Heat pump and refrigeration cycle - Wikipedia, the free encyc...
Heat pump and refrigeration cycle
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thermodynamic heat pump cycles or refrigeration cycles are the conceptual and mathematical models for heat pumps and refrigerators. A heat pump is a machine or device that moves heat from one location (the 'source') at a lower temperature to another location (the 'sink' or 'heat sink') at a higher temperature using mechanical work or a high-temperature heat source. Thus a heat pump may be thought of a "heater" if the objective is to warm the heat sink (as when warming the inside of a home on a cold day), or a "refrigerator" if the objective is to cool the heat source (as in the normal operation of a freezer). In either case, the operating principles are identical. Heat is moved from a cold place to a warm place.
1 Thermodynamic cycles 1.1 Vapor-compression cycle 1.2 Vapor absorption cycle 1.3 Gas cycle 1.4 Stirling cycle 1.5 Comparison with Combined Heat and Power, CHP. 2 References 3 External links
According to the second law of thermodynamics heat cannot spontaneously ﬂow from a colder location to a hotter area; work is required to achieve this. An air conditioner requires work to cool a living space, moving heat from the cooler interior (the heat source) to the warmer outdoors (the heat sink). Similarly, a refrigerator moves heat from inside the cold icebox (the heat source) to the warmer room-temperature air of the kitchen (the heat sink). The operating principle of the refrigeration cycle was described mathematically by Sadi Carnot in 1824 as a heat engine. A heat pump can be thought of as heat engine which is operating in reverse. Heat pump and refrigeration cycles can be classiﬁed as vapor compression, vapor absorption, gas cycle, or Stirling cycle types.
Main article: Vapor-compression refrigeration The vapor-compression cycle is used in most household refrigerators as well as in many large commercial and industrial refrigeration systems. Figure 1 provides a schematic diagram of the components of a typical vapour-compression refrigeration system. The thermodynamics of the cycle can be analyzed on a diagram as shown in Figure 2. In this
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In the absorption system. the vapor absorption cycle is used only where waste heat is available or where heat is derived from solar collectors. after the development of the vapor compression cycle. it lost much of its importance because of its low coefﬁcient of performance (about one ﬁfth of that of the vapor compression cycle).
Figure 1: Vapor compression refrigeration
Vapor absorption cycle
Main article: Absorption refrigerator
Figure 2:Temperature–Entropy diagram
In the early years of the twentieth century.Wikipedia.. That results in a mixture of liquid and vapor at a lower temperature and pressure. The above discussion is based on the ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. and does not take into account real-world effects like frictional pressure drop in the system. drives off the refrigerant vapor from the high-pressure liquid. The resulting refrigerant vapor returns to the compressor inlet to complete the thermodynamic cycle.
http://en. the free encyc.org/wiki/Heat_pump_and_refrigeration_cycle
cycle. the compressor is replaced by an absorber which dissolves the refrigerant in a suitable liquid. except for the method of raising the pressure of the refrigerant vapor. or non-ideal gas behavior (if any). on heat addition. causing ﬂash evaporation and auto-refrigeration of.Heat pump and refrigeration cycle . less than half of the liquid.. The vapor is compressed at constant entropy and exits the compressor superheated. the vapor absorption cycle using water-ammonia systems was popular and widely used but. a liquid pump which raises the pressure and a generator which. Nowadays.wikipedia. slight thermodynamic irreversibility during the compression of the refrigerant vapor. The cold liquid-vapor mixture then travels through the evaporator coil or tubes and is completely vaporized by cooling the warm air (from the space being refrigerated) being blown by a fan across the evaporator coil or tubes. The absorption cycle is similar to the compression cycle. a circulating refrigerant such as Freon enters the compressor as a vapor. Some work is
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. The liquid refrigerant goes through the expansion valve (also called a throttle valve) where its pressure abruptly decreases. The superheated vapor travels through the condenser which ﬁrst cools and removes the superheat and then condenses the vapor into a liquid by removing additional heat at constant pressure and temperature. typically.
The gas cycle is less efﬁcient than the vapor compression cycle because the gas cycle works on the reverse Brayton cycle instead of the reverse Rankine cycle.e. The FPSC was invented in 1964 by William Beale. and uses helium as the working ﬂuid.  Claimed advantages for the system include environmental friendliness. Several such setups require rotary or sliding seals. In the gas cycle. The most common combinations are ammonia (refrigerant) and water (absorbent).wikipedia. another leading supplier of FPSC technology has been the Twinbird Company  in Japan. In an absorption refrigerator. a suitable combination of refrigerant and absorbent is used. components corresponding to the condenser and evaporator in a vapor compression cycle are the hot and cold gas-to-gas heat exchangers in gas cycles. As there is no condensation and evaporation intended in a gas cycle. Sunpower also makes cryocoolers and special pulse tube coolers capable of reaching below 40°K (around –390°F.. Ohio.
When the working ﬂuid is a gas that is compressed and expanded but does not change phase. a professor of Mechanical Engineering at Ohio University in Athens. The magnetic drive allows the piston to be driven without requiring any seals. completely sealed heat transfer system that has only two moving parts (a piston and a displacer). aerospace. precise controllability. a heat pump. for the same cooling load. and commercial applications. and water (refrigerant) and lithium bromide (absorbent). using a mechanical energy input to drive heat transfer in a reversed direction (i. A FPSC cooler made by Sunpower was used by NASA to cool instrumentation in satellites. Air is most often this working ﬂuid. cooling capacity. Both Sunpower and Twinbird appear
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. gaskets. on gas turbine-powered jet airliners since compressed air is readily available from the engines' compressor sections. a gas refrigeration cycle will require a large mass ﬂow rate and would be bulky. which also markets a broad line of household appliances. light weight. it is much smaller than needed by the compressor in the vapor compression cycle. air cycle coolers are not often applied in terrestrial refrigeration. These jet aircraft's cooling and ventilation units also serve the purpose of pressurizing the aircraft cabin.
Main article: Stirling cycle The Stirling cycle heat engine can be driven in reverse. Because of their lower efﬁciency and larger bulk. Therefore.. which can introduce difﬁcult tradeoffs between frictional losses and refrigerant leakage. or other compromises to the hermetically sealed system. the refrigeration effect is equal to the product of the speciﬁc heat of the gas and the rise in temperature of the gas in the low temperature side.  which specializes primarily in researching and developing FPSC systems for a wide variety of military. the refrigeration cycle is called a gas cycle. compact size. however.Heat pump and refrigeration cycle . or –230°C). He founded and continues to be associated with Sunpower Inc. or refrigerator). As such the working ﬂuid does not receive and reject heat at constant temperature.
http://en. The air cycle machine is very common. The piston is typically driven by an oscillating magnetic ﬁeld that is the source of the power needed to drive the refrigeration cycle. the free encyc. The Free Piston Stirling Cooler (FPSC) is an elegant. Since 2002.Wikipedia. industrial.org/wiki/Heat_pump_and_refrigeration_cycle
required by the liquid pump but. O-rings.. There are several design conﬁgurations for such devices that can be built. for a given quantity of refrigerant. and high efﬁciency.
me. http://fpsc.twinbird.html) . Retrieved 2011-04-06.twinbird. Retrieved 2011-04-06.twinbird. ^ Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics.globalcooling. "Welcome to the Dr. pp. Because the losses are proportional to the square of the current. GA. 8. Published 1989 by McGraw-Hill in New York.sunpower. CHP. Atlanta. ISBN 0-471-62351-2..org/wiki/Heat_pump_and_refrigeration_cycle
to work in collaboration with Global Cooling NV. Stephen (2006). 4.. ^ Scroll down to "The Basic Vapor Compression Cycle and Components" (http://iehmtu... Delmar.edu/me372/Spring2001 /Vapor%20Compression%20Refrigeration%20Cycles..com /books?id=fy5hs04OeMQC&dq=Heat+pump+and+refrigeration+cycle . "[Homepage (http://www.
A heat pump may be compared with a chp unit. 7. McGraw-Hill. Retrieved 2011-04-06.google. the free encyc..jp/english/proﬁle. http://www. New York.sciencedirect.com/index. Global Cooling NV. Retrieved 2011-04-06. http://books.jp/en/about_fpsc_e. Twinbird Company.nl/about/ . as it switches to produced heat. It is noteworthy that the unit for the CHP is lost at the high voltage network and therefore incurs no losses. ASHRAE. Michael A.php?pg=79 . John Wiley and Sons.google.com /books?id=fy5hs04OeMQC&dq=Heat+pump+and+refrigeration+cycle) . Bill (2008).sunpower. Twinbird Company. "About FPSC" (http://fpsc. by Howell and Buckius.nl/about/) . ISBN 0-07-121688-X 3. ^ Thermodynamics an engineering approach Yunus A. http://www.html . Refrigeration Systems and Applications.twinbird.com/) "].html) . ^ The Ideal Vapor-Compression Cycle (http://web.jp/en/faq_e.Heat pump and refrigeration cycle . just as the power used in a heat pump becomes unavailable. Cambridge University Press. 2004 2. Çengel.html . Whitman.twinbird.com/index.html .
1. Dincer. 598. Cool's FAQ Room !" (http://fpsc. Retrieved 2011-04-06. then about 6 units of heat are made available at about 90oC.jp/en/about_fpsc_e. http://www.jp/english/proﬁle. "Cryocoolers" (http://www.globalcooling. Ibrahim (2003). 10. Ohio.sunpower. "Twinbird Company Proﬁle" (http://www. ^ Global Cooling NV. Thermodynamics: Concepts and Applications (http://books. during peak periods losses are much higher than this and it is likely that widespread ie city wide application of heat pumps would cause overloading of the distribution and transmission grids unless they are substantially reinforced. Inc. which is located in the Netherlands. Sunpower Inc.Wikipedia.unr. Sunpower Inc. ^ Twinbird Company.jp/en/faq_e. ^ The Systems and Equipment volume of the ASHRAE Handbook. http://fpsc.
Comparison with Combined Heat and Power. Refrigeration and Air conditioning Technology. ^ Sunpower Inc.com /toc/chapt_r/ch18s82.html) .php?pg=79) . ^ Sunpower Inc. in that for a condensing steam plant.
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. then electrical power is lost or becomes unavailable. http://www. 756. 11. 12.sunpower. ^ http://www.
http://en. Twinbird Company. Retrieved 2011-04-06.edata-center. ^ Twinbird Company.com/science/article/pii/S030142151100379X
Notes Turns. ISBN 0-521-85042-8. "About" (http://www. Typically for every unit of power lost. but has a research center in Athens. whereas the heat pump unit is lost at the low voltage part of the network and incurs on average a 6% loss. Boles.html) 6. pp.pdf) 5. ^ Twinbird Company.. 9. Thus CHP has an effective COP compared to a heat pump of 6.wikipedia.com/ .twinbird.
http://en. a non-proﬁt organization.wikipedia.com /basic-refrigeration-cycle.central-air-conditioner-and-refrigeration..com/How-Air-Conditioners-Work. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.. additional terms may apply. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.Wikipedia..org/wiki/Heat_pump_and_refrigeration_cycle
The Refrigeration Cycle: How Air Conditioners Work (http://www. Inc.
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