capacity of the beam. the full span length is used.0 and the reinforcing steel stress equal to  fy.39 . If the beam section is a variable cross-section. If the user overwrites the major direction length factor. in addition to the check required for Ordinary moment resisting frames.4. In the latter case.12.0). with bottom steel in tension. VD+L is the contribution of shear force from the in-span distribution of gravity loads with the assumption that the ends are simply supported. Then this enveloping reinforcing area is used in calculating the moment capacity of the beam. L = Clear span of beam. R21.1) where. the clear length will be used.25 (ACI 2. Ve is the capacity shear force in the beam determined from the nominal moment capacities of the beam (ACI 21.1).3. Vef   Vu .  For Intermediate moment resisting frames. if the length factor is not overwritten. The moment strengths are determined using a strength reduction factor of 1. The calculation of Ve is the same as that described for special moment resisting frames. If the reinforcement area has not been overwritten for ductile beams. factored V (ACI 21.12.4. the maximum of the negative and positive moment capacities will be used for both the negative and positive moment capacities in determining the capacity shear. as appropriate. the shear capacity of the beam also is checked for the capacity shear based on the nominal moment capacities at the ends along with the factored gravity loads. R21.3a).

3. The length lo is taken as 2d from the face of the support (ACI 21. Vu.3 Determine Required Shear Reinforcement Given Vu and Vc the required shear reinforcement in area/unit length is calculated as follows:  The shear force is limited to a maximum of Vmax  Vc  8 f c' bw d .3.3b).0 rather than 1.2). VE.1).2. The computation of the design shear force in a beam of an Intermediate moment resisting frame is the same as described for columns earlier in this chapter.25 (ACI 21.2..12. Fig. In no case is the beam designed for a shear force less than the original factored shear force.3. the concrete capacity Vc is taken as zero (ACI 21.5. See Table 3-1 for a summary. R21. where (ACI 11.12. if the factored axial compressive force.2 Determine Concrete Shear Capacity The allowable concrete shear capacity is given by Vc  2 f c' bw d . but  is taken as 1. 3. 21.1. the factored design forces (Pu. Mu) are based on the specified design loads.5 Vu). except that the earthquake factors are doubled (ACI 21. Vef is the shear force in the beam obtained from the modified design load combinations. Pu. 3.3.4. is more than half of the total maximum shear force over the length of the member Vu (i.   (ACI 11. nominal moment capacities are used.3.  is taken as 1. is less than f c' Ag 20 .e.3.4. and if the station is within a distance lo from the face of the joint.2.1) for Special moment resisting concrete frame design. VE 0. In that case.40 Beam Design .4. including the earthquake effect.7.4.3). In that case.0 as before.12. if the shear force contribution from earthquake.9) 3 .Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 that in determining the flexural strength of the beam.

1.4. is reported along with the controlling shear force and associated design load combination name. Av  0. is calculated as follows: If Vu  Vc 2   .6.75 for non-seismic cases (ACI 9.2.a). obtained from each design load combination.5.5. the strength reduction factor  is taken as 0.3. and as 0.3.5. Beam Design 3 .7.75 f ' Av 50  c  max bw .5. 11. (ACI 11. those values may be overwritten by the user if so desired. See the next section Design of Beam Torsion Reinforcement for details.2)  0.Chapter 3 .1) else if Vc 2    Vu  Vmax . the equation given in ACI 11.6.6. 11.9).5.7.3 does not need to be satisfied independently. s (ACI 11.41 .1. the concrete section should be increased in size (ACI 11. Av/s. However.7. a failure condition is declared. The maximum of all of the calculated Av /s values. bw   s fy fy    else if Vu   Vmax . bw   s fy fy     0.3) (ACI 11.6 for seismic cases (ACI 9.5.5. If Vu exceeds the maximum permitted value of Vmax.2) (ACI 11.7.3). Av Vu  Vc  .9) In the preceding equations.7.7.5.Design Process  The required shear reinforcement per unit spacing.5. Note that if torsion design is performed and torsion rebar is needed.75 f ' Av 50  c  max bw .   f ys d s (ACI 11.

4. If redistribution is desired.42 Beam Design . 3.3.4. Note that the torsion design can be turned off by choosing not to consider torsion in the Preferences.3 Design Beam Torsion Reinforcement The torsion reinforcement is designed for each design load combination at a user-defined number of stations along the beam span. the user should release the torsional DOF in the structural model. Determine special section properties. In a statistically indeterminate structure where redistribution of the torsional moment in a member can occur due to redistribution of internal forces upon cracking. Determine critical torsion capacity. Determine the reinforcement steel required. the program does not try to redistribute the internal forces and to reduce Tu. The following steps are involved in designing the shear reinforcement for a particular station because of beam torsion:     Determine the factored torsion. 3.6.1 Determine Factored Torsion In the design of torsion reinforcement of any beam. 3 .2.2). Tu. However.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 The beam shear reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on shear strength considerations. the design Tu is permitted to be reduced in accordance with code (ACI 11. the factored torsions for each design load combination at a particular design station are obtained by factoring the corresponding torsion for different analysis cases with the corresponding design load combination factors (ACI 11. Any minimum stirrup requirements to satisfy spacing and volumetric consideration must be investigated independently of the program by the user.6.2).

3.6. 2.3. These properties are described as follows (ACI 2.2 Determine Special Section Properties For torsion design. With this assumption. R11. 0.6. However. pcp. 2. it is assumed that placing torsion reinforcement in the flange area is inefficient.1. Ao.6(b)) (ACI 11. the special section properties for a T beam section are given as follows: Beam Design 3 . 2b + 2h. This is equivalent to 1.1). 2. For torsion design of T beam sections. Similarly. and pn are calculated. the section dimensions b. h and c are shown in Figure 3-9. Acp Aoh Ao pcp pn = = Area enclosed by outside perimeter of concrete cross-section Area enclosed by centerline of the outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement Gross area enclosed by shear flow path Outside perimeter of concrete cross section Perimeter of centerline of outermost closed transverse torsional reinforcement = = = In calculating the section properties involving reinforcement.85 Aoh.Chapter 3 . With this assumption.1) (ACI 11.6.1. where.1. Aoh.1) (ACI 11.1)  b  2c  h  2c  . special section properties such as Acp. Ao. the flange is considered during Tcr calculation.4.1. (ACI 11. the flange is ignored for torsion reinforcement calculation. 2.6.6. and 2  b  2c   2  h  2c  .3.3.3.6. the special properties for a Rectangular beam section are given as follows: Acp Aoh Ao pcp pn = = = = = bh.1) (ACI 11.1.Design Process 3.6. it is assumed that the distance between the centerline of the outermost closed stirrup and the outermost concrete surface is 1. such as Aoh.5 inches clear cover and a #4 stirrup placement. 2.75 inches. and pn.43 .

it is assumed that the torsional resistance is provided by closed stirrups. Tcr.2. 3.1)  bw  2c  h  2c  .4 Determine Torsion Reinforcement If the factored torsion Tu is less than the threshold limit.3. 3 . where the section dimensions bf. Tcr.1.6(b)) (ACI 11. the program reports that no torsion is required. torsion can be safely ignored (ACI 11. R11.4. and f c is the specified concrete strength. is calculated as follows: Tcr   f c' 2  Acp  Pu 1   pcp   4 Acp f c   (ACI 11.  is the strength reduction factor for torsion.c) where Acp and pcp are the area and perimeter of concrete cross-section as described in detail in the previous section. 2. h. However. Tcr.6.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 Acp Aoh Ao pcp ph = bw h   b f  bw  ds .3.6.1.3.6.6.6.3. if Tu exceeds the threshold limit.1) (ACI 11.1.6).6. and compression diagonals (ACI R11. 2. In that case. 2.1) (ACI 11.1.85 Aoh.3 Determine Critical Torsion Capacity The critical torsion limits.1.6. which is equal to 0. = (ACI 11. ds and c for a T beam are shown in Figure 3-9.6.6. for which the torsion in the section can be ignored.1) (ACI11.3).4.75 by default (ACI 9.3. 2.44 Beam Design .1.1).3. = 0. longitudinal bars.3.6.3. Pu is the factored axial force (compression positive). 3. 2. and = 2  h  2c   2  bw  2c  . bw. = 2bf + 2h.

3. Tu > Tcr.6) and the required closed stirrup area per unit spacing.3. Ast /s.5.6. the required longitudinal rebar area is calculated as follows: Al  Tu ph  2 A0 f y tan (ACI 11.Chapter 3 . is calculated as follows: At T tan bw  u s  2 A0 f y s where.5.6.3) (ACI 11.6) Beam Design 3 .7.6. 11.Design Process c c b  2c c ds bf c h  2c h h h  2c c b bw  2c bw Closed Stirrup in Rectangular Beam Closed Stirrup in T-Beam Section c Figure 3-9 Closed stirrup and section dimensions for torsion design If. the minimum value of Ast /s is taken as follows: Al 25  bw s fy s and the minimum value of At is taken as follows: At  5 fc Acp fy A  t  s   f ys   ph  f    y    (ACI 11.3.6.6.3) (ACI 11.45 .

7 Aoh   bw d  2 2 (ACI 11. 11. When torsional reinforcement is required (Tu > Tcr).3.3.1. the concrete section should be increased in size. If the combination of Vu and Tu exceeds this limit.   f ys f y bw      (ACI 11. Av s is increased to satisfy this condition. In that case.5.6.3) If this equation is not satisfied with the originally calculated Av s and At s .6.2. the program performs a rational analysis of the 3 .6). 3.5.7. In that case. Av s does not need to satisfy ACI Section 11. The maximum of all the calculated At and At s values obtained from each design load combination is reported along with the controlling combination names.5 Joint Design To ensure that the beam-column joint of Special moment resisting frames possesses adequate shear strength.5.6.  Vu   Tu ph   V     c  8 f c     2   bw d   1.6. the area of transverse closed stirrups and the area of regular shear stirrups satisfy the following limit.46 Joint Design . Any minimum stirrup requirements and longitudinal rebar requirements to satisfy spacing considerations must be investigated independently of the program by the user. 11.9) For rectangular sections.5.6.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 In the preceding expressions.3 independently.75 c bw . bw is replaced with b. An upper limit of the combination of Vu and Tu that can be carried by the section is also checked using the following equation. a failure message is declared. The beam torsion reinforcement requirements reported by the program are based purely on strength considerations. The code allows any value between 30 and 60 degrees (ACI 11.  is taken as 45 degrees. At  Av  s 2 s    f 50     max 0.

Chapter 3 . from the column framing into the top of the joint. and M uR . Vuh  TL  TR  Vu Joint Design 3 . respectively. major or minor. The program calculates the joint shear force Vuh by resolving the moments into C and T forces. The material properties of the joint are assumed to be the same as those of the column below the joint. The moments M uL and M uR are obtained from the beams framing into the joint. Vu. Mu .1 Determine the Panel Zone Shear Force Figure 3-10 illustrates the free body stress condition of a typical beam-column intersection for a column direction. Determine the effective area of the joint Check panel zone shear stress Vuh The algorithms associated with these three steps are described in detail in the following three sections. 3. The force Vuh is the horizontal panel zone shear force that is to be calculated. The forces Pu and Vu are axial force and shear force. The joint design procedure involves the following steps:    Determine the panel zone design shear force. The joint analysis is completed in the major and the minor directions of the column.Design Process beam-column panel zone to determine the shear forces that are generated in the joint. L The forces that act on the joint are Pu. The program then checks this against design shear strength. Only joints having a column below the joint are checked.5.47 . Noting that TL = CL and TR = CR.

48 Joint Design .Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 Figure 3-10 Beam-column joint analysis 3 .

1. except if the beam framing into the joint is very narrow.2 Determine the Effective Area of Joint The joint area that resists the shear forces is assumed always to be rectangular in plan view.  = 1.1). as illustrated in Case 1 and Case 2 of Figure 3-10. The moments and the forces from beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated.5.5. Joint Design 3 .25 and no  factors) of the beams framing into the joint (ACI 21. In the design of Special moment resisting concrete frames. The effective width of the joint area to be used in the calculation is limited to the width of the beam plus the depth of the column. . The program calculates the column shear force Vu from the beam moment capacities.2). The dimensions of the rectangle correspond to the major and minor dimensions of the column below the joint. as follows (see Figure 3-5): Vu  M uL  M uR H It should be noted that the points of inflection shown on Figure 3-5 are taken as midway between actual lateral support points for the columns.5. The area of the joint is assumed not to exceed the area of the column below.3). 3. where. The effects of load reversals. The magnitude of C or T forces is conservatively determined using basic principles of ultimate strength theory (ACI 10. the evaluation of the design shear force is based on the moment capacities (with reinforcing steel overstrength factor.Chapter 3 . The C and T force are based on these moment capacities. the shear force from the top of the column is taken as zero. If no column exists at the top of the joint. are investigated and the design is based on the maximum of the joint shears obtained from the two cases. thereby contributing force components to the analysis. The joint area for joint shear along the major and minor directions is calculated separately (ACI R21.Design Process The location of C or T forces is determined by the direction of the moment.49 .

1. For light-weight aggregate concrete.2).5.2. For Special moment resisting frames. the allowable joint shear stress. the preceding assumptions may not be conservative and the user should investigate the acceptability of the particular joint.5. at a particular joint for a particular column direction. major or minor (ACI 21.4 Beam-Column Flexural Capacity Ratios The program calculates the ratio of the sum of the beam moment capacities to the sum of the column moment capacities.  v  15 f  for joints confined on three faces or on two opposite faces . c   where  = 0.2.3).1).3.5.5. For joint design.4.4).3. c 9.  12 f  for all other joints. the joint shear stress. factor  f c' 3 4  f c'   (ACI 21. 3.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 It should be noted that if the beam frames into the joint eccentrically. 21.5.1. and a capacity ratio. 3.50 Joint Design .3 Check Panel Zone Shear Stress The panel zone shear stress is evaluated by dividing the shear force by the effective area of the joint and comparing it with the following design shear strengths (ACI 21. the program reports the joint shear. 20 f  for joints confined on all four sides.2) Where the fcs factor is the shear strength reduction factor as defined by the user. c  (ACI 21.3. 3 .5. A beam that frames into a face of a column at the joint is considered in this program to provide confinement to the joint if at least three-quarters of the face of the joint is covered by the framing member (ACI 21.5.85 (by default).3. the design shear strength of the joint is reduced in the program to at least three-quarters of that of the normal weight concrete by replacing the f c' with  min  f cs .

0).2)  M nc = Sum of nominal flexural strengths of columns framing into the joint. For each design load combination. in each of the columns is calculated from the program design load combinations.51 . The maximum capacity summations obtained from all of the design load combinations is used for the beam-column capacity ratio.4.Chapter 3 . evaluated at the faces of the joint. For each load combination.2. Individual column flexural strength is calculated for the associated factored axial force. and with no  factors ( = 1.  = 1.Design Process  M nc  5  M nb 6 (ACI 21. The capacities are calculated with no reinforcing overstrength factor . The moment capacities of beams that frame into the joint in a direction that is not parallel to the major or minor direction of the column are resolved along the direction that is being investigated and the resolved components are added to the summation. evaluated at the faces of the joint.  M nb = Sum of nominal flexural strengths of the beams framing into the joint. Pu . The column capacity summation includes the column above and the column below the joint. The moment capacities of the two columns are added to give the capacity summation for the corresponding design load combination. see Figure 3-11. the moment capacity of each column under the influence of the corresponding axial load is then determined separately for the major and minor directions of the column. the column is concrete Joint Design 3 . The beam-column capacity ratio is determined for a beam-column joint only when the following conditions are met:   the frame is a Ductile moment resisting frame when a column exists above the beam-column joint. the axial force. The beam capacities are calculated for reversed situations (Cases 1 and 2) as illustrated in Figure 3-10 and the maximum summation obtained is used. using the uniaxial column interaction diagram.

  Figure 3-11 Moment capacity Mu at a given axial load Pu 3 .Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006    all of the beams framing into the column are concrete beams the connecting member design results are available the load combo involves seismic load The beam-column flexural capacity ratios  M nb  M nc  are reported only for Special moment resisting frames involving seismic design load combinations.52 Joint Design . If this ratio is greater than 5/6. The ratio is also reported in the form of 6 5  M nb M nc and  M nc  M nb . a warning message is printed in the output.

The tabular output includes most of the information that can be displayed. K-factors. Input design information includes design section labels. live load reduction factors. reinforcement. torsional reinforcing and column capacity ratios. and member specific detailed design information. design section dimensions. It shows the design forces. shear reinforcing. This is generated for added convenience to the designer. The member specific detailed design information shows the details of the calculation from the designer’s point of view. it also can show the position of the current state of design forces on the column interaction diagram. and some intermediate results for all of the load combinations at all of the design sections of a specific frame member. All graphical output can be printed. 4-1 . The graphical display of design output includes input and output design information.Chapter 4 Design Output 4. tabular output. The tabular output can be saved in a file or printed.1 Overview The program creates design output in different formats – graphical display. For a column member. and other design parameters. The output design information includes longitudinal reinforcing.

The output design information includes longitudinal reinforcing. K-factors. live load reduction factor. for major and minor direction of bending The output design information that can be displayed consists of the following:  Longitudinal reinforcing area 4-2 Graphical Display of Design Information . tabular output. K-factors.1 Input and Output Input design information for the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 code includes the following:      Design sections Design framing type Live load reduction factors (RLLF) Unbraced length. The ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 design code is described in this manual. for major and minor direction of bending Effective length factors. 4. The active screen display can be sent directly to the printer. torsion reinforcing. and member specific detailed design information are described. for major and minor direction of bending s factors. L-factors.2. column capacity ratio. spreadsheet output. Input design information includes design section label. some of the typical graphical display. The graphical output can be produced in color or in gray-scaled screen display. beam-column capacity ratio. for major and minor direction of bending    Cm factors. 4.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 In the following sections.2 Graphical Display of Design Information The graphical display of design output includes input and output design information. joint shear check. for major and minor direction of bending ns factors. and other design information. shear reinforcing. and other design parameters.

The graphical display in the active window can be printed by clicking the File menu > Print Graphics command.. such as longitudinal reinforcement. and then use the drop-down lists to choose the type of design data to be displayed. Alternatively.Chapter 4 . The captured picture file can then be used in popular graphics programs. Use the various toolbar buttons (e.emf) using one of the subcommands on the File menu > Capture Enhanced Metafile command. Set X-Y View) to adjust the view. rebar percentages. Graphical Display of Design Information 4-3 . or as a metafile (. Set Default 3D View. Clicking this command will access the Display Design Results form. or the Ctrl+G keyboard shortcut. the Print Graphics button on the toolbar. or use the Alt+Print Screen command to capture only the "top layer.g. shear reinforcing and so on. or use the View menu > Set 2D View or View menu > Set 3D View commands to refine the display. The graphical displays can be viewed in 2D or 3D mode. Select the Design Output or Design Input option." such as a form displayed from within the program. Click the OK button on the form to close the form and display the selected data in the active window.bmp) using one of the subcommands on the File menu > Capture Picture command. the standard Windows screen capture command (click the Print Screen button on the keyboard) can be used to create a screen capture of the entire window. The display also can be captured as a bit map file (. including Paint and PowerPoint.Design Output         Longitudinal reinforcing area as percent of concrete gross area Shear reinforcing areas per unit spacing Column P-M-M interaction ratios 6 5 Beam-column capacity ratios Column-beam capacity ratios Joint shear capacity ratios Torsion reinforcing General reinforcing details Use the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command to plot input and output values directly on the model in the active window.

Reinforcement pattern . 4. A white background can be useful when printing design output to save ink/toner. the Options menu > Colors > Set Active Theme command can be used to view or print graphics in grayscale. All tables have formal headings and are self-explanatory. as necessary.Top and bottom concrete cover . The tabular design output includes input and output design information that depends on the design code chosen. In addition.Top and bottom reinforcement areas Concrete Column Property Data . For the ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 code. assuming a color printer is available. The printed form of the tabular output is the same as that produced for the file output except that the font size is adjusted for the printed output.Material label .Concrete cover   4-4 Tabular Display of Design Output .Beam dimensions .Column dimensions .Bar area Concrete Beam Property Data . Use the Options menu > Colors > Output command to change default colors. the tabular output includes the following. so further description of these tables is not given.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 By default. Input design information includes the following:  Concrete Column Property Data .Material label .Material label .3 Tabular Display of Design Output The tabular design output can be sent directly to a printer or saved to a file. graphics are displayed and printed in color.Reinforcement pattern .Column dimensions . including changing the background color from the default black to white.Concrete cover .

Framing type .Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination .Bar area  Load Combination Multipliers .Live load reduction factors (RLLF) Concrete Moment Magnification Factors .Section ID .ns -factors .Station location .Unbraced length ratios for major and minor direction of bending.Longitudinal torsional reinforcement and the governing load combination .Total longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination .Station location .Bottom reinforcement and the governing load combination .Design Output .Chapter 4 .Minor shear reinforcement and the governing load combination Beam Design Information .Top longitudinal reinforcement and the governing load combination .s -factors   The output design information includes the following:  Column design Information .Section ID .Combination name .Major shear reinforcement and the governing load combination for  Tabular Display of Design Output 4-5 .Load types .Element type .Design section ID .Section ID .Factors for major and minor direction of bending .Load factors Concrete Design Element Information . L-factors .

Shear reinforcing areas typically are reported in in /in. member specific design information also can show the position of the current state of design forces using a column interaction diagram. and so on). A form will display when this command is used. cm /cm and so on.(6/5) Beam/column capacity ratios for major and minor direction and the governing load combination .g. and some of the intermediate results for the selected member. access the detailed design information by right clicking a frame member to display the Concrete Column Design Information form if a column member was right clicked or the Concrete Beam Design Information form if a beam member was right clicked. reinforcement details. Typically. Table 4-1 identifies the types of data provided by the forms. It includes the geometry and material data.4 Member Specific Information Member specific design information shows the details of the calculation from the designer's point of view. 2 2 2 mm .Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 shear and torsion design  Concrete Column Joint Information . Depress the F1 key on the keyboard to access the Help topic specific to that form. 4-6 Member Specific Information . other input data. which will identify the types of output available (e. 2 2 mm /mm. the longitudinal reinforcing area is reported in in . The longitudinal and shear reinforcing area are reported in their current units. which are displayed in the drop-down list in the lower right corner of the pro2 gram window. The design detail information can be displayed for a specific load combination and for a specific station of a column or beam member.Joint shear capacity for major and minor direction and the governing load combination Tabular output can be printed directly to a printer or saved in a file using the File menu > Print Tables command. rich text format Word document. After an analysis has been performed and the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check command has been used.. plain text with or without page breaks. design section dimensions. 4. For columns. design forces. cm and so on.Section ID .

shear details. for major and minor direction bending – Cm factors for major and minor bending – s factors for major and minor directions  Summary design data – Geometric data and graphical representation – Material properties – Design moments and shear forces – Minimum design moments – Top and bottom reinforcing areas – Shear capacities of concrete and steel – Shear reinforcing area – Torsion reinforcing area The load combination is reported by its name. joint shear. Member Specific Information 4-7 . This line item will have the largest required longitudinal reinforcing. K. In that case. One line item will be highlighted when the form first displays. for major and minor direction bending – Cm factors for major and minor bending – s factors for major and minor directions  Summary design data – Geometric data and graphical representation – Material properties – Minimum design moments – Moment factors – Longitudinal reinforcing areas – Design shear forces – Shear reinforcing areas – Shear capacities of steel and concrete – Torsion reinforcing – Interaction diagram.Design Output Table 4-1 Member Specific Data for Columns and Beams Column  Load combination ID  Station locations  Longitudinal reinforcement area  Major shear reinforcement areas  Minor shear reinforcement areas        Beam Load combination ID Station location Top reinforcement areas Bottom reinforcement areas Longitudinal reinforcement for torsion design Shear reinforcement area for shear Shear reinforcement area for torsion design Buttons on the forms can be used to access additional forms that provide the following data  Overwrites – Element section ID – Element framing type – Code-dependent factors – Live load reduction factors – Effective length factors. The number of line items reported is equal to the number of design combinations multiplied by the number of stations.Chapter 4 . with the axial force and biaxial moment showing the state of stress in the column  Detailed calculations for flexural details. K. and beam/ column capacity ratios  Overwrites – Element section ID – Element framing type – Code-dependent factors – Live load reduction factors – Effective length factors. while station data is reported by its location as measured from the I-end of the column. unless any design overstress or error occurs for any of the items.

When the user specifies that the program design the rebar configuration. in which case. When the users specifies that the program is to check the rebar in the column. the program highlights the critical design item. and to review the revised results immediately. If the initial design has not been performed yet. In essence. the form includes the same information as that displayed for a designed column. to revise the design assumptions interactively. the line item with the largest capacity ratio is highlighted when the form first displays. Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Display Design Info command to access the Display Design Results form and select a type of result. the program highlights the critical check item.1 Interactive Concrete Frame Design The interactive concrete frame design and review is a powerful mode that allows the user to review the design results for any concrete frame design. the program checks the rebar as it is specified. There are three ways to initiate the interactive concrete frame design mode:   Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structures command to run a design. If a column has been selected and the column has been specified to be checked by the program. 4. unless an item has an error or overstress. Similar to the design data. 4-8 Member Specific Information . the program starts with the data specified for rebar and then increases or decreases the rebar in proportion to the relative areas of rebar at the different locations of rebar in the column.Concrete Frame Design ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 the last item among the overstressed items or items with errors will be highlighted. the design results must be available for at least one member.4. Before entering the interactive concrete frame design mode. except that the data for a checked column includes the capacity ratio rather than the total longitudinal reinforcing area. In essence. The program can be used to check and to design rebar in a column member. That means the design must have been run for all the members or for only selected members. that item will be highlighted. run a design by clicking the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Start Design/Check of Structure command.

and many other design factors. After using any of the three commands. all of the messages are not applicable to ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 code. right click on a frame member to enter the interactive Concrete Frame Design Mode and access the Concrete Column Design Information form if a column member was right clicked or the Concrete Beam Design Information form if a beam member was right clicked. However. element type. Then other buttons on the Concrete Beam or Column Design Information forms can be used to display additional forms showing the details of the updated design. error messages and warnings are displayed. click the OK button on the Concrete Beam or Column Design Information forms to permanently change the design sections and other overwrites for that member.Design Output  Click the Design menu > Concrete Frame Design > Interactive Concrete Frame Design command. These forms have Overwrites buttons that accesses the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form. See the Member Specific Information section of this chapter for more information. Error Messages and Warnings 4-9 . In this way. 4. all changes made to the design parameters using the Concrete Frame Design Overwrites form are temporary and do not affect the design.Chapter 4 . The messages are numbered.5 Error Messages and Warnings In many places of concrete frame design output. See Appendix D for a detailed description of the overwrite items. the user can change the overwrites any number of times to produce a satisfactory design. if the Cancel button is used. A complete list of error messages and warnings used in Concrete Frame Design for all the design codes is provided in Appendix E. The form can be used to change the design sections. live load reduction factor for reducible live load. When changes to the design parameters are made using the Overwrites form. However. the Concrete Beam or Column Design Information forms update immediately to reflect the changes. After an acceptable design has been produced by changing the section or other design parameters.

APPENDICES .

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A-1 . The local deformation of the member is shown as δ . When P-delta effects are considered in the analysis. the frame object is broken into multiple elements over its length). design codes require that second order P-delta effects be considered when designing concrete frames. The overall global translation of this frame object is indicated by Δ .Appendix A Second Order P-Delta Effects Typically. in the model. but it does not typically capture the effect of the δ deformation (unless. They are the global lateral translation of the frame and the local deformation of members within the frame. Consider the frame object shown in Figure A-1. The total second order P-delta effects on this frame object are those caused by both Δ and δ . which is extracted from a story level of a larger structure. The program has an option to consider P-delta effects in the analysis. the program does a good job of capturing the effect due to the Δ deformation shown in Figure A-1.

MCAP = MCAP Mnt = = aMnt + bMlt where..e. That b = 1 assumes that P-delta effects have been considered in the analysis. consider P-delta effects in the analysis before running the program. see the following text) Mlt = a b = = When the program performs concrete frame design. Flexural design capacity required Required flexural capacity of the member assuming there is no joint translation of the frame (i. when performing concrete frame design in this program. associated with the δ deformation in Figure A-1) Required flexural capacity of the member as a result of lateral translation of the frame only (i. it assumes that the factor b is equal to 1 and calculates the factor a. as previously described.Design Manual Concrete Frame ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 Figure A-1 The total second order P-delta effects on a frame element caused by both Δ and δ Consideration of the second order P-delta effects is generally achieved by computing the flexural design capacity using a formula similar to that shown in the following equation. associated with the Δ deformation in Figure A-1) Unitless factor multiplying Mnt Unitless factor multiplying Mlt (assumed equal to 1 by the program.e.. in general. A-2 Appendix A . Thus.

if desired. The program automatically determines the unsupported length ratios.Appendix B Member Unsupported Lengths and Computation of K-Factors The column unsupported lengths are required to account for column slenderness effects. which are specified as a fraction of the frame object length. as shown in Figure B-1. These are the lengths between support points of the member in the corresponding directions. Those ratios also can be overwritten by the user on a member-by-member basis. There are two unsupported lengths to consider. Those ratios times the frame object length give the unbraced lengths for the members. B-1 . The length L33 corresponds to instability about the 3-3 axis (major axis). using the overwrite option. and L22 corresponds to instability about the 2-2 axis (minor axis). They are L33 and L22.

assume a column has a beam framing into it in one direction. B-2 Appendix B . at a floor level. diaphragm constraints and support points.Design Manual Concrete Frame ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 Figure B-1 Axis of bending and unsupported length In determining the values for L22 and L33 of the members. It is possible for the unsupported length of a frame object to be evaluated by the program as greater than the corresponding member length. For example. such as member connectivity. but not the other. and its unsupported length in the other direction will exceed the story height. The program automatically locates the member support points and evaluates the corresponding unsupported length. the column is assumed to be supported in one direction only at that story level. the program recognizes various aspects of the structure that have an effect on those lengths. In that case.

Number of equally spaced interaction curves used to create a full 360 deg interaction surface (this item should be a multiple of four). or designed step-by-step for the entire time history. Step-by-Step Envelopes Number Interaction Curves Multiple of 4 ≥4 24 C-1 . If a single design load combination has more than one time history case in it.Appendix C Concrete Frame Design Preferences Table C-1 Preferences Item Possible Values Default Value Description Toggle for design load combinations that include a time history designed for the envelope of the time history. that design load combination is designed for the envelopes of the time histories. regardless of what is specified here. Time History Design Envelopes. We recommend 24 for this item.

D.Seismic) >0 0. >0 0. The strength reduction factor for shear and torsion. The strength reduction factor for shear and torsion.60 The strength reduction factor for shear in structures that rely on special moment resisting frames or special reinforced concrete structural walls to resist earthquake effects. B.75 C-2 Appendix C . Number Consider Minimum Eccentricity No. Toggle to specify if minimum eccentricity is considered in design.Design Manual Concrete Frame ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 Possible Values Any odd value ≥5 Default Value 11 Item Description Number of points used for defining a single curve in a concrete frame.9 >0 0. Yes Yes Seismic A.65 The strength reduction factor for compression controlled sections with spiral reinforcement. The strength reduction factor for compression controlled sections with spiral reinforcement. C. E. Phi (Joint Shear) >0 0. F D This item varies with the Seismic Hazard Exposure Group and the effective Peak Velocity Related Acceleration. Phi (Tension Controlled) Phi (Compression Controlled-Tied) Phi (Compression Controlled-Spiral) Phi (Shear and/ or Torsion) >0 0.75 Phi (Shear . Strength reduction factor for tension controlled sections. should be odd.70 >0 0.

Stress ratios that are less than or equal to this value are considered acceptable.95 Appendix C C-3 .60 Utilization Factor Limit >0 0. Phi (Pattern Live Load Factor) ≥0 0.Concrete Frame Design Preferences Possible Values Default Value Item Description The strength reduction factor for shear in structures that rely on special moment resisting frames or special reinforced concrete structural walls to resist earthquake effects.

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Table D-1 Overwrites Item Current Design Section Possible Values Any defined concrete section Default Value Analysis section Description The design section for the selected frame objects. Table D-1 lists concrete frame design overwrites for ACI 318-05/IBC 2006. D-1 . it is not necessary to specify or change any of the overwrites. When changes are made to overwrite items. at least review the default values to ensure they are acceptable. Default values are provided for all overwrite items.Appendix D Concrete Frame Overwrites The concrete frame design overwrites are basic assignments that apply only to those elements to which they are assigned. the program applies the changes only to the elements to which they are specifically assigned. However. Thus.

The reduced live load factor. 10. See ACI 10. This item is specified as a fraction of the frame object length.12. Specifying 0 means the value is program determined. the Framing Type is set to Intermediate. Element Type Sway Special. the Framing Type is set to special (IBC 1908. Sway Intermediate.Design Manual Concrete Frame ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 Possible Values Default Value Item Description Frame type per moment frame definition given in ACI 21. Multiplying this factor times the frame object length gives the unbraced length for the object. or F.13 and Figure R10. The program determines its default value based on the Seismic Design Category (SDC) assigned for the structure in the Preferences. Multiplying this factor times the frame object length gives the unbraced length for the object. Effective length factor for buckling about the frame object major axis. If the assigned SDC is C.2).12. the Framing Type is set to Ordinary. Unbraced length factor for buckling about the frame object major axis. If the assigned SDC is D. which the user can overwrite if needed. A reducible live load is multiplied by this factor to obtain the reduced live load for the frame object.60 Effective Length Factor (K Major) >0 Calculated D-2 Appendix D . Specifying 0 means the value is program determined. This item is specified as a fraction of the frame object length. If the assigned SDC is A or B.1.1. This factor is also used in determining the length for lateral-torsional buckling. These are default values. Sway Ordinary NonSway From Reference Live Load Reduction Factor ≥0 Calculated Unbraced Length Ratio (Major) ≥0 Calculated Unbraced Length Ratio (Minor) ≥0 0. The Framing Type is used for ductility considerations in the design. Unbraced length factor for buckling about the frame object minor axis.1. Specifying 0 means the value is program determined. E.

Appendix E Error Messages and Warnings Table E-1 provides a complete list of Concrete Errors messages and Warnings. Table E-1 Error Messages Error Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Description Beam concrete compression failure Reinforcing required exceeds maximum allowed Shear stress exceeds maximum allowed Column design moments cannot be calculated Column factored axial load exceeds Euler Force Required column concrete area exceeds maximum Flexural capacity could not be calculated for shear design Concrete column supports non-concrete beam/column E-1 .

4. Beam/column capacity ratio is not needed. There is no beam on top of column. eta < 1. At least one beam on top of column is not of concrete. Beam/column capacity ratio is not needed. Joint shear ratio is not needed. Beam/column capacity ratio is not needed.0 (GB50010 7.10) The column is not ductile.3) Torsion exceeds maximum allowed Reinforcing provided is below minimum required Reinforcing provided exceeds maximum allowed Tension reinforcing provided is below minimum required k ∗ L/r > 30 (GB 7. Beam/column capacity ratio is not calculated. The station is not at the top of the column.6. Beam/column capacity ratio is not needed.Design Manual Concrete Frame ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 Error Number 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 21 Description k ∗ L/r > 115 . zeta_ 2 < 0 .10) Column is overstressed for P-M-M Axial compressive capacity for concrete exceeded (TBM 6.3. The load is not seismic.3.2) Beam frames into column eccentrically (11. The column is not ductile. Beam/column capacity ratio is not calculated. The column on top is not concrete. 22 23 24 25 26 27 E-2 Appendix E .

Beam/column capacity ratio is not calculated. At least one beam on top of column is not concrete. Joint shear ratio is not calculated. The column above the joint has failed. All beams around the joint have not been designed. At least one beam around the joint has failed. The column above the joint has not been designed.3 . There is no beam on top of column.Appendix E – Error Messages and Warnings Error Number 28 29 Description The load is not seismic. Beam/column capacity ratio is not calculated. The column on top is not concrete. Joint shear ratio is not needed. Joint shear ratio is not needed. Beam/column capacity ratio is not calculated. Joint shear ratio is not calculated. Joint shear ratio is not needed. Beam/column capacity ratio exceeds limit. At least one beam around the joint has failed. The column above the joint has not been designed. Joint shear ratio exceeds limit. 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Appendix E E. Joint shear ratio is not needed. Joint shear ratio is not calculated. Beam/column capacity ratio is not calculated. The station is not at the top of the column. All beams around the joint have not been designed. Joint shear ratio is not calculated. Capacity ratio exceeds limit.

Design Manual Concrete Frame ACI 318-05/IBC 2006 Error Number 43 Description The column above the joint has failed. Joint shear ratio is not calculated. 45 E-4 Appendix E . Shear stress due to shear force and torsion together exceeds maximum allowed.

California. Berkeley. CSI. California. F. Inc. Country Club Hills. D. Hajjar.. Computers and Structures.. Computers and Structures. Illinois. 2005c. 1991. Inc. No. Portland Cement Association. White. References . International Code Council. Inc. “Application of Second-Order Elastic Analysis in LRFD: Research to Practice. California.. Illinois.i . Welcome to ETABS. CSI. Skokie. Notes on ACI 318-05. PCA. American Institute of Steel Construction. Michigan. Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete. Farmington Hills. 28.. CSI Analysis Reference Manual.O. 2006. 2005. Berkeley. P. 2005b.References ACI. American Concrete Institute. 4. SAP2000 Getting Started. International Building Code. CSI. and J. Inc. 2005.” Engineering Journal. Computers and Structures. Box 9094. Berkeley. 2005a. Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R-05). W. with Design Applications.. Vol. Inc. ICC..

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