/SP-271-2839

Notice
This report was prepared as a n account of work sponsored by a n agency of t h e United States Government. Neither t h e United S t a t e s Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for t h e accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents t h a t its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein t o any specific commercial product, process, or service by t r a d e name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by t h e United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of t h e United States Govetnment or any agency thereof.

Acknowledgments
This document was prepared for t h e Solar Technical Information Program, US. Depattment of Energy, by Eugene S. Domalski and Thomas L. fobe, Jr. of t h e Chemical Thermodynamics Data Center, Chemical Thermodynamics Division, Center for Chemical Physics, and t h e Office of Standard Reference Data, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md; with assistance from Thomas A. Milne of SERI. I t is based on Thermodynamic Data of Waste Incineration, NBSIR 78-1479, August 1978, prepared for t h e American Society for Mechanical Engineers, Research Committee on Industrial and Municipal Wastes, United Engineering Center, New York, and also available as a separate hard-cover publication with t h e same t i t l e from t h e American Society for Mechanical Engineers. Sarah Sprague is t h e Information Program Coordinator for t h e Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, U.S. Department of Energy.

FZOPERTY OF US. GOVERNMENT

GOLDEN,COLORADO- 80401

-4

-7 . ; .I

THERMODYNAMIC DATA FOR BIOMASS CONVERSION AND WASTE INCINERATION
Eugene S. Domalski Thomas L. Jobe, Jr. National Bureau of Standards
and Thomas A. Milne Solar Energy Research Institute

September 1986

A PRODUCT OF THE SOLAR TECHNICAL INFORMATION PROGRAM prepared by t h e National Bureau of Standards under c o n t r a c t t o t h e Solar Technical Information Program of t h e Solar Energy Research Institute

Preface
Incinerators have continued to play a n important p a r t in reducing t h e amount and modifying t h e type of waste discharged to t h e environment. The ASME Research Committee on Industrial and Municipal Wastes was established in 1968. This committee recognized t h e need for greater understanding of combustion fundamentals if engineers are to design better incinerators to meet t h e challenge of improving t h e environment. I t , therefore, created a subcommittee on fundamental combustion studies.

The first report of the subcommittee, Combustion Fundamentals 'for Waste Incineration,
was published in 1974 [74ASM]. The purpose of t h e report was t o help engineers make better calculations and thereby design b e t t e r incinerators. The report was divided into two parts. Part one covered theoretical engineering methods of calculation and tables of equilibrium products of combustion with practical examples. Part two included t h e scientific theory and tables of thermodynamic properties.

In a second report of the subcommittee, Thermodynamic Data for Waste Incineration [78DOM/EVAJ, engineers were provided with thermodynamic data on materials t h a t are mixtures of various kinds and a r e often difficult t o describe using a single stoichiometric formula. These materials (i.e., animals, foods, plants, polymers, wood species, etc.) are encountered perhaps more often by engineers engaged in t h e disposal of municipal wastes than pure substances. The bulk of t h e data, consisting of gross heats of combustion (heating values) and specific heats, was intended t o be helpful in combustion calculations.
In t h e eight years since the issuance of t h e second report, biomass and biomass wastes have joined industrial and municipal solid wastes as major sources of solid fuel. In addition, widespread applications of gasification and pyrolysis are expected to join combustion as practical conversion processes in t h e 1990s. This report, under t h e sponsorship of t h e DOE Office of Renewable Technology, Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, doubles t h e number of materials listed, with major emphasis on different forms of biomass, both woody and agricultural. I t incorporates almost all of t h e materials listed in Thermodynamic Data for Waste Incineration and now provides information for more than 600 materials.

Contents

Introduction

..............................................................

1 2
9

Units and Definitions

...................................................... Thermodynamic Properties of Waste and Biomass Materials ..................... Agricultural Residues .................................................. Alloysand Metals ..................................................... Animals .............................................................. Biomass-Derived Materials .............................................
Foods Fossil Materials Inorganic Materials Paper Plant Materials (Non-Woody) PolymersandPlastics Polypeptidesand Proteins Refuse Rubber Materials Vegetableoils, Woody and Tree Materials Miscellaneous
References Appendix A Appendix B

9 33
35

................................................................ ....................................................... .................................................... ................................................................ ............................................ .................................................. .............................................. ............................................................... ...................................................... ........................................................ ..............................................
.........................................................
of t h e

67 77 103 127 137 143 167 191 201 207 213 233 305

. Combustionfor the Empirical Estimation........................... Formula Heats of of Carbonaceous Materials
A

................................................................
Additional Information on Heats of Combustion of Biomass Materials

313
323 326

.................................................... Appendix C. Symbols. Units. Conversion Factors. Atomic Weights ............... NameIndex ...............................................................

.

331
341

111

...

Introduction The general purpose of this collection of thermodynamic d a t a of selected materials is t o make property information available t o t h e engineering community on chemical mixtures, polymers, composite materials, solid wastes, biomass, and materials not easily identifiable by a single stoichiometric formula. Workers in many sectors need this type of information: construction engineers who require thermodynamic information on materials, safety engineers assessing the hazard potential of chemicals, chemical engineers concerned with industrial unit processes, and scientists who want thermodynamic d a t a for specific research projects. The specific purpose of this publication is t o provide engineers involved in combustion and thermochemical conversion with appropriate thermodynamic data so t h a t they can dispose of waste materials and utilize biomass for energy in a more effective and environmentally acceptable manner. The effective disposal of waste materials is a n import a n t part of t h e maintenance of a high-quality environment, and combustion/thermochemical conversion offers t h e most significant means of volume reduction for waste materials when compared t o other methods of disposal. In addition, t h e potential of biomass for energy is being increasingly recognized and realized. This com ilation of thermodynamic d a t a was prepared for t h e Solar Energy Research Institute SERI) by t h e Chemical Thermodynamics Data Center of t h e National Bureau of Standards. More than 700 materials have been compiled covering properties such as specific heat, gross heat of combustion, h e a t of fusion, heat of vaporization, and vapor pressure. The information was obtained from t h e master files of t h e NBS Chemical Thermodynamics Data Center, t h e annual issues of t h e Bulletin of Chemicat Thermodynamics, intermittent examinations of t h e Chemical Abstracts subject indexes, individual articles by various authors, and other general reference sources.

P

The compilation is organized into several broad categories; materials are listed alphabetically within each category. For each material t h e following are given: (1) t h e physical state, (2) information as t o t h e composition or character of t h e material, (3) t h e kind of thermodynamic property reported, (4) t h e specific property values for t h e material, and ( 5 ) citations to t h e reference list. A name index is provided t o assist a user in finding a specific material. Several appendices are also included. Appendix A gives an empirical formula t h a t allows heats of combustion of carbonaceous materials t o be predicted with surprising accuracy when t h e elemental composition is known. A spread sheet illustrates this predictability with examples from this report and elsewhere. Appendix B lists some reports containing heats of combustion not included in this publication. Appendix C contains symbols, units, conversion factors, and atomic weights used in evaluating and compiling t h e thermodynamic data.

The residue remaining a f t e r ignition of a sample determined by a definite prescribed procedure. values of t h e thermodynamic quantities a r e given on a specific basis. In those tables values were reported on a molar basis. where U is t h e internal energy of t h e system. because of t h e lack of definite stoichiometric compositions for most of the materials included. P is t h e pressure. is defined by t h e equation: H = U + PV. The heat produced by combustion of one unit of substance at constant volume in a n oxygen bomb calorimeter under specified conditions. The enthalpy. final temperature of 2Oo-35"C (6X0-95"F). rs Gross Heat of Combustion. Air-Dry Loss. t h a t in Combustion Fundamentah for Waste Incineration [74ASM].products in the form of ash. wood. The conditions are: initial oxygen pressure of 2. and dilute aqueous HC1 and H2S04. liquid water. Here. for one gram or one pound (unit mass) of substance. they a r e converted t o their oxides. G o s Calorific Value. As-Received Basis. more extensive discussions are given in [74ASM]. and characterization of t h e sample are to take place. Exceptions are noted.0-4. Air-Drying. division. or refuse. See Gross Heat of Combustion. Ash. The test d a t a calculated to t h e moisture condition of t h e sample as it arrived in t h e laboratory and before any laboratory processing or conditioning. The decrease in sample mass due t o air-drying. The test data calculated t o theoretical base of no moisture associated with r the sample. and V is the volume. In the case of materials such as coal.0 MPa (20-40atm). gaseous CO2 and N2. they are unchanged during combustion and a r e part of t h e ash. 2 . See Heat Content.Units and Definitions The notation in t h e tables for thermodynamic quantities follows. The test data calculated t o a theoretical base of no moisture or ash r. A process of partial drying of a sample to bring its moisture content near to equilibrium with t h e atmosphere in which further reduction. hthalpy Difference. D y Ash-Free Basis. D y h i s . Enthalpy. associated with t h e sample. H. This decrease is presumed to be moisture. in general. The symbols used a r e briefly defined below. I t is assumed t h a t if significant quantities of metallic elements are combusted. if small or t r a c e amounts of metallic elements are present.

184 J. The British thermal unit used is t h e thermochemical Btu. and M is t h e molecular weight. The specific latent h e a t of fusion (AHfus/M) at a pressure of 101325 Pa (I atm). for t h e complex materials considered here. t h e melting process may t a k e place over a temperature range. t h e observed heat is corrected for side reactions and t o a standard state in which all gases are at unit fugacity. defined as I 4.. The value is t h e heat absorbed when one unit mass of t h e substance goes from one solid phase t o another solid phase. Usually. The specific isothermal gross heat of reaction at t h e specified temperature and at constant volume. the melting occurs at a single temperature. t h e value will be for a definite tempetature and pressure. t h e values of qv (or AU) have not been converted t o t h e standard state (-AU"/M) [74ASM].OF. cal. qv(gross).I . where A is t h e molar U change in internal energy of t h e process.15 K. For a pure compound. t h a t this correction is impractical. L The specific latent heat of sublimation (AHsub/M).The specific latent heat of vaporization (AHvap/M). . Conversion factors are given in Appendix C. The difference in enthalpy. this is indicated as "C. The numerical values for qv(gross) a r e given in J g-'. For most of t h e d a t a reported here. and Btu lb-'. H e a t of Transition. The joule (J) is t h e primary S energy unit.. (Hr-HT(ref))/M = (qT-qT(ref)).15' If other than t h e kelvin scale is used. for one unit mass of substance. 9273 or 9273. t h e transition process may t a k e place over a temperature range. ) Heat of Fusion. or O R (Rankine. Heat of Sublimation.. Lf. The value is . t h e heat absorbed when one unit mass of t h e substance goes from t h e solid state to t h e gaseous state. 273.8 T K . or 298. between two temperatures. or Btu) when one unit mass of t h e substance goes from t h e solid state to the liquid state. usually 0 K. Heat Content. TOR = 1. The specific latent heat of transition (c'Htrs/M) at a pressure of 101325 Pa (1 atm). It is specified as qo. cal g-l.In accurate studies. For a pure compound. The value is t h e heat absorbed (in J. because of sample variability or measurement method. L. t h e precision of t h e measurements does not warrant such refinement. The same considerations apply as for L.15. The calorie used is t h e thermochemical calorie. depending upon t h e form of t h e equation. With t h e simple form 1nP = A-B/T. is equal t o -AU/M. If derived from t h e vapor pressure equation through t h e relation d(lnP)/d(l/T) = -AHVap/R. Heat of Vaporization. Some of t h e d a t a are of such low precision. Gross Heat of Reaction.15 K. The value is t h e heat absorbed when one unit mass of t h e substance goes from t h e liquid state t o t h e gaseous state. T(ref) is t h e reference temperature. . t h e value may be referred to a definite temperature and pressure. t h e value refers t o t h e midpoint of the temperature range over which t h e equation is 3 . for t h e complex materials considered here. If measured calorimetrically. and 9298. t h e transition occurs at a single temperature.

1 . though. is added or removed. where AU is t h e molar internal energy of t h e process. and M is t h e molecular weight. The moisture content remaining in a sample after it has been airdried and milled down. internal Energy. if necessary. The h e a t produced by combustion of one unit of substance at atmospheric pressure under conditions such t h a t all water in t h e products remains in t h e form of vapor. One bar is 100. volatile matter.(gross) in t h a t water formed is in t h e gaseous state.000 Pa.3224 Pa). When heat. The conventional atmosphere is taken as 101325 Pa. because of sample variability or measurement method. The specific isothermal net heat of reaction at the specified temperature and at constant volume. Sublimation Pressure. This subtracted amount is not equal to t h e latent h e a t of vaporization of water (586 cal g-' at 20°C) because t h e calculation also reduces t h e data from the gross value at constant volume to t h e n e t value at constant pressure. t h e values of q (net) have been converted to t h e standard state. P c a l g-' K-I. The determination by prescribed methods of moisture. Net Heat of Reaction. Proximate Analysis. s t a n t volume Cv = [a(U/M)/aT]. The value thus obtained is for one mole of gaseous species. is modified according to t h e equation: U q + w. Residual Moisture. and ash. including both t h e water originally present as moisture and t h a t formed by combustion. q. Where possible. Net Heat of Combustion. its internal energy. qP(net). The specific isothermal n e t heat of reaction at the specified temperature and at constant pressure. w.and Btu lb-l OF-'. Most of t h e data. to a n analysis sample. The saturated equilibrium pressure over t h e solid substance at a given temperature. Unless otherwise specified. and work. Specific Heat. fixed carbon (by difference). is equal to -AH/M. t h e average molecular weight must be obtained to calculate t h e specific heat of Vaporization: Lv = AHvap/M.. is done on or by t h e system.valid. cP Numerical values for C are given in J g-l K-l. C The change in enthalpy with temperature at constant pressure (1 a t m P ' = [a(H/M)/aTlp. 4 . t h e t e r m proximate analysis does not include determinations of chemical elements or any determinations other than those named. Values are expressed in pascals (Pa = Nam-') and in Torr (Torr = 133. A t conunless otherwise specified) for one unit mass of substance. P (-AHO/M) [74ASM]. Net Calorific Value. and M is t h e molecular weight. U. are of such low precision. This value differs from q. t h a t the correction is impractical. where AH is t h e molar change in enthalpy of the process. See Net Heat of Combustion. The appropriate factor for this reduction is 572 c a l g. The net heat of combustion is calculated from t h e gross heat of combustion at 2OoC (68°F)by subtracting 572 c a l g-l (1030 Btu lb-l) of water derived from one unit mass of sample. qv(net) is equal to -AU/M.

15. I t is defined as t("C) = T(K) . t h e weighed sample is n placed in a covered platinum crucible at 95OOC for exactly 7 minutes. Values are given in kelvins (symbol K . enthalpy). Occasionally. uncertainties are given for t h e values. Standard Test Method for Volatile Matter i the Analysis of CoaZ and Coke. The conventional atmosphere is taken as 101325 Pa. Usage of thermodynamic state functions. not a low precision of measurement. The loss in weight is t h e volatile fraction.8t(OC) + 32. Uncertainties. are clear and unambiguous by their definitions. is based upon t h e International Practical ) Temperature Scale. Those products exclusive of moisture given off by t h e sample as a gas or vapor determined by definite prescribed procedures.3224 Pa). and oxygen in a dry sample.273. The saturated equilibrium pressure over t h e li uid substance at a given temperature.K . In ASTM D 3175-77. The loss in weight is the volatile fraction. The determination of t h e percentages of carbon. is defined as t("F) = 1. Use of Enthalpy versus Heat. several references are found in t h e literature that report the same thermodynamic property for a particular material. Unless specifically indicated otherwise. Ultimate Analysis. provided as a convenience for many measurements. T. all temperatures T involved in equations are absolute temperature (T. The determination of t h e volatile concentration (VCM) as described in 85JEN/EBE differs somewhat from the procedures described in t h e ASTM Standard Test Methods. The term "heat" has been used loosely in t h e scientific and engineering literature in t h a t i t does not differentiate clearly between processes at constant volume (U. Volatile Matter. nitrogen. chlorine. For some substances. When preceded by t h e words "gross" or "net. No a t t e m p t has been made t o assess t h e overall uncertainty of t h e d a t a included. t h e sample is placed in a covered crucible at 600°C for 6 minutes followed by heating at 950°C for 6 minutes. internal energy) and those at constant przssure (H. such as the internal energy and enthalpy. The measured 5 . Values are expressed in pascals (Pa = N-m. sulfur. The Celsius ("Centigrade'1) scale (symbol "C)is used to indicate t h e temperature or temperature range for many reported measurements. 9 Volatile Concentration. In 85JEN/EBE. these represent t h e original authors' estimates and are usually a measure of t h e reproducibility of their measurements. ash. The percentage of oxygen is usually obtained by difference between 100% and t h e sum of t h e other determined elemental analyses.11 t h e word '%eat" indicates specific conditions as described in various definitions. Multiple Sources of Data. hydrogen.) and in Torr (Torr 133.The absolute temperature. ) Temperature. The Fahrenheit scale. Vapor Pressure. A large assigned uncertainty usually indicates a variability of sample.

values are most often not equivalent. and a selection must be made as to which value is preferred. The selection process is based upon t h e personal and professional opinion of a n evaluator after all property information for a material has been collected and examined. and ( 6 ) background or experience of t h e laboratory personnel carrying out t h e measurements. (3) number of measurements performed. ( 5 ) dispersion of t h e results. For some materials (such as coals or wood species). Factors taken into consideration are (1) description of the method used t o carry out t h e measurements. 6 . t h e values tabulated are typical values selected from a large number of results for samples of a similar nature. (2) characterization of t h e material. (4) t r e a t m e n t of t h e experimental data.

Agricultural Residues .

78. oxygen = 40. oxygen = 40.(net) 17130 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE 9 . chlorine = 0.72.40. and fixed carbon = 20. solid. SEED. q. q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.00. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 71. Material is considered biomass fuel and has roximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration VCM) = 72.36.(net) 7468 Btu lb.(net) 4094 cal gq.08.20. hydrogen = 5. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 46.03. and residue (ash) = 7. P P gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. ash content = 5. and fixed carbon = 22. q. sulfur = 0. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 45.(gross) = 18220 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(net) = 17360 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE ALMOND HULLS.02.1 qv(net) = 4149 cal g-' q.Agricultural Residues ALFALFA. nitrogen = 1.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.96.solid.07. chlorine = 0.15. and residue ash) 6.60.(gross) = 4355 c a l g-1 q. ash content = 7.(gross) = 7937 Btu lb.89. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. q.25.1 qv(gross) = 4410 c a l g-' qv(gross) 18450 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.60. nitrogen = 0.33.79.76.(gross) = 7838 Btu lb-' q. hydro e n = 5.01. STRAW.(net) = 7370 Btu l b l l q.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. sulfur = 0.

qv(net) = 8144 Btu Ib-I qv(net) = 4524 cal g-l q. 1 qv(net) = 4343 cal g .90.(net) = 18930 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE ALMOND SHELLS.solid. ORCHARD PRUNING3 solid.97.27. oxygen = 40. determination performed at 30 atm O. sulfur . and residue (ash) = 5. and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and . determination performed at 30 atm O. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.45. Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 51. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 76. and fixed carbon = 21. hydrogen = 5.Agricultural Residues ALMOND.(gross) = 4632 cal gi q.60.74. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 73.30. and residue (ash) = 1.04. chlorine = 0. q.98.(gross) = 8337 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.01.02.29. qv(gross) = 8609 Btu Ib. Also the ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 44. sulfuric acids.16.54. nitrogen = 0 6 .81. ash content = 4.80. sulfuric acids.(gross) = 19380 J gnet heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. nitrogen = 1. hydrogen = 5.' q. qv(net) = 18270 J g- 85JEN/EBE 10 .1 qv(gross) = 4783 cal g-' qv(gross) = 20010 J g-1 net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. and fixed carbon = 21. ash content = 1. qv(net) = 7817 Btu lb.63. oxygen = 42. sulfur = 0. and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and .6 0.83.

1 qv(net) = 4500 cal g-' qv(net) = 18830 J g-l BARLEY STRAW. nitrogen = 1.3 1. qv(net) = 6987 Btu 1bT1 q. solid.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.(gross) = 7447 Btu lb.90.29.92.80. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. determination performed at 30 atrn 02. hydrogen = 5. q. ash content = 10.04. qv(net) = 8101 Btu lb.73. Also t h e ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 39.75. hydrogen = 5. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 68.(gross) = 19920 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 50. and fixed carbon = 18.37. nitrogen = 0.Agricultural Residues BABASSU HUSKS. Material is considered biomass fuel and has roximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration VCM) = 79. and residue (ash) 1.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. oxygen = 43.30. solid.(gross) = 17310 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.81.27. q.25.71.70.(gross) = 8570 Btu l b l l q.(gross) = 4761 cal gq.59. ash content = 1. sulfur = 0. P gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.26.1 qv(gross) = 4 137 cal g-l q. and residue (ash) = 9. and fixed carbon = 20.(net) = 3881 cal gqv(net) = 16240 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE 11 . oxygen = 42.

q.01. and fixed carbon = 18. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.97.and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. I q.(gross) = 4173 cal gq.01. q. Also the ultimate analysis of the elemental composition o t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 42.Agricultural Residues BEAN STIRAW. hydrogen = 5. and residue (ash) = 0. qv(net) = 7021 Btu Ib. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 75.13. and residue (ash) = 5.25. ORCHARD PRUNINGS.(gtoss) = 17460 f g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.80. chlorine = 0.05. chlorine = 0.83.82.' qv(net) = 4457 c a l g i qv(net) = 18650 J g 85JENlE6E 12 .78.(gross) = 19830 J g net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.93.53.54.(gross) = 4739 cal g q. oxygen = 43. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49.85. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 80. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. qv(gross) = 751 1 Btu Ib. and fixed carbon = 18. nitrogen = 0.solid. qv(net) = 8023 Btu lb. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.' . ash content = 0. oxygen = 44. sulfur = 0. ash content = 5. solid.' qv(net) 3901 cal gqv(net) = 16320 J g-' 85JEN/EBE BLACK WALNUT. nitrogen 0.59.93.77.22.(gross) = 8531 Btu Ib. f hydrogen = 5. determination f performed at 30 a t m 02.69. sulfur = 0.30.

04.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. hydrogen = 5.90.Agricultural Residues CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPES.(gross) = 4548 cal gq. and fixed carbon 19. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.63. VINEYARD PRUNINGS. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 78.17.' qv(net) = 4264 cal gi q. chlorine = 0. qv(gross) = 8264 Btu lb. nitrogen = 0. 1 qv(gross) = 4591 cal gq. ash content = 2.20. determination performed at 30 atm 02. oxygen = 43. and fixed carbon = 19. corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. 1 q.08. and residue (ash) = 2.59.(gross) = 19210 J g.71.22. ash content = 2.(gross) 19030 J g. VINEYARD PRUNINGS. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(net) = 17840 J g85 JEN/EBE CARDINAL GRAPES. determination performed at 30 at m 02.83. solid.85. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 46.61.1 net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. solid.17.1 85JEN/EBE 13 . q. sulfur = 0.(gross) = 8187 Btu lb. qv(net) = 7675 Btu lb. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 78.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.02.28. VINEYARD PRUNINGS. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. qv(gross) 8230 Btu Ib.95.(gross) 19040 J g-l net heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.23. and residue (ash) = 10. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids.(gross) = 8191 Btu Ib. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 48.1 qv(gross) 4572 c a l g-' q.10. solid.Agricultural Residues CHENIN BLANC GRAPES.80.(net) = 7718 Btu lbl 1 qv(net) = 4288 cal g l qv(net) = 17940 J g85 JEN/EBE COCOA HULLS.86. solid. q. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.(gross) 4551 cal gq. and fixed carbon = 23. nitrogen = 0.07. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 77. chlorine = 0. and fixed carbon = 20. f qv(net) = 7731 Btu lbl 1 qv(net) = 4295 cal gqv(net) = 17970 J g-l 85JEN/EBE 14 .(gross) = 19130 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.25.23.' q.12.19. ash content = 2. sulfur = 0.89. and residue (ash) = 3. q. oxygen = 41.25.21.98.93.51. hydrogen 5. and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. hydrogen 5. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 67. Also the ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of the f u e l (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48. sulfur = 0. ash content = 8. oxygen = 33. determination performed at 30 a t m 0 2 .13. nitrogen = 2.

ash content = 3. and fixed carbon = 18.(gross) = 8075 Btu lb.63. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 50.(gross) = 20050 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. and fixed carbon = 29. chlorine = 0.54.29. q.Agricultural Residues COCONUT FIBER.16. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 66.46. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 80. oxygen = 39.01. hydrogen = 5. nitrogen = 0.10.47.05. q. chlorine = 0. ash content = 1.72.1 qv(net) = 4546 cal g-' qv(net) = 19020 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE CORN COBS.(gross) = 4792 cal gq. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. hydrogen = 5.(gross) = 8626 Btu lbll q. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 46.(net) = 4202 cal g i qv(net) = 17580 J g83JEN/EBE 15 . determination performed at 30 a t m 02.14. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.1 qv(gross) = 4486 cal g-' qv(gross) = 18770 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.45. DUST. sulfur = 0. sulfur = 0.21. and residue (ash) = 1. nitrogen 0.28.87.70. qv(net) = 8183 Btu lb.58. and residue (ash) = 4.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. qv(net) = 7543 Btu l b l l q.58. oxygen = 45.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.40. solid.36.

nitrogen = 0.09.25. and residue (ash) = 16. sulfur = 0. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 67.65.56. ash content = 5.60. oxygen 43.' qv(net) = 3948 cal gqv(net) = 16520 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE COTTON GIN TRASH.solid. q.solid.(gross) = 4218 cal g-l q.38. ash content = 17. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 75.01. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. determination performed at 30 atrn 02.60.58. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. qv(net) = 7107 Btu Ib.Agricultural Residues CORN STOVER.59. and residue (ash) = 6.1 net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.30. qv(gross) = 7064 Btu lb.(gross) = 16420 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.31. nitrogen = 2. and fixed carbon = 15. chlorine = 0. hydrogen = 5.26. qv(net) = 6604 Btu lbll qv(net) = 3669 cal g T qv(net) = 15350 J g85 JEN/EBE 16 . oxygen = 36. hydrogen = 5.(gross) = 17650 J g. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.I qv(gross) = 3924 cal g-l q. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 43. and fixed carbon = 19.61.17. Also t h e ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 39.68.(gross) = 7593 Btu lb-I q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.10.26.

14.30. sulfur = 0. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 80. nitrogen = 1. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. qv(net) = 7955 Btu lb.72. ash content = 17. nitrogen = 0. and residue (ash) = 15.10.1 qv(net) = 4419 cal g-' qv(net) = 18490 J g-' 85JENIEBE 17 .06. Also t h e ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49. chlorine = 0. oxygen = 39.08. solid.47.63.37.02. and fixed carbon = 17.Agricultural Residues COTTON STALKS. hydrogen = 5. hydrogen 5.40.14.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. and fixed carbon = 18. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.10.20. ORCHARD PRUNINGS. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. oxygen = 43. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 39.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.82.(gross) = 8445 Btu qv(gross) = 4692 cal gqv(gross) = 19630 J g-l $' net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.30. solid.(gross) 3783 cal gq. sulfur = 0.01. qv(net) = 6363 Btu lbl 1 qv(net) = 3535 cal gqv(net) = 14790 J g-l 85JENIEBE ENGLISH WALNUT. and residue (ash) = 1.(gross) = 15830 f g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.07. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 65. q. q.(gtoss) 6810 Btu lbi 1 q.07. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. ash content = 1.

47.(gross) = 20340 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. I q.(gross) 8243 Btu Ib-' q.54. sulfur = 0.(gross) = 4861 cal gq. oxygen = 30.48. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. q.27. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 52.93.91.solid.05.and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.Agricultural Residues CEWURZTRAMINER GRAPES.(net) = 19140 J g 85 JEN/EBE 18 . ash content = 2. and fixed carbon = 21.solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Material is considered biomass fuel and has roximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration VCM) = 68. chlorine = 0. ash content = 9. gros heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.03.(gross) = 8750 Btu lb.(gross) = 4579 cal g-' q. and fixed carbon = 20.98.41. and P residue (ash) = 8. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. nitrogen = 1.26. q.86.(gross) = 19160 f g-' 85JEN/EBE GRAPE POMACE. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 77. VINEYARD PRUNINGS. qv(net) = 8234 Btu lbl' qv(net) = 4575 cal g I q. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.81. hydrogen = 5.

92? ash content = 0. VINEYARD PRUNING3 solid.47. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 75.68.56. qv(net) = 8604 Btu lbll qv(net) = 4780 cal gqv(net) = 20000 J g-l 85JEN/EBE MERLOT GRAPES. and fixed carbon = 23.(gross) = 9039 Btu Ib.' qv(gross) = 5022 cal gqv(gross) = 21010 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 77. determination performed at 30 a t m Oz.41. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 8105 Btu lb-I q. nitrogen = 0. hydrogen = 4. q.Ol9 and residue (ash) = 0.99? oxygen = 39.40. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 54.49. q.Agricultural Residues MACADAMIA SHELLS.69. determination performed at 30 a t m 02? corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. solid.36.04. and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.(gross) = 4503 cal g-' qv(gross) 18840 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE 19 . sulfur = 0. and fixed carbon = 19. ash content = 3.

48.Agricultural Residues OLIVE PITS. and fixed carbon = 19.00. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 53.65.81. oxygen = 39. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 78.14.(net) = 19620 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE 20 . solid. nitrogen 0. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 79.1 net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 51 12 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 21390 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to toom temperature. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids.19.90. and fixed carbon = 18. 1 qv(net) = 4689 c a l gq. qv(net) = 8636 Btu lb.(net) = 8441 Btu Ib. and residue (ash) 1. ash content = 1.03. hydrogen 5.(gross) = 9202 Btu lb-I q. b' qv(gross) = 4976 cal gqv(gross) = 20820 J g.36. determination performed at 30 atm 02. I qv(net) 4809 cal gqv(net> = 201 20 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE PEACH PITS. hydrogen = 6.02.59.32.23. nitrogen = 0. qv(gross) = 8957 Btu I.05. q.12. solid. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. oxygen = 43. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. ash content = 3.10. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48. sulfur = 0. sulfur = 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.85. and residue (ash) = 1. q.16.

chlorine = 0.01. qv(net) = 7542 Btu lb.77.Agricultural Residues PEANUT HULLS.(gross) 8196 Btu 1bT1 qv(gross) = 4553 cal gq.86. ash content = 5. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 73. hydrogen 5. qv(gross) 8019 Btu lb.56. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids.71. q. sulfur = 0.82.(gross) = 19050 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.09.46. oxygen = 39. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. and residue (ash) = 3. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 76.02. solid. qv(net) = 7684 Btu lbl 1 qv(net) = 4269 cal g l qv(net) = 17860 J g85 JEN/EBE 21 . nitrogen = 1.13. hydrogen = 5. 1 qv(gross) = 4455 cal gqv(gross) = 18640 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. and fixed carbon = 21. oxygen = 43.46. ash content 2.1 qv(net) = 4190 cal g-' qv(net) = 17530 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE PINOT NOIR GRAPES. solid.89. nitrogen = 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.14.03. and fixed carbon = 20.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. Also the ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 45.63.01.12. VINEYARD PRUNINGS.sulfur = 0.46. Also t h e ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 47.83. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. and residue (ash) = 7.

and fixed carbon = 16. nitrogen = 0. Also t h e ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 49. . hydrogen = 5.90. ash content = 0. ash content = 1.50. qv(net) = 7770 Btu lbll qv(net) = 4316 cal g . solid. chlorine = 0. and residue (ash) 0 4 . and residue (ash) = 1.(gross) = 23280 J g. determination and performed at 30 atrn 02. and fixed carbon = 22. qv(net) = 18060 J g85 JEN/EBE PRUNE PITS: solid.03. determination f performed at 30 a t m 02.04.8 gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.Agricultural Residues PISTACHIO SHELLS.01.32.1 net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.91.79.84. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 76. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 82. qv(gross) = 8286 Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 4603 cal g-l qv(gross) = 19260 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o toom temperature.73.99.and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.41. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.56. corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.28.57. Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48.13. nitrogen = 0. qv(net) = 9499 Btu lbll qv(net) = 5277 cal g-1 qv(net) = 22080 J g 85 JEN/EBE 22 . hydrogen = 5. sulfur = 0. oxygen = 43. oxygen = 43. qv(gross) = 10015 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 5564 cal gq.51.

86. and residue ash) = 18. and fixed carbon = 20.67.86.' . nitrogen = 0. oxygen = 35.96. and fixed carbon = 16.00.03.(gross) = 3858 cal gq.02.12. and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. Also t h e ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 40.' q. ash content = 17. ash content = 3. ? gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 76.Agricultural Residues RIBIER GRAPES.97. sulfur = 0. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 65.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. chlorine = 0.(gross) = 16140 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. qv(net) = 3650 cal g qv(net) = 15270 J g85 JEN/EBE 23 .solid. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. VINEYARD PRUNINCS. qv(gross) = 8226 Btu lb-' qv(gross) = 4570 cal g-' qv(gross) = 19120 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE RICE HULLS solid. qv(net) = 6569 Btu lb. qv(gross) = 6944 Btu lb.40. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. hydro en = 4.34.30.47.

(gross) = 3480 cal g-l q.36. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.63. sulfur = 0. and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.25.08.34. oxygen = 36.33. qv(net) = 6599 Btu lbi' qv(net) = 3666 c a l g l qv(net) = 15340 J g85 JEN/EBE RICE STRAW. chlorine = 0. sulfur = 0. hydrogen 3.33.00.90. solid. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 69.(net) = 13760 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE 24 .93.Agricultural Residues RICE STRAW (COLLECTEDAFTER HARVEST). oxygen = 35. f q v h e t ) = 5920 Btu lb'l qv(net) = 3289 cal g-l q. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 34. nitrogen = 0. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. ash content = 13.31. nitrogen = 0. qv(gross) = 7004 Btu l b l l qv(gross) = 3891 c a l gqv(gross) = 16280 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.70.(gross) = 14560 J g-' net heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. qv(gross) = 6264 Btu Ib-I q. and residue (ash) = 25. hydrogen = 4.78.93. and fixed carbon = 13. ash content = 24. determination performed at 30 a t m 0 2 . and residue (ash) = 15. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.38.42.57. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 41. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 62.16. WEATHERED (COLLECTED 1/2 YEAR AFTER HARVEST). and fixed carbon 17.60.

Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 77. nitrogen = 0. and residue (ash) = 5.(gross) = 4596 cal gq. determination performed at 30 atrn 02. 3.65. ash-free basis. average moisture content. Average ash content. Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 41. Value is a n average of gross heats of combustion of nine different varieties bagasse. Fibers obtained from shredding cane in a laboratory shredder and washing in running water for 24 hours t o remove all soluble substances.55. 4.(gross) = 8273 Btu lb.58. oxygen = 46.Agricultural Residues SAFFLOWER STRAW.' q. and fixed carbon = 18. q.(net) = 7787 Btu lb'l qv(net) = 4326 cal g-l qv(net) = 18100 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE SUGARCANE BAGASSE. The uncertainty is given as two times t h e standard deviation of t h e mean. Nine varieties of Indian sugarcane were used.1 qv(gross) = 4549 f 43 cal g-l qv(gross) = 19033 f 180 J g-l 53BHA 25 .(gross) = 19230 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. q. solid. q.5 1%. hydrogen = 1. solid. Fibers were dried at 100°-1050C (212"-221"F) t o constant weight and pulverized to pass through 60 mesh sieve.05.30.(gross) = 8188 f 78 Btu lb.71.66%. ash content = 4. gross heat o combustion: assume value refers t o room temperature and is on a f moisture-free.54.62.

gross heat of combustion: Formulas are derived from qv(gross) of dry.48.200. oxygen = 39.(gross) of soluble m a t t e r called Brix = 7110 Btu Ib. solid. 1 qv(net) = 3881 cal gqv(net) 16240 J g-l 85JEN/EBE SUGARCANE BAGASSE.10 S .190.38. solid.4 W Btu l b l l qv(net) = 4250 . q.4 W J g- net heat of combustion: Formulas are derived from deduction of l a t e n t h e a t of water vapor from q. q. and residue (ash) = 9.(gross) qv(gross) q.80.18 S .ree fiber = 8442 Btu Ib-'.0 W c a l gqv(net) = 17782 . determination performed at 30 a t m 02.Agricultural Residues SUGARCANE BAGASSE.(gross) = 7456 Btu lb. and 2%-6% soluble solids (mostly sucrose). hydrogen = 5.42 S .(gross) = 17330 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.42 S . Mill-run bagasse contains an average of 46%-52% moisture.81.78.10 S . 43%-52% fiber.I 19037 . ash. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 73. Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 44.95. and dense waxy nonfibrous epidermus (5% dry weight of cane).27. Material is fibrous residue from sugar c a n e after t h e c a n e is harvested and crushed to extract t h e juice.5 W cal g. 1 4550 . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.8 W J g-l 53PER 26 .(gross) 8190 .86.12.(gross) and where S denotes sucrose and W is moisture content % bagasse.79. sulfur = 0.01. nitrogen = 0.45.9 W Btu Ib. and fixed carbon = 14. fiber bundles contained in pith (15% dry weight of cane). t r u e fiber cell rind of stalk (50% dry weight of cane).' qv(gross) = 4 142 cal gq.18 S . and where S denotes t h e sucrose and W t h e moisture cont e n t % bagasse. Substance is composed of pith (30% dry weight of cane).35.average ash content = 3% of dry material. ash content = 11. f q. qv(net) = 6987 Btu lb.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. chlorine = 0.55. qv(net) = 7650 ..

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. and fixed carbon = 20.1 q.71.77. hydrogen = 5. oxygen 43. 1 qv(net) = 4331 c a l g l qv(net) 18120 J g85 JEN/EBE 27 . and residue (ash) = 2. ash content = 2. solid. qv(net) = 7795 Btu lb. VINEYARD PRUNINGS. oxygen = 42.93.36. q. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 47.39.03.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. chlorine = 0.02.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. VINEYARD PRUNINGS. and residue (ash) = 2. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 47.(net) = 4345 cal g.53.(gross) = 8307 Btu lb-I q.(gross) = 4615 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 19310 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. q. solid.07.07.35.32.(gross) = 19350 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. hydrogen = 5.82. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 76.Agricultural Residues THOMPSON SEEDLESS GRAPES. q. nitrogen = 0.01.75. nitrogen = 0.25.63.(gross) = 4625 cal g-' q. qv(gross) = 8325 Btu lb.(net) = 18180 3 g- 85JEN/EBE TOKAY GRAPES. sulfur = 0.(net) = 7821 Btu lbi' q. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 77. ash content = 2.45. chlorine = 0.77.77. sulfur = 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. and fixed carbon 21.

nitrogen = 0. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 69.(gross) = 4823 c a l g-l q.(net) = 3623 cal gq. oxygen = 43.21. solid.56. ash content = 13.10. and residue (ash) = 0.16.03.1 q. chlorine = 0.47.38. nitrogen = 3.68.71.19. and residue (ash) = 15.(gross) = 3872 cal g . 1 q.solid.35. sulfur = 0.01.(gross) = 16200 J gnet heat of combustion: assume values refer to toom temperature. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 41.19.85. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r to room temperature.71.98.' q. q. and fixed carbon = 21. ash content = 0. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 78. corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.(net) = 15160 J g-l 85JEN/EBE 28 . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. hydrogen = 5. and fixed carbon = 16. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. oxygen = 35. qv(net) = 6522 Btu lb.28. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49.(gross) = 6969 Btu lb.(net) = 19020 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE WHEAT DUST. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. qv(net) = 8183 Btu Ibi 1 qv(net) = 4546 c a l gq. FOOD AND FIBER PROCESSING WASTE. sulfur = 0. qv(gross) 8682 Btu lb. q. hydrogen = 5.Agricultural Residues WALNUT SHELLS.10.04.(gross) = 20180 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.

chlorine = 0.00. determination performed at 30 at m 02.Agricultural Residues WHEAT STRAW.40.11. hydrogen = 5. oxygen = 39.28. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.20. and fixed carbon = 19. sulfur = 0.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.' q.90. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. q. VINEYARD PRUNINGS.49.61.(net) = 3941 cal g l qv(net) = 16490 J g85 JEN/EBE ZINFANDEL GRAPES.(gross) = 17510 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. nitrogen 0.99. ash content = 3. determination performed at 30 atm 02.(gross) = 4185 cal gq. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 71.I qv(gross) = 4555 cal g-l qv(gross) = 19060 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE 29 . 1 q.and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.40. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 43.30.04.(gross) = 8200 Btu lb.80. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 76. and fixed carbon = 19.(gross) = 7533 Btu lb. q. and residue (ash) = 11. ash content = 8. qv(net> = 7094 Btu lb. solid. solid.

K ) 298.1014 0.05%.1011 0.002%.0908 0.02%. lead.1045 0.0943 0. zinc.4393 0.0905 0.1039 0.02%. 70.22%.01%. 0.0908 0. chemical composition in wt.045%.4372 0. 34.1014 0. (sample 2): copper.1056 0. lead.1016 0.4565 67CHA/HUL 33 .0941 0. 65. (sample 1): copper. (sample 3): copper. 79. 0.0941 0. nickel. lead. 0. iron.3935 0.425 1 0.4452 sample 3 298.Alloys and Metals a-BRASS.0905 0.002%.1016 0.015%.001%.1 114 0.1064 0. 0.1091 0.3937 0. 0.3798 0.4243 0.1060 0. 29. zinc.42%. 0.15 400 500 600 700 800 77 260 440 620 800 980 0. 0. 0.445%.3787 0. 0.1056 0.0905 0. 0.15 400 500 600 700 800 77 260 440 620 800 980 0.%.4435 0.1050 0.0943 0.1050 0. nickel.1 114 0.4230 0. nickel.1005 0. zinc.003%.1060 0. tin. iron.1064 0.815%.104S 0.75%. solid.0940 0.3787 0.3946 0.0905 0.1039 0.0940 0.4205 0.466 1 0.1005 0.4418 sample 2 298. specific heat: tern erature (KP (OF) sample 1 1 -1 CP(cal g. 20.1091 0.18%.101 1 0. iron.15 400 500 600 700 800 77 260 440 620 800 980 0.4347 0.

Alloys and Metals 80 NICKEL-20 CHROMIUM.216 0.10191 + 4. 0 gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion. product of combustion is a-corundum.260 0. atomic number.996 1.64 x T = 0. so id.) p -1 Cp(J g K ) +K -? = 0. 13. 2.K-l) 9 = 0.18 x T 423-873 K (302°-1112"F) Cp(Btu Ib. specific heat: 273-423 K (32"-302"F) C (Btu lb'l OF-') cP(cal -I K-') p -1 Cp(J g K ) -5 = 0.52%. iron. 26. qp(gross) = 13359 Btu lp.0952 + 4.1 ..98154. atdmic wt. composition: nickel.~ (169.O .3983 + 1.941 x T 873-1173 K ( I 112"-1652"F) C (Btu Ib-I O .567 = 0.) F' Cp(cal -1 K-l) Cp(J g. density.3452 + 3.087 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point. 19. solid. Lf = 171. carbon.4%.4271 + 1.904 0.5 J (more) 34 .45%.5 Btu lb. 1.10705 + 2.238 0. A1203.11390 + 2.1 Lf = 95.712 g ~ r n .933 x T T 55DOU/DEV ALUMINUM. chromium. x T T = 0. manganese.3 lb ft-j.62 x T = 0. 0.0825 + 7 6 x .59%. silicon. 77.25 cal Lf = 398. 0.578 x lod5 T = 0. -AHcat P 25°C (77OF). 659°C (1228OF).) F' P c (cal -I .260 0.1 q (gross) = 7422 cal gqp(gtoss)= 31053 J g-l P 82WAG/EVA specific heat: -1 -1 Cp(J g K ) 298 500 700 77 441 801 0.1021 + 4.238 0.4%. 0.216 0.04%.222 = 0.

1091 0.3787 0.3935 0.4435 0.0941 0.1 114 0.1050 0.0940 0. lead. zinc.1039 0.002%. 0.%.1060 0. nickel.4230 0. 0.0908 0.15 400 500 600 700 800 77 260 440 620 800 980 0.101 1 0. (sample I): copper. 0. zinc.1016 0.02%. specific heat: tern erature (KP (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' -I -1 Cp(J g K ) sample 1 298.1064 0.1064 0. 20. lead.1005 0.002%. 0.1014 0. iron. tin.003%. 0.0940 0.4347 0. lead.4418 sample 2 298.1091 0.4205 0.045%.4372 0. zinc. iron.1056 0.42%. (sample 2): copper. 65.4243 0. chemical composition in wt.1005 0.0908 0.15 77 400 260 500 440 600 620 700 800 800 980 0. 70.75%.1045 0.15 400 500 600 700 800 77 260 440 620 800 980 0.1050 0.4565 67CHA/HUL 33 .425 1 0.0943 0. 0.0905 0. 79. iron.0942 0.0905 0.02%.05%.1045 0. 0.3946 0. 0.0943 0.001%.22%.815%. solid. 0. 29.0905 0.1039 0. (sample 3): copper.1011 0. 34.1060 0.015%.01%.4393 0.1056 0.18%.Alloys and Metals a-BRASS.3798 0.3787 0.1016 0. 0.1014 0.466 1 0.0905 0.4452 sample 3 298.3937 0.445%. nickel.1 I14 0. nickel.

77.10191 + 4. atomic wt.25 cal If= 398.04%.260 0.4271 + 1. silicon.3983 + 1.238 0. Lf = 171.64 x = 0. 26.so id. = 0. 13.933 x T T T 55DOU/DEV ALUMINUM.solid. specific heat: 273-423 K (32"-302"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') -I K -1 Cpbl Cp(J g. 0.578 = 0.10705 + 2.52%. carbon. 1.260 0.(gross) is equal to the enthalpy of combustion. 4 gross heat of combustion: q. 2. product of con-bustion is a-corundum.45%.087 heat of fusion: at the melting point.216 0.941 x x T T T 873-1173 K (1112°-16520F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal 4-l K ' -) Cp(J g.3452 + 3. composition: nickel..K-l) q1 = 0. 19. density.904 0.3 lb ft.62 = 0.1021 + 4. manganese.216 0.238 0.Alloys and Metals 80 NICKEL-20 CHROMIUM.98154.). A1203.4%.5 J (more) 34 .222 = 0. 0.712 g (169.18 x x lo-' T T T 423-873 K (302"-1112"F) Cp(Btu Ib-I OF-') Cp(cal K' -) Cp(J g. chromium. -AH0 at c 25°C (77°F).K' -) 5 = 0. iron.5 Btu lb-I Lf = 95.K-l) 0.0952 + 4.567 x = 0.996 1. q (gross) = 13359 Btu 1 qP(gross) = 7422 cal gqP(gross) = 31053 J g-l P 82WAGfEVA specific heat: Cp(J g-' K-I) 298 500 700 77 441 801 0.4%.0825 + 7 6 x . atomic number.59%. 659°C (1218'F).11390 + 2. 0.

18 x 10-9 T3 58LUC/DEE 35 . f L.61 x T .5 x x T2 + 1.5%.1933 + 1.28. specific heat: -120" to 425OC (-250" to XOOOF) Cp(Btu lb-' O .260 x T . chromium.52 x x T .505 = 0.4%. = 10871 J g-l vapor pressure: tem erature ("CP (OF) 1060 1940 1509 1743 2039 2441 2748 3169 3702 4426 ?(atm) 1o-3 6 lo-* P(pa> 0.196 + 2.solid.11 x 10-9 T3 T2 + 4.Continued heat o vaporization: at the boiling point.1. copper.50 x = 0.470 1.1 101. 1.470 1.903 x 10.828 + 10.5.3 10132. composition: copper.2 x x T2 + 1.198 + 2.23.Alloys and Metals ALUMINUM .64 x = 0.2.470 14.10 T3 T2 + 1.896 T . 0. aluminum.5 101325.5 x x lod4 T .696 x x x 101.1914 + 1.o 63HUL/ORR ALUMINUM 2024-T4.solid.3%.6%. 0.5 x 10-9 T3 58LUC/DEE ALUMINUM 7075-T6.) F' Cp(cal g OC-') Cp(J g-l "C-') = 0.3 1013. 4. = 2598 cal gL.6. 10 10- 101.5%. 5. 2441°C (4426'F).715 x 10.' L. 93. magnesium. = 4676 Btu Ib.820 + 10. composition: zinc.539 = 0.73 lo-' T . manganese. magnesium.5%.5%. specific heat: -120" to 425OC (-184" to 80O0F) Cp(Btu Ib-I OF-') Cp(cal g-I "C-') Cp(J g-' "C-') = 0. P(psi) 1.5%.10 T3 T2 + 1. 1.470 1. 2.00 x 10-9 T3 T2 + 4.

0577 0.5 lb ft-3). gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to the enthalpy of combustion.0552 0. 101 . product of combustion IS cadmium oxide.3 10132. Lf = 23. atomic wt.470 1. . L = 212 cal . 25°C (77°F).470 1. q (gross) = 988 Btu lb. -AHcat 0 P . 2441°C ( 4 6 F .4 Btu lb.Alloys and Metals CADMIUM solid. 8.41. 14.' qP(gross) = 549 c a l ~ i qp(gross) 2297 J g P 82WAG/EVA specific heat: 298 400 500 77 261 441 0. cal 30 Lf = 54.231 0. CdO.0603 0.0603 0.252 heat of fusion: at the melting point.696 63HUL/ORR 36 . atomic number.470 I . 112.1 Lf = 1 .o 1013.0552 0.242 0. 48.470 x 213 415 385 725 477 891 597 1107 747 1413 ~ 10-'2 10- x x lo-.642 g cm-3 (539. density.4 J g- 4-1 heat of vaporization: at the boiling point.1 101.3 Hpsi) 1. 42') L = 382 Btu lb-I .5 101325.0577 0. 321°C ( 1 ' ) 60F. vapor pressure: tem erature C°CP (OF) P(atm) 1o-6 1o - NPa) 0..

107 0.5 lb ft-3). solid.470 1.2 g C I I I .123 0.107 0.1 101.538 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point 1903°C (3457°F).5 101325. 1 q (gross) = 2619 cal qP(gross)= 10959 J g P P sfi 82WAG/EVA specific heat: tern erature (KP 298 500 700 (OF) Cp(Btu lb-l "FA') 0. qp(gross) = 4715 Btu lb. 24.123 0.3 1013.~ (449. L = 1563 cal . atomic number.470 1.5 15 77 441 801 0.696 x x x lo-: 10- I . Lf = 170 Btu 1P-l Lf = 96 cal gLf = 400 J g-l heat of vaporization: at t h e boiling point 2665°C (4829OF).o 63HUL/ORR 37 . vapor pressure: tern erature C0CP 1252 1711 1937 2250 2665 (OF) 2286 3112 3519 4082 4829 P(atrn) 1o-3 6 1o-2 10- P(Pd 0. atomic wt.470 14. density.449 0.. L = 6542 J . 51. gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal t o t h e enthalpy of combustion.128 -1 K-l) Cp(cal g Cp(3 g-l K-l) 0.9961.Alloys and Metals CHROMIUM.470 1.1 . -AHcat 0 25°C (77°F). Npsi) 1.3 10132. 7. L = 2814 Btu lb. product of combustion is Cr203.128 0.

000026 0. % nickel.097 1 0.92 g cmd3 (556. Cu20.' qP(gross) = 317. 9. 1 Lf 49.1018 0.1 cal g- P AH^ at 0 qp(gross) = 1326. f Lf = 88.7 0. 60 wt. 25°C (77°F). solid.~ ) Cp(J g-1 K -1 ) 50 100 200 -457.7 0. product of combustion is cuprous oxide.020 0. % Ni. q (gross) = 570.1018 0. I 1143 cal .6 -369.0922 0. solid.1 cal gIf= 205.0001 1 0. density.057 08 . composition range centering on 55 wt.406 0. L = 4780 J . 29. L = 2057 Btu Ib-' . gross heat of cornbustion: q (gross) is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion. specific heat: values refer to specific alloy. 63.000026 0. tern erature (KP 1 (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' Cp(cal g-l K .4 .99.057 0.362 40KEE/KUR COPPER.0971 0.546.0922 0.386 0.020 08 . atomic wt. % copper and 45 wt.4 Btu Ib.4 J g-l heat of vaporization: at t h e boiling point 2573°C (4663°F).4 0.6 P J g-l 82WAGlEVA specific heat: 298 77 441 801 500 700 0.283 0. atomic number.4 -279.023 0.426 heat o fusion: at t h e melting point 1084°C (1983°F).Alloys and Metals CONSTANTAN. t h e other constantans should have specific heat within 5% of t h e following values..9 lb ft-'). (more) 38 . % Cu and 40 wt.7 Btu lb.

iron.3 10132.5 101325.2%-1. tungsten. 20.2.00%.OO% max.1429 (K) x T2 -3.2 (cal g-') qT'9273.887 x 10. 1. silicon.4443 x loL5 T + 4.030 T4 + 1.4886 x x T3 .00%. chromium.00%-10.5774 T3 + 2.91 19 10.1.05%-0.27.2172 T2 .o 0. 17.8569 x x 10 11 T 3 -7.l 6 T4 + 7.5659 (K) 64THA/KOH 39 .310 T5 heat content: 273-1373 K (32"-2012'F) q ~ .17 T5 T -1.1020 x T + 8.770 x = 0.696 x x x 2044 2892 1830 3326 2142 3888 2573 4663 1o-6 10-3 lo-.05%-2.00%. 8.885 Cp(cal g-1 K -1 ) -1 -1 Cp(J g K x T -2.0%.2. molybdenum..4.. 101.50%-23.62 x lo-'' T6 .15%. solid.6473 = 0.l 9 T6 .284 x x T4 -1.30 x x T3 + 1.0924 + 4.19 T5 = 0.438 x x T3 -1.1765 x 0.Alloys and Metals COPPER .0924 T + 2.470 1.6309 x x T4 .l 7 T5 + 1.9.470 1.0774 T5 + 9.l 4 T4 + 5.575 T6 .4321 T2 . remainder nickel.3866 T + 9.0%-54. 0.219 x x T4 -3. 42.1 101.38 x 10.q 3 2( B t U 1b-l) = 0. 1: 0.50%. specific heat: 273-1373 K (32'-2012"F) Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') T2 + 7.6035 x 10.2 (J g-') = 0.113.812 x 10-9 T2 + 1. 0.1710 x 10.00%-20.922 x lo-' T3 + 1. manganese.3033 x 10.1037 + 2.OO% max.373 x T5 + 2. 1.3 1013.470 1.0%.3866 + l.continued vapor pressure: tern erature C0Cf 1118 1589 (OF) P(atm) Wa) P(pd 1. cobalt.77 x T2 + 4. 10 10- 63HUL/ORR HASTELLOY X. 0.0464 (OF) qT'q273.470 14. composition: carbon.

78 wt.418 + 5.1 1 T 3 T~ + 2. density. 0. -AHc 0 P 25OC (77°F).450 0. chromium. 55.I 1 T3 T2 + 1. %.50 T .. 15.10 T3 58LUC/DEE INCONEL "X".978 x x 10. 15 wt. 7.284 = 0.00 wt.00 wt. Fe203.107 500 700 441 801 0. manganese.Alloys and Metals INCONEL. iron.099 + 1. 0.solid. niobium. 94.00 wt.10 T3 10. silicon. solid. silicon.00 wt. 96. nickel.00 wt.414 + 5 2 3 lod4 T .107 0 I26 .50 wt. product of combustion is hematite.10 x x T .09 T .6. %."C-') C (Btu Lb-I 5 OF-') = 0.20 wt. 0.0 J g-' P (more) 40 .71 10. nickel.846 x 10. ANNEALED. 96. %. 7.30 wt.95 x 10.098 T . 96.35 wt. 1. %. %. atomic wt. %. 7.617 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point 1536°C (2797OF). %. gross heat of combustion: q (gross)is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion.724 x x x = 0.0 cal gLf = 272. specific heat: -120O to 982'C (-184' t o 1800OF) P OC-') Cp(cal Cp(3 g. manganese.0967 + 7.100 + 1.22 = 0. solid. 0.10 *3 58LUC/DEE IRON. at qp(gross) = 3175 Btu Ib-' q (gross) = 1764 cal P q (gross) = 7379 J P 82WAG/EVA specific heat: 298 77 0. specific heat: -120" to 982°C (-184O to 1 0 ' ) 80F Cp(Btu lb-I O .366 x x x T .10.5 x x 10" T2 + 3.2. 0. composition: carbon. aluminum. titanium.7 lb ft-3).86 g cm-3 (490. %.66 x 10.526 0. composition: carbon. 0. chromium. Lf = 117.6.09775 + 7.9 wt. 0.04 wt.74 T2 + 2.32 T2 + 9.04 wt.148 0.25 = 0. %.8. iron."C-I) 5 0. %.) F' Cp(cal -I 0c-l) Cp(J g.10 T3 T2 +.148 0. 2. 26.847. 0. %. 73.2. atomic number.126 0.70 wt.0 Btu 1 -I Lf = 65.8.

5%.0929T + 3473.8%. Mn = 0. and remainder Fe. 2698 Btu lb.9072T + 2300.3 10132.t h e compound cementite (Fe3C). P(psi) 1.9004T + 1494.1%-3. and alloying elements of graphite ( C ) and silicon (Si).1758T .5 10 1325.39021 + 989. CAST. T is in K.470 1. X is weight fraction of substance. .1 L.7357T . and lesser el ement s such as Mn.1. S = 0.2%.5002T + 830.5) Xsi 3 + (0.7) Xsi c qT-q273 (cal g-') = (0.94) XFe + (0.2168T + 549.1. 10 10- 63HUL/ORR IRON.53) XFe + (0.470 1.470 14.1 101.470 1.3164T .2.08%.73571 .o P(Pa) 0.08) XFe + (0.1) Xsi 73DUC 41 .2) X c + (0.5. P.4) Xc + (0. composition of cast iron: base iron (Fe).1758T .12. = 1499 cal L = 6271 J . the equation applies t o all cast iron and is the sum of individual heat content equations where t h e lesser elements are ignored. P 0. heat content: The temperature range is (-140O0-160O0C) (2600"-2900"F).4.Alloys and Metals IRON .Continued heat of vaporization: at the boiling point 2875OC (5207OF). vapor pressure: tern erature C0CP ( O F ) P(atm) 1o-6 I 0-3 lo-.+ + (2.3164T .5) X c + (0. Si 1.696 x x x 1326 1829 2080 2417 2875 2419 3324 3776 4383 5207 1: 0.2%-4. qy-q32(Bt~lb-l) = (0. L.3 1013. 101.47) XF.36) XFe 3 + (0.98) XFe = (0.02%. liquid.3%-0. and S A typical composition for ductile iron is C 3.

82.0328 0.470 1.50 cal Lf = 23. 207.4"C (621.696 x x 615 956 1137 1388 1743 1139 1753 2079 2530 3169 10-'2 10- 101.1 . 63HUL/ORR 42 .1 Lf = 5.0 J g- q1 heat of vaporization: at t h e boiling point 1743OC (3169°F).1 Npsi) 1.0305 0.0328 0.. atomic number.0305 0.0339 0. atomic wt. L = 368. = 855.3 1013.90 Btu lb.0 Btu Ib.5 101325. P 25°C (77'F).470 1.0339 0.470 1. x 19 .2. product of combustion is Pb02. solid.3 g (705. qp(gross) = 576 Btu lb-' qp(gross) 320 cal g-l qp(gross) = 1339 J g-' C AH^ at 0 82WAG/EVA specific heat: 298 500 600 77 441 621 0.3"F).137 0.3 10132. L. density.142 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point 327.Alloys and Metals LEAD.4 cal .470 14. gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion.3 J vapor pressure: tern erature ("Cf (OF) P(atm) 10-4 lo-* 10j 10- P(Pa) 0. Lf = 9. L = 204.128 0. 11.5 lb ft-3).

98 250.135 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point -38.667 lb ft-'). orthorhombic mercuric oxide.0323 0.58 57.0323 0.86"C (-37.~ (848. 0 gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion.470 1. 4 F . 7') P .922 Btu lb-I Lf = 2.17 120.644 c a l L = 295. 10-z 10- 63HUL/ORR 43 . .16 Btu lb-' L. 13.21 175. product of combustion IS red. liquid. 101.8 Btu lb. = 70. atomic wt. 638') L. = 127.78 356.0323 0.470 1.140 0. vapor pressure: tern rature (OCY (OF) 14.470 1.3 10132.470 14.59.40 673.1 P q (gross) = 108.2 c a l P q (gross) = 452.0323 0. atomic number. 200.95"F).5939 g C K I .735 cal Lf = 11.8 J P specific heat: 298 500 600 77 441 621 0.3 1013..76 483. -AHc at 25°C ( 7 F .o 0I .38 P(atm) Npa) Npsi) 1.51 248. density.135 0. HgO. q (gross) = 194.0333 0.57 J .0333 0.Alloys and Metals MERCURY.44 J g-5-l heat of vaporization: at t h e boiling point 35638°C ( 7 . Lf = 4.84 101.5 101325. 80.696 x x x 348.

%.90 g cn' r- gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion.4 -99. NiO.24 0. composition: nickel. atomic wt.406 + 5.1 ) 0. specific heat: t e m erature (KP (OF) Cp(Btu lb-l "F-l) 0.0 I9 0.000026 0. %.10 0. 1 . silicon. density.126 Cp(cal g-1 K-l) Cp(J g-1 K -1 ) 0.0 x loe7 T2 + 8. 0. qp(gross) = 1757 Btu 1P-l q (gross) = 976 cal gqP(gross) = 4084 J g-' P P specific heat: t e m erature (€8(OF) 77 441 675 801 298 500 630 700 C (Btu lb-I O . 58-69.000026 0.6 0. remainder i copper.10 T3 T .6 Ib ft-4. s specific heat: -120" to 982°C (-184" t o 1800°F) = 0.126 0.106 0.07 x 10.39 x lo-' Tz + 2. 2%-4%. manganese.549 x 10.158 0.4 -279.126 0.7. solid.25% (maximum).444 0. tomic number.4 wt.09479 + 7.11 T3 T .43 QOKEE/KUR MONEL "K".37 0.10 Cp(J g-1 K -I ) 1 50 100 200 300 -457.6 -369.4 80.06 0.525 (more) 44 .Alloys and Metals MONEL. aluminum.663 0. carbon.10. 63%-70%..5% (maximum). %. -AHc at 0 25OC (77°F). 30 wt.66 x 10.525 0.O% (maximurn).09 0. 2.0% (maximum). 8. composition: nickel.106 0.20 x = 0.02 x x T . iron.) F' P 0.097 + 1. %.09 0.06 Cp(cal g-l ~ . 67 wt.000 11 0.solid. copper. I wt.126 0. 1. manganese. 28.078 0. solid. (555.150 = 0. 1.158 0. product of combustion is nickel oxide. corrosion resistant alloy.2.10 T3 58LUC/DEE NICKEL.717 x lo-' T2 + 3.0 19 0. iron.

470 1. composition: carbon. P(psi) 1. % (maximum).696 x x x 2498 3420 3869 4431 5227 1: 0 .3. = 6418 J vapor pressure: tern erature ("CP 1370 1882 2131 2444 2886 (OF) P(atm) 1O 6 j 10-2 P(Pd 0.3 1013.8 x x T2 + 7. Lf = 129.07 x = 0.60 wt. 0.045 wt.86 x T .3 10132.08-0. L. SAE-1010. % (maximum). %.0427 + 6. %.13 wt. solid.Continued heat of fusion: at t h e melting point 1452OC (2626°F). 0.12.7 cal gLf = 300.1 L.11 T3 10. 0. 0.16 T2 + 17.133 T2 + 4.470 1. phosphorus.1 Btu I Lf = 71. 768OC.007185 + 9. = 2761 Btu lb.5 K 5 8L U C / DEE 45 .016 = 0.1 J g-l P-' heat of vaporization: at t h e boiling point 2886OC (5227°F).0102 + 1.470 14. 1041.035 wt.30-0."C-9 7 = 0. = 1534 cal L.739 x T .64 x lo-' T .10 T3 x curie temperature: 1415°F.o 63HUL/ORR STEEL. sulfur.1 101.4 x x 10.1.Alloys and Metals NICKEL .10 T3 10.470 1. specific heat: -200" to 700°C (-382' to 1292'F) Cp(Btu Ib-l OF-') Cp(cal -I "C-') Cp(J g.5 101325. manganese. 10 10- ii-1 1.

20711 + 7.1989 x 10.1354 0.7%.4104 = 0.1354 0. 8.721 x Cp(Btu Ib-I OF-') Cp(cal-ql K-l) Cp(J g K-l) = 0. manganese. copper.00345 + 9. En-58C (sample I): chromium.9206 x = -0.9%.Alloys and Metals STEEL.20%.09%. NPL NO.21%.K-l) Sample 2 (En-588) 60-190 K (-352" to -118°F) = 0.9847 x T .1471 0.5492 x 10-7 T2 + 4.4824 0.10885 + 6.6. 1.5665 0. solid.043 x 10-8 ~3 T2 + 4.7884 x lo-' T3 T2 + 1.6202 x 10-9 T3 T + 1. chromium. solid. 0. 0.066%.K ) q1 = 0. STAINLESS.0064 x T . manganese. 0.315%.73%.5343 0.-0.04950 x x x 1.5756 x .1277 0. 1.1 153 0. aluminum.2.1471 x = -0. manganese.364 x 10-8 T3 190-320 K (-1 18" to 116°F) Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') Cp(cal9-1 K-l) Cp(J g.4788 x T . remainder is iron.377 x 10-9 T3 T2 + 9. nickel.05%.11077 + 1.10911 + 9.1277 0.20819 + 7.005%.2421 x T2 + 1. 0.9535 x 10-8 T3 lod3 T .032 x 10-9 T3 T2 + 1. 17.1232 0.842 g c m . 7.10 T3 lod4 T . 10.3932 = -0.0 12%.04976 + 1. nickel. density. silicon.5189 x x x T .1725 x T2 + 5.6 145 59MAR/RIX STEEL. 0.6460 = 0.0680 + T2 + 1. 17. 19.7598 x 190-320 K (-118" to 116°F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cbcal 5-l) Cp(J g.028%.7309 x lod3 T .2. 0. phosphorus.01443 + 4. specific heat: Sample 1 (En-58C) 60-190 K (-352" t o -118°F) Cp(Btu lb-I O .02658 + 3.802 x 10 T .596 x loq6 T2 + 9.2. 0. 0.6472 x = -0.1.6893 = -0.1 153 0. 1.) F' Cp(cal Q-1 K-l) Cp(3 g.1.9.1191 x = 0. specific heat: tern erature (KP 323 400 490 589 682 (OF) 122 261 423 601 768 0. arsenic. annealed at 860°C (1580OF).036%.j at 15°C (59°F).00635 + 8.073%. molybdenum.449 x 10-9 T3 T2 + 3. 0.10922 + 6.2.6.039%.5 155 0. En-58B (sample 2): chromium.1232 0.1. nickel.946 x 10-9 7 ' 3 lok3 T . sulfur.2686 x lo-' T3 66MAR 46 .1471 0.K-l) T + 3.0758 x 10.10 T3 T2 + 3.69%. composition: carbon.323 x 10-I5 T2 + 2.8%. 0.980 x T .

silicon. 1%.2) 10-0.16.) F' P -1 K-l) Cp(cal Cp(J g.0078(0. nickel.2712/(T + 459.) F' = 0. manganese. manganese.6770 + 9242 x x x 55DOU/DEV 47 .solid. carbon.58%.32%. O .1158 + 3. chromium.4.K-l) 7 O-) F' = 0.K-'1 5 T .42%.494 x 873-1173 K (1112°-16520F) x T T T 10-0. STAINLESS 446.3%.08%. STAINLESS 347.9667 Cp(cal ~ l 2 .2) 10 Cp(Btu lb- Cp(cal -1 K-l) Cp(J g. chromium. 0.Alloys and Metals STEEL.894 x = 0. solid. 18.0785 + 1.1618 + 2209 = 0. 0.68%.5556T . silicon. carbon.427 x 55DOU/DEV STEEL.90 T-' = 0. 0. 0.0078(T-273.4845 + 1.30%.l ) = 0.10593 + 5. remainder is iron.7.67) = 0.1618 + 2209 = 0.41 x lod5 T .12451 + 1. 0. remainder is iron. 0.0078(T-273. specific heat: 273-1 173 K (32"-1652"F) C (Btu lb-I. 1.7778) 0.04 T-' T .K ) = 0.074 x Cp(J g.17. specific heat: 273-773 K (32"-932"F) Cp(Btu lb-' O . nickel. 1I.23%. 25.52%.3284 + 4.

118. 7') AH^ at 0 qp(gross) = 2105 Btu Ib. product of combustion is tin dioxide. 596 cal gL = 2495 J g-' . solid.3 1013.1 c a l heat of vaporization: at the boiling point. x 10-5 lo-: 10- 63HUL/ORR 48 . Lt = 1 . tern erature (C 'P ( O F ) Ill5 1584 1836 2167 2623 Natm) Wa) P(psi) 1. L = 1073 Btu 1P-l .258 heat of transition: at t h e transition point.' Lt = 4 2 cal g. atomic wt. P 25°C (7F. white.0580 0.3 10132. 232°C (450°F).Alloys and Metals TIN.. 13°C (55OF) from Sn (grey cubic) to Sn (white tetragonal).06 I7 0.71.5 Ib ft-').4 Btu lb-I Lf = 14. density. 7.243 0. Lf = 25.227 0.470 1.6 Btu Ib.470 1.' qp(gross) = 1169 cal gi q (gross) = 4892 J g- P 8 2 WAG/E VA specific heat: 298 400 500 77 261 441 0.28 g ~ r n (454.0580 0.06 I7 0.o 0I . 101. vapor pressure: L .5 101325. 2623°C (4753OF).470 14. tetragonal* atomic number.0543 0.470 1. ' ~ gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion. J g-l 76 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point.696 x 2039 2883 3337 3933 4753 Io 1o-6 -~ lo-: 10- I . SnOZ.0543 0. 50. Lt = 7.

076%. specific heat: 294-1033 K (70°-14000F) Cp(Btu lb. tern erature (KP (OF) 1.) F' Cp(cal -1 K-1) q Cp(J g. = 0.5 2 -456. composition: titanium.65%.0032 0.000057 0.7"F).000057 0. nitrogen. lead.555 x 10-7 T 2 T + 6. %.) F' P C .0000048 0.6. 2.0000048 0.0068%.6000 .799 10-8 T2 T + 1. .725 x = 0. 95.8294 x T + 4. 0. 0. %.3.105%.8 -454 -452 -448.75%.8294 x T + 4.4 -423. 0.00006 0. 0.1526 x = 0.799 x x x T + 1. chromium.0110 49 .5791 . %.40%.I Alloys and Metals TITANIUM. composition: tin.06%. 0. 96.1302 . oxygen.725 x = 0.0032 0.7 -455. 12.0460 54PARIQUA 3 4 0. cadmium.0000 14 0. carbon. nitrogen.07%. specific heat: 294-1033 K (70°-1400"F) C (Btu Ib-I O . composition: titanium.O .6.1384 . 1. Ti-75A. specific heat: there is a superconducting transition at 48 K (-450.1 0. oxygen.(J g-7 K -1 ) . solid.0092%.00062 0.506 T2 5610e WOODS METAL. 25 wt. -432.9.0297 0.5 wt.6 -441 4 . bismuth.0134 0.0071 0 0 10 .00069 0.000 15 0.9. iron. low melting fusible alloy.1434 . iron.( c a l 8 K-I) C.00069 0. 50 wt.0029 0.555 10-7 T2 T2 T + 6.506 x T2 x 5610e TITANIUM. 0.5 wt.1526 x = 0.0000 14 0.00024 0.1252 .0071 0.K-l) = 0. 99.131%.3.7 1%.00002 0. 0. hydrogen. hydrogen. 0.048%. solid. 0. Ti-ISOA.00015 6 10 15 20 0.4 Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' Cp(cal g-1 Cp(J g-' K-l) 0. solid. carbon. 12.05%.

Lf = 48.solid.4 Btu Ib. I = 760.o 1. L = 1767. vapor pressure: tern erature (OCf (OF) 286 479 581 718 911 547 894 1078 1324 1672 Hatm) 1 o-3 6 lo-* Wa) P(psi) 1. 101.388 0. product of combustion is zinc oxide. 321°C ( 2 ' ) 60F.0928 0.0 cal gLf = 113. 2441°C (4426°F). 1 . AH^ at 0 q (gross) = 2291. 1: 0 .8 lb ft-3).0928 0.104 0. ZnO..4 J g.470 1.6 Btu lb.0 J g-l heat of vaporization: at the boiling point.100 0.434 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point. 101 . P 25OC (77°F).470 14.470 1. atomic wt.104 Cp(J g -1 K -1) 298 77 441 622 500 600 0.100 0.3 10132.' qp(gross) = 1273.4 cal g .419 0.' Lf = 27.~ gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to the enthalpy of combustion.39. 65.14 g ~ r n (445.470 x x x 01 .696 LO 10- 63HULIORR 50 .2 J g P 82WAGfEVA specific heat: tern erature (KP (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' C p b l g-1 K -I 0.4 Btu lb.5 10 1325.3 1013. L. density 7. . atomic number 30.Alloys and Metals ZINC. = 422.0 cal-4qP(grosd = 5326.

20 ppm. 1489 ppm.9880 x x x T T T 908-1083 K (1 175"-1490"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal K-') Cp(J g-' K-l) = 0.130%.46%.6 transition Lt = 19. composition: tin.3872 = 0. copper. oxygen.08589 = 0. nickel. 0.06763 -+ 1. solid.6 cal 9-l L = 44. 1 1 ppm. 1.Alloys and Metals ZIRCALOY-2. hydrogen.08548 = 0. 40 ppm. chromium.K ) heat of transition: temperature range: 81Oo-97S0C (1490"-1787"F). < 20 ppm. < 125 pprn.4 J g. aluminum. 47 ppm. nitrogen.08589 = 0. remainder is zirconium.080%.056%.35936 1248-1323 K (1787"-1922"F) C (Btu lb-l OF-') Cp(cal f1 P 5-l) = 0. carbon.3262 = 0. for t h e a . 67ELD/DEE 51 .25744 + 9. 65 ppm.1 Btu lb-I Lt = 10. 40 ppm. 0. tungsten. silicon. 0.08548 = 0.04153 + 2. hafnium.35765 Cp(J g.K-') = 0. specific heat: 273-908 K (32"-1175"F) Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') Cp(cal -1 K -1 ) 5 Cp(J g. iron.

1 Cp(J g. nitrogen. 1. 36 ppm.6718 x x x T T T 873-1083 K (1112"-1490"F) Cp(Btu lb-I O . iron.K-l) = 0.K' -) 5 = 0.1514 = 0. 0.35765 67ELD/DEE 52 .0726 = 0. 150 pprn.26418 + 8.) F' Cp(cal 9-l K ' -) Cp(J g. solid.08571 0.06843 + 1.08548 = 0. copper.99%.32%. 60 pprn. oxygen. chromium 0. 10 ppm. hafnium.K-l) = 0.08548 = 0.152%.35861 1248-1323 K (1787O-1922"F) Cp(Btu Ib-' OF-') Cp(cal 9-l K. carbon.Alloys and Metals ZIRCALOY-2 (LOW NICKEL). 20 ppm. specific heat: 273-843 K (32"-1058"F) Cp(Btu lb'l O .08571 = 0.) F' Cp(cal -1 K-1) Cp(J g. tungsten. composition: tin. < 40 ppm. nickel. remainder is zirconium. 1380 ppm.06314 + 2.

solid.(gross) = 7915 k 3852 Btu lb.' q. solid.Animals BARNACLE. crustacean of t h e order . q. Balanus curiosus. Mytilus californianus. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content. q.(gross) = 8136 Btu l bl l q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content. an insect of the order Coleoptera.(gross) = 4397 k 2140 cal gqv(gross) = 18396 f 8954 J g-' 6 1SLO/RIC 55 . Tenebrio molitor. solid. solid.(gross) = 4520 cal gq. invertebrate animal.(gross) = 18912 J g-l 71PAI BEETLE. such as oysters and clams. qv(gross) = 11365 f 929 Btu 1 q. q.(gross) = 26418 f 2159 J g-l P-' 6 lSLO/RIC BIVALVE. A class of Molluscoida having bivalve shells. Invertebrate animal composed of two parts that open and shut. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content. mollusks. Glottidiu pyramidczta.(gross) = 6314 2 516 cal gq. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and a r e corrected to an ash-free basis.(gross) = 8280 Btu l b l l qv(gross) = 4600 cal gqv(gross) = 19246 J g-l 7 1PA1 BRACHIOPOD. Cirripedia.

(gross) = 23451 A 2443 J g-l 6 I SLO/RIC 56 . results apply to total body of cattle. solid. For sample of 100% protein: qv(gross) = 9805 Btu Ib-l qv(gross) = 5447 cal g-1 q. q. invertebrate animal. entomostracan crustaceans. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content.(gross) = 5605 f 584 cal g-l q. found in any exposed body of water.(gross) = 17098 Btu -p-l I qv(gross) = 9499 cal g q.(gross) = 39744 J g-1 6 1STR CHITOW Katherina tunicata. FQSS heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected t o an ash-free basis.(gross) = 10688 f 373 Btu 1 q. A group of minute.(gross) = 5938 2 207 cal gqv(gross) = 24845 f 866 J g-l 6 I SLO/RIC CLADOCERA. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content. mollusk of the order Polyplacophora.(gross) = 10091 f 1051 Btu Ib-I q.(gross) = 4700 cal gq. solid. Leptodora kindtu.Animals CATTLE. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected to an ash-free basis. chiefly fresh-water. q. of ten know as water fleas.(gross) = 19665 J g-l 7 1PA1 CILIATE. Class of Protozoa characterized by presence of cilia. solid. Tetrahymena pyriforrnis.(gross) = 22790 J g-l For sample of 100% fat: q.(gross) = 8460 Btu l b l l q. q.

(gtoss) = 5515 2 277 cal gq. BipaZium keuense. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected t o an ash-free basis.(gross) = 23782 t 519 J g.(gross) = 11315 2 608 Btu 1P-l q. q. a planarian worm of the phylum Platyhelminthes.1 6 1SLO/RIC 57 .' qv(gross) = 5400 2 197 cal gq. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected t o an ash-free basis.solid. A large subclass of crustaceans mostly minute in size found in both fresh and salt water. Dugesia tigrina.Animals COPEPOD. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and ate corrected t o an ash-free basis. Calanus helgolandicus.(gross) = 26301 2 1414 J g-l 6 1SLO/RIC FLATWORM.1 6 1SLO/RIC COPEPOD.(gross) = 10231 k 223 Btu lb-l q. q.(gross) = 5684 2 124 cal g-' q.' q.+ 338 cal gq. TERRESTRIAL. A large subclass of crustaceans mostly minute in size and found in both fresh and salt water.(gross) = 9720 2 355 Btu lb.(gross) = 6286 . q. having the head end expanded into a semicircular plate.Trigriopus californicus.solid.(gross) = 22594 5 824 J g. solid.(gtoss) = 23075 f 1159 J g-l 6 1SLO/RIC FLATWOIRM. Large worm found in the tropics. q. solid.(gross) = 9927 k 499 Btu lb.

A small top minnow of t h e Barbados. GREEN. the body is a simple tube with a mouth at one extremity.(gross) = 10481 Btu lb-1 qv(gross) = 5823 c a l g-l q. q. they are included in t h e Neuroptera. solid. Small arachnids t h a t are parasitic in nature. qv(gross) 10312 f 445 Btu I q. Tyroglyphus Zintneri. solid.Animals FLY.(gross) = 5729 2 247 c a l gq. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected t o a n ash-free basis.(gross) = 24301 +. Small fresh-water hydrozoan polyps t h a t contain chlorophyll chromatophores. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and are corrected €or moisture and ash content.Pycnopsyche guttifer.Lebistes reticulatus. frequently kept as an aquarium fish. CADDIS. q.(gross) = 10271 Btu 1 q. solid. Trinidad. qv(gross) = 10454 f 803 Btu 1 q. solid. or constitute t h e order Trichoptera. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected t o a n ash-free basis.(gtoss) = 23970 f 1033 J g-l P-' 6 lSLO/RIC MITE.(gross) = 5706 cal gqv(gross) = 23874 J g-l P-' 6 1SLO/RIC GUPPIE.(gross) = 24363 J g-' 6 1SLO/RIC HYDIIIA. and Venezuela area. 1866 J g-' 6 lSLO/RIC 58 . Chlorohydra viridissima. usually found attached to submerged objects. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected to a n ash-free basis.(gross) = 5808 2 446 cal gq. insects having aquatic larvae.

8 2 401. DNA = 12. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Fish were filleted and musculature tissues taken from t h e posterior (tail) region.325 2 (9. each value is a mean of 12 determinations. Concentrations of t h e various chemical constituents are protein = 19. total carbohydrate 3.(gross) = 46655. glycogen = 160. C ~ Qpunctatus. solid. q.337 2 (0.855) &lo0 mg. solid. glycogen 233.040 ? (0.(gross) = 39773. The specimens of this economically important fresh water fish were 18-20 c m (7-8 in.005) mg/g.101)%.476) Pg/lOO mg.146)%.(gross) = 11151.6 cal gq. value is mean of 12 determinations with standard error of t h e mean. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.213 f (2.362) mg/lOO g.535)%.1 J g-l P-' 78MUS/ J A F 59 .(gross) = 9506. Fish were filleted and musculature tissues taken from t h e apex of t h e anterior (trunk) region.425) mg/100 g.) in length and captured at Aligarh in northern India.3141%. fat = 1.366 f (6.8 q. fat = 1.0 q.113) ug/lOO mg.898)%. Concentrations of t h e various chemical constituents a r e protein = 18.933 i (0.464) &lo0 mg.706 2 (0.406)%.152)%.1 k 1107. water = 76.739 2 (0.5 f 1 78MUS/ JAF POND MURREL.6 Btu lbk 223. water = 73.Animals POND MURREL.533 ? (0.489 f (0. total carbohydrate = 2. cholesterol 114. Channa punctatus. TAIL.8 f 476. DNA = 23. cholesterol = 156.433 f (0. RNA = 100.3 Btu 1 q. TRUNK. Values in parentheses refer t o standard error of the mean.672 f (2.000 2 (19. value is mean of 12 determinations with standard error of t h e mean. RNA = 23.) in length and captured at Aligarh in northern India.137)%.469 2 (3.585) mg/100 g.469 2 (1. each value is a mean of 12 determinations. The specimens of this economically ~ Q important fresh water fish were 18-20 c m (7-8 in.200 k (0.587 ? (0. ash = 1.0 k 264. ash = 1.1 cal 2 933.(gross) = 17110.176)%.823 k (12.523)%. qv(gross) = 20071. Values in parentheses refer to standard error of t h e mean.

(gross) = 32543 J g-l For t he % fat range 33.80%.(gross) = 17435 .83 (% protein)] cal gq.17I .(gross) = 7778 cal gq.42 (% fat)] J g-l For the % protein range 18. 98.(gross) = 10571 Btu I q. q.(gross) = [16963 . solid. CARCASS.97 (% fat)] cal gq. protein and fat composition determined on ash-free dry basis for materials from bodies of 63 sheep.40.(gross) = [13383 .31 to 66. fat.1 q.(gross) = 14000 Btu 1 q.75 (% protein)] Btu lb. protein and fat composition determined on ash-free dry basis for carcasses of 63 sheep.49 (% fat)] Btu Ib-I q.(gross) = [5854 + 15. q.83 (96 fat)] cal g-l qv(gross) = 124493 + 66. 59.49 (% protein)] Btu 1 q.68: q. 40. mean composition: protein.Animals SHEEP.75 (% fat)] Btu lb.15. solid..(gross) = [9424 .18%.23 (% protein)] J g-l P-' 6 4PAL / R EI SHEEP.42 (% protein)] J g-' 64PAL/REI 60 . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 5873 cal gq.(gross) = 131108 .82% gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.32 t o 81.28.' q.(gross) = [9589 + 73.97 (% protein)] cal g-l q. BLOOD.(gross) = [39430 .80: q. fat.00 to 5.(gross) = El0537 + 28.73.(gross) = 24573 J g-' P-' For the % fat range 0. mean composition: protein. 1.(gross) = [22288 + 171.1 For the % protein range 94.23 (% fat)] 3 g.20%.20 to 100.69: q.66.00: q.(gross) = [5327 + 40.

56.(gross) = [9305 . 74.(gross) = C39351 .(gross) 6473 cal gq. mean composition: protein.25 (% fat)] Btu lb-I.72.1 Animals SHEEP.25 (% protein)] Btu 1 q.33%. mean composition: protein. q.41 (96 fat)] J g-l For the % protein range 20. protein and fat composition determined on ashfree dry basis for bodies of 63 sheep. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.80 t o 79.96 (% fat)] J g-l For the % protein range 61. fat.(gross) 27083 J g-l For the % fat range 18. q.40.(gross) = 19824 + 69.(gross) = [16929 . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.25 (% fat)] cal g-l qv(gross) = C22506 + 168.38.43: qv(gross) = [9682 + 72. 43.05%. protein and fat composition determined on ash-free dry basis for material from bodies of 43 sheep.37 to 38. solid. fat. qv(gross) = 11651 Btu 1 q.20: q.(gross) = [22836 + 160.63: qv(gross) Cl6749 .45 (% fat)] Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 15379 + 40.96 (% protein)] J g-l 64PAL/REI SHEEP. solid.95%.72: q.160.47 (96 fat)] cal g-l q.28 to 81. HIDE.(gross) = 32054 J g-l For the % fat range 28.168.69.(gross) = [38932 .57 to 71.41 (% protein)] J g-' 64PAL/REI 61 .(gross) = [9405 . 25.45 (% protein)] B t u Ib-' q.47 (% protein)] cal gq. INGESTA-FREE BODY.(gross) = [5458 + 38.25 (% protein)] cal g-l q.(gross) = 13790 Btu 1P-l qv(gross) = 7661 cal gq.67%.

38 (% protein)] J g-l P-' 64PALIREI SHRIMP. solid.86 (% protein)] Btu I q. invertebrate animal. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected to an ash-free basis. solid.50%.(gross) = 801 1 c a l gqv(gross) = 33518 J g-l For t h e % fat range 26.50%. gastropod mollusk.(gross) = 12127 f 1553 Btu lb.1 6 I SLO/RIC SNAIL. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content.(gross) = [9312 .(gross) = 6737 f 863 cal g-l qv(gross) 28188 f 361 1 J g.162. solid.42 to 87.(gross) [5428 + 38. fat.86 (% fat)] Btu lb-I q. 33.1 q.88-73. qv(gross) = 14420 Btu 1 q.38: q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.Animals SHEEP.(gross) = [38961 . protein ant fat composition determined on ash-free dry basis for viscera from bodies of 63 sheep.(gross) = [9770 + 69.(gross) = [16762 .12: q.38.38 (96 fat)] J g-l For t h e 96 protein range 12. 66. (nauplu).(gross) = [22711 + 162. VISCERA. BRINE. a brachiopod crustacean. qv(gross) = 9144 Btu lbl 1 qv(gross) = 5080 cal gq.81 (% fat)] cal g-l q.Tegula funebralis.(gross) = 21255 J g-l 7 1PA1 62 .81 (% protein)] c a l gq. mean composition: protein.69. Artenia sp. q.

(gtosd = 29129 2 2134 J g-l 6 1SLO/RIC STARFISH. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer for moisture and ash content. AQUATIC. gross heat o cornbustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and are f corrected to an ash-free basis. Succinea ovalis.+ 918 Btu Ib-' q. PhiZenus Zeucophthalmus.(gross) = 12532 .1 q.(gtoss) = 5415 2 6 cal gq. solid. solid. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content.(gross) = 226562 25 f g-l 6 1SLO/RIC SPITBUG. qv(gross) = 3798 Btu lb.(gross) = 8828 J 7 1PA1 63 . q. invertebrate animal. Pisaster ochraceus.Animals SNAIL. a spittle insect.(gross) = 21 10 cal q. a gastropod mollusk. echinoderm of t h e order Asteroidea.(gross) 9747 2 11 Btu 1 q. (without shell).(gtoss) = 6962 2 510 cal g-l q. to room temperature and a r e corrected q.

repeating unit: C6H 0O5.4 f g-l from wood pulp: q. solid.9044-(0.(gross) = 17026 J g-l 78MUR/MAS CELLULOSE. assume room temperature. Material has a repeating unit of (C.5 x = -0.. and values a r e f reported in international British thermal units per pound. gross heat o combustion: oven dry basis.01708 + 9. FROM LOBLOLLY PINE WOOD. specific heat: 333-413 K (140"-284"F).(gross) = 4172.70% a-cellulose [68McM]. chief constituent of paper pulp: 46. and ultimately t o glucose.07146 + 4.0022)MC(%). constitutes about 60% of t h e composition of wood. Pinus taeda.0 c a l g-l q. C ]. Extracted wood of northern red oak (Quercus rubru) was divided into three major chemical components and cellulose comprised 42. solid. Cp(Btu lb-I O .0 cal gq. repeating unit: C6H100S. gross heat of combustion: at 30°C (86°F) from cotton linters: q. qv(gross) = 7325 Btu lb. solid.6 3 g-l 50JES/PRO 67 .K-l) = 0.' qv(gross) = 4069 cal gq. hydrolysis can reduce cellulose t o a cellobiose repeating unit.) F' Cp(cal -1 K -1 9 Cp(J g.14 x T T T 70Mch CELLULOSE. 1 q.(gross) 17426.(gross) = 4165.6 Btu lb.HloOs).(gross) = 7497 Btu Lb-l q.(gross) = 7509. and converted below into thermochemical units. 2H2201 1.86%.Biomass-Derived Materials a-CELLULOSE.2357 + 5.9 x = -0.(gross) = 17455. C6H1206. The relationship between gross h e a t of combustion and moisture content (MC) given by t h e regression equation: anqv(Btu lb-I) = is 8. samples were oven-dried at 100°C (212°F) for 12 hours before measurements were made. modification of cellulose which has t h e highest degree of polymerization.

density. 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.5 c a l g-l q. solid.K-l) q1 = 0. specific heat: 333-413 K (14O0-284"F). 1.577 Btu lb.9 J g-l 57TAV/LAM CELLULOSE. Trade name Avic I (FMC Corporation).(gross) = 451 1.(gross) = 4144. solid. and formula weight = 162.solid. chloride. and easily pelletized. F' Cp(Btu Ib-I O . repeating unit: C 12H 1608.76 f 10.5 x T = -0.54 f 2. Pinus taeda.543 c a l gq.) Cp(cal K-') Cp( J g.(gross) 8120.23558 + 5.(gross) = 17340. 9 measurements made.36 g cm-' at 20°C (68OF). _+ gross heat of combustion: temperature = 28°C (82°F). Substance is microcrystalline and a calorimeter calibration test substance. samples were oven-dried at 100°C (212°F) for 12 hours before measurements were made.] q. average concentration of water soluble impurities (fluoride.5 t o 7. The 96 moisture of 7 samples = 4.(gross) = 18602.2 Btu Ib. The formula for Avicel combustion is C6H1005(c) + 602(g) + 6C02(g) + 5H20(liq). lot 1018-152 is a n acid hydrolyzed derivative of a dissolving grade of wood pulp.17 ? 4.1439 g/mole. qv(gross) 8003. mean value is given with estimated uncertainty. repeating unit: Cl0Hl0O7.).07213 + 4.910 0. correction for heat of wetting was made.Biomass-Derived Materials CELLULOSE.9 x T = -0.' q. solid. 99.(gross) = 4446.04% ash.1 q.46 ppm. pH = 5. very homogeneous.060 (sd. nitrate. t o t a l water-insoluble carbohydrate constituents of loblolly pine wood.14 x lom3T 70McM CELLULOSE TRIACETATE.(gross) q.81% pure.(gross) = 18876.01724 + 9.1 J g-' 57TAV/LAM 68 .2 c a l gq. 7 I. FROM LOBLOLLY PINE WOOD. HOLOCELLULOSE. 7460. 18% holocellulose [68McM]. repeating unit: C6H o05. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.64 J g-' 8lCOL/XIH CELLULOSE DIACETATE. q. and sulfate) was 62.7 Btu Ib.

WHATMAN. and will retain coarse and gelatinous precipitates. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.908 2 0. 41.(gross) = 41 10 cal gq. f q. 2. Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') Cp(cal -I "C-') Cp(J g. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77OF) qv(gross) = 7290 Btu lbll qv(gross) = 4050 cal gq.5%. 93.003 = 0. proximate analysis: fixed carbon.Biomass-Derived Materials CHARCOAL."C-') 9 = 0.5%. has fast filter speed. WOOD.217 2 0. 1.(gross) = 7398 Btu lbl 1 q. general formula: CgH1005. 70MAN/RAP DEXTRIN. ash free and moisture free 14940 Btu 1 q. moisture.(gross> 16945 J g-l q. b' q.(gross) = 4108 cal gq. solid.(gross) = 8300 cal gq. solid. and R. 89%. P-' 55SPI COTTON (THREAD). W. CH1. Material is No.(gross) = 17188 J g-' 62GOO/SCO. ash. dextrin is obtained in several different grades by-heating starch for varying lengths of time over the temperature range from 17Oo-24O0C (338O-464"F). "good commercial fuel" q.(gross) = 7394 Btu l. volatile matter.(gross) q.0%. absorbent cotton is almost pure a-cellulose. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 8050 cal gq. 1%. nitrogen and sulfur.(gross) = 17196 J g-l 55MER/WAT FILTER PAPER. solid. 10%.(gross) = 34727 J g-' as received.003 = 0.(gross) = 14490 Btu 1 q.013 52NEU 69 .227 2 0. solid.887 is elemental analysis of thread used in combustion measurements. Paper is ashless and consists of almost pure cellulose. Balston. hydrogen. 2%. staple fibers surrounding t h e seeds of various species of Gossypium.77400. ultimate analysis: carbon. specific heat: mean value in temperature range 25"-75OC (77'-167"F) for four measurements. partial hydrolysis product of starch containing a variable number of glucose units.(gross) = 33681 f g-'.

solid. can be hydro yzed to glucose. repeating unit: C12HlGOa.(gross) = 4190 cal gqv(gross) = 17531 J g-' 1887BER/VIE INULIN TRIACETATE. gross heat of combustion: oven dry basis. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. general formula: C H 0 .33%. I qv(gross) = 4522 cal gq.(gross) = 16666 J g-' 78MUR/MAS INULIN. Extracted wood a&northern red oak (Quercus rubra) was divided into three major chemical components of which hemicellulose comprised 33. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 7542 Btu I.(gross) = 4188 cal gq.(gross) = 18920 J g. upon complete hydrolysis yields fructose instead of glucose.0 103)MC(%).8545-(0. values are reported in international British thermal units per pound and converted below into thermochemical units. assume values refer t o room temperature.Biomass-Derived Materials GLYCOGEN.(gross) 7538 Btu lb. q.(gross) = 7170 Btu Ib. repeating unit: C6H 1o 5similar in physical appearance t o starch except 0.' q. q. q. b' q.solid.(gross) = 17523 J g-l 24MEI/MEY HEMICELLULOSE.1 22KAR/FIO 70 .(gross) = 8140 Btu Ib. 1 q.polysaccharide found in t h e liver and lo muscles of man and animals. solid.dried at 120°C (248OF)in vacuum over P205. q.(gross) = 3983 cal gq. The relationship between gross heat of combustion and moisture content (MC) is given by the regression equation: anqv(5tu lb-l) = 8. I gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. inulin is the chief source of fructose.

solid.0733is content (MC) given by t h e regression equation: anqv(Btu lb (0. highly aromatic structure of molecular weight about 10. functions as a natural plastic binder for cellulose fibers.(gross) = 91 11 Btu lb-1 q.81%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.4% lignin) [68McM] noncarbohydrate constituent of wood.2579 + 4.28 x lo-' T = 0. general agreement prevails about t h e structure of lignin.25660 + 3.(gross) = 24685 3 g-' 67RYD. solid. Cp(Btu Ib-l "F-l) Cp(cal 9-l K' -) Cp(J g. 60%. No empirical formula: CIOHl204. Studies show t h at a dioxyphenylpropyl grouping is an important part of t h e polymer. i t is a highly polymeric substance. cross linked. specific heat: 333-413 K ( 140°-2840F). 6%. with a complex. The relationship between gross heat of comb stion and moisture = 9. assume values refer to room temperature.K-l) = 0.000 derived principally from coniferyl alcohol (C1OHI 203) extensive condensationby polymerization. samples were oven-dried at 100°C (212°F) for 12 hours before measurements were made. 68GUL LIGNIN.1 q.7 x T = 0.(gross) = 5062 cal g-l qv(gross) = 21178 J g-' 78MUR/MAS LIGNIN. q. Extracted wood of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) was divided into t h r e e major chemical components of which lignin comprised 23.2. composition: carbon. oxygen.06133 + 7.0030)MC(%).Biomass-Derived Materials LIGNI". q. -Y gross heat of combustion: oven dry basis. Pinus taeda: solid.(gross) = 10620 Btu Ib. HARDWOOD. major (29. LOBLOLLY PINE WOOD.(gross) 5900 cal g-l q. Material is t h e major noncarbohydrate constituent of wood. hydrogen. 34%. values a r e reported in international British thermal units per pound and converted below into thermochemical units.22 x lok3 T 70McM - 71 .

hydrogen.(gross) = 26360 J g-' P-' 67RYD. 30%. 0% moisture.(gross) 4499 cal gq. general formula: C6H10Og.polysaccharide is widely distributed in the vegetable kingdom and is stored in all grains and tubers. solid. 64%. 6%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. oven dried. faeces from hogs. q.I 22KAR/FIO 72 .(gross) = 6300 cal gq.(gross) = 7704 Btu lbi 1 qv(gross) = 4280 cal gqv(gross) = 17900 J g-l 73BAC/HAR STARCH.(gross) = 8098 Btu Ibi 1 q..203.(gross) = 11340 Btu 1 q. empirical formula: C 10Hl I . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. q.(gross) = 18824 J g. PIG. SOFTWOOD.3. no general agreement prevails about the structure of lignin. 1 qv(gross) = 4200 cal gq. 68GUL MANURE. solid.(gross) = 17570 J g-l 55MER/WAT STARCH TRIACETATE.solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to toom temperature. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. oxygen. q. composition: carbon. Studies show that a dioxyphenylpropyl grouping is an important part of the polymer. repeating unit: C 12HI 608. solid.Biomass-Derived Materials LICNIN. qv(gross) = 7560 Btu Ib.

specific heat: 298 K (77°F) Cp(Btu Ib-l OF-') Cp(cal 5-l) Cp(J g.(gross) = 7637. 2%-7%. also lignin sulfonate.K q1 = 0.Biomass-Derived Materials SULFITE LIQUOR.2889 = 0. occurs in large amounts (20%-40%) in cereal straws and brans. dry extract from a wood-derived tannin. solid. 2%-4%. and carbohydrates.solid.(gross) = 4500 . solid. polysaccharide which of ten occurs in association with cellulose. SPENT. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. tannin obtained from Aspidosperma quebrucho and Quebracho Zorentri imported as logs f rorn Argentina.(gross) = 4242.3152 = 1.(gross) = 17751.K = 0.4650 cal gqv(gross) = 18800 .8 cal gq. QUEBRACHO.4875 c a l g-' q.20400 J g-l 69HUL TANNIN EXTRACT. repeating unit: C. aqueous sulfite. solids. calcium and magnesium compounds.' q. aqueous. gross heat of combustion: assume value refers t o room temperature.9 J g-l 23KAR/FIO 73 . specific heat: 298 K (77°F) C (Btulb-I OF-') Cp(cal P 5-l) q1 Cp(J g.8370 Btu l b i l q.19500 J g-' fermented and stripped liquor qv(gross) = 8460 . 55% solids non-neutralized spent liquor qv(gross) = 8100 . dry powder obtained from concentrated solution produced from t r e a t m e n t of chestnut chips with water. 80%-90%.3152 = 0. q. 2%-5%.8775 Btu Ib-I qv(gross) = 4700 . xylose is t h e repeating unit.0 Btu lb.(gross) = 19700 . calcium and magnesium base waste liquor from pulping of wood by sulfite process. CHESTNUT. gaseous sulfur dioxide.2088 55KAN TANNIN EXTMCT.Hx04.2889 = 1. aqueous sulfate.3188 55KAN XYLAN.

and 4.0.(gross) = 13092 J g-l 55MER/WAT BEANS.60 0. (C '! 4.8% water.2% moisture. chemical analysis: 87.92 1.3"F).92 1.0 -23.43 -34.82 0.50 0.8 49STA BEANS.98 3. DRY. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.50 04 .3 -28. Phaseolus vuZgaris. 0. the initial freezing point ' tern erature -0.1 q. solid.68 38 . . q.82 0.2 -17.3 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 0.92 0.6 0.98% water soluble solids.43 0.5 1 2.92 0.60 05 . Prunus amygdalus.68 0.45 28 . 4 4 moisture. qv(gross) = 7020 Btu lb.5 0.(gross) = 3129 cal gq. 1 q.% gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.67 -12. GREEN. WHITE. NAVY.(gross) = 16320 J g-l 55MER/WAT 77 .5 3.4 -4 0 -40 0.44 .85 5.26% fat.34 2.09 18 .94 . specific heat: 4 to -40°C (40" t o -40°F).(gross) = 5632 Btu lb.6. solid.9 (OF) 40 30.Foods ALMOIVDS.56 0.9OC (30.5 2.(gross) = 3900 cal g-l q. 11.solid.43 0.

00 37.28 208. caprylic. solid. The oily portion of cow's milk composed of 88% of t h e glycerides of oleic.1 Lf = 26. caproic.5 cal g-' Lf = 102.Foods BUTTERFAT.93 124.1 Btu Ib. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 131°F).17 Ho(t)-Ho(-500C ) cal g-l J g-' 0. temperature Ho( t)-H0(-50 " C) Btu lb-I cal g-l ("C) -50 -25 (OF) J g-l 0.72 66.OF) -50 -25 0 25 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 Btu lb-I 00 . t h e oily portion of cow's milk composed of 88% of t h e glycerides of oleic.97 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 35°C (-58" t o 13 1"F).62 117. and captic acids.24 0. WINTER.87 0.48 24. and palmitic acids and 6% of the glycerides of butyric.3 Btu lb. solid. SUMMER.0 J g-l 55RIE 79 .74 97.78 288.50 1 19.00 9.63 208. stearic.00 9.00 16.79 65. temperature ("C) (.3 cal g-l Lf = 110.72 89. caprylic.1 Lf = 24. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" to 131°F).02 heat o fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" t o f 13 1"F).63 69.25 49.79 122. Three samples were measured from different sources.44 67. Lf = 44.5 J g-l 55RIE BUTTERFAT.29 49.78 -58 0 25 50 55 -13 32 77 122 131 0.06 43.32 273.0 17. stearic. caproic.80 283. - Lf = 47.02 23.85 89.66 101. and capric acids.03 278.24 41.00 39. and palmitic acids and 6% of the glycerides of butyric. Three samples were measured from different sources.

05 7.4 -40 -10 -20 -30 -40 0.18 2.40 0. Brassica olerucea var. capitata.64% water soluble solids.40 0. chemical analysis: 92.42 49STA CAULIFLOWER..73 1.l . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) 880 J g -5 55MER/WAT CARROTS.58 0.67 -12.4 -40 40 27. l ° C (30.42 2.0 40 30.94 0.1 1 0.33 -6.0% water.6% moisture.0 -23.34 0.67 -12.10 3.94 2.93 3.18% fat.3 -28. specific heat: 4 O to -4OOC (40" to -40°F).8 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 0.66 0.05 2.58 0.0 1 1.75 0.82 0.73 0.(gross) = 210 cal -1 q.75 0.solid. 94.1 1 0.48 0.0 1 1.34 3.66 -23.(gross) = 378 Btu Ib. 0.05 3.48 0. Sample was unpeeled and cubed.73 0.1% water.98 0. chemical analysis: 83. and 3.2 -17.Foods CABBAGE.94 2.9 -34.1 1 -6.73 0.93 8.73 1.45 0.14% fat.9 -34. 4.58 0. solid.94 0.O0F).1 q. 0.83 4.44 -2.98 0.88 49STA 80 .3OC (27.73 0. and 8. q.43 2.71% water soluble solids. Sample contained no leafy material.44 -1.43 2.8"F). solid.t h e initial freezing point = -2.76 2.48 0.32 3. the initial freezing point 4' tem erature ('Cf (OF) 4.48 0.2 .45 3.52 0.82 0.3 -28.52 0.58 0.0 20 10 0 0. -17.67 1. specific heat: 4 O t o -40°C ( 0 to -40°F).

as received qv(gross) = 1708 Btu 1 q. 8.1 q. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called the iodine number = 38.' q.22%. The saponification number. 5. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. 19.25 75.(gross) = 4098 cal g-l qv(gross) = 17146 J g-' 66KAI. proximate analysis as received: moisture. hydrogen.4 J g-l 55RIE COCONUT. q.10 63.02%. sulfur.85 136.10 76. 38.18%. solid.67 33. ultimate analysis: carbon.34%.1 1%. fixed carbon.34%. 8.42 73. Lf = 63. solid.0 c a l gLf = 146.(gross) = 3970 J g-' air dried qv(gross) = 7376 Btu lb. 1. which is the mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 194.0 Btu lbll Lf = 36. solid. meat. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.18%.20 306. nitrogen. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 53°C (-58" t o 131OF).94 148. ash. 3. ash.(gross) = 4882 Btu Ib.68 J g-' 0.1 1%. temperature ("C) -50 (OF) Btu lb-I H O (t )-H"(-50 O C) cal g-l 0. COCOS nucifera. oxygen.00 34.(gross) = 27 12 cal gq.02%.Foods CITRUS FRUIT. volatile matter.(gross) = 11347 J g-l 55MERIWAT 81 .(gross) = 949 cal gq.00 8.46%.47 316.2% moisture. moisture.02%.00 14.65 -58 0. 44. 0.15 18. 17. 3. 71.76 131. 68KAI/FRI COCOA BUTTER. RINDS AND SEEDS.39 35.22 -25 0 25 50 -13 32 77 122 55 131 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 131 OF).

chemical analysis: 96.2 -17.45 0. Sample was unpeeled and cubed.1 55MERlWAT CUCUMBERS.70 0.92 1.0% moisture. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.67 -12.32 0. q.1 q.Foods CORN (MAIZE). the initial freezing point = -0.22 2.92 .3 -28.58 -23. GREEN.(gross) = 4653 J g 55MER/WAT COWPEAS. q.0 4.63% water soluble solids.0 20 09 .49 -30 -40 0.6. 0.88 495ta 82 .53 0.O"F).32 0. Zea mays.(gross) = 16736 J g.53 0.1% water.58 10 0 -10 -20 0.70 0.(gross) 7200 Btu lb.(gross) = 11 12 cal q.45 3.48 0.1 q.43 2. t e m erature (C O! (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' Cp(cal g-1 o c .07% fat.0.05 2.9 -34.93 2.0% moisture.4 -40 0.6"C (31.92 1.(gross) = 4000 cal g-l q.85 3.2 0.01 1. solid. Vigna sinesis.48 0. 76. solid.1 ) 0. solid.56 . 10.52 2.49 0.85 5.(gross) = 2002 Btu lb. specific heat: 4" to -40°C (40" t o -40°F).44 40 31. and 1.

a crystallizable protein. specific gravity. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. q.l ) Cp(J g. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. solid. ether extracted.95. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. solid. qv(gross) 10280 Btu 1 qv(gross) 5710 cal gqv(gross) = 23891 J g-l specific heat: temperature range: 273-298 K (32"-77"F). mixture of glycerides of fatty acids.800.K ) = 0.(gross) = 9070 cal g-l q. solid.) Cp(cal ~ l 5 . high cholesterol content.(gross) = 17100 Btu 1 qv(gross) 9500 cal gqv(gross) = 39750 J g-l 55MERjWAT FAT. 10510 Btu 1 q. BARLEY.(gross) = 16330 Btu lb-' q.117 55MER/WAT.anhydrous. from egg white.267 = 1. solid.Foods EGG ALBUMIN.(gross) = 24435 J g-l 55MER/WAT FAT. 0. q.(gross) 5840 cal gq.(gross) = 37950 J g-l 55MER/WAT 83 . semi-solid material of an egg. ANIMAL.267 = 0. 72BER/KLI EGG YOLK.(gross) q. F' Cp(Btu lb-I O . yellow. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. molecular weight about 33.

composed mainly of glycerides (90%) of oleic. 14.(gross) = 9270 cal gq. remainder (10%) is made up of glycerides of butyric. 2. q. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. 15.43%. 0.(gross) = 38785 J g-l 55MER/WAT FAT. oleic.(gross) = 38300 J g-l 66KAI FAT.74%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.33 mg KOH/g. palmitoleic. gross heat of cornbustion: assume values refer to room temperature. 8. fixed carbon. 0. 0. and eiconsenoic. liquid. nitrogen. Fatty acids found in t h e oil: capric.(gross) 38660 J g-l 55MER/WAT FAT. 23. 0. 0.Foods FAT. 0. I 1. processed from cream of cow's milk. palmitic. qv(gtoss) = 17136 Btu lb. solid.52%. 45.07%.1 q.00%.36%.28%.5496. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.16%. oxygen. Material was extracted from animal fats to form a commercial lard and the acid value was 0. solid. lauric. caprylic. ash. stearic. ash. palmitic.(gtoss) = 9520 cal g-l q. 73.64%.81%. LARD. qv(gross) = 17100 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9500 cal gq. 0.(gross) = 39750 J g-l fat obtained by ether extraction qv(gross) = 16630 Btu lb. 0. 3.9145.(gross) = 9154 cal gq. ultimate analysis: carbon.42%. 1.(gross) = 16690 Btu 1P-l q. linolenic. qv(gross) = 16480 Btu 1P-l q.14%.1 q.18%. BUTTER.73%.11%. BEEF. and stearic acids. FRIED.5 1%. myristic. hydrogen. sulfur. volatile matter. and caproic acids.00%. proximate analysis as received: moisture. capric. 97. 0.00%. Saponification number 210-230.(gtoss) = 39832 J g-' 75KOM/DAN 84 . Specific gravity (15/15OC) = 0.(gross) = 9240 cal g-l q.35%. linoleic.

Avena sativa. 30. qv(gross) = 17260 Btu 1 q. 1.4%.(gross) = 16330 Btu 1 q. solid.2%.(gross) = 9510 cal g-' q.(gross) = 39750 J g-l P-' fat obtained by ether extraction qv(gross) = 16430 Btu lb-I q. q. purified internal fat of the hog.(gross) = 9070 cal gq.1%. palmitic.1 fat obtained by ether extraction q. Iodine number 46-66. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. solid.(gross) = 9130 cal g-l q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.1 FAT. oleic.1 q. stearic. linoleic. LARD.(gross) = 16780 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 9320 cal gq.(gross) = 17100 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9500 cal gq. ether extract. solid. 41. f a t t y acid composition (typical): myristic. MUTTON. 55MERlWAT q.9%. PORK.(gross) = 40120 J g.(gross) = 38200 J g-' 55MERlWAT 85 .1 P-' 55MER/WAT FAT.Foods FAT. solid.(gross) = 37950 J g. q.(gross) = 9590 cal gq. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. 17.(gross) = 39000 J g-l 55MERlWAT FAT. OAT.(gross) = 39790 J g.7%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 17120 Btu Ib. 5.

5% moisture. ether extract.(gross) 14560 J g- 55MER/WAT 86 . 3.1 q.Secale cereale. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.F d s FAT. SOY BEAN.(gross) = 37950 J g-l 55MER/WAT FLOUR. 4.(gross) = 16240 Btu 1 qv(gross) 9020 cal gqv(gross) = 37740 J g-' P-' 55MER/WAT FAT. 6. Soia hispida. Triticum aestivum. q. qv(gross) = 16330 Btu lb.(gross) = 3716 cal gq. q.(gross) = 15548 J g-l q.3% fat qv(gross) = 6689 Btu lbi 1 q.(gross) = 9070 cal g-l q. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.1 qv(gross) 3480 cal g 1 . RYE.(gross) = 6264 Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. ether extract. solid.17% moisture. WHEAT.5% fat 6.

as received q.68%. fixed carbon. ultimate analysis: carbon. 1.8%. qp(net) = 333 Btu lb-I q (net) = 185 cal P q (net) = 774 J P specific heat: 100°-2500C (212"-48Z°F) Cp(Btu lb-l O . 69ABR/ABR FOOD WASTES.(gross) = 4598 cal gq.5 = 0. 4.57% moisture qv(gross) = 7488 Btu lb. 37.FLOUR. volatile matter. whole grain.' q. 7. graham.55%. 1 q. nitrogen. oxygen. 0.06%.1 q. q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 0. 3.06%.(gross) = 8276 Btu lb.55%. sulfur. 49.K ) = 0. 6. solid. VEGETABLE. ash.5 = 2.(gross) = 7218 Btu lbl 1 q.) F' Cp(cal 4-l 5-l) Cp(J g.3% moisture q.(gross) 19236 J g-' 66KAI 87 .(gross) = 4010 cal gqv(gross) = 16780 J g-l semolina.29%.1 gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. WHEAT.62%. density.(gross) = 4160 cal gqv(gross) = 17405 J g-' 55MER/WAT. temperature -250°C (482OF).(gross) = 4175 J g-' dry basis q.(gtoss) = 1796 Btu lp. Triticum aestivum. t h e finely ground and bolted meal of wheat. proximate analysis as received: moisture. hydrogen. 10.5% moisture qv(gross) = 7207 Btu lbl 1 qv(gross) = 4004 cal g . 17.20%. 10.10%. solid. 78.(gross) = 16750 J gstandard patent.(gross) = 998 cal gq. 1. ash. net heat of explosion: nonisothermal in air.73 g cm-3 .

44 40 20 10 0 -10 -20 0.13 k 0.56 0.49 0.67 -12.49 0.89 0. t h e result is t h e average of 5 determinations.72 16.48 2 1.6. specific heat: 4 to -40°C (40' to -4OOF).59 -30 -40 2. THOMPSON SEEDLESS. 0.84 1.23 3. ' .34 J g dSolH 52NEU GRAPES.98 3. dSolH = 19.32 cal-4AsolH = 44. which is converted into gelatin upon boiling with dilute acids.63 2 0. solid. and 15.52 -17.4 -40 3.75 0.58 Btu lbi 1 = 10.84 1. Sample was whole with short stem.0 -23.95 0.26% fat.2 4.07 6.95 0.75 0.18 49STA 88 .52 3.62 0. solid.34 2.Foods GELATIN. The acid mixture contained 5% by weight of HF and 19.89 3.6% water soluble solids. chemical analysis: 81.95% by weight HCI.3 -28. in the form of its anhydride collagen.9 -34. I t is particularly rich in glycine and lycine. an albumin type protein belonging to t h e scleroprotein class with t h e I t occurs in bones and fibrous animal tissue questionable formula C76H 240-#24S.4% water. heat of solution: t h e value is for t h e material at 25°C (77'F) dissolved in t h e acid mixture at 75°C (167'F). no freezing point was observed.62 0.14 2.56 0.

Foods

GROATS, SUN IX;solid; Grain has fat content of 8.1%. The relationship between the grain and the moisture content was determined. One third of t h e samples were not conditioned, one third were conditioned by adding distilled water and equilibrating for one week, and the rest were dried in a vacuum over CaC12 until they reached their respective moisture contents. Moisture content was determined by drying triplicate ground samples in a ventilated oven at 113OC (235°F)for 4 hours.

specific heat: straight line regression equations for t h e relation between t h e specific heat and moisture content where C is apparent specific heat and M is moisture P content (%). The apparent specific heat of water [C (w)] was calculated from the
equation.

P

= 0.0119 M + 0.257 Btu lb-' cP Cp = 0.0119 M + 0.257 cal K-l K-l Cp = 0.0498 M + 1.075 J g

-i !-'

C (w) = 1.447 Btu lb'l OF-' P C (w) = 1.447 c a l P C,(W) = 6.054 J
54HAS

HERRING OIL; liquid; The saponification number, which is the mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in the molecule = 193. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 120.
enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" t o 131'F).
temperature ("C) (OF)
-50

Btu lb-I

H O (t)-Ho( -50 O C) c a l g-l
0.00 11.88 28.41 44.34 56.10 58.47

J g-'
0.00 49.7 1 118.87 185.52 234.72 244.64

-25 0 25 50 55

-58 -13 32 77 122 131

0.00 2 1.38 51.14 79.8 1 100.98 105.25

heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55OC (-58" to 13 1OF).

Lf = 22.1 Btu lb-I Lf = 12.3 cal
55RIE

89

Foods

HOMINY; from corn (maize); Zea mays; 10.96% moisture.

gross heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. f
qv(gross) = 7175 Btu l b l l qv(gross) 3986 cal gq,(gross) = 16677 J g-'

55MER/WAT

HONEYDEW MELON; solid; chemical analysis: 92.6% water, 0.21% fat, and 2.83% water
soluble solids. Sample was cubed, seeds included, no rind.

specific heat: 4" to -40°C (40" to -40°F); t h e initial freezing point = -0.8"C (30.5"F).

4.44

- 0.83 - 6.67 -12.2
-17.0

-23.3 -28.9 -34.4 -40

40 30.5 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40

0.92 0.92 1.85 0.94 0.68

0.58 0.53
0.50 0.48

0.92 0.92 1.85 0.94 0.68 0.58 0.53 0.50 0.48

3.85 3.85
7.74

3.93
2.85

2.43 2.22 2.09 2.0 1 49STA

LARD, AMERICAN COMMERCIAL; solid; The saponification number, which is t h e mean
molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in the molecule = 202. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 66.

enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" t o 131°F).
temperature

H"(t)-H0(-50" C)
Btu lb-I cal g-l

("C)
-50 -25 0 25 50

(OF)

J g-'
0.00 38.74 113.85 205.8 1 279.70 289.87

55

-58 -13 32 77 122 131

0.00
16.67 48.98 88.54 120.33 124.70

0.00 9.26 27.21 49.19 66.85 69.28

heat o fusion: results is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55OC (-58" to f 131'F).

Lf = 47.7 Btu Ibi 1 Lf = 26.5 cal gLf = 110.9 J g-l
55RIE
90

Foods

LARD, GERMAN COMMERCIAL; solid; The saponification number, which is t h e mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule 202. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 49.

enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58' to 131°F).
temperature ("C) (OF) Btu lb-l
0.00

Ho(t)-Ho(-500C) cal g-l

s g-1
0.00 36.57 96.23 181.59 285.68 296.39

-50
-25

-58

0 25 50 55

-13 32 77 122 131

13.73 4 1.40 78.12 122.90 127.5 1

00 .0 8.74 23.00 43.40 68.28 70.84

heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58O t o

11F. 3')
Lz = 52.6 Btu lb: 1 L; = 29.2 cal g-'

Lf = 122.2 J g-l
55RIE MALTING BARLEY; solid; Grain was heavily husked; sample (A) was as harvested from field (germination was loo%), sample (B)was wetted by addition of water or water vapor, and sample (C) was dried in a vacuum at 30°C (86°F).

specific heak temperature range 273-291 K (32"-64"F),d a t a a r e mean values with standard error in parentheses and moisture content (M) on a wet weight basis.
Sample
M

%

(Btu lb-

(cal g-l K-')

cP

(f g-

cP -1 1 K )

A

B

C

1. 38 16.5 94 .

0.387(0.0026) 0.436(0.0026) 0.359(0.00 16)

0.387(0.0026)
0.436(0.0026)

0.359(0.0016)

1.619(0.0109) 1.824(0.0109) 1.502(0.0067)

54DIS

91

Foods

MARGARINE, TABLE; solid; a butter substitute, an emulsion of fats in milk serum, (the oleo margarine is t h e liquid fat from which margarine is made by hydrogenation). Two samples were used from different sources.

enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55OC (-58" to 132°F).
temperature

("C)
-50 -25 0 25 50 55

(OF)

Btu Ib-I

Ho(t)-Ho(-500C) cal g-l

J g-'
0.00 38.83 100.42 195.14 276.73 286.98

-58 -13 32 77 122 131

0.00 16.70 43.20 83.95 119.05 123.46

0.00 9.28 24.00 46.64 66.14 68.59

heat of fusion: result is a mean value f o r temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58" to

131°F). Lf = 46.4 Btu Ibl 1 Lf = 25.8 c a l gLf = 107.9 J g-'
55r1e

MARGARINE, COMMERCIAL; solid; a butter substitute which is a n emulsion of fats in milk serum, (the oleomargarine is t h e liquid fat from which margarine is made by hydrogenation). Three samples were used from different sources.

enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58"to 131°F).
temperature

("C)
-50 -25 0 25 50 55

(OF)

Btu Ib-I

H"(t)-H"(-50" C) c a l g-'
0.00

J g-1

-58 -13 32 77 122 131

00 .0 16.16 45.04 9I .08 121.43 125.86

8.98 25.02 50.60 67.46 69.92

0.00 37.57 104.68 211.71 282.25 292.55

heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58" to

131°F).

Lf = 47.5 Btu lb- 1 Lf 26.4 cal g- 1 Lf = 110.5 3 g- 1
55r1e

92

Foods

MEAL, CORN (MAIZE); Zea mays; 11.79% moisture.
gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.

q,(gross) = 6881 Btu lb- 1 qv(gross) = 3823 cal g-l qv(gross) 15995 J g-l 55MER/WAT
MEAT, COOKED SCRAPS; solid; ultimate analysis: carbon, 59.59%; hydrogen, 9.47%; oxygen, 24.65%; nitrogen, 1.02%; sulfur, 0.19%; ash, 5.08%; proximate analysis as received: moisture, 38.74%; volatile matter, 56.34%; fixed carbon, 1.81%; ash, 3.1 1%.
gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.
as received

dry basis
7628 Btu lb- 1 4238 cal g-l 17731 J g-'

qv(gross) qv(gross) q,(gross)

qv(gross) = 12450 Btu 1 q,(gross) = 6917 cal gq,(gross) 28942 J g-'

P-'
66KAI

OATS; Avena sativa; solid; rolled; 8.66% moisture.
gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room tempera ure.

q,(gross) = 8208 Btu lb;' q,(gross) 4560 cal gq,(gross) = 19080 J g-'
55MERIWAT

93

Foods

OATS, SUN 11; solid; Grain has fat c o n t e n t of 4.5%. The relationship between t h e grain and t h e moisture c o n t e n t was determined. O n e third of t h e samples w e r e n o t conditioned, one third w e r e conditioned by adding distilled w a t e r and equilibrating for one week, and t h e rest w e r e dried in a vacuum over CaC$ until t h e y reached t h e i r respective moisture contents. Moisture c o n t e n t was determined by drying triplicate ground samples in a ventilated oven at 113°C (235OF) for 4 hours.

specific heat: straight line regression equations for t h e relation between t h e specific h e a t and moisture c o n t e n t where C is apparent specific h e a t and M is moisture P The content (%I. apparent specific h e a t of w a t e r [C (w)] was calculated from t h e P equation for M = 100%.
Cp = 0.0078 M + 0.305 Btu lb-1 OF-' C 0.0078 M + 0.305 c a l -1 K-l C P 0.0326 M + 1.276 J g K-l

P

!

C,(w) = 1.085 Btu lb-I OF-' tJ C,(w) = 1.085 c a l C (w) = 4.540 J g P
54HAS

PEANUT BUTTER, HARDENED; solid; The saponification number, which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 189. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a m e a s u t e of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 78. Material is called Biskin.
enthalpy difference: t e m p e r a t u r e range measured -50" to 55°C (-58' to 131°F).
temperature

("C)
-50
-25 0 25

(OF)

Btu Ib-I
0.00

H'(t)-H" (-50 O C) cal g-l

3 g-l
0.00

-58

-13
32 77 122 131

50 55

16.20 42. I9 83.20 116.15 120.42

00 .0 9.00 23.44 46.22 64.53 66.90

37.66 98.07 193.38 269.99 279.91

heat o fusion: results is a mean value for t e m p e r a t u r e range -50" to 55°C (-5SO t o f 132°F).

Lf = 43.4 Btu l b l l Lf = 25.2 c a l gLf = 105.4 f gdl

94

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.64 2. cored. chemical analysis: 79.67 -12. and cubed.13 1. q. Arachis hypogaea.56 0.20 0. solid.51 0.3 -28.63 0.84 49STA PECANS.30% moisture.24 1.83 0.Foods PEANUTS.4% water.93 1.44 0.88% moisture.44 5.98 3. solid.83 06 . 4. 0.0 -23. no freezing point was recorded.' qv(gross) 3040 cal gqv(gross) = 12720 J g-l 55MERIWAT PEARS.(gross) = 5472 Btu lb.9 -34.2 -17. Sample was unpeeled. s p i f i c heat: 4O to -40°C (40" to -40°F).47 2.10 13.6.44 40 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 0.1% water soluble solids.(gross) = 6392 Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.24 12 .46 0. solid.46 0.98 3. q. BARTLETT.3 0.51% fat.0 0. tern eratute C0CP (OF) .4 -40 4. 4. Carya illinoensis.(gross) = 3551 cal g-' qv(gross) = 14857 J g ' 55MER/WAT 95 .02 3. and 12.1 q.51 4.

4%.(gross) = 848 cal gqv(gross) = 3548 J g-' specific heat: at 303 K (86OF). protein.216 + 0.0%. qv(gross) = 6937 Btu Ib. ash.K-l) q-' O-) F' 0. Cp 0.5%. 12.(gross) = 1526 Btu I q. and t h e rest were dried in a vacuum over CaC12 until they reached their respective moisture contents.' P C (w)= 1. solid. one third were conditioned by adding distilled water and equilibrating for one week. white.182 Btu lb-l O F .9% moisture. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. The relationship between t h e grain and t h e moisture content was determined. Moisture content was determined by drying triplicate ground samples in a ventilated oven at 113°C (235°F) for 4 hours. 70YAM RICE.216 + 0. 0. FULLY FINISHED (ITALIAN ORIGIN).282 cal 5-1 PC 0.780 W = 0.50) (0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.437 W = 0.4%-2. fat.20) Cp(Btu Ib-l O . apparent specific h e a t of water [C (w)] was calculated from t h e The P equation for M 100%.1%. (W > 0. 16. 2%.009 M + 0. One third of t h e samples were not conditioned.009 M + 0. solid.393 + 0.83 wt.50 > W > 0. Oryza sativa. with a moisture content (W)range of 0.K-l) g-' = 0. WHITE. solid. 0. fiber.POTATO.) F' Cp(cal K-1 Cp(l g.' qv(gross) = 3854 c a l gq. q.23 to 0. specific heat: straight line regression equations for t h e relation between t h e specific heat and moisture content where C is apparent specific heat and M is moisture P content (%I.393 + 0. proximate analysis: moisture. carbohydrates.7%.282 Btu lb-' OF-' C .780 W = 0.180 3 g.182 cal P C.264 W Cp(Btu lb-I Cp(cal K-l) Cp(3 g.946 1 g 54HAS 96 .828 W 55MER/WAT.437 W = 1. 0.038 M + 1. Grain has fat content of 0. 79.644 + 1.8%. polished.K- g-' P C (w) 1. fraction.(gross) = 16125 J g.904 + 3.0.1 55MERlWAT RICE.(W) = 4.

H. SHELLED (ITALIAN ORIGIN). The relationship between t h e grain and t h e moisture content was determined. solid.0091 M + 0.287 c a l -I K ' C = 0. and t h e rest were dried in a vacuum over CaCI2 until they reached their respective moisture contents.335 cal -1 K-l P C.0091 M + 0.197 Btu lb-I OF-' P C (w) = 1. The relationship between t h e grain and t h e moisture content was determined. Grain has f a t content of 0.335 Btu Ib-I OF-' Cp(w) = 1.Foods RICE. Moisture content was determined by drying triplicate ground samples in a ventilated oven at 113OC (235°F) for 4 hours.0381 M + 1. The apparent specific heat of water [Cp(w)l was calculated from t h e equation.197 cal P CP(w) = 5. specific heat: straight line regression equations for t h e relation between t h e specific heat and moisture content where C is apparent specific heat and M is moisture P content (%).0107 M + 0.(W) = 5. ROUGH (ITALIAN ORIGIN).4%-2.201 J g K-1 P -5 C (w) = 1. specific heat: straight line regression equations for t h e relation between t h e specific h e a t and moisture content where C is apparent specific heat and M is moisture P content (%).496-296.-1 C (w) = 1.008 J 54HAS 97 .0107 M + 0. and t h e rest were dried in a vacuum over CaCI2 until they reached their respective moisture contents.586 J g K-1 -7 54HAS RICE.0%. oen third were conditioned by adding distilled water and equilibrating for one week.287 Btu lb-I OF-' cP Cp = 0. solid. The apparent specific h e a t of water [C (w)] was calculated from t h e P equation. = 0. = 0.265 c a l -1 K-l = 0.265 Btu lb-I OF-' cP = 0.0448 M + 1. One third of t h e samples were not conditioned. One third of t h e samples were not conditioned.109 J g. Grain has fat content of 0. Moisture content was determined by drying triplicate ground samples in a ventilated oven at 113°C (235°F) for 4 hours. one third were conditioned by adding distilled water and equilibrating for one week.

14 1 17.96 283.9 9.498(0.358(0.377(0.6 Btu Ib.9 cal gLf = 113.0032) 0.35 272. liquid. solid.377(0.0032) 0. solid. sample B was wetted by addition of water or water vapor. The saponification number.358(0.0040) 0.17 39.79 65. Sample A was as harvested from field (germination was 41%).417(0. and sample C was dried in vacuum at 30°C (86°F)(germination was 39%). gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.00 8. HARDENED.0155) 1. JugZans regia. ENGLISH. 3. temperature ("C) (OF) -50 -25 0 25 -58 -13 32 Btu lb-I H"(t)-H"(-50 O C) c a l g-l 0.' 3318 c a l gqv(gross) = 13882 J g-l qv(gross) q. SWAMP PADDY.58 165.11 77 122 71.90 21.00 16.2 0. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" to 131°F).d a t a are mean values with standard error in parentheses and moisture content (MI on a wet weight basis (%).0 J g-l 55RIE 98 .0167) 54DIS WALNUTS.66 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58" to 131°F). 1 Lf = 27.0037) 0.00 37.52 J g-1 0.577(0.Foods RICE.(gross) 55MER/WAT WHALE OIL.K ) cP 11.24 88. Lf = 48. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in the molecule = 193.02 38.24 67.0040) 1.745(0.0037) B C 0. Grain was heavily husked rough rice ftom t h e Gold Coast area. 5972 Btu Ib. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 72.97% moisture.5 14.4 17(0. specific heat: temperature range 273-291 K (32"-64"F). Sample M % A C (Btu lb(calg'1 K-1) 1 -1 (J g.43 50 55 131 121.0134) 1.09 0.

17 84.(gross) = 17115 3 g-l 55MERlWAT 99 . 8.79 30. Lf = 27.(gross) = 7362 Btu lb.65 46.09 110.61 255.22 25 50 55 55.29 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50' to 55°C (-58" t o 131'F).93 58.00 11.33 128.32 0. Triticum aestivum.1 qv(gross) = 4090 cal g-l q.2 cal 55RIE WHEAT. temperature ("C) (OF) -58 -13 32 77 122 131 Btu lb-' H "( t)-H"(-50 C ) cal g-l O J g-l 0.24 196. The saponification number. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55'C (-58" t o 131°F).00 21. UNREFINED.36 246.94 6 1. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. q.5% moisture.Foods WHALE OIL. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of the proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 120.44 -50 -25 0 0.00 49.4 Btu Ib-1 Lf = 15.47 106. liquid. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 192.

0021) 0.0100) 1.263 cal C = 0.1 4.7 10.536(0.0039) 0.398(0.07 cal P C (w) = 4. The apparent specific heat of water [C (w)] was computed from t h e regression equation by writing M = 100%.0020) 0.72 f g K-1 P -5 -' M = 0.8%-7.741(0.447(0.10 P C.89 1.406 J g-' K-' M = l.44 I g P Cp = 0.(W) = -0.0024) 0.331(0.307 c a l -I K-I M + 1.42 M + 0.0024) 0. Grain had a n initial moisture content of 13.7% P 0.243 J g K-1 Cp -7 C (w) = 1.0%-1.03059 M + 1.Foods WHEAT.7%-33.89 cal K-l CP(w) = 3.0024) 0.48 J P M 7. BERSEE.00731 M + 0.393(0.0113) 1.5 15.8% Cp = 0.89 Btu lb-I OF-' P C (w) = 0. Moisture P content was determined in a ventilated oven at 113°C (235°F)for 4 hours and calculated as a percentage of wet weight.447(0.0027) 0.00731 M + 0.0029) 0.100 I g-' K-l P C (w) = 1. P M = 23.367(0.0020) 0.398(0.01036 M + 0. solid. Straight line regression equations for computing t h e specific heat (C ) at different moisture contents (MI in percent are below. Material is a Canadian hard red spring wheat. data a r e mean values with standard error in parentheses and moisture content (M) is given in % on a wet weight basis.333(0. specific heat: temperature range 273-291 K (32O-64OF).307 Btu Ib-I OF-' M + 0.333(0.01699 cP C (w) = -0.3 lO(0.0163) 1.00406 = 0.3 1O(0.336 cal -I K-l C = 0.07 Btu Ib-I P C (w) = 1. Material is a soft white grain of French origin grown as a highyielding winter or spring variety.284 J g-' K-' Btu Ib'l cal J O F ' 54DIS WHEAT.3 13.9 I .7%.02473 M + 1.0084) 1.870(0.00591 M + 0. 1 NORTHERN MANITOBA.665(0.0039) 0.297 Btu Ib-I OF-' Cp = 0.318(0.7%-23.0100) 1. NO.30 Btu 1b-l OF-' P C (w) 1. solid. Germination was either 100% or 0%.00406 Cp = 0.00591 M + 0.6% Cp 0.29 1.002 I ) 0.367(0.0024) 0.10 P C (w) -0.3 1S(0. specific heat: temperature range 273-291 K (32"-64"F).0027) 0.30 c a l P C (w)= 5.4 I6(0.263 Btu Ib-I OF-' K-l Cp = 0. M % P P (Btu Lpl lb0.0029) 17.7% O F ' C (w) = 0.336 Btu lb-I OF-' Cp = 0. Samples of this batch were conditioned by drying in a n oven (at either 60" or 113°C) or by addition of liquid water in air-tight jars.0088) I .01036 M + 0.04335 M + 1.416(0.297(0.0121) 54DIS 100 .297 c a l -1 K-1 Cp = 0.

Fossil Materials .

1. hydrogen. 2. ash free and moisture free: carbon.567 0.409 0. moisture. "C 39.904 2.205 300°C -1 100°C 39. sulfur. ultimate analysis of combustible.600 Softening Point.572 0. 40SAA/HEU COAL. specific heat: Venezuelan distilled asphalt. solid.937 1. and heterocyclic hydrocarbons (containing oxygen.425 0.393 2. 7. 2.167 2.13%.598 -1 C ) 200°C 2.83%.520 0.472 0. 94.71%.176 2. 1.80%.Fossil Materials ASPHALT.600 Softening Point. proximate analysis: ash.(gross) 13310 Btu 1 qv(gtoss) = 7393 cal gq.567 0.5 1. solid. 1. volatile matter.51% 0.(gross) = 8273 cal gq. 1.5 62.(gross) = 34616 J g-l as received q. grass heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.510 62BAR.527 0. Softening Point.39%.77%.7 32OF 0. 0.518 0. and sulfur).463 0. loss on air drying.520 0.5 62.572 0.00%. mixture of pataff inic.372 2.778 1.382 100°C 300°C 0.409 0.1 144.463 0. "C Cp(J g 0°C 1. aromatic.71 1 1.5 c-') 200°C 0°C 0.455 Cp(cal g-l 392°F 0. oxygen.5%.382 Cp(Btu lb-l 212°F 0.472 0. f ash free and moisture free qv(gross) = 14890 B t u 1 q. "F 103. nitrogen.5 96. ANTHRACITE.455 0.975 1.5 96.3%.5 205.(gross) = 30931 J g-' P-' 18POO. nitrogen.425 0. 15LOR 103 .527 572°F 0.

loss on air drying. 1. 16. 2. 1. hydrogen. ultimate analysis of combustible. ash-free basis. values a r e on a moisture-free. 6.(gross) = 4304 c a l g-l q.15 wt. BITUMINOUS (LOW GRADE). oxygen. sulfur.99%.03%. ash free and moisture free q.88%. Residual moisture.(gross) = 8080 c a l g-l q. nitrogen. volatile matter. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1632a. BITUMINOUS (HIGHGRADE). 13%.80%. I. ash free and moisture free as received q. volatile matter. BITUMINOUS. ultimate analysis of combustible.Fossil Materials COAL.14%.1 qv(gross) = 7747 Btu lb-I q. 32.1 18POO. 0. %. %. 15LOR 104 .145 wt.6%.(gross) = 12450 Btu 1P-l q. moisture. 1.0%.09%.4%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 76.(gross) 14830 Btu 1 q. 15LOR COAL.(gross) = 15600 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 8667 c a l gq.(gross) = 18008 3 g-l 18POO.1 1%.(gross) 33806 J g-l 8 lKIR/COL COAL. qv(gross) = 14534 Btu lb-I q.99%.4%. loss on air drying.48 wt. oxygen. 1.84%. 85. 26. 22. hydrogen. gross h e a t of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. %.79%. solid. sulfur content. 2. 4.88%.1 8%. sulfur.(gross) = 34462 J g. 5.solid. ash free and moisture free: carbon.88%.(gross) = 6915 cal gq. ash content. 2.(gross) = 36262 J g-' as received P-' q. moisture. 10.(gross) = 28931 J g. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 8237 cal gq. ash free and moisture free: carbon. solid. proximate analysis: ash. 4. nitrogen. proximate analysis: ash. 33.

BITUMINOUS (MEDIUM GRADE).6%. 3. sulfur.49%. volatile matter.(gross) = 32029 J g-l 18POO. 15LOR 105 .99%.26%. ash free and moisture free: carbon.(gross) q. ash free and moisture free: carbon.0%. 15LOR COAL. sulfur. 5.38%. 1.1 q.(gross) = 14930 Btu I q. 1. 1. 11. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 36751 J g-' qv(gross) = 13780 Btu 1 q.97%. 82.98%.(gross) = 13170 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 7314 cal g30601 J g-l q. nitrogen. 12. 23. moisture. SEMI-ANTHRACITE. ultimate analysis of combustible. loss on air drying.50%. 4. 1.5%.15%. 39.18%.40%. (sample 2) ultimate analysis of combustible. loss on air drying. ash free and moisture free q. sulfur.83%.Fossil Materials COAL. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. proximate analysis: ash. moisture. oxygen. ash free and moisture free q. moisture. hydrogen. oxygen.(gross) = 8593 cal gq.8%.55%. 5. 10. volatile matter.96%.38%. sample I.33%. hydrogen. 15.30%. nitrogen. 7. 1.32%.(gross) = 12250 Btu lb. 1. hydrogen. oxygen. ultimate analysis of combustible.5%. nitrogen. (sample 1) ultimate analysis of combustible. CANNEL. 17. 55.08%.38%. oxygen.(gross) = 34709 J g-l sample I.74%.2%. as received q. proximate analysis: ash. 3.(gross) = 15810 Btu 1 q. 92.59%.(gross) = 28475 J g-l sample 2. 0.(gross) = 35953 J g-l 18POO. 2.36%. volatile matter. hydrogen. proximate analysis: ash. ash free and moisture free: carbon. 5. 7.40%. 4. nitrogen.(gross) = 8246 Btu Ib. ash free and moisture free: carbon.6%. 2.(gross) = 6806 cal g-' q. proximate analysis: ash. as received q.(gross) 7655 cal gq.solid.22%.57%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) 13900 Btu 1 7723 c a l g32313 J g-l P-' sample 2. 44. 5. 10. 76. moisture.(gross) = 8784 cal gq. 1.(gross) qv(gross) q. 11. 2.13%. 82.(gross) = 4581 c a l g-l q.17%. loss on air drying. sulfur.76%. ash free and moisture free as received q. ash free and moisture free a s received q. 15LOR COAL. solid. loss on air drying.(gross) = 8296 cal gq. solid. volatile matter.(gross) = 19166 J g-l 18POO.1 q.3%.(gross) = 15470 Btu 1 q.

10. 0. ash. (sample 1. 22.(gross) = 9137 Btu lb.(gross) = 4826 cal g-l q.75%. dry): fixed carbon.51%. 0.5%.60%. 69.80%.35%.(gross) = 10100 Btu 1 q. 76. sulfur. SUB-BITUMINOUS.(gross) = 881 I cal gq. SEMI-BITUMINOUS. 6. oxygen. (sample I.0%.(gross) = 11 180 Btu 1 q.7 1%. ash free and moisture free q. 26. 1 1WHI/BAR 106 .Fossil Materials COAL. hydrogen.66%.(gross) = 20192 J g-l sample I. hydrogen. sulfur. 0.00%.(gross) 621 1 cal gq. sulfur. 0.3%. solid. ash. dry q. 22. 17.(gross) = 8687 Btu lb-I q.(gross) q. (sample 2.1 5076 cal g-l q. 2.36%. volatile matter.1 qv(gross) = 6516 cal g-l qv(gtoss) = 27265 J g-' as received q. 15LOR COAL. nitrogen. 59.80%.60%. (dry represents sample as drawn from retort before quenching).98%. volatile matter. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. volatile matter.(gross) = 25988 J g-l sample 2.(gross) = 15860 Btu 1 q.70%. 6. loss on air drying. moisture. 0.56%. dry P" q. produced from the destructive distillation of gas-coal in gas retorts. volatile matter. solid.(gross) = 21236 J g.31%.86%. 17. oxygen. ash. moisture.46%. 92.65%.(gross) = 32076 J g-l P-' 18POO. 4.17%. as received): fixed carbon. 15LOR COKE. ash.17%.40%. sample 1. nitrogen.1 IXPOO. ultimate analysis of combustible.(gross) = 23479 J g-' sample 2. dry): fixed carbon. f ash free and moisture free qv(gross) = 11729 Btu lb.56%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. proximate analysis: ash. 0. moisture. moisture.47%. volatile matter. 89.79%.(gross) = 36867 J g-l as received qv(gross) = 14370 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 7983 cal gqv(gross) = 33401 J g-l 18POO. 2. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. as received q. 4. sulfur.75%. 18. 4. 67.76%. ash f r e e and moisture free: carbon.45%. as received): fixed carbon.30%. 2. solid.0%.89%. sulfur. 0. volatile matter.08%. 2.(gross) = 561 2 cal gq. (sample 2. as received q.58%.(gtoss) = 13800 Btu 1 q. 3. 1.41%. ash free and moisture free: carbon. 24. 0. loss on air drying. proximate analysis: ash. 44. ultimate analysis of combustible.(gross) = 7666 cal gq. 0. 1. sulfur.

Fossil Materials

COKE; solid; produced from t h e destructive distillation of bituminous coal in beehive ovens; (sample I): fixed carbon, 91.43%; volatile carbon, 1.27%; sulfur, 0.51%; ash, 6.09%; (sample 2): fixed carbon, 79.83%; volatile carbon, 1.05%; sulfur, 2.13%; ash, 15.75%; water, 1.22%.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperatures; corrected for moisture and ash content.
sample 1 q,(gross) = 14420 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 801 1 cal gq,(gross) = 33520 J g-' sample 2

P-'

q,(gross) = 13890 Btu 1 q,(gross) = 7718 cal gqv(gross) = 32292 J g-l

18POO COKE; solid; produced from the destructive distillation to red heat of petroleum; fixed carbon, 98.05%; volatile carbon, 0.50%.
gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.

q,(gross) = 14510 Btu lb- 1 q,(gross) = 8063 cal g-l q,(gross) = 33734 J g-l
18POO

COKE BREEZE; solid; ultimate analysis: carbon, 94.79%; hydrogen, 1.5 1%; oxygen, 1.48%; nitrogen, I. 19%; sulfur, 1.03%; proximate analysis: ash, 12.05%; moisture, 10.77%; volatile matter, 4.92%; loss on air drying, 10.1%.
gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. f

ash free and moisture free qv(gross) = 14470 Btu 1 q,(gross) = 8038 cal gq,(gross) = 33632 J g-l

as received
qv(gross) = 11170 Btu 1 q,(gross) = 6204 c a l gq,(gross) = 25958 J g-l

P-'

P-'
18POO; l5FER

107

Fossil Materials

FUEL, AVIATION; liquid; petroleum fraction with B.P. range 175O-35OoC (347O-662'F) (kerosine). Military jet fuels labeled JP-3, JP-4, JP-5, etc. Commercial jet fuels labeled as ASTM types A, A-1, or B.
net heat o combustion: A is t h e aniline point, in degrees Fahrenheit, identifying t h e f minimum equilibrium solution temperature for equal volumes of aniline and sample. G is the API gravity defined as: API gravity (deg) = 141.5/(sp. gr, 60/60°F)-131.5. Tables are provided in ASTM Specification D 1405 to calculate q (net)if sulfur impurities are known. P
Aviation gasoline, Grades 100-1 30 and 1 15- 145:

q (net) = [18049 + 0.0833 (A P qp(net) = [lo027 + 0.0463 (A qp(net) [41954 + 0.1938 (A
Jet fuels:

x x x

G)] Btu Ib-I GI1 cal
G)1 J g-

q1

JP-3
q (net) = [17951 + 0.1057 (A x GI1 Btu 1P-l qP(net) = 19973 + 0.0587 (A x GI] cal gqp(net) = 141728 + 0.2456 (A x G)] 3 g-l P
JP-4

q (net) = r17989 + 0,1057 (A x G)] Btu I P q (net) = [9994 + 0.0587 (A x GI] c a l gqp(net) = (41815 + 0.2456 (A x G)] J g-l

P

JP-5

q (net) = [17926 + 0.1057 (A x G)] Btu 1 qP(net) = [9959 + 0.0587 (A x GI]c a l gqP(net) = [41668 + 0.2456 (A x G)] J g-l P Kerosine, Jet A or A-1 (see ASTM Speciation I) 1655): q (net) = [17932 + 0.10930 (A x G)] Btu lb- 1 P(net) = [9962 + 0.06072 (A x GI] cal g-l q P q (net) [41680 + 0.25407 (A x G)] J g-l

P

68AST

108

Fossil Materials

FUEL, AVIATION; liquid; petroleum fraction with B.P. range 175"-35OoC (347'-662'F).
gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o 25OC (77OF).
aviation gasoline, grade 91-96: q,(gross) = 20232 Btu lb-I q,(gross) = 11240 c a l qv(gross) = 47028 J aviation gasoline, grade 100-130: qv(gross) = 20288 Btu Ib- 1 q,(gross) = I1271 c a l q,(gross) = 47158 J 48LET/MAT

FUEL, COED-1 FMC WESTERN KENTUCKY COAL DERIVED; liquid; Material was
refined by fractionation. Composition was nitrogen = 40 pprn, sulfur = 0.05 wt. %, aromatics = 24.8%, C9 t o C16 n-alkanes = 3.90 wt. %, and hydrogen = 12.80 wt. %. The freezing point is -48°C (-54°F).

net heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature; where net h e a t of f combustion [q (net at 25"C)I = gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25OC)I - 91.23 H, where H = hydrogen weight % of the sample.
q,(net) = 18294 Btu lb-l q,(net) = 10163 c a l qv(net) = 42523 J

76HAZ/HAL

FUEL, COED-2UTAH COAL DERIVED; liquid; Material was refined by fractionation. Composition was nitrogen = 42 ppm, sulfur = 0.04 wt. %, aromatics = 24.I%, Cg t o
C16 n-alkanes = 7.14 wt. %, and hydrogen = 12.98 wt. %. The freezing point is -40°C (-40 OF).
net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature; where n e t heat of combustion [q (net at 25"C)] = gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25'C)] - 91.23 H, where H = hydrogen weight 96 of t h e sample,

18327 Btu Ib- 1 q,(net) q,(net) = 10207 cal q,(net) = 42705 J 76HAZ/HAL

109

Fossil Materials

FUEL, COED-3 WESTERN KENTUCKY COAL DERIVED; liquid; Material was refined by
fractionation. Composition was nitrogen = 40 ppm, sulfur = 0.05 wt. %, aromatics = 4.7%, C9 to c 1 6 n-alkanes = 3.73 wt. %, and hydrogen = 13.34 wt. %. The freezing point is -5OOC (-58°F).
net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; where net heat of combustion [q (net at 25"C)I = gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25"C)I - 91.23 H, where H = hydrogen weight % of t h e sample.

qv(net) = 18383 Btu lb-I q,(net) = 10213 c a l qv(net) = 42730 J
76HAZ/HAL

FUEL, COED-4 UTAH COAL DERIVED; liquid; Material was refined by fractionation. Composition was nitrogen = 43 ppm, sulfur 0.03 wt. %?aromatics = 6.1%, C9 to C16 n-alkanes = 7.45 wt. 96, and hydrogen = 13.62 wt. %. The freezing point is -40°C (-4OOF).

net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; where net heat of combustion [q (net at 25"C)] gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25"C)I - 91.23 H, where H = hydrogen weight 96 of t h e sample.
qv(net) = 18465 Btu Ib- 1 qv(net) = 10258 c a l q,(net) = 42921 J
76HAZ/HAL

FUEL, COED-5 WESTERN KENTUCKY COAL DERIVED; liquid; Material was refined by fractionation. Composition was nitrogen = 37 ppm, sulfur = 0.03 wt. %, aromatics =
24.194, Cg t o CI n-alkanes = 5.48 wt. 96, and hydrogen point is -56.7OC -70°F).

f

12.81 wt. %. The freezing

net heat of Combustion: assume values refer to room temperature; where net heat of
combustion [q (net at 25'C)] = gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25"C)] - 91.23 H, where H = hydrogen weight 96 of the sample. qv(net) = 18282 Btu lb-l qv(net) = 10157 cal qv(net) = 42495 J
76HAZ/HAL

110

Fossil Materials

FUEL, JP-9 RAMJET; liquid; Material is a blend of 10.3 wt. 44 methylcyclohexane, 68.4 wt. % of exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene,and 21.2 wt. % of t h e hydrogenated
dimers of norbornadiene whose empirical formula is C14Hlz; the empirical formula for t h e blend is C10.529H16.202. Recovery of C 0 2 from the combustion products gave a mean value of 99.630%.

gross heat of combustion: The reference temperature is 298.13 K (77°F). Value is mean with standard deviation of t h e mean.
q,(gross) = 19204.49 2 1.40 Btu lb-l q,(gross) = 10469.16 2 0.78 c a l qv(gross) = 44639.77 2 3.26 J net heat of combustion: The reference temperature is 298.15 K (77'F). with standard deviation of the mean. q,(net) = 18160.7 ? 4.3 Btu lb-' qv(net) = 10089.3 f 2.4 c a l q,(net) = 42213.6 f 10. 3
7SSMI/GOO Value is mean

FUEL, PARAHO OIL SHALE DERIVED; liquid; Material was refined by delayed coking and fractionation. Composition was nitrogen = 680 pprn, sulfur = 0.03 wt. %, aromatics = 26.0%, Cg t o C16 n-alkanes = 36.33 wt. %, and hydrogen = 13.74 wt. %. The freezing point is -33.3"C (-28°F). net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature, where net heat of combustion [q (net at 25"C)I = gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25OC)I - 91.23 H where H = hydrogen weight % of sample.
qv(net) = 18532 Btu lb-I q,(net) = 10296 cal qv(net) = 43077 J
76HAZ/HAL

FUEL, PETROLEUM-A DERIVED; liquid; Material was produced by drilling. Composition was sulfur = 0.11 wt. %, aromatics = 18.2%, C9 to C16 n-alkanes = 16.00 wt. %. The freezing point is -48.9"C (-56°F).
net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. q,(net) = 18518 Btu lb-I q,(net) = 10288 c a l qv(net) = 43044 J
76HAZ/HAL

111

Fossil Materials

FUEL, RJ-4 RAMJET; liquid; Material, exo-tettahydrodi (methylcyclopentadiene) is a mixture of isomers in which the location of t h e methyl groups is unknown. Recovery of C 0 2 from combustion products gave a mean value of 99.983%.

gross heat of combustion: The reference temperature is 298.15 K (77OF). Value is
mean value with standard deviation of t h e mean. q,(gross) = 19396.22
?

1.44 Btu lb- 1

q,(gross) = 10775.68 f 0.80 cal qv(gross) 45085.45 f 3.35 J g-

Y1

net heat of combustion: The reference temperature is 298.15 K (77OF). Value is mean value with standard deviation of t h e mean.
qv(net) = 18275.6 +, 4.1 Btu lb- 1 qv(net) = 10153.1 2 2.3 cal qv(net) = 42480.6 5 9.6 J
78SMI/G00

FUEL, R J 4 RAMJET; liquid; Material is a complex mixture of isomers, all of formula C1.$H20. Carbon dioxide .recovery from combustion products was 99.983 k 0.006% of tha expected.

gross heat of combustion: temperature, 298.15 K (77°F).
q,(gross) = 19427.95 q,(gross) = 10793.31 q,(gross) = 45159.20

4.16 Btu Ib- 1 ? 2.31 cal ? 9.68 3 g2

9-1

net heat of combustion: temperature, 298.15 K (77°F).
qv(net) = 18275.39 q,(net) = 10152.99 q,(net) = 42480.13 4.16 Btu lb- 1 ? 2.31 cal ? 9.68 J
?

77GOO/SCO

FUEL, RJ-4-I RAMJET; liquid; Material, endo-tetrahydrodi (methylcyclopentadiene), is a mixture of isomers in which t h e location of t h e methyl groups is unknown. Recovery of C02 from combustion products gave a mean value of 99.962%.
gross heat of combustion: The reference temperature is 298.15 K (77OF). Value is mean with standard deviation of t h e mean.
q,(gross) = 19374.55 f 1.03 Btu lb- 1 q,(gross) = 10763.64 k 0.57 cal q,(gross) = 45035.07 t 2.38 J (more)

0055 c a l g Cs(Btu lb-I OF-') Cs(calq-1 K-1) = 0.49 2 1.2 cal g-l qv(net) = 41774. liquid. and C.6 k 9.) F' Cp(cal 9-l K . Material is a blend of JP-10 (exotetrahydrodicyclopentadiene) and 3 hydrogenated dimers of norbornadienes.K-l) 79SMI/SCO FUEL. liquid.15 K (77'F).(gross) = 44070.Continued net heat of combustion: The reference temperature is 298. RJ-6 W J E T .15 K (77OF). Cp(Btu lb-I O . and uncertainties are standard deviations at either end of t h e measurement range.8 f 0.4 f 2.Fossil Materials FUEL.1 qv(net) = 10141.00056 x x lo-' T) 2 0.(J g.(net) = 42431.00056 lo-' T) 2 0.0905 x (0.97 x T = 0.2939 + 6.3568450 + 3.013913 + 0. The root mean square deviation of results was 0. The ratio of C 0 2 recovered t o mass of sample burned was 3.5 k 4. 298. Material is a blend of exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene and the hydrogenated dimers of norbornadiene and used without further drying.0852880 + 8.2 c a l q. 298.2725 f 0.31378 + 4.K-l) = 0.00 J g q.0002 (mean and standard deviation of t h e mean). qv(net) = 17971.(gross) = 10533. RJ-4-I RAMJET .24 c a l -1 q.45869 T) f 0.1 q.(net) = 9983.58 f -5 net heat of combustion: temperature.9 f 0.10963 = (0.948 x T = 0.1 q.2 J 78SMI/G00 FUEL. 0.10 2 0.4 Btu lb.(gross) = 18959. is t h e heat capacity of t h e substance in equilibrium with urated vapor. RJ-6 RAMJET.9 J g-l heat capacity: temperature range 260-340 K (9"-153"F). heat capacity: Temperature range was 260-467 K (9'-381 OF).43 Btu lb.4259* gross heat of combustion: temperature.5 f 0.00234 80SMI/THO 113 . qv(net) = 18254.7438 x T C.15 K (77°F). Value is mean with standard deviation of mean. The 1961 atomic weights and thermochemical calorie were used.058212 + 0.0 Btu lb. The empirical formula calculated from this ratio is CH1.~ ) Cp(J g.

19%.(gross) = 9.(gtoss) = 37. net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.12%. isobutane = 0.50 wt. gas.84%. The freezing point is -53. n-butane = 0. N2 = 15. C2H6 = 3. and heptanes = 0. FUEL. C2H6 = 6.01%. He = O.49%. C2H6 5. aromatics = 19. (sample A).(gross) = 8.56OC (60°F) and 101325 Pa (1 atm).(gross) = 1028 Btu(SCF). where SCF is standard cubic foot. isobutane = 0. %.2%.89 x 106 cal m-3 q. pentanes = 0.(net) = 18436 Btu lb.(gross) = 38. liquid. CHq = 72.02%.56OC (60°F) and 101325 Pa (I atm).(net) = 10242 cal q.6696.22%. Cg to c 1 6 n-alkanes = 9.7 10 6 J m-3 sample B sample C q. and hydrogen = 13.2%. gross heat of combustion: at 15. Partial composition was sulfur = 0. propane = 0.01%. hexanes = 0. CH4 = 86.87%. C 0 2 = 0.(gross) = 9.(gross) = 958 Btu(SCF)-l q.67%. hexanes 0. pentanes 0. isobutane = 0.51 x 106 cal m-3 qv(gross) = 35.1%. pentanes = 0.04%. and heptanes = 0.(gross) = 1101 Btu(SCF)-l q. %.2 x 106 J md3 q. ) CH4 = 94.7%.50 wt. composition in mole percent.2396. propane = 1. n-butane = 0.2%.9979 6 1MAS/EAK 114 .9978 2 (sample 8)= 0. n-butane = 0. (sample D). where H = hydrogen weight % of t h e sample.32%.396.01 wt. N2 = 7. TAR SANDS (ALTERNATIVE JET FUEL).3"C (-64°F).15 x 106 cal m-3 q.2%.52%. Cc)z = 0.I q. ) propane = 2.5%.(net) = 42853 J 76HAZ/HAL GAS.31%. C 0 2 = 0.03%. hexanes = 0.24%.23 H.I q.07%.Fossil Materials ~ i . N2 = 2. He = 0. CH4 84. H e = 0. n-butane = 0.04%.7%.06%. sample A q.06%.3 x lo6 J m-3 sample D q.9978 2 (sample D) = 0.8%.04%.8%. and heptanes = 0.9%.(gross) = 999 Btu(SCF)-' q. %. NATURAL. C2H6 = 6.2%.6%. C 0 2 = 0.3%. Canadian sample was refined by delayed coking and fractionation.91. 2 = PV/RT: at 15. isobutane = 0.9974 2 (sample C)= 0. hexanes = 0. propane 3. pentanes = 0.32%. (sample B .28%.6396.80 x 106 cal rn-3 q. and heptanes = 0. q. (sample C .OO%.(gross) = 41.03%. 2 (sample A) = 0.(gross) = 8. where net heat of combustion [q (net at 25OC)] = gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25"C)I .N2 = 0.0 x lo6 J rn-3 compressibility factor.2896. He = 0.06%.

67) (t + 459.(gross) = 46466 J q. Production motor gasoline: regular grade premium grade q.9982 x ( t + 459.2684 .67)2 + 1. cycloparaffins.6.0481 x (t + 459. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.7606 x ( t + 459.4581 x ( t + 459.(gross) = 46673 3 48LET/MAT GREASE. and aromatics).1. specific heat: In the temperature range: -193" to -73OC (-315" to -99OF).67)3 = .(gross) = 19990 Btu Ib.1 q.2. Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal g-I "C-') = .67)2 + 2.1378 + 2.1 q. low vapor-pressure residues of paraffin oil distillation products. liquid. APIEZON N.5152 x x x x (t + 459.1.3.(gross) = 11155 cal q.4336 Y lo-' ( t + 459.3.0315 . auto-ignition temperature: octane rating temperature "C "F 248 258 412 478 496 774 54SET 63 73 87 GASOLINE.67) (t + 459.67)' + 5.67p + 4.8554 x x + 1.(gross) = 20079 Btu lb. liquid.0315 . and aromatics).0115 = . cycloparaffins.Fossil Materials GASOLINE. a mixture of volatile hydrocarbons with boiling points ranging from 140°-3900F (branched-chain paraffins.(gross) = I 1106 cal q.67) x ( t + 459.' ) (more) 115 . solid.6713 Cp(J g-l " C . a mixture of volatile hydrocarbons with boiling points ranging from 60"-198°C (140"-390"F) (branched-chain paraffins.

62 0.1 .6 22 .64 17 .76 3. vapor pressure: temperature range 40"-160"C (104"-320"F).679 0.554 0.468 0.899 0.554 0.543 0. solid.899 0. ralues are given below P tern erature (C 'P -73 -63 -53 -43 -33 (OF) -99 -81 -63 Cp(Btu Ib-I O-) F' -45 -27 -9 -23 -13 -3 7 17 23 27 37 47 57 9 27 45 63 73 81 99 117 0.538 0.4 J . APIEZON P.468 0.421 0.421 0.344 0.7 2.5 Btu Ib.626 0.538 2.84 3.626 0.59 2. APIEZON N .57 3.6 18 .853 0.392 0.543 0.7590 T-: (K) = 16.853 0.44 1.(K) logLoP(Torr) loglo P(Pa) 57HERIREI I16 .301 0.18 12 .445 0. = 13.392 0.28 I 0.03 .281 0.6 19 .25 69BUN/ASH 135 GREASE.Continued In the temperature range -73" to 57OC.6 1. average molecular weight 410 f 70. heat of vaporization: temperature range 40"-160°C (104"-320"F).301 0. (-99O to 124"F).Fossil Materials GREASE.344 0.91 . L = 84.70 cal . L = 354. C is anom lous.7590 T. low vapor-pressure residues of paraffin oil distillation products.445 0.679 1.858 0.858 0. L = 152.32 2.

6 44.5259 0.084 2.2149 0.98 Btu lb-I L.517 0.5180 0.635 1 0.64 . average molecular weight 460 ? 60.526 0.515 1A70 2.07746 0. specific heat: specific heat is anomalous between 205 and 320 K.201 2.5 J vapor pressure: temperature range 4Oo-16O0C (104°-3200F).88 c a l L.163 2.00 1035 0.07746 0.517 0. L = 22.0004330 0. L.7050 T-l1 (K) = 14.5259 0. = 48. loglo P(Torr) loglo P(Pa) = 12. APIEZON R.6 170.101 2. solid.4 -279.6 152.5180 0.4 .526 0. = 204. I = 70.00 1035 0.4 8.7045 T-: (K) = 14.7045 T. heat of vaporization: temperature range 4Oo-16O0C (104°-3200F). also contains a n aluminum soap.3241 0.Fossil Materials GREASE. = 87. 5 50 100 150 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 350 -450. solid.2149 0.63.447 0.5022 0.5022 0. APIEZON S. heat of vaporization: temperature range 40"-160"C ( 104'-320°F). log10 P(Torr) loglo P(Pa) 12.4 . low vapor-pressure residues of paraffin oil distillation products.1 .(€0 57HER/REI GREASE.281 1 0.362 0.1518 0.28 I 1 0.4 . APIEZON T. solid.498 0. average molecular weight 660 2 100.4 -369. L.899 1 1.6 0.6 80.362 0.54 .52 .99. low vapor-pressure residues of paraffin oil distillation products.200 67WES/CHI 117 .1518 0.2 J vapor pressure: temperature range 4O0-16O0C (104"-320°F).4 -189.498 0.54 Btu lb. = 293. low vapor-pressure residues of paraffin oil distillation products.447 0.66 .7050 T.1761 1.6 116.(K) 57HER/REI GREASE.27.167 2.08 cal .

99 ppm. total paraffins.(gross) = 25656 J g-l sample I .(gtoss) = 6132 c a l gq. as received q.(gross) = 8105 Btu Ib.6%. oxygen. total aromatics. volatile matter.8%. sulfur. 0.27%. 29.3%.(gross) = 46390 f 73LEN/HIP LIGNITE. 20. 58 ppm.30%. sulfur. hydrogen. total naphthenes. 43. 23. . 15LOR NAPHTHA. 4.7%.37%. 0.Fossil Materials . proximate analysis: ash. proximate analysis: ash.32%.30%. ash free and moisture free q. sulfur. loss on air drying. ultimate analysis: carbon.7703 g cm-3 at 24OC (75OF).(gross) = 10841 c a l q. nitrogen. total paraffins. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 11087 c a l q. ALASKA. 68.35%. 2. 39. 31.(gross) = 5638 Btu lb-I qJgross) = 3132'cal g. 86.5.3%. (sample I) ultimate analysis: carbon.1 P-' qv(gross) = 13104 3 g-l 18POO. Lignite is also called Brown Coal. liquid.(gross) = 9635 Btu Ib. API gravity. 39. 63. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.86%.54%. 30.3 ppm. 3.(gross) = 22399 J g-l sample 2. q.1 q.(gross) = 19514 Btu Ib. q. 64.(gross) = 18841 J g-l sample 2.5. hydrogen. moisture.1 q. liquid. 17. (sample 2) ultimate analysis: carbon. 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 4503 cal g-l q. solid.00%. t o t a l aromatics. density. 13. volatile m a t t e r .72%. 1.(gross) = 19957 Btu lb-' q.5%. as received q. API gravity.(gross) = 5353 cal g-l q.3%. hydrogen. 14. 10. I .2%. 4.5%.8%. sample I . total naphthenes. nitrogen.(gross) = 11040 Btu 1 q. 0. ultimate composition: carbon.1 q. 50.42%. loss on air drying. 85.12%. KEROSINE.9%. 25. 50.2%. oxygen. moisture. mixture of hydrocarbons with boiling points ranging from 180"-300°C (356'-572"F). hydrogen.32%.17%. 13. 43. 14.(gross) = 43360 J 73LEN/HIP 118 .8019 g cm-3 at 24°C (75°F). sulfur.6%. ash free and moisture free q.7%. density. nitrogen.

total aphthenes. 85. ultimate analysis: carbon.(gross) = 18517 Btu lb.at 24°C (75°F).9%. sulfur. liquid. 44.(gross) 10287 c a l q.9%.95%. density.1%.(gross) = 47132 J 73LEN/HIP 119 .(gross) = 11217 c a l q. 34. 83.(gross) = 20277 Btu lbq. ultimate analysis: carbon.8%. 54.8%.6%. 9.6%. density. HIGH BOILING. 0. 0. hydrogen. total aromatics. 10. 14. 61. 357 ppm. 0. total paraf ins. total naphthenes. 30. total paraffins.5. hydrogen. API gravity. sulfur. t o t a l olefins. f gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 11265 cal q. liquid.2. q. AROMATIC. 760 ppm.8449 g cm-'at 24°C (75°F).7981 g cm-3 at 24°C (75°F). total naphthenes. density. 9. total paraf ins. 59.0%.9%. 7.1 q. LOW BOILING.7559 g cm. API gravity.(gross) 46934 J 73LEN/HIP NAPHTHA. 59.8%.9%.Fossil Materials NAPHTHA. 6 . total naphthenes. 10.9. total aromatics. 13.3%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. API gravity. 85. 16. 30. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.1 q. total paraffins. 0. hydrogen.0%.(gtoss) 20191 Btu lb. API gravity. 0. ultimate analysis: carbon. sulfur. 132 ppm.7559 g an-' at 24OC (75°F).6%.1%.(gross) 46129 f 73LE /HIP NAPHTHA.1 q. sulfur compounds. JET. total aromatics. t o t a l aromatics.05%. q. 90.6%. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 0.(gross) = 11025 c a l q. 86.000 ppm density.1%.6%. f qv(gross) = 19845 Btu lb. q. sulfur. 376 ppm.4%.4.(gross) = 43040 J 73LEN/HIP NAPHTHA. 18. liquid. hydrogen. liquid. 14. ultimate analysis: carbon.

%. upper pour point < -5O"C.8732. with a maximum deviation of 4%. upper pour point = -12"C.(gross) = 12400 .0 wt.4%. %.8914.equation assumes crude oil to be water.0 wt. 86. t o t a l aromatics. API gravity 33. wax content = 20. upper pour point -21"C. 172 ppm.3880 + 4. specific gravity 60/60°F = 0. Alaskan (North Slope). density.(gross) = 40847 J g-l P-' 73LEN/HIP 120 .4d2 J g-l where d is the specific gravity at 60/60"F. ash. upper pour point = 24"C.1811 + 8.1 x = (0.0.2100d 2 c a l g-l q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. T)/dz where d is the specific gravity at 60/60"F. and liquid H20 as combustion products. Cp(Btu lb-I O . FUEL. specific gravity 60/60"F = 0. liquid. specific gravity 60/60"F = 0. 1. t o t a l naphthenes 45.018 q.(gross) . Libyan (Tobruk export). hydrogen.8 q. wax content = 6. The experimental results differ from t h e values calculated from this equation by less than 2%. 22.1 (96s) J gq. Barrow Island.'(gross) = q. oils from naphthene base crudes are systematically low by about 2%. oils from paraffin base crudes are systematically high by about 2%.01 q.5 (%S) Btu lb. wax content = 5.(gross) = 22320 . SO*. upper pour point -l"C. q. Iranian l i g h t (export). Iranian Heavy (export). 29CRA OIL.6%.0.5 x = (0. upper pour point -15"C. total paraffins. ADMEG.39 x T)/dj T)/dz. Kuwait export).(gross)X + 40.8709.3780d 2 Btu Ib.(gross) .3%.(gross) = 9763 cal gq.0. sulfur compounds.0 wt.8%. 0.04 q.6 .8553 g cm-' at 24°C (75°F).5 wt.(gtoss)X + 22.0. 13. %.8399.) F' Cp(cal -I K -1 ) Cp(J g. sulfur. wax content = 6.(gross)X + 94. wax content = 7.'(gross) 4-1 where qv'(gross) is h e a t of combustion at constant volume of crude oil yielding ash.(gross) . liquid. %.8786.7577 + 3. q. q '(gross) = 1.1 P q.(gross) = 17570 Btu 1 q. CRUDE. gaseous C02. X = (%H20 + %ash + %S) specific heat: The equation provided is based on over 100 measurements made at t h e National Bureau of Standards over t h e temperature range 273-477 K (32"-400"F). %. specific gravity 60/60°F = 0.5 wt.(gross) = 51881. wax content < 1 wt.5 (%S) c a l q. oils from mixed base crudes are in good agreement. 29. %.1 q. upper pour point = -32"C. %. combustion products are gaseous C 0 2 and liquid HZO. Zakum (export).Fossil Materials OIL.8568. ultimate analysis: carbon. !i gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. specific gravity 60/60"F = 0.K-l) q = (0. and sulfur free.1%. specific gravity 60/60"F = 0.8429.8256. wax content = 7.9%. specific ravity 60/60"F = 0.7 wt.

temperature range 40" 160°C (104O- L = 144.89 1. q. 41. liquid.(gross) = 45927 J 73LENJHIP OIL. 2. density.30 .8415 g c . PARAFFIN. L = 336. m' 35.at 24OC (75°F).5%.85 Btu lb. 13. = 252.Fossil Materials OIL. 17. total aromatics. temperature range 4O"-16OoC (104'320°F).(K) Apiezon E: average molecular weight 290 2 30. total paraffins.(gross) = 10977 cal q.(K) 57HER/REI 121 .67 .45 Btu lb. = 11. vapor pressure: loglo P(Torr) loglo P(Pa) = 9.5100 T-'\K) = 11. gross heat o combustion: 25°C ( 7 F f 7') q.5%. 261 ppm. PARAFFIN. API graviiy.8%.(gross) = 45957 J 60GOO/LAC OIL. nitrogen.5925 T-:(K) = 13. ultimate analysis: carbon.4%. GAS.2%.79 .3. hydrogen.4%. 3 ppm.(gtoss) = 19759 Btu lb.1 L.liquid. sulfur.1 q. 38.(gross) = 19771 Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 10984 cal q.25 cal L.1 . total naphtheQes. repeating unit: CH . 86. sulfur compounds. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.7 J . low vapor-pressure residues of paraffin oil distillation products.42 .5100 T.47 cal . Apiezon C: average molecular weight 450 2 70. L = 80. = 60.5925 T. liquid. 0. heat of vaporization: Lv = 108.1 J vapor pressure: loglo P(Torr) loglo P(Pa) 32OOF).

SPENT SHALE.8 J 79CRA/ORN OIL.1 q. Material c a m e from t h e Anvil Points mine in Colorado and was riffled and split before retorting and combined with benzoic acid in a 1:l ratio to achieve complete combustion in the bomb calorimeter. I Sample I1 q.(gross) = -65.1 q.2 Btu Ib. solid. 79CRAlORN 122 .solid.4 J t. and combustion analysis indicated: H*O(liq).1 qv(gross) = 1209..2 c a l qv(gross) = 507 1.7 Btu Ib. Combustion analysis indicated: H20(liq).9 J g-l Sample I1 qv(gross) = -27. and t r a c e amounts as sulfates. Chemical analysis shows that the sulfur present is primarily sulfides with traces of sulfates. C02(g). samples were combined with benzoic acid in a 1:l ratio.3 Btu Ib. To achieve complete combustion.(gross) 2182.Fossil Materials OIL.(gross) = -274. NZ(g).(gross) -15.0 Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: temperature was 5°C (77°F) and estimated standard deviation for three runs is less than 5 c a l gSample I qv(gross) = 2176. Chemical analysis of sulfur shows 67% is present as sulfides.(gross) = -118. and S02(g).(gross) = 5058. Material c a m e from the Anvil Points mine in Colorado and was ground mixed and split after experiment was completed to provide representative samples for analysis. CO*(g).7 c a l g-l q. and SOZ(g). N2(g).0 cal q.5 J . RAW SHALE.I qv(gross) = 1212. 33% as organic sulfur.4 c a l qv(gross) = -64. gross heat of combustion: temperature was 5°C (77°F) and estimated standard deviation for three runs is less than 5 cal gSample I q.

7. highly organic soil containing partially decomposed vegetable matter and having more than 50% combustible content.44%. ash. sample 1.1 sample 4. ash. sulfur. 16. brown fibrous.(gross) = 551 1 cal gq.22%. ash. 24.68%. sulfur. ash.83%.79%. 0.93%. solid.(gross) = 4275 cal gqv(gross) = 17887 J g. 0.99%.65%. qv(gross) = 7695 Btu lbl 1 q. air-dried. 0. moisture.62%. 6. 1 q.(gross) = 8743 Btu l b i 1 q.(gross) = 9920 Btu lbll q. 50. 7. moisture. volatile matter. data are f calculated to a dry basis. 6. air-dried. fixed carbon. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. moisture.(gross) = 4857 cal gq. brown. air-dried. 23. air-dried. sulfur. 8. black.1 18POO sample 2.(gross) = 19146 J g. 12. moisture. 0.10%. raw.69%.(gross) = 4576 cal gq. q.(gross) = 20322 J g-' 11DAV 123 . q.61%. q.92%.34%.(gross) = 8237 Btu lb. sulfur.Fossil Materials PEAT.(gross) = 23058 3 g-' sample 3.

Inorganic Materials .

neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230°F) at which adsorbed water is evolved. solid. AH(dehydration) = 79 Btu lb-' AH(dehydration) = 44 c a l g-' AH(dehydration) = 184 J g-l 54ALL . neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230'F) at which adsorbed water is evolved. WYOMING. heat of dehydration: AH(dehydration) is derived from endotherrns in t h e differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve. Two endothermic peaks appear in t h e curve giving peak temperatures of 408°C (766OF)and 663°C (1225OF). AH(dehydration) = 52 Btu lb-I AH(dehydration) = 29 cal g-' bH(dehydration) = 121 J g-' 54ALL BENTONITE. which swells 12-fold when wetted with water.Inorganic Materials BENTONITE. a colloidal clay (aluminum silicate) containing sodium montmorillonite. f AH(dehydration) is derived from endotherms in t h e differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve. PEMBINA. heat o dehydration: approximate dehydration temperature is 675°C ( I 24OF). a colloidal clay (aluminum silicate) containing a montmor illonite. solid.

Sample is composed mainly of kaolinite (Al2O3. general formula: xCa0.9 93.8 3 1.4 65-145 3.9 5. 2.1 384850 f 5590 4949k 3 4 61877 2 1247 26273 f 1C 5 35432k3440 55771 t 9 3 4300 t 1247 136740 f 103 3 23220 2 4859 26273 f 41 S 10793 2 12 7 20167 k 3 3 7 40119 f 18 6 78604 f 4 8 9 '3.5 895.3 3 2.3 6.2 2 0.5 1ACs2.96 120-200 248-392 210-290 4 10-554 260-350 500-662 149-293 moles HqO lost 4 AH .9 61.1 f 2.9 2 A H (kJ gmol-l) 204.0 f 24.2 22. neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230°F) at which adsorbed water is evolved.1 2 9. AH(dehydration) = 207 Btu lb-I AH(dehydration) = 115 c a l AH(dehydration) = 481 J 54ALL 128 .t C a S 0 4 . Material is obtained by leaching weathered deposits of granitic rock to remove quartz and mica.7 76.0 2 0.1 2 2. heat of dehydration: approximate dehydration temperature is 547°C ( I 01 7°F).# 213.5 2 10.5 82. 19AH9. Cs=CaS04.7 f 7.03AH3.7 f 0.3 '1 .mCaC03 .9 1.51 f 0.8 42.5 3.9 2 2.6 2 0.53ACcH8.2SiO2.8 5 11.4 129. 48.9 ? 0.7 2 2 31.1 1.O C2.8 321.7 14.3 2 4.2 76. solid.9 4.8 12.7 11.0 f 5.0 C1.7 14.9 ? 7.75 f 0.97AH5. (C=CaO.7 182. 4.94H 12.2 10.Inorganic Materials I : CEMENT HYDRATES.190 248-374 230-300 446-572 240-340 464-644 16 .0 2 0 5 .1 95-125 203-257 140-200 284-392 240-3 I0 464-590 C3.6 25.190 257-374 250-300 482-572 120.8 143.2 '2.3 61.9 318.2H2O) plus impurities.2 34.8 1.0 2 2.97AH1 1.5 f 0.7 2 2.3 2 k 11.7 ? ? 8 2.solid.9 46.54H30.9 2 2.0 A H (Btu lb mol87935 ? 3 'r 18361 f 3 S 138331 k 3 2 5 35 .5 2 5 2.1 4ACs0.yA1203 .5 23 c3.6 2 2.0 2 11.3 70HEN/STR CLAY.6 19. and Cc=CaC03). 6 1. AH(dehydration) is derived from endotherms in t h e differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve. heat of dehydration: gaseous water formed. I 70-170 158-338 250-320 482-608 120-160 248-320 230-325 446-6 17 45-100 113-212 125.0 2 13. ternkcl utute range "C "F C3. CHINA. A=A1203? H=H20.9 2 l.98 43.97AH 12.1 54.07AH6.4 f 0.nH20.4 2 0.

Material is a clay mineral with a kaolinite composition. K.xH20.Inorganic Materials CLAY. AH(dehydration) is derived from endotherms in the differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve. AH(dehydration1 187 Btu lb. where x indicates a variable amount of water. Material is a kaolin type mineral composed of a hydrated aluminum silicate with generalized formula AL2O3SiO2 . AH(dehydration) = 41 Btu lb-I AH(dehydration) = 23 c a l AH(dehydration1 = 96 J 54ALL 129 . heat of dehydration: approximate dehydration temperature is 664°C (1227°F). HALLOYSITE (DJEBEL DEBAR). 55% silica plus impurities and water). solid. MOROCCAN NO. AH(dehydration) = 164 Btu lb-I AH(dehydration) = 91 cal g. neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230°F) at which adsorbed water is evolved. neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230°F) at which adsorbed water is evolved. AH(dehydration1 is derived from endotherms in t h e differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve. heat of dehydration: approximate dehydration temperature is 544°C (1 0 1 1OF). Material is a clay mineral composed mainly kaolinite (40% alumina. solid. 4. of heat of dehydration: approximate dehydration temperature is 547°C (1017OF). neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230°F) at which adsorbed water is evolved.1 AH(dehydration) = 381 J g-' 54ALL CLAY. PLASTIC KAOLIN.1 AH(dehydration1 = 104 cal AH(dehydration1 435 J 54ALL CLAY. AH(dehydration) is derived from endotherms in the differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve. solid.

829 x T . PYR€X.619 T .) = -170.2 T . heat of dehydration: approximate dehydration temperature is 542°C (1008°F). .66%. Na20.67) + 2 4 x . Material is a white high-plasticity burning clay composed of hydrated aluminum silicate of generalized formula AI2O3SiO2 -xH20.1788 + 3. solid.14%.67)-' 68HAG/COO.3.3.63 x loh3 T .80 x T2 -1. solid (Corning 7740).674 x (t + 459.2.67)' -2. 12.93%.382 x lo4 T-l (K) specific heat: 173-293 K (-148" to 68°F) Cp(Btu lb-I cP(cal K .2325 (t + 459.2325 T + 4-39 x T2 + 8. where x indicates a variable amount of water. 3.245 + 2.9728 T + 1.619 x lo4 (t + 459.2325 + 8.878 x = 0.67)-l (t/"F) = -94. K20. 80.SO2.1728 x T2 -0. 63GAT/KRE 130 . AH(dehydration) is derived from endotherms in the differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve.2325 + 4.80%.837 x T2 + 3. 2. heat content: 373-850 K (212"-1071"F) Q-932 (Btu 1b-l) qT-9273.K-l) y1 = -0.2 (J g.4 (t + 459.Inorganic Materials I / CLAY.083 x 103 T.2 (cal 9-l) qT-9273.67) .083 x lo3 T-l (K) -396.784 + 0. 0.88 + 0. neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230°F) at which adsorbed water is evolved. NEWTON ABBOT BALL. AIZ03.78 x = 0.59 x lo-' T2 373-850 K (212"-1071"F) Cp(Btu Ib-I c (cal -I K' -) Cp(J g K -1 ) p -? = 0.025 + 1.98 + 0.8. AH(dehydration) = 128 Btu 1 AH(dehydration) = 71 cal gAH(dehydration1 297 J g-l 54ALL GLASS. B203.45%.382 x 104 T -2 x lo4 (t + 459.~ ) Cp(J g.1.1.9728 + 3.100 x lod2 T .

specific heat: over the temperature range 850 to 1200 K (1071"-1701"F).2 (Gal qT-qZ73.3570 T (K) -664.) ql) = -121. 9. Na20.86 x lo3 ( t + 459.4937 T (K) 68HAGlC00 131 .65%.1.0138 x 104 T-I (K) 68HAG/COO GLASS.K = 1.423 x lo3 T-l (K) = -152.) 8') = -65.66 x T2 .67)2 .1347 + 1.1347 + 1. 73.932 = 0.) F' Cp(cal 5-l) Cp(J g. specific heat: 273-850 K (32"-1071"F) Cp(Btu lb.1347 T + 9.K ) g-' 0.4523 T (K) 68HAG/C00 GLASS.17 + 0.5636 + 8.0733 x = 0.28 + 0.36 x (t + 459.042 x T2 .3471 T ( O F ) = -152.3570 = 0. CaO.67) + 7.2 (Gal qT-q273.67) + 5. 9.67)-2 T + 2.Inorganic Materials Cp(J g. 16.14 + 1.1347 (t + 459.083 x x (t + 459.K' -) f-l = 0.OF-') Cp(cal K-l) Cp(J g.2 (J g.423 x 103 T-2 lod4 T + 1.55 + 0. 16.46 + 1.4937 heat content: 850-1200 K (1071"-1701"F) qT-432 (Btu lb'l) qT'q273.3471 T (K) = -637.5636 T + 4.59%.3570 = 1. Si02.65%.0138 x 104 T-2 heat content: 273-850 K (32"-107I0F) qT-932 (Btu 1b-l) qT-qz73.81 + 0. SODA-LIME. solid (Lillie 1). Na20.466 + 0.59%.4523 heat content: 850-1200 K (1071°-1701"F) q~-q32 (Btu 1b-l) qT-9273.2 (J g- ql) -114.86 x lo3 (t + 459.3570 T ( O F ) 7 -158.76 + 0.37 + 0. SODA-LIME.liquid (Lillie 1). CaO. Cp(Btu lb-I O .76%.67)-l (t/"F) = -36.2 (Cd qT-9273.7.2.2 (J g. Si02. 73.76%.t h e specific heat appears to be independent of temperature.

76%.3. 0.2.4%. Fe2O3.4333 x lod4 T Cp(J g.5%.3804 x 10-8 T2 T .2532 x = 0.20698 + 1. specific heat: at 310 K (98OF). specific heat: 273-1873 K (320-291Z°F) sample 1 Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal Q-1 K-1) Cp(J g.9%.) F' Cp(ca1q-l Cp(J g.9 = 0.nearly all water eliminated by heating in N2 at 500°C 72vuc/vuc 132 . mean values C (Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal P K-') = 0. 41.5.1%.7124 x lo-' T2 x = 0.1711 + 1. solid. solid. solid. MgO.K-') = 0.7.10863 T . Sample 1: 502.962 x T = 0. 0. traces. Si02. 90% Ag relative to Na (932°F).16053 + 7. hydrated alu+minum silicates containing alkali or alkaline earth metals.21%.Inorganic Materials I GLASS. 3. VYCOR. Fe203. other m e t a l oxides.SILVER A.1. 0.23608 + 6.3%. usually containing at least 25% aluminum.86600 + 4. B203.51852 + 5. A1203.K-l) sample 2 Cp(Btu Ib-I O .2509 = 0. 57. MgO.45388 + 1.08%.14%. 1. specific heat: 273-579 K (32"-583"F). a mixture of clays.685 x 10-9 T2 T .12393 + 1.3.K-l) 0.1%.1542 = 0. K20. 96. quartz.9969 x T 68CAMlVAN PORCELAIN. and feldspar.6497 x T . A120gt 0.3%.8292 x x x lo" T .2319 x 10-a T2 28 JAE/ROS ZEOLITE. 2. 65.61%.2269 x T2 ~ . CaO. 28. synthetic ion-exchange re$n.7546 x 10-9 T2 lod4 T . A1203.4%.10848 + 2. 1. . sample 2: Si02.

specific heat: at 310 K (98°F).K-l) 72vuc/vuc 133 .Inorganic Materials ZEOLITE. solid.227 = 0.950 Cp(J g. Cp(Btu Ib'l OF-') Cp(cal -1 K-l) 9 = 0. SODIUM A. synthetic ion-exchange resin. nearly all water eliminated by heating in N2 at 500°C (932°F). hydrated aluminum silicates containing alkali or alkaline e a r t h metals.227 = 0.

Paper .

5. ash. 44. as received q. ash. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture. 6. fixed carbon. 0. hydrogen. 6. 0. volatile matter. solid. as received qv(gross) = 7047 Btu lb-I q. as received dry basis q.(gross) = 17980 J g-' 66KAI q.(gross) = 4034 cal gqv(gross) = 16877 J g-' dry basis qv(gross) = 7711 B t u Ib-I qv(gross) = 4284 cal g-l q.16%. 43. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.1 1%. 1. sulfur. nitrogen.1 q.1 1%.(gross) 17924 J g-l 66KAI CORRUGATJiD BOX. nitrogen.15%. ash. 0.20%.59%. 9. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture. 0.01%. oxygen. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. hydrogen. 75. 11. 5. 1.47%.00%. fixed carbon. 12.50%.09%.90%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. sulfur.34%.(gross) = 3915 cal g. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon. volatile matter.70%. hydrogen.92%. nitrogen. solid. 77.(gtosd = 7735 B t u Ibi 1 qv(gross) = 4297 cal gq. ash.24%.83%. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon.(gross) = 7263 Btu Ibi' qv(gross) = 4035 cal gq. 6.07%.80%. ash.74%.Paper BROWN PAPER. fixed carbon. oxygen.93%.10%.(gross) = 16882 J g-' 137 . 41. 5. 44. 0.06%.93%. sulfur.84%. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture.27%.' q. 6.21%. ash. 5. 44. 0. 83. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon.73%.(gross) = 16382 J g-' dry basis qv(gross) = 7434 B t u qv(gross) = 4130 cal gqv(gross) = 17280 J g-l $' 46KAI FOOD CARTONS.08%.(gross) = 7261 Btu Ib. solid. 6. volatile matter. 47. 5.92%. oxygen.

4. 66.(gross) = 5483 Btu Ib. ash. ash.43%. ash. 5. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 14161 1 g-l MAGAZINE. as received dry basis q. hydrogen. 4. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon. 0. sulfur.87%.14%. 13. 0.(gross) = 12746 J g 66KAI NEWSPRINT. 9.09%. fixed carbon.1 1%. solid. 32. oxygen. 1.03%.(gross) = 3385 cal gq. as received dry basis qv(gross) = 5258 Btu lb. solid. 38. I .Paper JUNK MAIL.1 q.(gross) = 18548 J g-l dry basis q.' q. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture.56%.48%.(gross) = 19724 J g-l 66KAI 138 . fixed carbon.(gross) = 7979 Btu Ib.74%.(gross) = 4433 cal gq. 73. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 3546 cal gq. volatile matter.72%.03%. I q. volatile matter. 23.9 1%. 1 qv(gross) = 4714 cal gq. ash.47%.07%.17%. hydrogen.(gross) = 6383 Btu l b l l q.03%.(gross) = 8485 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. ash. 6. 81. 5. nitrogen. nitrogen. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon.39%. 22. as received q.55%. 43. sulfur. I 1. nitrogen. 0. I q. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture.(gross) = 14835 S 66KAI qv(gross) 6093 Btu Ib. 49.95%.97%. volatile matter. oxygen.41%. ash. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture. sulfur.16%. 4.12%. q.(gross) = 3046 cal 5.05%. fixed carbon.(gross) 2921 cal g-l qv(gross) 12221 J g-l q.52%.09%. 7.43%. 0. 13.09%. 0. oxygen. 42. 37.10%. 0.32%. hydrogen. solid.

90.30%.64%.17%.(gross) = 6522 cal gq. 59. volatile matter. 1. 30. fixed carbon. sulfur. nitrogen.13%. 84. 45.(gross) = 11740 Btu 1 q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.77%. volatile matter.45%. 4.22%.17%. qv(gross) = 7346 Btu lb-' q.71%. 0.(gtoss) = 6297 cal gq. 1.12%. solid. ash. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon.18%. 3.1 qv(gross) = 4282 cal g-l qv(gross) = 17917 J g-' 66KAI WAXED MILK CARTONS. q. 2. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture.45%. 0.10%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 2. 0.50%. 0. nitrogen.25%.(gross) = 4081 cal g-l q.(gross) = 17075 J g-l q. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture. oxygen. ash.Paper 45.(gross) = 27289 J g-l P-' 66KAI 139 .08%. ash. hydrogen.(gross) = 26347 J g-l P-' q. ash. sulfur.(gross) = 11330 Btu 1 q.92%. hydrogen. 6. 8. 9.(gross) = 7708 Btu lb.20%.18%. oxygen.46%. fixed carbon. 4.

Plant Materials (Non-Woody) .

gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis.7. Samples of current year's annual growth and woody tissue of large rangeland shrubs were collected from 1 1 sites in several intermountain states. proteins.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) ALGAE. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content.1 woody tissue q. solid.(gross) 3250 cal g-l q.I q.1 qJgross) = 3430 c a l g-' qv(gross) = 14351 J g-' AZaria nana (brown) qv(gross) = 5850 Btu Ib. lipids.17%.1 q. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. sulfur.(gross) = 19410 J g. solid. 0. Surface soil pH = 7. ulva rigida (green alga) qv(gross) = 6750 Btu lb. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of the weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves.(gross) = 17184 J g-l 73PAU/BRE BIG SAGEBRUSH.(gtoss) = 8350 Btu Ibl 1 qv(gross) = 4639 cal gq.(gtoss) = 8456 Btu IbT 1 qv(gtoss) = 4698 cal gqv(gross) = 19656 J g. Mean content of woody tissue: ash. solid. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period. sulfur. q.(gross) 4107 cal g-' q.1 82VAN/BAR 143 . a source of iodine. soil class is sand-silt loam. Stachys sylvatica. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 13598 J g-l 71PAI ARCHANGEL (WOOD BETONY OR BLIND NETTLE).(gross) 7393 6 t u lb. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight. 6.1%. chlorophyll-bearing organisms occurring in both salt and fresh water.2 . 56%. 0. value is mean of a n average of values from 3 to 5 plants from each site. Mean content of current year's growth: ash.1 q. current year's growth q.03%.(gross) = 3750 cal g-l qv(gross) = 13690 J g-' Fucus distichus (brown) qv(gross) = 6174 B t u lb. 25%.7%. moisture. 3. amino acids. Artemisia tridentata.7. moisture. contain minerals.

dry basis. solid. fuel q.(gross) = 33520 J g.24% and char yield = 38. FRONDS.(gross) = 7970 cal gq.(gross) = 14350 Btu 1 q.I 82SUS q. Artemisia tridentata.(gross) = 21940 J g.83% and char yield = 27. assume values refer to room temperature.1 144 .Plant Materials (Non-Woody) BIG SAGEBRUSH. freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content. Composition is ash = 7.(gross) = 33350 J g-' P-' 82SUS BIG SAGEBRUSH. Composition is ash = 2.(gtoss) = 7330 cal gq.(gross) = 19960 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) q.(gross) = 8010 cal g-l q.1 char (from 500°C heating) q.7%. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. solid.Pteridium aquilinurn.(gross) = 13190 Btu 1P-l q.7%. dry basis. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. Cured samples were air-dried at room temperature. assume values refer to room temperature. FOLIAGE. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. dry basis. assume values refer to room temperature. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q.1 qv(gtoss) = 4790 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20030 J g.Artemisia tridentata.(gross) = 9440 Btu Ib-I q.(gross) = 8590 Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 4770 cal g-' q.1 q. STEMS. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen.1%. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen. solid.(gross) 14420 Btu lb. Composition is ash 9. fuel q. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. Stem samples were branches less than 0.10% and chat yield = 25.(gross) = 30650 J g.1 82SUS BRACKEN FERN.(gross) 8620 Btu lb.25 inch diameter with foliage removed and freeze dried to < 10% moisture content.(gross) = 5240 cal g-' q.

The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period.53. chlorine = 0. sulfur = 0. ash content = 7. Cardamine buzbifera.let) = 16310 J g85 JEN/EBE 145 . qv(net) 7017 Btu lb.' qv(net) = 3898 cal gi qv(. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. 6458 Btu lb.25. and residue (ash) = 8. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves.(gross) = 17810 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis.38. oxygen = 42.(gross) q. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. Material is considered biomass fuel and has roximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration VCM) = 71. The species has a vernal (spring) type vegetation period.47. qv(gross) = 7378 Btu lb-l q. nitrogen = 0. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.(gross) = 4099 cal g-l qv(gross) 17150 J g-' 73PAU/BRE CATTAILS.04. hydrogen = 5. solid.' q.(gross) 3588 cal gqv(gross) = 15012 J g-' 73PAU/BRE BULBIFEROUS TOOTHWORT (ThTH-CRESS).74.90.Plant Materials (Non-W d y ) BROAD-LEAVED STITCHWORT (WOODSTARWORT). P gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.99. qv(gross) = 7662 Btu Ib-' qv(gross) = 4257 cal g-' q. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 42.13. solid.57. Stellaria nemorum. solid. and fixed carbon = 20.

(gross) = 4630 c a l g-l q.(gross) = 7830 c a l gq.46% and char yield = 21. solid. CURED.(gross) = 14100 B t u 1P-l q. fuel qv(gross) = 8330 Btu lb.4%. was determined at 5OOOC (932OF)while t h e temperature was increased stepwise. assume values refer to room temperature. Dactylis pozygama. solid. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.1 q.2 20. dry basis.7%. Geum urbanum.1 84.(gross) = 32770 J g-l 82SUS CLOVEROOT (HERB BENNET). Composition is ash = 6.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) CHEATGRASS. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r t o room temperature and values a r e calculated t o a dry basis.(gross) = 17242 J g-' 73PAU/BRE COCKS-FOOT GRASS. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. then ground and pelleted. Material is aerial plant air-dried at room temperature. Bromus tectorum. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-yeat-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil.1 qv(gross) 4121 c a l g-' q. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period. Samples were dried at 85°C (185OF).(gross) = 19360 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) q. assume values refer to room temperature. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary. qv(gross) 7418 Btu Ib. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. dry weight basis aboveground living material q. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure. of mean . solid. Material is a herb.1 Btu lb-I ca1q-l J g(more) ash-free dry weight basis std dev.(gtoss) = qv(gross) = q.(gross) 7636 4242 17749 8725 4847 20280 36. t h e number of measurements is 3. The ash content = 12.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis.Continued dry weight basis aboveground dead material q.(gross) = qv(gross) = q.(gross) = roots 7306 4059 16983 ash-free dry weight basis std dev. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis.(gross) = 768 1 4267 17853 8620 4789 20037 85.(gross) = 16736 J g-l 73PAU/BRE 147 .1 qv(gross) = 4000 cal g-l q.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) COCKS-FOOT GRASS . qv(gross) = 6595 Btu l b l l q.9 40.(gross) = q. of mean 8680 4822 20 175 72. solid. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period.(gross) = 15330 J g73PAU/BRE COWSLIP LUNGWORT. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves.solid.(gross) = 3664 c a l g i q. TussiZago farfara. qv(gross) = 7200 Btu lb.3 198 B t u Ib-I cal 3 g- COLTSFOOT.1 47.5 169 Btu Ib-l cal J g- q1 q1 75PAP q. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by the stem axis and 67% by leaves.(gross) = q. PuZrnonaria rubra. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at the herbaceous layer level of the mixed fir and beech forest in the Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of the Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of the mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of the Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.

9%. current year's growth qv(gross) = 7765 Btu l b i 1 q. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. value is mean of a n average of values from 3 to 5 plants from e a c h site.08%.rent stations) in Romania. solid. moisture.(gross) = 7171 Btu Ib. 3. Samples of current year's annual growth and woody tissue of large rangeland shrubs were collected from 7 sites in several intermountain states.(gross) = 4315 c a l gq.solid. 29. moisture. Circaea Zutetiana. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves.(gross) = 18050 J g-l woody tissue qv(gross) = 8109 Btu Ib. q.0 .2. soil class is sand-silt loam. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period.8.(gross) = 18849 J g.(gross) q. 57.5%. solid. sulfur. Viola reichenbachiana.' qv(gross) = 4505 cal gq.5%. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by the s t e m axis and 67% by leaves.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) ! i .(gross) 17874 J g-l 73PAU/BRE FOURWING SALTBUSH. Material is an integral part of the ecosystem at the herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.35%. q.3%. sulfur. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at the herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (tubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two diffe. assume values refer to room temperature. Mean content of woody tissue: ash. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis.(gross) = 7690 Btu lb. 9.1 qv(gross) 3984 cal g-' qv(gross) = 16669 J g-l 73PAU/BRE ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE. Mean content of current year's growth: ash. 0.' 4272 cal gq. DOG VIOLET. Surface soil pH = 7. 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis.AtripZex canescens.I 82VAN/BAR 148 .

(gross) = 18092 J g-' 73PAU/BRE GLABER CRESS.Rex glabra.4%. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of the weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. fuel qv(gross) = 9960 Btu lb. solid. freeze dried t o < 10% moisture content.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) GALLBERRY. q. Veronica chamaedrys.(gross) = 17606 J g-' 73PAU/BRE 149 .(gross) = 23140 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 14460 B t u I qv(gross) = 8030 cal gq.(gross) = 7783 Btu l b i 1 qv(gross) = 4324 cal gq. assume values refer t o room temperature. Cardamine ghnduligera. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis.(gross) = 33610 J g.1 82SUS t GERMANDER SPEEDWELL (ANGEL'S-EYE). solid.1 qv(gross) = 5530 cal g-l q.' qv(gross) = 4208 c a l gq. solid. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. Composition is ash = 2. The species has a vernal (spring) type vegetation period. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. dry basis. FOLIAGE.27% and char yield = 25. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. qv(gross) = 7574 Btu lb. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.

Geranium robertianum. ash. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight. 0.2%. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. 5. 34.24%. volatile matter.I 82VANlBAR HERB ROBERT (RED ROBIN).50%. ultimate analysis: carbon.55%. hydrogen.46%. soil class is sandy loam-clay loam. qv(gross) = 71 12 Btu lb. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. Samples of current year's annual growth and woody tissue of large rangeland shrubs were collected from 3 sites in several intermountain states.9.42%. solid. proximate analysis on a n as received basis: moisture.I qv(gross) = 3951 c a l g-l q. 18. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 1. moisture. ash. Mean content of current year's growth: ash. sulfur.24%.solid.(gross) 8312 Btu Ib-' q. dry basis q. assume values refer to room temperature. 1.(gross) = 4618 c a l g-l q. current year's growth 6599 Btu IbT 1 q. 20. value is mean of a n average of values from 3 to 5 plants from each site. Mean content of woody tissue: ash. 36.(gross) = 16531 J g-l 73PAU/BRE 150 . sulfur. solid. fixed carbon.7%.(gross) qv(gross) = 3666 c a l gq.0%.9 . nitrogen. oxygen. 75.1 1144 c a l 4787 J 66KAI GREASEWOOD. sulfur. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis.18%. Sarcobatus vermiculatus. 48.' qv(gross) = 4726 cal gqv(gross) = 19774 J g.(gross) = 19322 J g-l as received qv(gross) qv(gross) qv(gross) 2059 Btu lb. Material is an integral part of the ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (tubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. moisture. 6.96%.46%. 4. 4. Surface soil pH = 7. 0.46%.42%.43%. 0.64%. LAWN CLIPPINGS. 0.Plant Materials (Non-W oody) GRASS.(gtoss) = 15339 1 g-' woody tissue qv(gross) = 8507 Btu Ib.5.

dry basis.(gross) = 33340 J g-l P-' 82SUS IRISH SHAMROCK (EUROPEAN WOOD SORREL).(gross) = 7970 cal gq. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. Material is aerial plant air dried at room temperature.1 qv(gross) = 4324 cal g-' qv(gross) = 18092 J g. Washington.1 73PAU/BRE 151 .6%. Samples ground and oven-dried at 80°C (176'F).Plant Materials ( No n. qv(gross) = 7783 Btu lb. Mean lipid content was 1.(gross) = 4601 ? 29 c a l g-' q. assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen.H.1 q.45% and char yield = 24. fuel q.(gtoss) = 8670 Btu lb. solid. OxaZis acetoselza.(gross) = 4820 c a l g-' qv(gross) = 20160 J g-' char (from 5 O O O C heating) qv(gross) = 14340 Btu 1 q. ALPINE TUNDRA. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulrnonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content. N.W dy ) HERBS.(gross) = 19251 f 121 J g-' 62BLI IDAHO FESCUE.1% of volatile-free dry weight. solid.(gross) = 8282 k 52 Btu lb. q. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. Samples of 20 species of herbs were collected in t h e alpine tundra of Mt. Festuca idahoensis.43 ? 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. CURED. solid.1 q. Composition is ash = 9.

The plants have the following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period. qv(gtoss) = 8042 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. qv(gross) 8158 Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.' qv(gross) 4075 c a l gqv(gross) = 17050 J g-' 73PAU/BRE LETTUCE MURALIS.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) JUPITER'S-DISTAFF.1 73PAU/BRE 152 . MyceZis muratis. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. Satvia glutinosa.solid. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period. solid. qv(gross) 7335 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. Athyrium filix-femina. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulrnonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.I qv(gross) = 4532 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 18962 J g-l 73PAU/BRE LADY FERN. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at the herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. solid. 1 qv(gross) = 4468 cal gqv(gross) = 18694 J g.

qv(gross) = 7969 Btu lb. t h e number of measurements is 3. qv(gross) = 7808 Btu lb. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves.1 73PAU/BRE MELIC GRASS. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. MeZica uniflora. of mean 7709 4283 I7920 8397 4665 19518 77 .' qv(gross) = 4338 cal gq.(gross) = 18523 J g. then ground and pelleted. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. dry weight basis aboveground living material q.1%. aboveground dead material = 12.3 8 Btu lb'l cal g-l J g-' (more) 153 .(gross) = qv(gross) = qv(gross) = ash-free dry weight basis std dev. Ash content of aboveground living material = 8.(gross) = 18150 J g-l 73PAU/BRE MEADOW-RUE ISOPYRUM. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure. Samples were dried at 85°C (185'F). Material is a herb. solid. Isopyrum thdictroides. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) MALE FERN? Dryopteris fitix-mas. roots = 7.2%. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. assume values refer to room temperature. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.' q. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (tubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis.(gross) = 4427 c a l gq. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil. 4.6%. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F)while t h e temperature was increased stepwise. solid. The species has a vernal (spring) type vegetation period. solid.

q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values a r e calculated t o a dry basis. Samples were ground and air-dried at 80°C (176°F).(gross) = q.6 32. Material is an integral part of the ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (tubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. Washington.(gross) = 7972 4429 18531 863 1 4795 20062 15 8.(gross) q.5 Btu lb-l cal 9-l 36 J g75PAP MERCURIALIS PERENNIS.(gross) = q.Continued dry weight basis aboveground dead material qJgross) = q.H.0 Btu Ib-' cal ash-free dry weight basis std dev. N. qv(gross) = 7938 2 130 Btu I q.W d y ) i : MELIC GRASS .(gross) 18450 2 293 J g-l 62BLI I54 .(gross) = 7657 4254 17799 8730 4850 20292 57.0% of t h e volatilefree dry weight. and is a European poisonous plant with t h e foliage yielding an unstable blue dye.(gross) = 4410 2 70 c a l gq. Samples of 7 species of mosses were collected in t h e alpine tundra of Mt. ALPINE TUNDRA. of mean roots q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content. solid. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves.(gross) = 6709 Btu Ibi 1 q.(gross) = 3727 cal gq.(gtoss) = 15594 J g-l 73PAU/BRE MOSSES. Mean lipid content was 1.Plant Materials (Non. solid. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period.

gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.5 324 Btu lb-' cal J g- q1 75PAP P ANTS.6 31 . 35.61%.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) MOUNTAIN RUSH.4%.09%. The ash content was determined at 5 O O O C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise. Samples were dried at 85OC (185"F). 40.(gross) = q. solid.(gross) = 8042 4468 18694 8575 4764 19933 140 77. 32 4614 19305 73. proximate analysis as received: moisture.26%. aboveground dead material = 14.63%.5 308 Btu lb-l ca1q-l J g- roots qJgross) = q.(gross) = 8599 J 155 . 8. roots = 6. oxygen.08%.(gross) = 3699 Btu lb.(gross) = 8032 Btu lb. dry weight basis aboveground living material qv(gross) = qv(gross) = qJgtoss) 7580 4222 17667 ash-free dry weight basis std dev. Carex montana. sulfur. volatile matter. 6. 13 Btu lb-l cal J g- aboveground dead material qv(gross) qv(gross) qv(gross) = 7092 3940 16485 8305 1. 0. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil.34%.3%. ultimate analysis: carbon. 1.1 qv(gross) = 4462 cal g-l qv(gross) = 18671 J g-' 66KAI q. ash. then ground and pelleted. FLOWER GARDEN? solid. as received dry basis q. 2.18%. t h e number of measurements is 3. assume values refer t o room temperature. 46. of mean 8689 4827 20 196 5.64%. Material is a herb. hydrogen.21%.I q.7%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Ash content of aboveground living material = 8. 3.94%.(gross) = 2055 cal q. ash. nitrogen. fixed carbon. 53.

moisture. 0.(gross) (cal g-l) 4262 4058 4026 4023 4227 396 I 4256 3918 4180 3906 4315 (J g-') 13.9 11. 44.1 14.37% and char yield = 33.5 10. plants taken from Par Pond.4%.(gross) = 4832 cal gq. Mean content of current year's growth: ash. samples dried at 60°C (140'F) and pulverized to pass 40 mesh screen. Species Typha latifotia Hydrotrida carol inensis Brasenia schreberi Utricularia inflata Nelumbo lutea Myriophyttum heterophyltum EZeocharis acicularis Najas guadalupensis Nymphaea odorata Ceratophyllum demensum Nuphar advena Protein Content g (100 g dry wt.W d y ) PLANTS. solid.04%. S. Surface soil pH = 7.4 14. Chrysothamnus nauseosus. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.0%.1 21.Plant Materials (Non. sulfur. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight.4 12. assume values refer to room temperature. solid.(gross) = 4678 cal gqv(gross) = 19573 J g-' XZVANIBAR SAW-PALMETTO. fuel qv(gross) = 9150 Btu Ib-l q.C. near Aiken. current year's growth qv(gross) = 8698 Btu q.5 14. Composition is ash = 5. 0. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (93PF)in nitrogen. dry basis. Samples of current year's annual growth and woody tissue of large rangeland shrubs were collected from 6 sites in several intermountain states. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.0 10.3%. 2.) 4.7%.(gross) = 20217 1 g.1 (Btu 1b-l) 7672 7304 7247 7241 7609 7130 766 1 7052 7524 7031 7767 q. moisture. solid class is sandy-clay loam. value is mean of an average of values from 3 to 5 plants from each site.(gross) = 13890 Btu Ib. AEC Savannah River Plant. FRONDS. VASCULAR AQUATIC. 7.. solid.(gross) = 8420 Btu Ibi 1 q.20%. 55.5 .(gross) = 5080 cal g-l qv(gross) 21270 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) q. Samples were freeze dried t o < 10% moisture content.6 17832 16979 16845 16832 17686 16573 17807 16393 17489 16343 18054 70BOY RUBBER RABBITBRUSH. Mean content of woody tissue: ash.1 qv(gross) = 7720 cal gdl qv(gross) = 32290 3 g-l 82SUS 156 .1 $' woody tissue q.6 17. Serenoa repens. assume values refer t o room temperature.7%. sulfur.7. US.9.

Samples were dried at 83°C (183"F).3 156 Btu lb-I cal f-' J g- 75PAP SHRUBS. Material is a herb.5 90. dry weight basis aboveground living material qv(gross) = qv(gross) = qv(gross) = 7817 4343 18171 8492 4718 19740 6. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise.1 37.97 2 0. N. Samples were ground and oven-dried at 80°C ( 1 76°F). Washington. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content.3% of the volatile-free dry weight. Ash content of aboveground living material = 9.6%. Carex micheZii. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil. Samples of 9 species of shrubs were collected in t h e alpine tundra of Mt.0%.(gross) = 7893 4385 18347 8827 4904 205 18 38. t h e number of measurements is 3. of mean y1 q1 aboveground dead material qJgross) = qJgross) = qv(gross) = roots qv(gross) qv(gross) = q. aboveground dead material = 10. q. 21.0 Btu lb-l cal J g- 7983 4435 18556 8707 4837 20238 67.7.(gross) = 4932 k 33 cal gqv(gross) = 20635 2 138 J g-' 62BLI 157 . assume values refer to room temperature. solid. ALPINE TUNDRA.(gross) = 8878 2 89 Btu lbl 1 q. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) SEDGE GRASS. roots = 8. Mean lipid content was 1. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure.5 15 Btu lb-I cal J gash-free dry weight basis std dev.3%. DECIDUOUS.H.3 3. then ground and pelleted.

61%. fixed carbon.19%.(gross) = 20318 f g-l 66KAI q. EVERGREEN.H.18%.01%. nitrogen. oxygen.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) SHRUBS. ALPINE TUNDRA.I qv(gross) 5098 t 48 cal g-' qv(gross) 21330 ? 201 J g-l 62BLI SHRUBS. ash. sulfur. ultimate analysis: carbon. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. 25. ash.81%. The plants have the following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by the stem axis and 67% by leaves.00%. Washington. 5. N. solid. CUTTINGS.54%. as received dry basis qv(gross) = 8741 Btu Ib-I q. 40. hydrogen. EVERGREEN. solid. 0. 1.5 1%. solid.(gross) = 6299 J SOW-TEAT STRAWBERRY (WOODLAND STRAWBERRY). 48.44%. proximate analysis as received: moisture. 2.5% of the volatile-free dry weight. 69. q. Samples of 11 species of shrubs were collected in t h e alpine tundra of Mt. 6. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of the mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.72 0. ? gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content.(gross) = 17523 J g-l 73PAU/BRE 158 .(gross) = 4856 c a l g-' q. Samples were ground and oven-dried at 80°C ( I 76°F). qv(gross) = 9176 f 86 Btu lb. Mean lipid content was 3. Fragaria vesca.(gross) 2709 Btu lb-' qv(gross) = 1505 c a l q. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period.71%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. volatile matter.(gross) = 7538 Btu lbl 1 q.(gross) 4188 c a l gq. 0.

7. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period.I q. value is mean of a n average of values from 3 t o 5 plants from each site. Mean moisture content of current year's growth. Euphorbia amygdatoides.(gross) = 4483 c a l gq. qv(gross) = 8069 Btu lbl I q. Samples of current year's annual growth and woody tissue of large rangeland shrubs were collected from 2 sites in several intermountain states.1 qv(gross) 4559 cal g-l qv(gross) = 19075 J g-l 82VANlBAR SPURGE ALMOND. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis.(gross) = 3804 c a l g-' qv(gross) 15916 J g"' 73PAU/BRE 159 .7%. qv(gross) = 6847 B t u lb. Urtica diocia. soil class is loamy sandsilt loam.7. of woody tissue.1 q. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight. solid.(gross) = 18757 J g-l 73PAU/BRE STINGING NETTLE.2%. Surface soil pH = 7. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) SPREADING RABBITBRUSH.solid. Chrysothamnus Zinifolius. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. assume values refer t o room temperature. current year's growth q. solid. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. 59. 52.(gross) = 18740 J g-l woody tissue qv(gross) = 8206 Btu lb.(gross) = 8062 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values ate calculated to a dry basis.(gross) = 4479 c a l g-l q.3 .

and fixed carbon 18. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. solid. qv(net) = 7017 Btu Ib.35.Telekia speciosa. q.(gross) qv(gross) = 4156 c a l gq. hydrogen = 5. nitrogen = 1. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period.60.(gross) = 4045 cal g q. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 44. q. 1 q.(grass) = 16924 J g' 73PAU/BRE TALL OXEYE. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 72. qv(net) = 16310 J g 85 JEN/EBE SWEET WOODRUFF. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. 1 qv(gross) = 4241 cal 6.75. oxygen = 39.(gross) = 17390 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Galium odoraturn. ash content = 8.(gross) = 17744 J g 73PAU/BRE 160 .21. and residue (ash) 9.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) SUDAN GRASS. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves.' qv(net) = 3898 c a l 9 .58. q. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. Material is an integral part of the ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in the Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of the Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.65.(gross) = 7281 Btu lb. chlorine = 0. q.18.' .13. 7447 Btu Ib. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids.(gross) = 7634 Btu lb. solid. sulfur = 0.47. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of the Bucegi mountains (twodifferent stations) in Romania.08.

Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values a r e calculated t o a dry basis. solid. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. Petasites albus. solid. solid. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. I qv(gross) = 4424 c a l gqv(gross) = 18510 J g-' 73PAU/BRE WHITE BUTTERBUR. qv(gross) = 7963 Btu lb.(gross) = 45 19 cal gqv(gross) 18907 J g-l 73PAU/BRE 161 . The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period.(gross) = 6802 Btu lbi 1 qv(gross) = 3779 c a l gq.(gross) = 15811 J g-l 73PAU/BRE WINDFLOWER (WOOD ANEMONE). The species has a vernal (spring) type vegetation period. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. q.Plant Materials (Non-W oody) TOUCH-ME-NOT. Anemone nemorosa. The plants have the following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. Impatiens noli-tangere. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values a r e calculated to a dry basis. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. qv(gross) = 8134 Btu lbll q.

I gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. Ash content of aboveground living material = 6.(gross) = q. assume values refer to room temperature. solid.(gross) = 4175 cal gqv(gross) = 17468 J g.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) I WOOD BLUEGRASS. then ground and pelleted. dry weight basis aboveground living material qv(gross) = qv(gross) = q. Samples were dried at 85°C (185"F). Material is a herb. at 300 m above sea level located in the southern part of the Bukk Mountains of north Hungary. gross h e a t of combustion: at 20 atrn oxygen pressure. of mean 7884 4380 I8326 8390 466 1 19502 56. aboveground dead material = 8. one of the dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil.6 45. Poa nemoratis.(gross) = q.7%.(gross) = 7515 Btu lbi 1 q.(gross) = 8050 4472 18711 9025 5014 20979 82.(gtoss) = ash-free dry weight basis std dev. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F)while the temperature was increased stepwise. 50 62. q. t h e number of measurements is 3. solid. roots = 11.O%.8 Btu lb-' cal 9-l J g- roots q. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves.0%. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period.3 131 Btu lb-' cal J g- q1 aboveground dead material qv(gross) = qv(gross) = q. Carex sylvatica.3 31.1 73PAU/BRE 162 .(gross) = 7888 4382 18334 8636 4798 20075 27.0 1.9 192 Btu lb-I ca1q-l J g75PAP WOOD SEDGE. Material is an integral part of the ecosystem at the herbaceous layer level of the mixed fir and beech forest in the Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fageturn a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.

Material is a n integral part of the ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in the Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. solid. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by the s t e m axis and 67% by leaves.(gross) 18313 J g-' 73PAU/BRE YELLOW WOOD ANEMONE. qv(gtoss) = 7879 Btu lb. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period. solid. Anemone ranunculoides.1 qv(gtoss) = 4377 cal g-l q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. Larnium galeobdolon. qv(gross) 8158 Btu lb. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. The species has a vernal (spring) type vegetation period. 1 q.Plant Materials (Non-W oody) YELLOW ARCHANGEL (DEAD NETTLE).(gross) 4532 cal gqv(gross) = 18962 1 g-l 73PAU/BRE 163 . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to toom temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis.

Polymers and Plastics .

encapsulating.083 0.0 159 0.7 -455.00021 0.0 192 0.0000 14 0.0667 0.0021 0.0169 0.0040 0.04 18 0.00089 0.01 34 0.4 -387.4 -369.4 0.0 I94 0.0054 0.8 -454 -452 -448.4 0.0100 0.347 0.083 0.08 11 54PAR/QUA BAKELITE VARNISH.4 -333.00 1I 0.0130 0.121 0. specific heat: 4 6 8 10 15 20 30 40 50 70 90 -452 -448.057 0.179 0.0 100 0.4 -297. trademark for synthetic resin of the phenol-formaldehyde type. specific heat: tern erature (K P (OF) 1.0032 0.0000 14 0.0040 0.0054 0*0020 0.0272 0.00225 0.0032 0.5 2 3 4 6 8 10 15 20 -456.0046 0.0082 0.6 -445 -441.4 -423.0159 0.029 0.0 17 0. FORMITE VIIIOS. solid.0065 0.00024 0.057 0.237 0.0065 0.4 -423.4 -432.0046 0.000057 0.029 0.043 0. surface coating and as an adhesive.4 -405.4 -432.000057 0.001 1 0.0020 0.0130 0.0021 0.017 0.0046 0.449 53HIL/SMI 167 .0086 0.043 0.0542 0.6 -445 -44 1. solid.00006 0.0194 0. proprietary trade name for a series of epoxy resins used for casting.Polymers and Plastics ARALDITE. laminating.00021 0.

10.0008 1 0.solid. 90. 0.220 0. composition: carbon. phenyl-6-naphthylamine.03 53bFUR/McC 168 .56 1. 9.1%. solid. hydrogen.136 0. 0. 0.100%.084 0. 42.58%.77 1.485 0.244 0. 0.506 + 2. 0.322 + 1.423 0.83 T + 3. phenyl-6-naphthylamine.081%. specific heat: tern erature (€8("F) -370 -280 -190 -100 . 0.056%.076 0. composition: carbon. oxygen.869%.35 1 0.872%.195 T + 5. 0 I %. specific heat: temperature (K) (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' Cp(cal g-1 K-l) Cp(J g-1 K -1 0. ash.136 0 I90 .153 0.405 0.10 80 134 Cp(Btu Ib'l OF-') Cp(cal g-1 K -1 ) Cp(J g-l K-l) 50 100 150 200 250 300 330 0.464 0. polymerized at 5°C (36°F).Polymers and Plastics BUTADIEm-STYREM COPOLYMER.244 0.423 0. styrene. 0.14%.37 = 1. 0. oxygen. polymerized at 50°C ( I 22°F).0034 0 3 18 . ash. 0.076 0.77 x x x 0.373 0. sulfur.220 0.190 0.084 0 I53 .92 1. . hydrogen. X-454.18%.268 0.268 0.122 1.485 0. 88. sulfur. .98%.316 + 4.694 5 50 100 150 200 220 255 -450 -370 -280 -190 -100 -64 - 1 0.464 0.000 x x x 10-7 T2 10-6 T2 10-6 T2 55FUR/McC BUTADIENE-STYRENE COPOLYMER.235%.794 1.0008 I 0.688 lod5 T + 1.569 0. 8. GL-422.022 1.464 0. styrene.170%.373 0.94 2.K' -) q1 = 0.405 for temperature range: 255-330 K (0"-135"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal K' -) Cp(J g. 01 11%.

7 ? 2 5 cal g-l .147 0. styrene. repeating unit: C4Hg02S. phenyl-6-naphthylamine.K' -) q1 = 0.7 Btu lb.098%. hydrogen. 22.874 1.1 q. solid. X478.1 q.(gtoss) = 5744.443%.(gross) 59IVI/KEI trans-BUTENE-2-POLYSULFONE.3 k 3.8 0.9 J g-' q.048%. 0.(gross) = 5745. oxygen.396 + 2.1 q.6882 x x 10-7 T2 10-6 T2 x T2 55FUR/McC BUTENE-1-POLYSULFONE.067 0.(gross) = 24035. q.4008%.617 0.016 0.(gross) 24050. 0. solid.9 J g-l 591VI/KEI cis-BUTEm-2-POLYSULFONE.405 O-) F' -1 -1 Cp(cal g K ) -1 -1 Cp(J g K ) 15 50 100 150 195 225 -433 -370 -280 -190 -109 -55 0. 10.147 0. 0.29 x = 1.8 cal g.61%. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C ( 7 F 7') q.0 2 10. composition: carbon.1%. sulfur.4228 + 3.262 0. solid. 0. q.1205 = 0.0 16 00 1 .15%.9 k 15.(gross) = 10347 k 6.209 0.338 0.693 225-330 K (-54' t o 135°F) F' Cp(Btu Ib-l O .6 f 26 cal g-' .405 0.5 J g-l 59IVI/KEI 169 . polymerized at 5°C (41OF).262 0. repeating unit: C4H802S. specific heat: t e m erature (KP (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I 0.(gross) = 24040.solid.812 x lo-' T + 3.(gross) = 5748.432 x T + 4.483 T + 1. 89. repeating unit: C4Hg02S.5 Btu lb-I q.209 0.096 1.(gross) = 10342 2 4.8 Btu lb.) Cp(cal K' -) Cp(J g. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q.3337 + 6. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77OF) 10340 2 4. ash.081 0.4 k 10.Polymers and Plastics BUTADIENE-STYRENECOPOLYMER.

4 f 1. repeating unit: C4H8OZS.2 Btu lb. (polyoxymethylene). Celanese Corp.1 J g-' 59IVI/KEI CELLULOID.44%.(gross) = 17673 J g-l ISROT/WAL DELRIN. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) unhardened qv(gross) = 6723. 99.8 J g-l 67FRA/MIS 170 . E. repeating unit: CH20. 66.8 cal g-' qv(gross) 16933. a solid solution of cellulose nitrate and camphor or other related plasticizers. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77OF) q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to toom temperature.(gross) 7284. 4.(gtoss) = 4047.1 k 0. solid.8 f 1 Btu lb-I q.7 2 3. q.(gross) = 4224 cal g-l q. 28.1 Btu l b l l qv(gross) = 3735.4 2 2.3 2 3. hydrogen. elementary analysis: carbon.I.7 cal gq.9 cal gqv(gross) 24071.1 cal gqv(gross) = 15741. solid. duPont de Nernours and Company trade name.(gross) = 10356 ? 5. nitrogen. solid.7%. crystallized resin granules.97%. of America trade name.3%. 0. I qv(gross) 5753.9 2 8.Polymers and Plastics isd3UTENE POLYSULFONE (2-methylpropene polysulfone).(gross) = 7603 Btu Ib.60%.8 Btu Ib.3 J g-l 63PAR/MOS DICYANDIAMIDE (TECHNICAL). formula C2H4N4. 1 qv(gross) = 3762.9 f 7.2 2 2.(gross) = 15628.(gross) = 6772. solid.1 q.3 2 3. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q.1 J g-l hardened q. unspecified organic additives.4 k 12.

(gross) = 13021 3. 1 b q. 17.4 Btu lb.(gross) 11199 k 3. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q. elementary analysis: carbon.Polymers and Plastics DURETHAN U20.5 Btu lb. the unhardened resin plus phthalic anhydride. HARDENED. a diepoxide from epichlorhydrin plus 4.(gross) = 6221.(gross) = 30266. hydrogen.solid.(gross) = 7867. q. empirical formula C31H36O5.4 Btu l.27%.5 ? 10.0 f 2 5 cal g-l .4 t 1.9 cal g y q. solid. solid.9 J g-l _+ _+ 67FRA/MIS EPILOX EG1. formula Cl2HZ2O4N2.3 2 7.(gross) = 7233.2'-propane.4-butanediol and hexamethyldiisocyanate. 74. 7.4'-dihydroxydiphenyl2.(gross) = 26030.9 cal gq.99%. UNHARDENED.9 2 1.1 q. a polyurethane from 1. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q.5.9 J g 67FRA/MIS EPILOX EGL.5.5 J g-' 67FRA/MIS 171 . oxygen. empirical formula C39H4008.(gross) = 32915. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77'F) q.1 q.(gross) = 14161 f 4.74%.6 7.

05 0.0000072 0.6 -455.275 00 . duPont de Nemours and Company trade name).4 0.8 -454 -452 -448.07 0. (polymethylmethactylate).275 0.I. solid.19 0.0002 0.003 0.15 59KEE/SEI LUCITE.0002 0.07 01 .000048 0.(gross) = 6367.20 0. F' Cp(Btu lb-I O .4 -279.4 -3514 . trademark for synthetic resins and plasticizers prepared from a polyhydric alcohol and phthalic anhydride.0002 0.0005 0. -315. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) qv(gross) = 11462 f 4.Polymers and Plastics GLYPTAL.79 1.K-l) = 0.0000072 0. solid.002 0.002 0.435 67FRA/MIS. 0. (E.000048 0.014 -423.3 cal g-l q. specific heat: 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 15 20 30 40 60 80 100 -457.002 0.4 -445 -44 1 4 .4 -405. specific heat: assume values refer t o room temperature.007 00 14 .005 0 0 I4 . -432.02 0.343 = 0.03 0.4 0.005 0.6 01 .03 0.) Cp(cal -1 K-l) 5 Cp(3 g. 0. 38GUC/FOR 172 .(gross) = 26442.0005 0.4 -387.00003 0.343 = 1.49 0.12 0.1 0.1 Btu Ib-I q.0007 0.2 0. repeating unit: C5H802.8 f 2.9 f 9 6 J g-l .19 0.003 0.05 0.29 0.

result had a mean C02 recovery of 99.15 K (77OF). oxygen pressure = 30 a t m . E.0560RH J g-l 70MAN/RAP 173 . Repeating unit is (C12H1204)n.6 f 1.Polymers and Plastics MELINEX FILM. 20. type A polyester film and is a copolymer of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. solid.9 f 2.4543RH Btu Ib.74 + 0.2 Btu lb. HARDENED.746%.2 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 15572. empirical formula C5. value given is expressed as a function of humidity (where RH is relative humidity in %). gross heat of combustion: temperature = 298.1 2 1. Material measured was a polyester 0. nitrogen.8 t 1.(gross) = 5480.(gross) = 16156. empirical f ormula C1 I H2004N 12.26%.1 q.5-METHYLOLMELAMINE. solid.. a melamine-formaldehyde polymer. oxygen. hydrogen.pressure = 30 a t m oxygen.53%. 32.(gross) = -5479.3 Btu lb-I q.0 J g-l 67FRA/MIS MYLAR FILM. I.001 in. thick.(gross) = -9862.27%. 5.1 q.(gross) = 6950. gross heat of combustion: temperature = 25°C (77"F). 34.1 q. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q.(gross) = 3721.0 f 5.07%. q. hydrogen. UNHARDENED.3 cal g-' q.6 Btu lb. 43.2524RH c a l g-l q.47%. 41. Material measured was 100-gauge. duPont d e Nemours and Company t r a d e name.30 + 0. gross heat of cornbustion: at 25°C (77OF) q.(gross) = 6699. a melamine-formaldehyde polymer.(gross) = -22925.9 ?: 6 J g75AND/BAR 2. elementary analysis: carbon. oxygen.4 c a l q.(gross) = 3861.(gtoss) = 22928. elementary analysis: carbon.70%. 17. 5.9 f 5. solid.5HllO2.5Ng. nitrogen.39 + 1.5-METHYLOLMELAMINE.19%.51%. solid. with a n empirical formula (C10H804).2 5 2.4 J g-l 67FRA/MIS 2. qv(gross) = 9864.3 2 2.

duPont d e Nemours and Company t r a d e name). polyphenylene oxide.483 0.644 1.4 Btu lb-I Lf = 0.393 0.I.044 Cp(J g-l K-l) 0.393 0. h e a t of fusion: 83O .745 1. 47%. polybutadiene. polyethylene.013 1.Polymers and Plastics NORYL RESIN 111. 47%.316 0.2 ca1-q-l Lf 0.282 0.503 specific heat change at glass transition temperature: tern erature (KP 212 414 (OF) C (Btu lb-l P Cp(cal g-l K' -) 0.178 0.205 1.178 0.483 0.439 0.184 70ba1 -78 286 0. composition: polystyrene.005 0.103 C ( 18 1O -2 17 O F) O Lf = 0.503 O-) F' Cp(cal g-1 K-l) Cp(J g-l K-l) 0.322 1.837 2.021. 5%.105 -110 39 77 122 212 304 408 475 0.021 0.8 J g specific heat: tern erature (KP 194 277 298 323 373 424 482 519 (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I 0.3 16 0.005 0.044 174 .282 0. solid.439 0.242 0. (E. 2. 1%.242 0.

Polymers and Plastics

NYLON-6; solid; (poly-E-caprolactam); repeating unit: C6H1 NO.

gross heat of combustion: at 20°C (68OF)
slow condensation rapid condensation

q,(gross) = 13640 Btu 1 q,(gross) 7575 cal gq,(gross) = 31694 J g-'

P-'

q,(gross) = 13660 Btu 1 q,(gross) = 7587 cal gq,(gross) = 31744 J g-l

P-'

Mirarnid H: 25OC (77°F)

q,(gross) = 13417 ? 5 0 Btu Ib; . I q,(gross) = 7454.1 2 2.8 cal gq,(gross) = 31188.0 2 11.7 J g-l
specific heat: 273-433 K (32"-320°F); amorphous nylon-6. Cp(Btu lb-I O F - ' ) Cp(cal d?q-') Cp(J g- deg )

g-'

= -0.047 + 8.3 = -0.085 + 1.5 = -0.356 + 6.3

x x x

T

T
T

melting point: maximum melting temperature is 225°C (437'F)

heat of fusion: at 225°C (437°F)
Lf = 81 B t u I' b ; Lf = 45 cal gLf 188 J g-'

57KAC; 55MAR/SMI; 67FRA/MIS

NYLON-6; liquid; (poly-E-caprolactam); repeating unit: C6Hl lNO.
specific heat: 433-553 K (320"-536"F) Cp(Btu Ib-I O - ) F' Cp(cal-q-l K-l) Cp(J g K - l ) 0.5708 + 1.867 x = 0.485 + 3.36 x = 2.029 + 1.406 x
T T T

3JMAR/SMI

175

Polymers and Plastics

I ; .

NYLON-6,C; solid; (polyhexarnethyleneadipamide); repeating unit: C 2H22N202; average rnol. wt. 11000.

gross heat of combustion: at 2OoC ( 8 F 6')

qv(gross)= 13650 Btu I q ( r s ) = 7581 cal g,gos q,(gross) = 31719 J g-l
Ultramid A q,(gross) 13579 f 4.3 Btu lb- 1 q(rs) ,gos 7543.8 ?: 2.4 cal g- 1 q ( r s ) = 31563.3 2 10.0 J g- 1 ,gos
specific heat: 273-553 K (32"-536"F) Annealed Sample

(K)
273 293
313

(OF)

Cp(Btu lb-I

O-) F'

32 68

0.31 1

0.31 1

1.30 1

0.333
0.367

333
353

373 393 413 433 453 473 493 513 523 533
543 553

104 140 176 212 248
284 320 356 392 428 464 482

0.424 0,468 0.505 0.548 0.583 0.642 0.620 0.646 0.664
0.80

0.333 0.367 0.424
0.468

1.393 1.536 1.774
1.958

0.505 0.548 0.583 0.642 0.620 0.646 0.664
0.80 1.13

500 518 536
(OF)

1.13 2.75
1.3

2.113 2.293 2.439 2.686 2.594 2.703 2.778 3.347 4.728
11.51 5.439 3.138

2.75
1.3

0.75

0.75

Drawn Sample

(K)
273 293
313
333

32 68

0.302 0.345

104 140

353

176

0.376 0.420 0.458

0.302 0.345 0.376 0.420 0.458

1.264 1.443
1.573

1.757
1.916

(more)

176

Polymers and Plastics

NYLON-6,6

- Continued
-1 Cp(J g

Drawn Sample

(K)
373 393 413 433 453 473 493 513 523 533 543 553

(OF)

K -1)

212 248 284 320 356 392 428 464 482 500 518 536

0.479 0.503 0.528 0.542 0.560 0.582 0.567 0.676 1.55 6.5 1.35 0.75

0.479 0.503 0.528 0.542 0.560 0.582 0.567 0.676 1.55 6.5 1.35 0.75

2.004 2.105 2.209 2.268 2.343 2.435 2.372 2.828 6.485 27.20 5.648 3.13%

melting point: Drawn

Filaments
M.P., " C M.P., OF Melting Range, "C Melting Range, OF
259 498
18 32

Annealed 262 504

30
54

heat o fusion: f Drawn
Filaments 53.1 29.5 165.3 Annealed 59.9

33.3 139.3
57KAC; 53WIL/DOL; 67FRA/MIS

177

Polymers and Plastics

NYLON-6,lO; solid; ribbon; (polyhexamethylenesebacarnide);repeating unit: C16H30N202; average mol. wt. 9250.

specificheat: ribbon
-1 -1 CP(J g K 1

273 293 313 333 353 373 393 413 433 453 473 493 513 523 533 543 553

32
68

104 140 176 212 248 284 320 356 392 428 464 482 500 518 536

0.327 0.373 0.420 0.486 0.512 0.518 0.53 1 0.561 0.592 0.588 0.686 1.95 0.737 0.639 0.627 0.632 0.639

0.327 0.373 0.420 0.486 0.512 0.518 0.53 1 0.561 0.592 0.588 0,686 1.95 0,737 0.639 0.627 0.632 0.639

1.368 1.561 I .757 2.033 2.142 2.167 2.222 2.347 2.477 2.460 2.870 8. I59 3.084 2.474 2.623 2.644 2.674

melting point: 225°C (437°F); melting range 30"-40°C (54'-72"F)
heat of fusion: ribbon

Lf(Btu Ib-l) Lf(cal 9-l) L&J g- )

47.3 26.3 1io.o 53WIL/DOL

PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN, HARDENED (EDELKUNSTHARZ8); solid; empirical for mula C I 3HI 202.

gross heat of combustion: at 25°C ( 7 F 7')

q,(gross) = 13598 f 3.8 Btu Ib-1 q,(gross) = 7554.3 2.1 cal g-' q,(gross) = 31607.2 ? 8.8 J g-l
67FRA/MIS

178

Polymers and Plastics

PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN, UNHARDENED; solid; empirical formula 1 qH14'3* gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F)
qv(gross) = 12968 2 3.6 Btu lb- 1 q,(gross) = 7204.2 2 2.0 cal g-l q,(gross) = 30142.4 2 8.4 J g-' 67FRA/MIS

POLYACENAPHTHYLENE; solid; amorphous; repeating unit: C 2Hg; degree of
polymerization -600 units.

gross heat o combustion: at 25°C (77°F) f

= 16898 ? 3.6 Btu Ibl1 q,(gross) = 9388.0 f 2.0 cal gq,(gross) = 39279.4 f 8.4 f g-l
q,(gtoss)

68 JOS

POLYALLYLPHTHALATE; solid; empirical formula C14H 40.
gross heat of combustion: at 25°C ( 7 F 7')

q,(gross) 11934 k 3.8 Btu Ib- 1 q,(gross) = 6629.8 f 2.1 cal g-l q,(gross) 27739.1 2 8.8 J g-l
67FRA/MIS

POLYBUTADIENE 41OF; solid; analysis: carbon, 88.47%; hydrogen, 1 1.160%; sulfur, 0.083%; oxygen, 0.12%; ash, 0.34%; phenyl-8-naphthylamine, 0.10%; repeating unit: C4H6; polymerization is carried out at 5°C (41 OF).
specific heat:

tern erature

(€8
50

(OF)

Cp(Btu Ib-l OF-')
0.08532 0.15832 0.224 16 0.359 0.433 0.47 1 0.4940

Cp(cal g-1 K -1

Cp(J g-1 K -1 )
0.3570 0.6624 0.9379 1.50 1.81 1.97 2.067 53aFUR/McC

-370 -280 150 -190 200 -100 250 - 10
100
300

330

80 134

0.08532 0.15832 0.224 16 0.359 0.433 0.471 0.4940

179

Polymers and Plastics

I

POLYBUTADIENE 122°F; solid; analysis: carbon, 88.66%; hydrogen, 11.180%; sulfur,
0.150%; oxygen, 0.145%; ash, 0.097%; phen I-6-naphthylamine, 0.12%; repeating unit: c ~ H polymerization carried out at 50°C 132OF). ~ ;

r

specific heat:

50 -370 100 -280 150 -190 200 -100 250 - 10 300 80 134 330

0.08640 0.15777 0.22299 0.3967 0.4326 0.4680 0.49 19

0,08640 0.15777 0.22299 0.3967 0.4326 0.4680 0.49 19

0.36 15 0.6601 0.9330 1.66 1.81 1.958 2.058

53aFUR/McC

POLY-1-BUTENE;solid; isotactic; 34% crystallinity; repeating unit: C4H8; degree of
polymerization -800 units.
gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F)

q,(gross) = 19996.9 0.9 Btu Ib-1 q,(gross) = 11 109.4 + 0.5 cal 9-l q,(gross) = 46481.7 f 2.1 J g_+

68 JOS

POLY-i-BUTENE;

(Sample I ) viscous liquid; mol. wt. -4900; (Sample 2) amorphous solid, rubberlike; mol. wt. -200000; 0.033% ash; (Sample 3) solid; Opanol B 100; repeating unit: C4Hg.

gross heat of combustion: at 25OC ( 7 F 7')
Sample 1 q,(gross) 20123.6 q,(gross) = 11179.8 q,(gross) = 46776.3 Sample 2 Sample 3

2.3 Btu Ib- 1 2 1.3 cal ?: 5.4 J g
_+

q,(gross) = 20122.4 ?: 7.7 Btu lb- 1 qv(gross) 11 179.1 f 4.3 cal g-l q,(gross) 46773.4 k 18.0 J g-l

q,(gross) = 20116.4 2 3.6 Btu Ib- 1 q,(gtoss) = 11 175.8 k 2.0 cal q,(gtoss) = 46759.5 f 8.3 J
49PAR/MOS; 67FRA/MIS

180

repeating unit: C8H80.9 f 5. repeating unit: C2H2C12. repeating unit: C2H2F2. q.6 Btu Ib-' q.(gross) = 13307 ? 2. q.4 f 0. 20% crystallinity.(gross) = 7392. degree of polymerization .4 cal g-' 14765.(gross) q. 1-DICHLOROETHYLENE (polyvinylidene chloride). e m pir ica 1 formula C16H1403* gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) PKU T 22 qv(gross) 13336 f 3.1 3529.(gross) = 7408.1 f 5.1 f 0.l-DIFLUOROETHYLENE(polyvinylidene fluoride).0 ? 8. General Electric t r a d e name.9 f 1. gross heat of combustion: at 25OC (77°F) q.2-PROPANE CARBONATE.8 Btu lb.(gross) q.(gross) 4527.8 Btu lb. 67FRA/MIS 181 . gross heat of combustion: at 25'C (77'F) qv(gross) = 14892 2 2. gross heat of combustion: at 25'C (77'F) q.9 J g-' 68505.(gross) 13336 f 3.4 J g-' Lexan.(gross) q. solid.1 2515.150 units.2 2 8. degree of polymerization -300 units. purity 99.5 Btu 1bl1 q.(gross) 6352.8 2 1.2 f 1.9 J g-l 68JOS POLY-4.8 J g-' XSIN/STU POLY-1.Q'-DXOXY DIPHENYL-2.7 Btu lb.5 Btu I b l1 q. solid.(gross) = 7408.1 f 2. solid.(gross) = 8273.7 f 2.1 cal g-' 10523.6-DIMETHYLPHENYLENEETHER.4 c a l gq. 20% crystallinity.0 f 8.(gtoss) q.1 q.(gross) = 34615.0 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 30998.4 cal gq. solid.so1id.9 mol %.7 J g-' 64GOO/LAC POLY-2.2 f 3.7 f 2.(gross) = 30931. particle size 100 mesh.8 J g-' Makrolon.Polymers and Plastics POLY-I.1 c a l g-' qv(gross) = 30998.

3936 0. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77'F) SRM 1475.6468 1.2 2 5.8308 2. solid.1 q. NBS Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1475.7 f 2.5904 0.(gtoss) 57KAC POLYETHYLENE.4790 0. 0.4 2 8. 0.6 q.(gross) = 46269. 5'-di-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxphenyl) propionate) me ham] added to polymer by manufacturer. crystallinity 72% q. wt.1 J specific heat: SRM 1475 temoerature (K) ' 10 100 (OF) Cp(Btu lb-' OF--) 0.1632 0.6 t 23. repeating unit: C2H4. density at 23OC (73"F).1632 0.9 Btu lb. ern-'.5 c a l g-l q.1 7977.1 cal q.0 J g-l qv(gross) q.(gross) = 33376.4800 1.10 32 77 116 188 320 360 1. gross heat of combustion: at 20°C (68°F) 14359 5 9.2839 0. methyl group content. qv(gross) 19905. ash content. 52000.6 Btu Ib.8 J SRM 1475 modified by recrystallization under high pressure.4790 0.7 f 3. repeating unit: C7HI 3N0. linear polymer.(gross) 46332.4376 0.6829 -280 -100 200 250 273.0029 0.0 I23 0.4376 0.(gross) = 11073. 73CHA/BES 182 .15 298.002%.0040 2.3537 0.15 .5904 Cp(J g-l K-I) -442 0.4702 74SPL/JOH.0 cal 8. molecular weight.0029 0.1 ? ? q. 0.3936 0. 111 ppm of anti-oxidant [tetrakis-(methylene-3(3!.5 2 3.3537 0.1877 1.(gross) = 19932. crystallinity 96%.(gross) = 11058.9784 g degree of crystallinity determined t o be 72%.Polymers and Plastics POLY-E-ENANTHOLACTAM.2839 0. solid.8 B t u Ib.15 methyl groups per 100 carbon atoms.1 2.-ave.

gross heat of combustion: at 25OC (77°F) sample 1 q.(gross) = 46362. mean value was based on percentage recovery of C02. Density was 0.1 q. (solid) AH(po1ymerization) = -127.70.6 f 3.1 q.(gross) = 8905.(gross) = 11102.7 2 14. gross heat of combustion: temperature = 25OC (77"F).69 f 3.Polymers and Plastics POLYETHYLENE.6 2 0.1 AH(po1ymerization) = . -34000 units and -13000 units gave t h e same heat of combustion.I q.9 2 4.8 2 11. repeating unit: C2H4.3 J sample 2 q.6 Btu lb. amorphous. q. crystallinity 98%.6 2 3.9 cal g-' AH(po1ymerization) = -296.7 2 14.94 Btu Ib. CH2C12.4 J sample 3 q. solid.94 2 2.9 2 6.823 g a' icyclo C2.1 q. 63PAR/MOS. samples with different degrees of polymerization.2 Btu lb.(gross) = 16030.(gross) = 18201. (sample 4) high density.7 2 3.8 2 2. (sample 3) low density.(gross) = 19985.2.(gross) = 11093. 18000-20000. mol.(gross) = 46485. crystallinity 50%.2 2 8. repeating unit: CqHlO.5 2 8.4€YCLOHEXYLENE).8 cal q.8 cal gqv(gross) = 42307.(gross) = 10111.2 J g-l 49PARIMOS.4 Btu lb.(gross) = 19945.0 J g-l 7JAND/BAR 183 .5 cal g-l q.5 2 19.(gross) = 11080.6 cal g-' q.(gross) = 19876. nC7H120(liq) + (C7H120). solid.0 cal q.95 5 7.9 f 2.2 2 5. Marlex.pressure was 30 atrn oxygen. (sample 2) linear.(gross) = 11042. b' q.15 J g-l heat of polymerization: temperature = 25OC (77'F).0 Btu l.(gross) = 19968.5 ? 1. solid.3 Btu Ib-' q.3 Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q.6 J g-l sample 4 q. Repeating unit (C7H 120)n was formed from endo-2-methyl-7-oxa n.9 t 33.19 cal g-' q. 67FRA/MIS P0LY-a-METHYLSTYRENE. wt.7 J g-l 68JOS POLY(OXY-2-METHYL-l.(gross) = 37262.(gross) = 46415.45 2 9. (sample I ) high pressure. Mirathen H.11 heptane by polymerization in and material was a white powdery solid. anionic.(gross) = 46202.

9 k 4 Btu lb.+ 3.3 16.(gross) = 19838 k 9.0 cal g.(gross) = 11080.(gross) 19944. polymer of a adipic acid diamide plus (2.9 J g q.(gross) = 2491 1.1 q. 40% crystallinity qv(gross) = 17838 k 5.0 J g-l isotactic.5 Btu lb.(gross) = 41510.(gross) = 41499.(gross) = 17821 f 5.1 Btu lb-: q.8 2 2.0 2 1. solid. repeating unit: C3H6.(gross) = 41463.4 Btu lb. empirical formula C15H1804N4.3 2 4 Btu Ib-1 11082.4-2.4 Btu Ib.I qv(gtoss) = 9928.(gross) = 9909.(gross) q.(gross) = 10717 r 3.2 +.(gross) = 17853 f 4.1 J g-l 67FRA/MIS 184 .8 f 9. 58% crystallinity Polypropylene VK 166.(gross) = 46360. untangled q.5 t 7. 1.1 q.+ 2.(gross) = 9922.1 67FRA/MIS. solid.1 q.3 J g-' degree of polymerization -4000 units q.1 q.7 cal gq.0 f 13. 68JOS POLYUREA (POLYHARNSTOFF).(gross) 19948.1 cal g-l q.(gross) 9921. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77'F) q. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77'F) isotactic.2 Btu lb.2 Btu Ib.(gross) = 41423.(gross) = 5954.0 cal g-l q.Polymers and Plastics POLYPROPYLENE. 67FRA/MIS POLYSTYRENE.5 .1 q.I q.1 q.6 J g.+ 2.(gross) = 9900.2 f 5.2 cal 46368.(gross) = 46112.(gross) = 41515.6)-toluene diisocyanate.0 J gatactic. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) isotactic.(gross) = 17858 .4 2 4.(gross) 2: 11021.6 Btu lb.3 f 5.4 f 2.(gross) q.7 f 21.0 2 10.2 J 63PAR/MOS.I q.5 q. repeating unit: C8H8. amorphous polystyrol BW qv(gross) 17860 2 7. solid. I q.4 cal q.7 3 g-' _+ polystyrol P70 q.2 5 cal 9.1 cal g-l q.2 J g-4 .7 f 12.3 Btu Ib.9 f 3.5 . amorphous q.

492 0.264 specific hea.3 J g-l 58SIN/STU PROPARGYL AZIDE POLYMER.7 mole %. gross h e a t of combustion: temperature is 25°C (77OF). solid. N = 49.0 14 0..338 0. Purity is 99.57.069 0.(gross) = 5252 ? 12 cal g-l q.414 1. solid.240 0.518 0.2.373 0.069 0.(Btu Ib-I OF-') IJ Cp(ca1 g-1 K-l) 0.059 2.3-triazole polymer ( t h e 5 methylene configuration is also possible). ABS I.338 0. i t is a synthetic thermoplastic polymer.Polymers and Plastics POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.014 0.492 0.561 2. solid.301 1. qv(gross) = 7874. change at glass transi ion -2mperature: A C ~ (g-' K-') J 188 -121 377 217 0.04. sample was dried under vacuum at 100OC.004 1. H = 4.7 Btu lb. mean values were corrected for HN03 formation.541 Cp(J g -1 K -1 ) 163 -166 -69 39 77 131 225 315 399 0.97 wt.373 0. specific heat: temperature (K) (OF) 217 277 298 328 380 430 477 C.770 1. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.184 0. Analysis found C = 44.% (oxygen is due t o water t h a t is occluded or chemically bound).059 0. and 0 = 1.31 1 0.8 cal gqv(gross) 18304.07.167 2.240 0. Polymer was formed when an alcohol-water solution of propargyl bromide and sodium azide was refluxed and t h e product (C3H3N3)n appears t o be primarily a 4-methylene-l.518 0.289 70BAI 185 . qv(gross) = 9454 ? 22 Btu lb. Repeating unit is (-CH2CHCI-). copolymer of styrene-acrylonitrile = 76% and polybutadiene = 15%.1 q.184 0.' qv(gross) = 4374.541 0.31 1 0.(gross) = 21974 ? 50 f g-' 73HOU/HUM RESIN. and value given is per monomer unit.

(gross) = 2154.24187 0. combustion product is carbon tetrafluoride.09218 0.24809 0.20 17 0.1 k 18 Btu Ib-l q.3 2 2.038 1.5598 0.0 caf g-l q.(gross) = 2478.21076 0.(gross) = 4461.7 cal gq.04821 0. combustion products are gaseous carbon dioxide and carbon tetrafluoride. (polytetrafluoroethylene).21076 0. (poly-1 I-aminodecanoic acid).4 J g-l 67FRA/MIS TEFLON solid.3857 0. density.24809 0.13380 0.021 1. repeating unit: C4F4.3 Btu lbi 1 q.22768 0.7 2 10.8 f 0.72 cal Lf 67DOMIARM. duPont de Nemours and Company trade name). 15.25669 0.Polymers and Plastics RILSAN. gross heat of combustion in oxygen: at 25°C (77OF).7408 0.012 1.(gross) = 5007.10 26 44 98 134 188 0.7 Btu lb-' Lf = 8.9526 1.2 g ~ r n .24402 0.I. solid.17706 0.22768 0.2 cal g-l q.(gross) = 36987.~ .0 ? 42 J ggross heat of combustion in fluorine: 25OC (77°F).88 18 0. empirical formula C HzlON.04821 0.1 J g-' specific heat: Cp(Btu lb-I 50 100 150 200 250 270 280 310 330 360 OF-') -370 -280 -190 -100 . 52FUR/McC 186 .3 f 3.13380 0.09218 0.25669 0. 2.24402 0.17706 0. q. q.8 ? 1. gross heat of combustion: at 25OC (77OF) q ( toss) = 15913 2 4 Btu lb-l q$ross) = 8840.(gross) 10371. (E.8 ? 8.24 187 0.074 transition temperatures: 293 K (20°C) (68°F) 303 K (30OC)(86°F) heat of transition: for t h e temperature range 280-310 K.(gross) = 1196.

4 2 2. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q. empirical f O ~ I n U l aC3H602N2. 6. q. a urea-formaldehyde resin.4 J g-l 67FRA/MIS 187 .0 cal gq. 1 .41%. 35.19%.7 ? 3 6 Btu Ib.9 f 8. oxygen.(gross) = 13900. elementary analysis: carbon.(gtoss) = 3800. 27. solid. hydrogen. nitrogen. 30.91%.Polymers and Plastics TROCKENLEIM (DRYING GLUE).49%.(gross) = 6840.

Polypeptides and Proteins .

thermochemical calorie used.01 0.2929 1.9050 1.00448 0. 0.(gross) = 23700 ? 800 J g-l P-' 55MER/WAT CHYMOTRYPSINynonaqueous.3 109 0.2153 0. 15. 22.10 77 80 0.7%.43 Btu Ib. q.9008 1. 53%. heat of denaturation: protein solution is 0.3008 69HUT/COL CASEIN. hydrogen. A proteolyic enzyme found in t h e intestine t h a t catalyzes t h e hydrolysis of various proteins (especially casein) t o form polypeptides and amino acids. Anhydrous material is a protein from beef pancreas made up of 245 amino acids with mol.0 1874 0.180 mass % in a 0.5.3090 0.30 t 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r t o room temperature.04 1.5. oxygen.57 J g-l specific heat: t h e apparent molal specific heat of a protein solution of 0.3 109 -442 -280 -190 -100 .1 120 0.Polypeptides and Proteins BOVINE CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN A.7096 0.(gross) = 5670 k 200 cal gq.00448 0.34 ? k -1 -1 Cp(J g K ) 298 313 0. of 25646. carbon.1120 0.04 75PRI/PLO 191 .15 300 (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' Cp(cal g-1 K -1 ) 0. tern erature (KP (OF) 77 104 Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal g-1 K-l) 0.2153 0. nitrogen. MILK.4686 0.3090 0. 7%.42 f 0. phosphorus.8%.1696 0.26 17 0.1 6.180 mass % in a 0.01 1. sulfury 0.2617 0.1696 0.(gross) = 10210 k 360 Btu 1 q.34 0.1 mol dm-3 glycine buffet at pH 3. A denaturation H A denaturation H AH denaturation 11.01 * 0. specific heat: temperature (K) 10 100 150 200 250 298.65%. solid.01 0. solid. wt.85%.35 c a l g-l 26.1 mol drn-3 glycine buffer with pH = 3.31 0.31 t 0.

etc.1 Ash free and moisture free q. a protein obtained from collagen by boiling skin.49 17.(gross) 4400 c a l g.3723 0. bones.3490 0.5309 1.(gross) = 9270 f 180 Btu lb.1 q. solid.8%.6795 1. chief amino acids present are proline.3723 0.6%-0.1 qv(gross) = 18410 J g.4280 1. hydroxyproline. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.3490 0. 0.406 1 0. As received: ash content.4280 0.40 14 0.7908 55KAN GELATINE.406 1 0.(gross) = 21550 f 400 J g-l 15ROTlWAL 192 .' qv(gross) 5150 f 100 cal gq.40 14 0.4602 1. water content not determined.Polypeptides and Proteins I COLLAGEN. and glycine. %) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' cP(cal g-l K' -) Cp(J g -1 K 1 -1 0 1.3659 0. converted to gelatine by boiling with water. can absorb 5 t o 10 times its weight of water.56 6. fibrous protein t h a t comprises t h e major portion of t h e white fiber in connective tissues of t h e animal body.3659 0.(gross) 7920 Btu Ib. with water. tendons. q.03 0. specific heat: 298 K ( 7 F 7') moisture content (wt.699 1 1. ligaments.02 1.5577 1.96 4. solid.

7%. gross heat of combustion: variation with thermal denaturation temperature.3 591 1.9 5873.8 5721.3 5852. also called prolomin.2 5648. sulfur. solid.9%. 21. amino acids of glutens are glutamic acid.0%. leucine. and arginine. corn (maize).(gross) cal g-l 5797.Polypeptides and Proteins GLIADIN. simple vegetable protein found in gluten.1 5779. denaturation temperature q.3 5777.7%.7 24732. nitrogen. 6. gross heat of combustion: variation with thermal denaturation temperature. denaturation 30 35 50 70 110 86 95 122 158 230 10775 I0640 10399 I0457 10535 5986. oxygen. typical composition: carbon.] which remains after washing t h e starch out of flour with water. proline.8 24306.(gross) c a l g-l 5891 5869 5942 6028 J g-l 10600 10560 10700 10850 24648 24556 24861 24221 66PON GLUTEN. mixture of proteins found in t h e seeds of cereal grains [wheat. 17.2 5809. hydrogen.5 23634.6 23937.4 24573.9 24171.8 66PON 86 95 122 158 230 193 .1 24181. 52. solid.8 25046.1 variation with concentration of aqueous alcohol used in extraction. alcohol % 40 50 60 70 Btu lb-I q. 1. etc.7%.1 24488.6 ("C) 30 35 50 70 110 (OF) Btu lb-' 10436 10572 10168 10298 10403 J g-l 24258.

95%.2535 1. 1 5654.2996 0.2996 0.3 5583.00475 0. gross heat of combustion: variation with thermal denaturation temperature.1 192 0.0 1987 0. BOVINE ZINC.4 66p0n 35 50 70 110 122 158 230 INSULIN.3014 0.00475 0.9 cal g-l qv(gross) = 31292. solid. repeating unit: C9H9N0.(gross) = 7303.0 cal g-l q.30 I4 0. t h e anhydrous material from beef pancreas made up of 16 amino acids arranged in two chains connected by sulfur bridges.6 ? 28.0 5699.4 ? 25.67%.(gross) = 13462 ? 12 Btu Ib-I q.10 77 80 0.6 23359. 1 23975. zinc present (as ZnO) = 0.254 1 0.(gross) = 31393. The ash content = 0.1 J g-l benzene insoluble q.2 ? 6.Polypeptides and Proteins 1 GLUTENIN.7 23656.1 192 0. specific heat: 10 100 200 250 298. solid. denaturation temperature q.(gross) = 7479.8740 I .2089 0. solid. gross heat of combustion: at 25OC (77°F) benzene soluble qv(gross) = 13506 ? 11 Btu Ib. (C508H7520150N130S12Zn).9 J g-l 52BRE/TER 194 .(gross) cal g-l 5710.1 5730.I q.2541 0.1 ? 6.2611 69HUT/COL PHENYLALANINE POLYMER. wheat protein soluble in dilute alkalies.3 23848.9 ("C) (OF) 30 86 95 Btu lb-l 10278 10315 10050 10177 10260 3 g-1 2389 I.15 300 -442 -280 -100 .0632 1.2089 0.4987 0.

vicuna.9 T 17. and calcium. carbohydrate. q. 8%.2 cal gq. protein.(gross) = 24100 3 g-l P-' STMER/WAT WOOL. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.2 J g-l 59KOZ/SKU SARCOSINE POLYMER. protein chains (keratin) bound together by disulfide cross linkages. 16%. remainder includes small amounts of elements such as phosphorus. 3. fat. sulfur content of wood sample. typical composition: water. iron. 31. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) 1 qv(gross) = 10128 2 7.8 Btu Ibl 8069.44 g ~ r n . 15%.7%.0 cal g33762.9%. sulfur product aqueous H2S04.(gross) = 9898 Btu qv(gross) = 5499 cal gqv(gross) = 23008 J g-l $' 3 lPAS/KON 195 .5%.3 ? 1. glutamic acid. chief amino acids: cysteine and cystine. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.solid. leucine.4%. sulfur. dry basis.~ . proline.4 2 4.(gross) qv(gross) qv(gross) 1 14525 ? 1. staple fibers obtained from the fleece of sheep (and also alpaca. arginine.0 ? 4. density.(gross) = 10370 B t u 1 q.6 Btu Ibl qv(gross) = 5626. q. solid. 10%.6 J g-l 52BRE/TER VITELLIN. repeating unit: C3H5N0.(gross) 23540. globulin protein from egg yolk. and certain goats). 49.(gross) = 5760 cal gq. 0. repeating Unit: CgH13NO. solid. 16. 8%.Polypeptides and Proteins POLY-N-ETHYL-N-METHYL PROPIONAMIDE. 1. solid.3%. gross heat of combustion: at 25OC (77'F) q.

9% 6-naphthalenesulf onate. salt formed from reaction of wool with oxalic acid. q.(gtoss) = 22426 J g-' 3 I PAS/KON WOOL PICRATE. salt formed from reaction of wool with picric acid. 19. sulfur product aqueous H2S04. sulfur product aqueous H2S04.4% p icr ate.Polypeptides and Proteins . salt formed from reaction of wool with 6-naphthalenesulf onic acid.(gross) 22970 J g-l 31PAS/KON WOOL 6-NAPHTHALENE SULFONATE.(gross) = 9648 Btu Ib. 2.(gross) = 5043 cal g-l qv(gross) 21 LOO J g-l 3 1PAS/KON I96 .30% acetate. q. I WOOL ACETATE. 18. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. solid. 0. sulfur product aqueous H2S04. sulfur product aqueous H2S04. solid. q. I q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.I q.1 qv(gross) = 5490 cal g-' q.(gross) = 9882 Btu Ib.(gross) = 9077 Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.22% oxalate.(gtoss) = 5360 cal gq.(gross) = 9868 Btu lbil qv(gross) = 5482 cal gqv(gross) 22937 J g-l 3 I PAS/KON WOOL OXALATE. q. solid. salt formed from reaction of wool with acetic acid.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content. 6. 2. sulfur product aqueous H ~ S O ~ .21% sulfate.1 3 1 PAS/KON WOOL pTOLUENESULFONATE.Polypeptides and Proteins WOOL PROTEIN. and 16.85% nitrogen. q.6% p-toluenesulfonate.(gross) = 9625 Btu 1bT qJgross) = 5347 cal gqv(gross) = 22372 J g. solid.3% cystine. solid.3 cal gq.(gross) = 9824 Btu l b i I qv(gross) = 5458 cal gq.(gross) = 10100 2 4.1 Btu 1 q.6 J g-l 64PAL/REI WOOL SULFATE.solid. material is a keratin containing 14. q.(gross) = 5609 ? 2. salt formed from reaction of wool with sulfuric acid.(gross) = 23468 ? 9. salt formed from reaction of wool with p-toluene-sulfonic acid.(gross) = 22836 3 g-l 31PAS/KON 197 . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. sulfur product aqueous H2S04. 3.9% sulfur.

Refuse .

D.I q. %. values are on a moisture-free. 6. q.5 mm particle size for laboratory test analysis. waxes.(gross) = 4790 cal g-' q. sulfur content.(gtoss) = 8062 Btu -1 q.(gross) = 4792 cal g-' qv(gross) = 20050 J g-' 77JEN/EAT REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL. ash content. sulfur content. 5.(gross) 4422 cal g-' qv(gross) = 18500 J g-' sample B q.14 wt. 0.(gross) = 8621 Btu lb.(gross) = 8540 Btu lbqv(gross) = 4744 cal g-l q. gross heat of combustion: value is average of two trials.Ref use REFUSE.095 wt. sulfur content.62 wt.265 wt.1 q.(gross) = 9796 Btu lb. solid. q.18 wt. Sample I.1 q.(gross) 8626 Btu lb.1 q. ash-free basis. 1978 and Jan. Ref use-derived fuel-3 (RDF-3) was obtained from the National Center for Resource Recovery (NCRR). Residual moisture.(gross) = 5446 cal qv(gross) = 22785 J Sample 2.1 q. tested during Dec. %. Residual moisture. 24.C. solid. tested during 1979.(gross) = 9253 Btu lb. Residual moisture. %. 0. 96. Samples a r e dry shredded garbage (essentially free of glass and metals). %.(gross) = 4482 cal g-l q. sample A q.13 wt. ash content.80 wt. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. and oils. ash content.(gross) = 20040 J g-l sample D q.(gross) = 7959 Btu lb.031 wt. 5.(gross) 21522 J g-l Sample 3.(gross) = 5144 cal g-' q. 11. 14. Washington. %.(gross) = 19850 J g-' 1 sample C q. %. 96. 0. 1979. tested during June and July 1978. q. The refuse material contained significant amounts of reduced carbonaceous materials such as plastics. assume values refer t o room temperature. %.(gross) = 18752 f g-l 81KIR/COL 20 1 . Sample was airdried and processed t o 0.090 wt.

Milwaukee.1 q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. 11. residual moisture.26 wt. 0. sulfur content.796 wt. 15. Wis. Residual moisture.. %. 22. Cockeysville. ash content. residual moisture.(gross) = 21953 J g Sample 2. q.solid. 3.(gross) = 5295 cal qv(gross) = 22155 J g SLKIR/COL REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL. Refuse-derived fuel-3 (RDF-3) was obtained from Americology. 0. Sample 1. Md.095 wt.65 wt. operated by Teledyne National. Residual moisture.006 wt. qv(gross) 9525 Btu-' q. %.48 wt. 4.Refuse REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL. ash content. Refuse-derived fuel-3 (RDF-3) was obtained from t h e Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. as content. %. solid.(gross) = 5867 cal gq. sulfur content. %. 0. laboratory test analysis. values are on a moisture-free. ash-free basis. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. q.(gross) = 9392 Btu lb. 96. 5. %. %. %. 29. %. Sample was air-dried and processed t o 0 5 mm particle size for .I 8 I KIRICOL 202 . ash-free basis.87 wt. sulfur content.(gtoss) = 24546 J g. 0.14 wt. values are on a moisture-free. Sample was air-dried and processed t o 0. tested during 1979.24-wt.065 wt.(gross) 5247 cal q. ash content.52 wt. 96. %. qv(gtoss) = 10553 Btu 1P-l q. 5.5 mm particle size for laboratory test analysis. %. sulfur content.(gross) 9438 Btu Ib.80 wt.1 qv(gross) = 5221 cal g-' q&ross) = 21846 J g-l Sample 3.

ash-free) q. unclassified material.54 mass %.(gross) = 4221 cal g-l maximum q.(gross) = 5020 Btu lbl 1 average q. All components have a nominal particle size of 50 micrometers.(gross) = 7598 Btu lb. sulfur.0%.(gross) = 7430 Btu lb. values a r e on a moisture-free. The composition of t h e synthetic RDF is approximately 80 mass % microcrystalline cellulose. chlorine. waste from t h e city of St.42 mm (-40 mesh). A synthetic ref use-derived fuel (RDF) has been developed at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and is designated as a standard reference material (SRM 1657).(gross) = 17270 J g-' average q.(gross) = 5254 cal gq. 0. %. dry basis.' (dry. and has a particle size of about 0.(gross) = 4128 cal g-' maximum q.94%. 1I. heavy fraction of waste removed by air-density separation. A sample of ECO FUEL-I1 RDF was obtained from Combustion Equipment Associates.(gross) = 5963 Btu lbll (dry-basis) q.(gross) = 1275 cal minimum q. solid. Residual moisture.(gross) = 4675 Btu lb. MUNICIPAL.(gross) = 1683 cal minimum q.71 wt.3%. Louis.1 %52. and 5 mass % alumina.2%.(dry.(gross) = 10867 J g-' batch 2 minimum q. 0. 7.34 f 0.1 minimum q. 1.5 in.4%. ash-free basis. gross heat of combustion: values refer t o 25OC (77°F). ash.1 minimum q. particle size of 1. q. 0. solid.(gross) = 7481 Btu Ib. (batch 2) from 99 samples collected November 1973 through January 1974.40%. solid.14%-0. 9.3%-50.(dry-basis) qv(gross) = 13870 J g-l (dry-basis) q.(gross) = 17400 J g.' q. Residual moisture content.28%.' average q.(gross) = 2789 cal gaverage q.(gross) = 9451 Btu lb.13%-0.(gross) = 21983 J g-' 8 1KIR/COL REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL. ash content. 3. classified material. magnetic metal removed. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. %.Ref use REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL.1 maximum q.(gross) = 5333 J maximum q.(gross) = 11669 J g-l 74WIS/SUT 203 . 20. (batch 1 ) from 210 samples collected April 1972 through February 1973. 13. chlorine.01%-0.627 wt. sulfur content.6%-21. 0. light fraction only: moisture.1 maximum q. q. 1%-66.(gross) = 2597 cal gaverage q. with only magnetic metal removed: moisture.(gross) = 3315 cal g.(gross) = 2295 Btu lb.(gross) = 7041 J maximum q. 15 mass % silica. ash. ash content.95%. Conn. 0. batch 1 minimum q.(gross) 3029 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 17661 J g-' average q.7 mass %.05%-0. 12.46 wt. ash-free) 85COL REFUSE. Bridgeport. and less. %. sulfur. ash-free) qv(gross) = 4159 cal gi (dry.

a.nd other non-combustible material. 0.3%. 5.3%.. 0. glass. pottery. 23. square mesh. vegetable matter.0%. 29. vegetable matter. fines. 5. etc.' q.0%. 1. animal matter. moisture.7%. wood. wood. 10. 10. passing 1/4 in.1%. f sample 1 (dry basis) qv(gross) = 5598 Btu lbf 1 q. animal matter.(gross) 4060 cal gqv(gross) 16987 J g-l 55SPI 204 .(gross) = 7308 Btu lb.5%.1%. 34. 36.4%. passin 1/4 in.3%. 0. rags. waste from a n English town. metal. 4. (sample 2) (on dry basis : paper.0%. fines. coal. coke cinders. square mesh. 17. cinders. 1. solid. 7 gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. metal. pottery. 3. coke.5%.6%. moisture. (sample I) (on dry basis): paper. 16. x 1/4 in.1%. glass. etc. 4.Ref use REFUSE.(gross) = 31 10 c a l gq. coal.2%. 45. and other noncombustible matter..8%.(gross) = 13012 f g-l sample 2 (dry basis) q. x 1/4 in.9%.9%. rags. 0.8%.7%. MUNICIPAL.

Rubber Materials .

I ) 0.004 0.4 -99. A typical compounding formula for passenger t i r e treads made out of natural rubber: smoked sheet (57.454 Cp(cal g-1 K .3%). styrene-butadiene. and polybutadiene. soap as sodium oleate 0.3%). philrich 5 (2.9%). solid.0067 0.4 -441.44.4 80.6 0.268 0.6%).454 Cp(J g-1 K -1 ) 0. Gross heats of combustion were determined for t h e solid residue and organic liquid.6 12 1.(gross) = 9600 cal g-' q. agerite HP (0. modifier = 0. and amount soluble in ethanoltoluene azeotrope = 5.Rubber Materials DISCARDED AUTOMOBILES TIRES.2607. antozite 675 (2.6%).146 0.2%).(gross) = 17000 Btu lbq. sulfur (1. reogen (1. and redax (0.92.0067 0.4 -369.(gross) 13000 Btu lb. HAF (28.3%). a n organic liquid.4 -279.26% 0.8%).9%).12 1. hydrogen = 10. amax No.33% -450. stearic acid (1. % styrene. Analysis of material gave t h e following in percent by weight: carbon = 88.50.(gross) = 40000 J g-' 1 organic liquid q. composed of 1-3 butadiene and 25 wt.4%).081 0.0%1 0. agerite resin D (0. The destructive distillation of tires resulted in a solid residue.3%). microcrystalline wax (0.00 10 0. zinc oxide (2%). There are four types of rubber used in tires: natural.00 10 0. f a t t y acid as oleic acid = 0. polyisoprene. gross heat o combustion: f solid residue q. specific heat: t e m erature (KP (OF) 5 10 50 100 200 300 Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') 0. solid.(gross) = 7200 cal g-' q.42. ash = 0. 1 (0. and a combustible gas of undetermined heating value (the process produced a mass loss of 65%).146 0.(gross) = 30000 J g-' 74COL/DOW GR-S RUBBER. phenyl-beta-naphthylamine = 0.6.37.90 44RAN/FER 207 .028 0.4%).954.1 q.

(gross) = 19465 Btu lb.4% ash qv(gross) q.I q.117 0.3%.12%. 25% ether insoluble.028 0.(gross) = 10746 cal q.8"F).44 I .(gross) = 19444 Btu Ib-' q. 0.(gross) q.1 qv(gross) = 10814 cal q. Lf = 7.02% ash.352 0.18 Btu Ib.(gross) = 19129 Btu Ib.99 cal Lf = 16. ether insoluble fraction.02% ash sample 2. (sample 2): latex. 75% ether soluble. trypsin treated. specific heat: 15 20 50 100 200 300 -432 -423 -369 -279 -99 80 0. 0. 0.344 0.(gross) = 10627 cal q.028 0.154 0.(gross) 19355 Btu Ib.1 10753 cal 44991 J sample 2.(gross) = 10802 cal q. digested with water at 190°C (374'F). ether insoluble fraction.(gross) = 19343 Btu Ib. 0. ash content average 0.(gross) = 45247 J sample 2.(gross) = 44961 J q.7% ash q. gross heat of combustion: 30°C (86°F) sample 1.03%. Nitrogen content was about 0.1 %-0.1% ash q. benzene-insoluble constituents averaged 0.084 0.1 q.344 0.073 0. 0. (sample I): latex.084 0. I54 0.452 0.017 0. solid. ether soluble fraction.1 q.017 0. 0.Rubber Materials i l PURIFIED NATURAL RUBBER HYDROCARBON.1 Lf = 3.89 heat of fusion: at 110°C (51.646 1.(gross) = 44464 3 34JES/CUM 208 . solid. soluble in ether.452 0.(gross) = 19411 Btu lb.8% ash q.(gross) = 45196 J sample 2. extracted with water and ethanol.(gross) = 45120 J sample 2. prepared by digestion of latex with steam at 190°C (374°F) and extraction of resins and products of hydrolysis with alcohol and water.15% ash q.7 J g 35BEK/MAT RUBBER. 1.(gross) = 10784 cal q.

sulfur as gaseous SO2.7 - - 1. Natural rubber 46 Smoked sheet SBR 1712 cis-Polybutadiene Reogen K-Stay G Stearic acid Zinc oxide Agerite resin D Agerite HP Antozite 67s Microcrystalline wax Philrich 5 HAF ISAF Sulfur Amax No.8 11.5 2.6 SBR cis-polybutadiene* % 1. 29.3 2 2 gross heat of combustion: at 30°C (86"F). x varies between 1 and 4.3 2. repeating unit: [(C3H8).(gross) = 7800 c a l gq.9 0.8 0.3 *SBR is styrene-butadiene rubber gross heat of decomposition: at 375°C (707°F) t h e mean value is for random samples of black-sidewal t i r e tread.4 2 0.2 1.4 0.(gross) 32640 J g-l P-' 74COL/DOW 209 . q. -' P q.9 28.S 1. typical compounding formulae for passenger t i r e treads.9041 m cal g-' q.37828 m J g-' m is grams of sulfur per gram of compound 34 JES/CUM TIRE.3 - 0.) (18000 Btu lb.4 0.9 1. y varies between 0 and 3.Rubber Materials RUBBER-SULFUR COMPOUNDS.f ) and a combustible gas.(gross) = 10791 .8 32 . solid. q. I Amax Redax 57. solid.(gross) = 45150 .8 0.5 0.(gross) = 700 c a l gq. maximum sulfur content .3 0.3 0.7 0.(gross) = 1260 Btu 1 q.6 46.2 1.3 2.(gross) = 14000 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 3000 J g-' P-' gross heat of combustion: value for the tire residue remaining a f t e r heating to 1000°C (1832°F). pr ducts are a liqu'd distillate with a heat of combustion qv = 40000 J g (10000 c a l g.

Vegetable Oils .

1 82GOE/SCH CASTOR OIL. stearic 3.41281 + 1.(gross) = 8909 cal g-l q. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 1.265 + 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.264 x 10-8 7-3 = -5.K- q-' = 0. q.945-0.) F' Cp(cal Cp(J g.27. ash (% by weight) 0.01. obtained by ether extraction.1 q.8820 x 10-9 T3 = -1.25°C (77°F). Saponification number 175-183.22.(gross) = 16036 Btu lb.1. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.3. Density = 0. linoleic = 1. water and sediment (% by volume) = trace.01. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0.6.09.Vegetable Oils BARLEY OIL. and ricinoleic = 89. oleic = 4. Iodine number 83 a f t e r heating at 100°C (212°F) for 3 t o 6 hours at 2-3 mm pressure. Hordeum vulgare.10. Ricinus communis. oil from barley. oil from seeds of t h e castor bean.(gross) = 37274 J g.60.85.9537 kg/L. chief constituent: glyceride of ricinoleic acid ( 12-hydroxyoleic acid). liquid.05192 T . density is 0.4892 x lo-' T2 + 3. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide pet 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) 9.474 x lo-' T3 46CLA/ WAL 213 . t h e phosphorus = 3.965 g ~ r n at ~ .21.(gross) = 9070 cal gqv(gross) = 37950 J g-' P-' 55MER/WAT CASTOR OIL.8650 x T2 + 2. The vegetable oil has a chemica composition of up t o 3 f a t t y acids linked to a glycerine molecule with ester linkages. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize free fatty acids in 1 g sample) = 0.1987 x T2 + 9.2259 x T . liquid. specific heat: 298-548 K (77"-527"F) Cp(Btu lb-I O .01241 T . q.0 ppm.(gross) = 16330 Btu 1 q.292 + 0. liquid.2.

37 -50 -25 0 25 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 0. which is the mean molecular weight of the fatty acids present in the molecule = 255. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.50 300. temperature ("C) (OF) H"(t)-H0(-50 "C) B t u Ib-I cal g-1 J g-l 0.62 124.69 208.5%) acids.00 35. liquid.32 290. extracted from coconut meat.97 129.22 0.30 89. mixture of glycerides of lauric (-48%) and myristic (-17. oleic.1 Btu Ib.Vegetable Oils COCONUT OIL.79 69.45 20.21 37. capric.(gross) = 37950 J g-l 55MERIWAT 214 .6 cal gLf = 128.00 15.00 8. remainder made JP of glycerides of capyrlic. 1 30. palmitic.79 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-38" t o 131°F). and linoleic acids.(gtoss) = 16330 Btu Ib.43 71.(gross) = 9070 cal g-l q. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid present) called the iodine number 10.0 J g-l Lf Lf 55RIE COCONUT OIL. liquid. Saponification number 253-262. 55. The saponification number.35 86.72 49.1 q. COCOS nucifera. stearic. q. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -40" to 55°C (-58" to 131°F).

0 ppm. 42. oleic = 13.8. qv(gross) = 16993 B t u 1 qv(gross) = 9441 cal gqv(gross) = 39500 J g-l 82COE/SCH CORN OIL (MAIZE). extracted from corn (maize). 46. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up t o 3 f a t t y acids linked t o a glycerine molecule with ester linkages. 2%.4%. linolenic = 0. typical analysis: triglycerides. oleic. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0.16. linoleic. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Density = 0.01. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 18.3%. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0. 3.51.27.04.07. 1%.48.0 ppm.60.89. Zea mays. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 64. linked to a glycerine molecule with ester linkages. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize free f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0. unsaponifiable.01.24. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 28.6%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.11.33. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0. Iodine number 117-130. t h e phosphorus = 7. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.9148 kg/L. sitosteral. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize free f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up to 3 f a t t y acids I.Vegetable Oils CORN O L liquid. ash (% by weight) = 0. and arachidic = 0. stearic. qv(gross) = 16700 Btu lbqv(gross) = 9280 c a l g-l q.9095 kg/L. t h e phosphorus = 8. liquid. liquid.4. oleic = 25. linoleic = 60.24. and linoleic = 57. stearic = 1.01.5%. Density = 0.0%. ash (% by weight) 0. water and sediment (% by volume) = trace. f a t t y acid composition: palmitic.24.(gtoss) = 38830 J g-l 1 55MER/WAT COTTONSEED OIL. q. stearic 0.85.(gross) = 39468 J g-' 82GOE/SCH 215 . I .(gross) = 16980 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9433 cal gq.67.01. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0. water and sediment (% by volume) 0. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic 11. 98.

4.16 0.86 112. yellow oil from various Gossipyium species. densi iy.8265 x 10-7 T2 = 0. HYDROGENATED. stearic (-2%).Vegetable Oils COTTONSEED OIL. chief constituents a r e glycerides of palmitic (-21%).2439 .7 1 -58 0. liquid. REFINED.74 60.42 48.) F' -1 K-l) Cp(cal Cp(J g.2 Btu Ib.I2 59. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule 195. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 13 I OF).91-0.8 cal 55RIE 216 .31 -25 0 25 50 55 -13 32 77 122 131 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58' to 131OF).19 33.4962 + 8.I Lf = 16.5.2398 x 10-6 T2 = 2.5363 .1. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 107.1875 x T2 46CLAIWAL COTTONSEED OIL. The saponification number.859 x lo" T + 3. temperature ("C> -50 (OF) Btu lb-I H"(t)-Ho(-500C) cal g-l J g-l 0.19 139.00 13.before measurement. and linoleic (-44%) acids.00 55.K ' -) q = 0.92 62.7 1 260.16 86.7376 x T + 1.92 g ~ m .83' 201.62 107. oleic (-33%).9822 x T + 5. oil ~ .liquid. 0.00 23.33 250. specific heat: 353-543 K (176'-518"F) Cp(Btu lb-I O . Lf = 30. Iodine number 6. was heated at 100°C (212°F)for 3 to 6 hours at 2-3 mm of Hg t o remove moisture.

07. liquid. peroxide value (rnilliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 26. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0. and rnyristic = 0. t h e phosphorus = 0.38%).26. and erucic (0.1 q.(gross) = 39790 J g-l 75KOM/DAN HIGH OLEIC SAFFLOWER OIL.(gross) = 17416 Btu 1 q.0 ppm. linolenic = 6.001.24. liquid.86. water and sediment (% by volume) 0. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up to 3 f a t t y acids linked to a glycerine molecule with ester linkages.(gross) = 9510 c a l g-l q.09. Density = 0.2.42 ppm.6.00%). Material was extracted from industrially stored oil seeds and the acid value was 10.9021 kg/L.Vegetable Oils CRAMBE OIL. q. (15/15"C) = 0. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed to neutralize f r e e f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0. water and sediment (% by volume) trace.23.85.1 mg KOH/g.12.15%). arachidic 2.40%). gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.70.(gross) = 9675 cal gq. linoleic (37.51.00%). t h e phosphorus = 12. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 17118 Btu lb.23.46. arachidic = 0.9044 kg/L.05. oleic = 79. carbon residue (96 by weight) = 0. q.02. ash (% by weight) = 0. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize free f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0. ash (% by weight) = 0. linolenic (1. liquid. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic 5. Specific gravity. lignoceric = 1. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palrnitic = 2. linoleic = 12. The vegetable oil is a genetic variant of normal safflower oil and has a chemical composition of up t o 3 fatty acids linked t o a glycerine molecule with ester linkages.(gross) = 39516 J g-' 82GOE/SCH 217 .55%).34. linoleic = 9. f qv(gross) 17000 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9445 c a l gq.5.36.86. stearic (2.9210.75.30%). palmitoleic (0. behenic = 0. eicosenoic (2. and erucic = 58. peroxide value (rnilliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample that oxidize KI during test conditions) = 13. stearic 0.80.(gross) 40482 J g-' 82GOE/SCH GROUND NUT SEED OIL.62%). carbon residue (% by weight) = 0. stearic = 1.60%). Density = 0. oleic (39.00. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. palmitic (17.01.36. oleic = 18. F a t t y acids found in t h e oil: lauric (0.

92.(gross) = 39685 J' g-l P-' 75KOM/DAN LINSEED OIL.5%).94. qv(gross) = 17073 B t u 1 qv(gross) = 9485 c a l gq. liquid.1420 T2 + 1.2434 x x x x x T2 + 2. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize f r e e fatty acids in 1 g sample) = 0.67%).81 mg KOH/g. (flaxseed oil).930-0.5%) acids.9272 + 2. specific heat: sample was heated at 100°C (212°F) for 3 to 6 hours under a pressure of 2-3 rnm of Hg t o remove moisture.929 g a' n.41. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g Sam le t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) 33. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up to 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerine molecule with ester linkages. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0.1 q.98%).(gross) = 39307 J g-l 82GOE/SCH LINSEED OIL.4288 -1.938 g ~ m . 0.20.~ .0 ppm. equations valid 30"-270OC (86"-518"F).2267 x x x T3 lo-' T3 10-8 T3 46CLA/WAL 218 .6. palmitic (-5%). ash (% by weight) = 0. Density = 0. linoleic = 18. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. stearic = 2.2492 T2 + 5.chief constituents a r e glycerides of linoleic (-61.77%).6898 x T .Vegetable Oils 1 : LINSEED OIL.number 172. and linolenic = 54.6518 T . iodine .41604 + 6. oleic 19. Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') C+al K-1 q1 Cp(J g.1.01.26%).7. Material was extracted from industrially st red oil seeds and t h e acid value was 3.(gross) = 9395 c a l g. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 4. Linum usitatissiurnurn. q. linolenic (-25.32%).01.(gross) = 16910 Btu lb'l q. linoleic (12. obtained from dried seeds of flax. and stearic (-3. density.9236 kg/L.4606 + 6.1. liquid. water and sediment (96 by volume = trace.9526 = -0.22. Density (15°C) = 0. F a t t y acids found in t h e oil: palmitic (8. liquid. stearic (5. and linolenic (51. carbon residue (% by weight) 0. t h e phosphorus = 6. oleic (-5%).4922 T .70.03.K-l) = 0. I. oleic (21. P gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r t o room temperature.0%).

8 Btu Ib.75 32 25 50 55 77 122 131 18. with lesser amounts of palmitic.58 67.(gross) 37365 J g-l P-' 55MERlWAT OLIVE OIL.23 48. liquid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 17050 Btu 1 q.01 87. temperature ("0 -50 -25 0 ("€9 -58 -13 Btu Ib-I. obtained by ether extraction.89 252.00 43. obtained from oats. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 176. stearic.7 1 108. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 190. 16070 0tu I q. Saponification number 185-1 96.(gross) q.41 112.(gross) = 8930 c a l gq.1 Lf = 18.00 10. Avena sotiva.77 203. 0. and linoleic acids. mixture of glycerides of several f a t t y acids.23 62.32 37.73 60.5 8 O t o 131°F). enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C ( .00 26 1. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. q.61 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" t o 131OF). UNREFINED.Vegetable Oils LINSEED OIL. liquid.18 155. chiefly glycerides of oleic acid.00 Ho( t)-H"(-SO"C) c a l g-l 0.56 J g-I 0.1 55MERIWAT 219 . liquid.(gross) = 39620 J g.(gross) = 9470 cal gq. Lf 32. The saponification number.2 cal 55RIE OAT OIL.

73 117.24 36. Lf Lf 36.22 304.8 cal g.00 17.98 171.5 Btu lb. temperature ("C) -50 -25 0 (OF) Btu lb-' 0.00 39.02 20. temperature .63 65. Lf Lf Lf 57.04 272.1 133.58 131.00 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 91.74 85.32 72.49 50.1 J g-l 55r1e 220 . The saponification number.02 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58O t o 131°F).10 70. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated fatty acid present) called t h e iodine number = 60.00 9.79 0. ITALIAN? liquid.00 16.75 144.98 H"(t)-H"(-50° C) c a l g-' J g-l 25 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 0.Vegetable Oils OLIVE OIL.00 9.51 112. HARDENED.3 cal 55r1e PALM OIL. which is t h e mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 194. solid.02 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 131OF).10 62.84 62.96 294.99 73. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" t o 131°F).1 31. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 131°F).2 Btu Ib. The saponification number.3 1 212.50 34.71 262. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 96.08 Ho(t)-Ho(-50"C) c a l g-1 0.00 37.55 41.1 20.55 126.01 J g-l 0.("C) -50 -25 0 25 (OF) Btu lb-I 0. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in the molecule = 199.

82 290.00 15.95 68.1 Lf = 25. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 200.68 118.03 21. temperature ("C) (OF) -50 Btu lb-I H "(t)-Ho(-500C) c a l g-l f g-l -25 0 25 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 0.53 49.38 0.37 0.50 300. Lf = 57.Vegetable Oils PALM OIL.1 Lf = 32.0 c a l g-' Lf 133.71 123. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 242. UNREFINED.4 Btu lb. The saponification number. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 35°C (-5S0 to 131OF).57 40. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" t o 131°F).00 36.00 8.78 90.82 65.08 208. liquid.06 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58" to 131 O ) F.8 c a l g-l Lf = 107.75 89.65 22.14 94.88 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" t o 131OF). The saponification number. temperature ("C) (OF) -50 -58 Btu lb-I H "( t)-Ho (-50 "C) c a l g-l J g-l 0.19 93. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called the iodine number = 16.00 9.00 37.45 275.75 -25 0 25 50 55 -13 32 77 122 131 0. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 55.00 16.14 124.6 Btu lb.9 J g-l 55RIE PALM-KERNEL OIL.30 52.30 218. Lf = 46. liquid.97 129.9 J g-l 55RIE .07 0.30 69.43 71.25 38.93 286.

005. which is t h e mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 192. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0.29 64.08 J &-I 0.87 t o 55°C -50 -25 0 23 -58 -13 32 50 55 77 122 131 00 .Vegetable Oils PEANUT OIL.01. arachidic = 1.52. and lignoceric = 1.36 37.I P-' 82GOE/SCH PEANUT OIL.38? stearic = 2. Density = 0. oleic = 48.08 260.24. 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) 82.38 112.7. linolenic = 0. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" t o 131 OF).00 9.20.95.2 Btu Ib.23. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. liquid. ash (% by weight) 0. linoleic = 31.0 16.21 62. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed to neutralize free f a t t y acids in I g sample) 0.90 39. temperature ("C) (OF) Btu lb-l Ho( "( -50"C) t)-H cal g-l 0. and sulfur (94 by weight) = 0.62 270.74 90.1 Lf = 19.14 210.53 50. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number 92.28. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up t o 3 f a t t y acids linked to a glycerine molecule with ester linkages.32? behenic = 2. qv(gross) = 171 15 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9508 cal gqv(gross) = 39782 J g. Lf 34. liquid.0 c a l ' to 55RIE 222 . The saponification number. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 11.12 1 16.93. water and sediment (% by volume) = trace.39. t h e phosphorus = 9 0 ppm.74 heat of fuslm: result is a mean value Lx temperature range 131°F).85 66. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per . UNREFINED.9026 kg/L.16 155.

4082 .94 g ~ m .K-l) q = 0.69 159.008 x x x T + 3.00 20. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 146.16 38.1 1 114. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 193. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" t o 131O F ) .17 63.2.30 H"(t)-H"(-SO"C) cal g-l J g-1 0.499 = 0. BLEACHED. Iodine number 186.7081 .086 T + 1.58 89.184 x x x T2 10-6 T 2 10-6 T2 46CLA/WAL POPPY SEED OIL.78 255. Lf = 33.09 68. specific heat: 279-543 K (43"-518"F) Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') -1 K-1) Cp(cal Cp(J g.000 T + 4. 0.1. 22F oil was heated at 100°C ( 1 ' ) for 3 to 6 hours at 2-3 mm of Hg t o remove moisture.5350 + 1.93-0.3 Btu lb.2. with small amounts of palmitic (-8%) and oleic (8%) acids.00 11.50 heat o fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" to f 131°F).before measurement.41 207.66 61.410 = 1. The saponification number. liquid.5 cal 55RIE 223 . density.Vegetable Oils PERILLA OIL.10 49. obtainet from seeds o PeriZZa ocimoides. temperature ("C) (OF) -50 -25 0 25 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 B t u Ib-' 0.1 Lf = 18.39 110.68 0. ~ .00 46. liquid.94 265. chief constituents are glycerides of linoleic (-39%) and linolenic (-46%) acids.

93%).79 11 1.32%). liquid.44961. oleic (14.00 21 1.84%). Lf 35.10 112.9134. stearic (1.75 26 1. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.77%).00 38. The saponification number.1 q. The specific gravity (15/15OC) 0.69 47. liquid. eicosenoic (9.87 J g-' 0. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" t o 131°F).48 64. REFINED.77 mg KOH/g. which is t h e mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 175.12%).(gross) = 40648 J 75KOM/DAN 224 .6 Btu Ib-I Lf 19. F a t t y acids found in t h e oil: palmitic (3. and erucic (47.77 ("C) -50 -25 0 25 50 55 (OF) cal g-l 0. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 105.27 26. qv(gross) 17487 Btu Ib.42 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58' to 131OF).6 1 62.46 116.42 27 1.49%).29%). linolenic (6. temperature H"( "(-50 C ) t)-H Btu Ib-I 0.00 16. palmitoleic (0.75 91.53 50.8 cal 55RIE RAPESEED OIL. linoleic (15.(gross) = 9715 cal q.00 9. Material was extracted from industrially stored oil seeds and t h e acid value was 10.Vegetable Oils RAPE OIL.

and sulfur (% by weight) = 0. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 30. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r to room temperature.49.0 ppm.85.70. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 56. t h e phosphorus = 18. carbon residue (96 by weight) = 0.2. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up t o 3 f a t t y acids linked t o a glycerine molecule with ester linkages. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic 8. Density = 0. water and sediment (% by volume) trace. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.30. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize free f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0. ash (% by weight) = 0.30. liquid. stearic 0. liquid.58. qv(gross) = 17001 Btu 1 q. linoleic = 22.(gross) = 9320 cal g-' qv(gross) = 38990 3 g-l obtained by ether extraction q.14. and linoleic = 77. liquid.Vegetable Oils RAPESEED OIL. oil extracted from rye grain. t h e phosphorus = 20. stearic = 1.006. Secale cereale. Density = 0. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up t o 3 f a t t y acids linked t o a glycerine molecule with ester linkages.60.(gross) 9200 cal gq. and linolenic = 8.93.(gross) = 38495 J g-l 55MER/WAT SAFFLOWER OIL.25. oleic = 64.01. qy(gross) = 17083 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9491 c a l gqv(gross) = 39709 J g-l 82GOE/SCH RYE OIL. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.0 ppm.89. qv(gross) = 16780 Btu lb. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed to neutralize free fatty acids in 1 g sample) = 1. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0. ash (% by weight) = 0. water and sediment (% by volume) = trace. oleic = 11.(gross) = 16560 B t u I q.1 q.40.9115 kg/L.01.9144 kg/L.4.(gross) = 9445 cal gqv(gross) = 39519 J g-l 82GOE/SCH 225 .23.054. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 3.

which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 189. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 13. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. liquid.24 59.89 112.01.4 250.01.78 48. t h e phosphorus = 10. qv(gross) 16928 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9405 cal gq. Density = 0. and linoleic = 30.96. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 22.33 0.40 86.14.Vegetable Oils SESAME OIL. Lf = 29.83 107.94 62.47 64. stearic = 3. carbon residue (% by weight) 0. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed to neutralize free fatty acids in 1 g sample) = 4.10.2 J g- 55RIE SESAME OIL. ash (% by weight) = 0.79 260.92.00 10.(gross) 39349 J g-' P-' 82GOE/SCH 226 . oleic = 52.79 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58' t o 131°F).19 0. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up t o 3 f a t t y acids linked t o a glycerine molecule with ester linkages. liquid.25. and sulfur (96 by weight) = 0.0 ppm.4.26 35.00 18.93 149.3 cal 9-l Lf 68. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58' to 131OF). The saponification number.70 201 8 .84.3 Btu Ib-I Lf = 16. water and sediment (% by volume) = trace.9133 kg/L. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 110. temperature H"( t )-H (-50 O C) O ("C) -50 (OF) Btu Ib-l c a l g-l J g-1 -25 0 25 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 0.00 42.

41 62.00 10. liquid. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 11.(gross) = 17046 Btu 1 qv(gross) 9470 c a l gq.5. ash (% by weight) = 0.10 T3 T2 + 5.2.34 65. specific heat: sample was heated at 100°C (212°F) for 3 t o 6 hours under a pressure of 2-3 mm of Hg to remove moisture.00 18. and sulfur (94 by weight) = 0. Density = 0.2622 x = 0.371 x 3 K -1 10-8 T 3 46CLA/WAL SOYBEAN OIL.74 112. 18%. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize free f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0.95 H"(t)-Ho(-50aC) c a l g-l J g-' 0.3 I. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up to 3 f a t t y acids linked t o a glycerine molecule with ester linkages. oleic = 22. Cp(Btu Ib-I OF-') c (cal K-') Cp ( J g T . and linolenic = 6. 40%.40 48. phosphatides.93 252. stachyose.76 262.9138 kg/L. which is t h e mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in the molecule = 190.30 203.5.5.55 (mote) -25 0 25 -58 -13 50 55 32 77 122 131 0.53.19 36. t h e bean of Soia hispida (Leguminosae). phytosterins.01. 2%.1957 x lo-* T .75 227 .925 g Saponification number 189-193.75. t h e phosphorus 32.52 87. liquid. oils.7171 x 10. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 131OF). REFINED.20.74 60.73 108.00 42.Vegetable Oils SOYBEAN OIL.0 ppm. density is 0. The saponification number.03911 + 2.667 x 10-9 T3 T2 + 2. linoleic = 55. water and sediment (% by volume) = trace. iodine number 122-134.64 152. stearic = 3. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 44.(gross) = 39623 J g-l 82GOE/SCH SOYBEAN OIL. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percenta2e of the molecular weight (a measure of the proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 133. at 15°C (50°F). average composition: proteins.16362 + 1.8470 x = 0. saponins. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0.15.474 x T2 + 9.47779 + 5. remainder urease raff inose. and isoflavone.27. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.912 x = 0.26. liquid.01.4. temperature ("C) -50 (OF) Btu lb'l 0. q.858 x T .

81 mg KOH/ Specific gravity (15/15OC) = 0.01. and linolenic (2. t h e phosphorus = 15. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0. linoleic (56. Density = 0.9208.9161 kg/L. q. SEED OIL. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. water and sediment (% by volume) trace.10%). Fatty acids found in t h e oil: palmitic (7.(gross) 39575 J g-l P-' 82GOE/SCH SUNFLOWER.(gross) = 9570 cal gq.(gross) = 9459 cal gq.2 Btu Ib-' Lf = 17.(gross) = 40041 J g-l 75KOMlDAN 228 . and linoleic = 73.9 J g- y1 55RIE SUNFLOWER OIL.06% . The vegetable oil has chemical compositi of up to 3 f a t t y acids linked t o a glycerine m d e c u l e with ester linkages.93. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0. B gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 10.73.0 ppm. Material was extracted from industrially stored oil seeds and t h e acid value was 3. liquid. REFINED . liquid. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize f r e e f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0. ash (% by weight) = 0.41%).(gross) = 17026 Btu I q. the-fatty acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 6. oleic = 16.01.33%).stearic (9.0 to 55OC (-58" t o 5' Y Lf = 32. stearic = 3.7.Vegetable Oils SOYBEAN OIL.15.66%).Continued heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temPerature range .26.23.9 cal Lf = 74. oleic (23. qv(gross) = 17226 Btu 1P-l q.08.

The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 135.53 268. which is t h e mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 186.40 heat o fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" to f 13 1O ) F. Lf = 34.15 J g-l -58 -13 25 50 55 32 77 122 131 0. liquid.2178 T2 + 5.92 69.6.60 50. UNREFINED.0881 T2 + 1.9479 = -0. The saponification number.before measurement. 22F Iodine number 154.50 209.00 16.5641 = -2. stearic (.14 111.4687 x x x T2 + 2.48 90.1%). glycerides of eleostearic (-80%). density.1. oleic (.1. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58"t o 131°F). oil was heated at 100°C ( 1 ' ) for 3 to 6 hours at 2-3 mm of Hg pressure to remove moisture.0954 x x x 10-9 T3 10-8 ~3 10-8 T 3 46CLA/WAL 229 .936-0.47 c a l g-l 0. a yellow drying oil from t h e nuts of t h e trees Aleurites COrdQta and Aleurites fordii.40 38. palmitic (-4%).2 Btu Ib*1 Lf 19.942 g ~ r n .6053 + 7.00 9.33 161.Vegetable Oils SUNFLOWER OIL.79 64.15%) acids. liquid.9928 x T .9475 x lo-* T .K-l) q-' = 0.4. 0.53 258.22 115.5324 + 2.0447 x T .37651 + 7.08 61. and ~.0 cal 55RIE TUNG OIL. specific heat: 293-473 K (68'-39Z°F) Cp(Btu lb-l OF-') Cp(cal K' -) Cp(J g.00 39. temperature H (t)-H' (-50 C ) O ("C> -50 -25 0 (OF) Btu Ib-I 0.

1 q. q.(gross) = 16850 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 9070 cal g-l q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Triticum aestivurn.(gross) = 37950 J g-l 55MER/WAT 230 .(gross) = 9360 cal gq.(gross) = 39162 J g-l oil obtained by ether extraction qv(gross) = 16330 Btu Ib. liquid. from wheat grain.Vegetable Oils WHEAT OIL.

Woody and Tree Materials .

(gross) 8177 Btu lb-I q.air-dried at 110°-1150C (23Oo-24O0F). ash free.Woody and Tree Materials ALDER.(gtoss) 7947 Btu lb. q. 6. gross heat of combustion: 20°C (68°F). Each tree was separated into small parts (being less than 0.(gross) = 4415 cal g. assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.1 qv(gross) = 4425 cal g-' qv(gross) = 18514 J g-' large parts q. solid. EUROPEAN BLACK. ultimate analysis: carbon.57%.1 q.(gross) = 19171 J g-l 81GEY ALDER. moisture content 5.(gross) = 4726 cal g-' q. gross heat of combustion: oven-dried. nitrogen.(gross) = 18472 J g-l 55CHA/MIT ASH.1 q. AZnus gzutinosa. a r e on an as-determined basis. solid. 49. BARK. small parts whole t r e e q.1 q.37 (oven dry weight and green volume). Bark proportion of whole t r e e = 23%. q. RED.) in diameter and roughly equivalent t o tops and branches) and large parts with t h e weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in t h e whole tree. hydrogen. hence. ash. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents.(gross) = 4582 cal g-l q.(gross) = 19774 J g-' 1883GOT 233 .27%. Overall mean specific gravity for whole t r e e = 0.1%. AZnus rubru.(gross) = 19008 J g-' qv(gross) = 7965 Btu lb. 0.(gross) = 8248 Btu Ib.(gross) 4543 cal g-' q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.07%. solid. ash content = 3.18%.8%.64 c m (1/4 in.(gross) 8507 Btu lb-I q. 0. Fraxinus excelsior.

(gross) = 20159 J g-l leaves: qv(gross) = 9214 Btu 1bI1 q. Samples were dried at 7OoC (158'F) t o a constant weight.9%. Mean age = 12 years. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 12. qv(gross) 19640 J gbranch bark q. GREEN.1 q. Fraxinus pennsytvanica.I q.(gross) = 4818 cai gq. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0.and wet flat-land natural stand sites.71%.(gross) = 8422 Btu lbi 1 qv(gross) 4679 cal gq. solid.(gross) = 4694 cal g .' q. branches = 1. reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each t r e e and six trees per species were used. Fraxinus pennsyZvanica.2%.(gross) = 21418 J g-l gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 19142 J gfoliage q.(gross) = 4575 cal g i q. mean basal stem diameter = 7.(gross) 79NEE/STE ASH. bole wood qv(gross) = 8356 Btu lb. swamp. gross heat of combustion: oven dry weight basis.(gross) = 19422 J g-l bole bark qv(gross) = 8235 Btu lbi 1 q.396.(gross) 19577 J g-l branch wood qv(gross) = 8449 6 t u lbl' q.(gross) = 4768 cal g-l qv(gross) 19949 J g-l bark: qv(gross) = 8312 Btu lb.1 qv(gross) = 4618 cal g.996.(gross) 4681 cal q.(gross) = 8672 Btu Ib. Material was collected from t h e southern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in bottom-.(gross) = 19585 J g-l 82COW/FRE 234 . twigs = 2. wood: qv(gross) = 8582 Btu lb.Woody and Tree Materials ASH.(gross) = 51 19 cal gq. GREEN. values a r e on a dry weight basis. bark = 6. 3 twigs: q. solid.1 qv(gross) 4857 cal g-l qv(gross) 20322 J g. 1 q.(gross) = 4642 cal gq.(gross) = 19322 J g-l branches: 8743 B t u lb.(gross) = 8426 Btu lb-I q.1 q.0 cm.7% and leaves = 4.

raxinus americana. density.(gross) = 8638 Btu lb. specific heat: 273-379 K (3Z0-223OF) Cp(Btu Ib-I O .) F' Cp(cal -1 K -1 1 g = 0.1 qv(gross) = 4799 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 20079 J g-l q.327 = 0.63 g cm- F.(gross) = 8654 (128) Btu 1 q.(gross) = 8680 (175) Btu Ib-I q. Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in t h e live crown of the tree).Woody and Tree Materials ASH. Material came from various locations in New Hampshire.327 = 1.368 Cp(J g.(gross) = 4664 (33) c a l g-l q. Fraxinus americana. two-thirds.(gross) = 4808 (71) c a l gq.(gross) 201 17 (297) J g-l branch without bark P-' q. bole with bark qv(gross) = 8433 (108) Btu 1 qv(gross) = 4685 (60)cal gq. one-third. gross heat of combustion: Assume values refer to room temperature. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses are standard errors. air-dried at 105'-110"C (221"-230°F). WHITE. WHITE.(gross) = 8395 ( 5 9 ) Btu lb-I q.(gross) = 4822 (97) cal g-' qv(gross) = 20175 (406) J g-l 8 1MUS/HOC ASH. thermochemical calorie used and values were expressed on a dry matter basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid. solid. Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185'F) to a constant weight. 0.(gross) = 190514 (138) J g-l foliage q. one at top of t h e stem). Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at the base.K-l) 12DUN 235 .(gross) = 19602 (251) J g-l bole without bark branch with bark P-' q.solid.

92F gross heat of combustion: ash-free. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C ( 3 ' ) in nitrogen. fuel q.1 qv(gross) = 4685 c a l g-' q.43 g cm -P specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') Cp(cal -1 K-l) Cp(J g.329 = 1. ash content = 2.K-l) 7 = 0.1 55CHA/MIT ASPEN. QUAKING. values not corrected for moisture ot ash contents.(gross) 13940 B t u I 7740 c a l g32400 J g-l 82SUS 236 .8%.(gross) q. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. dry basis. BARK.(gross) = 9740 Btu lbq.8%. PopuZus tremufoides. Composition is ash = 4. freeze-dried to < 10% moisture content. hence. PopuZus tremuloides. ate on an as-determined basis.Woody and Tree Materials I ASPEN. QUAKING. air-dried at 105"-110°C (221 "-230"F). gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. density. 0. solid.(gross) = 19602 J g. solid.377 12DUN ASPEN.(gross) q.(gross) = 8433 Btu lb. Po ufus trernuloides. solid. q.5%. moisture content = 5.(gross) = 5410 c a l g-' q.97% and char yield = 27. QUAKING. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 22650 J g-' 1 char (from 500°C heating) q. FOLIAGE.329 = 0.

Woody and Tree Materials

ASPEN, TREMBLING; Populus tremuloides; solid; Material c a m e from various locations in New Hampshire. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at the base, one-third, two-thirds, and at t o p of t h e stem). Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in t h e live crown of t h e tree). Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185°F)to a constant weight. gross heat of combustion: Assume values refer t o room temperature, thermochemical calorie used and values were expressed on a dry m a t t e r basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses are standard errors.
bole with bark q,(gross) = 8782 (50) Btu lbr 1 q,(gross) = 4879 (28) cal gq,(gross) = 20414 (117) J g-l bole without bark q,(gross) q,(gross) 8905 (56) Btu lb;' 4947 (31) cal g20698 (130) f g-' branch with bark qv(gross) = 8957 (61) Btu Ibl 1 qv(gross) = 4976 (34) cal gqv(gross) 20820 (142) 3 g-l branch without bark q,(gross) 8773 (32) Btu lbl I qv(gross) = 4874 (18) c a l gq,(gross) = 20393 (75) J g-l

q,(gross)
foliage

q,(gross) = 9648 Btu lb;' q,(gross) = 5360 cal gq,(gross) = 22426 J g-l 8lMUS/HOC

BEECH; Fagus atropunicea; solid; air-dried at 105"-110°C (22l0-23O0F);density, 0.75 g ~ m - ~ .

spe5fic heat: 273-379 K (3ZD-223"F) C (Btu lb-I OF-') -1 fj ) -1 Cp(cal-q P Cp(J g ' ) K
= 0.326 = 0.326 = 1.364

12DUN

237

Woody and Tree Materials

BEECH; Fagus silvatiea; solid; ultimate analysis: carbon, 49.06%; hydrogen, 6.1 1%;
nitrogen, 0.09%; ash, 0.57%.

gross heat o combustion: 20°C (68"F), air-dried at 110°-1150C (230°-2400F), ash f free.
q,(gross) = 8624 Btu Ib- 1

q,(gross) = 4791 cal g-l q,(gross) = 20046 J g-l
1883GOT

BEEFWOOD (SHE-OAK); Casuarina equisetifolia; solid; Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 78.94, ash content = 1.40, and fixed carbon = 19.66. Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48.61, hydrogen = 5.83, oxygen = 43.36, nitrogen = 0.59, sulfur = 0.02, chlorine = 0.16, and residue (ash) = 1.43. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; determination performed at 30 atm 02, corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids.
q,(gross) = 8363 Btu lb;' q,(gross) = 4646 cal gq,(gross) = 19440 J g-l

net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.
q,(net) = 7856 Btu Ib;' qv(net) = 4364 cal gqv(net) = 18260 J g-'
85 JEN/EBE

W d y and Tree Materials

BIRCH; Betula a h ; solid; ultimate analysis: carbon, 48.88%; hydrogen, 6.06%; nitrogen, 0.10%; ash, 0.29%; oxygen, 44.67%.
gross heat o combustion: 20°C (68"F), air-dried at 110"-115°C (230°-2400F), ash f

free.
q,(gtoss) = 8588 Btu l b l l q,(gross) 4771 c a l gq,(gross) = 19962 J g-l

1883GOT
air dried one hour at 105°C (221°F) qv(gross) = 8458 Btu lbi' q,(gross) = 4699 cal 6 ; q,(gross) = 19661 J g

22PAR/DAV
BIRCH, PAPER; BetuZa papyrifera; solid; Material c a m e from various locations in New Hampshire. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at t h e base, one-third, two-thirds, and at top of t h e stem). Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in t h e live crown of the tree). Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85OC (185°F)t o a constant weight,
gross heat o combustion: Assume values refer to room temperature, thermochemical f calorie used and values wete expressed on a dry m a t t e r basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses a r e standard errors.

bole with bark qv(gross) = 9207 (56) Btu lb;' qv(gross) = 5115 (31) c a l gqv(gross) = 21401 (130) J g-l bole without bark

branch with bark q,(gross) = 9245 (70) Btu IbT I q,(gross) = 5136 (39) c a l gq,(gross) = 21489 (163)J g-l branch without bark q,(gross) = 9074 (54) Btu lbi' q,(gross) = 5041 (30) c a l gq,(gross) = 2 1092 (I 26) J.g-l

q,(gross) = 8948 (86)Btu lbi I q,(gross) = 4971 (48)cal gq,(gross) = 20799 (201) J g-l
foliage qv(gross) = 9428 Btu lb-' q,(gross) = 5238 cal g ; ' q,(gross) = 21916 J g

81MUS/HOC

239

Woody and Tree Materials

BIRCH, PAPER; BARK; Betula papyrifera; solid; gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark; ash content = 1.5%; moisture content = 4 8 . .%

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; values not corrected for moisture or ash contents; hence, a r e on an as-determined basis.
qv(gross) q,(gross) q,(gross) 9434 Btu Ib- 1 5241 cal g-l 21928 J g-l

55CHA/MIT BIRCH, YELLOW; BetuZa atleghaniensis;solid; Material came from various locations in New Hampshire. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at t h e base, one-third, two-thirds, one at top of t h e stem). Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in t h e live crown of the tree). Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185°F) to a constant weight.

gross heat o combustion: Assume values refer t o room temperature, thermochemical f calorie used and values were expressed on a dry m a t t e r basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses a r e standard errors.
bole with bark q,(gross) 8838 (175) Btu 1 q,(gross) 4910 (97) cal gqv(gross) = 20543 (406)J g-l branch with bark

P-'

qv(gross) = 9002 (247)Btu lb'l qv(gross) = 5001 (137)cal g- 1 q,(gross) = 20924 (573)J g-' branch without bark q,(gross) = 8917 (101) Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 4954 (56) cal g-l q,(gross) = 20728 (234)3 g-l

bole without bark
q,(gross) = 8498 (133)Btu lb- I q,(gross) = 4721 (74)cal g-l q,(gross) = 19753 (310) f g-' foliage q,(gross) = 8503 Btu lb- I q,(gross) = 4724 cal g-l q,(gross) = 19765 J g. -'

81MUS/HOC

Woody and Tree Materials

BIRCH, YELLOW; BARK; Betula alleghaniensis;solid; gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark; ash content 1.7%; moisture content =
5.2%.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; values not corrected for moisture or ash contents; hence, a r e on an as-determined basis.
qv(gross) 9076 Btu q,(gross) = 5042 cal gqv(gross) = 21096 J g-l

$'
55CHA/MIT

BLACKGUM; Nysscz sylvatica; solid; air-dried at 105"-1 10°C (221" 2 0 F ; density, -3') 0.52 g
specific heat: 273-379 K (32O-223'F)
C (Btu lb-l O - ) F' P Cp(cal 5-l) Cp(J g- K

q-'

= 0.325 = 0.325 = 1.360

12DUN

BLACKGUM; Nyssa sylvatica; solid; Material was collected from the southern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in bottom-, swamp- and wet flat-land natural stand sites. Samples were dried at 70°C (158°F)to a constant weight; reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each tree and six trees per species were used.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; values a r e on a dry weight basis.
bole wood
branch wood
qv(grOSS) = 8564 Btu lbl' q,(gross) = 4758 cal gq,(gross) = 19907 J g-l

qv(gross) = 8465 Btu lb-l q,(gross) 4703 cal g-l q,(gross) 19677 J g-l
bole bark

branch bark

qv(gross) = 8397 Btu lb-I q,(gross) = 4665 cal g-' q,(gross) 19518 J g-'
foliage q,(gross) = 8991 Btu lb- 1 q,(gross) = 4995 cal g-l q,(gross) = 20899 J g-'

qv(gross) = 8456 Btu lb-I q,(gross) 4809 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20121 J g-1

82GOW/FRE

24 1

Woody and Tree Materials

BLACKGUM, BARK; Nyssa syZwtica; solid; gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark; ash content = 7.2%; moisture content = 6.0%.
gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; values not

corrected for moisture or ash contents; hence, are on a n as-determined basis.

q,(gross) = 7936 Btu fbi 1 q,(gross) = 4409 cal gq,(gross) = 18447 J g-l
55CHA/MIT

BOXELDER;Acer negundo; solid; Each t r e e was separated into small parts (being less
than 0.64 c m (1/4 in.) in diameter and roughly equivalent to tops and branches) and large parts with the weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in the whole tree. Overall mean specific gravity for whole tree = 0.36 (oven dry weight and green volume). Bark proportion of whole tree = 14%.
gross heat of combustion: oven-dried, assume values refer to room temperature.

small parts qv(gross) = 7981 Btu lbll q,(gross) = 4434 cal gq,(gross) = 18552 J g-' large parts q,(gross) = 8190 Btu Ib;' q,(gross) = 4550 cal gqv(gross) = 19037 J g-l

whole tree qv(gross) = 8138 Btu Ib; I q,(gross) = 4521 cal gq,(gross) = 18916 J g-l

81GEY

242

assume values refer to room temperature.2%. mean age = 11 years. solid. at 300 m above sea level located in the southern part of the Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.0%.97 cm. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise. mean basal stem diameter = 8.7 53.13%. leaf = 9. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0. and leaves = 6. of mean stem and branch wood (4 measurements) qv(gross) = q. dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev.(gross) = 4894 cal gqv(gross) = 20477 J g-l bark: qv(gross) = 7778 Btu 1bT qv(gross) = 4321 cal gqv(gross) = 18079 J g-l branches: qv(gross) 8786 Btu lb.Woody and Tree Materials BOXELDER. twigs = 2. one of the dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil.(gross) qv(gross) leaves: 8708 Btu lbl' 4838 c a l 6 . gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure.9%. Ash content of stem and branch wood = 0. gross heat o combustion: oven dry weight basis. wood: qv(gross) = 8809 Btu l b l l q.(gross) = qJgross) = 8318 4621 19334 8375 4653 19468 57.' q. 20242 J g q.5%. solid.(gross) = 21037 J g 79NEE/STE CABBAGE WOOD.8%. Material is a shrub. Ligustrum vuZgare. then ground and pelleted. stem and branch bark = 4.6%.(gross) = 9050 Btu Ib. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 9.9%. bark = 9. branches = 1.' q.(gross) q.7 225 Btu lb-l c a l g-1 cal g-l (more) 243 . root = 6.7%. Samples were dried at 85°C (185"F). Acer negundo.78%. assume values refer t o room f temperature.8 133 Btu lb-I cal J g- q1 stem and branch bark (4 measurements) qJgross) = qv(gross) = qv(gross) 8194 4552 19046 8624 4791 20046 96.(gross) 4881 cal gqv(gross) = 20422 J g-l twigs: q.(gross) = 5028 c a l gi q.2 31.

324 = 1.(gross) = 8438 4688 19615 ash-free dr! weight basis s t d de of mean 9268 5149 21543 67. solid. assume values refer to room temperature.46 g cm -3 .356 Cp(J g. density.5 4538 18987 28. air-dried at 105°-1100C (221 '-230OF). 0.(gross) = q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223OF) C (Btu Ib-l OF-') C P ( c a l q l 7-l p = 0.6 120 Btu lb-' cal J g- q1 75PAP CEDAR. solid.(gross) = 7490 cal gqv(gross) = 31350 J g-l 82SUS 244 .6%. dry basis.K- 12DUN CHAMISE. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. f r e e z e dried to < 10% moisture content. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q.7 37.Woody and Tree Materials I CABBAGE WOOD .(gross) 5240 cal g-' qv(gross) = 21910 J g-l q.1 q.Continued dry weight basis leaf (5 measurements) q.(gross) q. RED*Juniperus virginiana.324 = 0.(gross) = 13490 Btu 1 q. Adenostoma fascicdatum. Composition is ash 3.6 157 Btu lb-' ca1t-l J g- root (4 measurements) q. FOLIAGE.(gross) = q.(gross) = 9430 B t u Ib.(gross) qv(gross) = 8168 8771 4873 20389 51.50% and char yield = 28.

68. as received: 8.(net) = 7563 Btu l b l l qv(net) = 4202 cal gqv(net) = 17580 J g-l 85JEN/EBE CHERRY. nitrogen = 0.17. and residue (ash) = 7. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 4370 cal g-' q. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 46. hydrogen = 3.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.(gross) = 18282 J g-l air dried one hour at 105OC (221°F) qv(gross) = 8629 B t u lb.90. genus Prunus. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile Concentration (VCM) 75.08. q.02. chlorine 0.26. and fixed carbon 18. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. solid.19.13. sulfur = 0.1 qv(gross) 4794 cal g-l qv(gross) 20058 3 g-l 1883GOT 245 .Woody and Tree Materials CHAPARRAL. qv(gross) = 8006 Btu lb.03.85% moisture qv(gross) = 7866 Btu lb-' q. oxygen = 40.1 qv(gross) = 4448 cal g-' qv(gross) = 18610 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. ash content = 6.54. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r to room temperature.

(gross) 8404 4669 19535 8462 470 1 19669 20.3 11.(gross) = 4766 c a l gq.1 4948 cal g-l 20702 J g-l twigs: q. branches = 0. mean basal s t e m diameter 8. mean age 12.(gross) = 4866 c a l g-l q. assume values refer t o room temperature.0%. CORNELIAN.3 years.9 cm. Ash content of s t e m and branch wood = 0. leaf = 14.(gross) = 8759 Btu lb-l q. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0.solid.4 68.(gross) q. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil.(gross) = q.2%.7%.(gross) 9418 Btu Ib.3 Btu lb'l cal J g- q1 stem and branch bark (4 measurements) qv(gross) q.(gross) CHERRY.3%. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary. gross heat of combustion: oven dry weight basis. Material is a tree.(gross) = 4841 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20255 J g. s t e m and branch bark 10.I W d y and Tree Materials CHERRY.6%.then ground and pelleted.8%.5 16.1 79NEE/STE 8906 Btu Ib. and leaves = 5.1 5232 cal g-' 21891 J g-l q.(gross) = 19941 J g-l bark: qv(gross) qv(gross) qv(gross) branches: q.(gross) = 8172 4540 18995 8987 4993 20891 29.(gross) = 8714 Btu lb. Samples were dried at 85'C (185"F). twigs 1.796.(gross) = 20359 J g-l leaves: q. of mean stem and branch wood (3 measurements) q. Prunus serotina. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 9. bark 4. dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev. root 8.(gross) q. assume values refer t o room temperature.0%.6 Btu lb-' cal 9-l J g(more) 246 . BLACK.(gross) = q.3 47. wood: q.9%. solid.4196.I q.(gross) = 8579 B t u l b l l q. Cornus mas.

of mean 66. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-l O .327 = 1. air-dried at 1O5"-11O0C (221"-230°F).K q1 = 0. density. 0.317 = 1.8 37.326 12DUN COCOBOLA NEGRA.(gross) = qv(gross) = q.4 13. Lecythis costariconsis.) F' Cp(cal 5-l) Cp(J g.(gtoss) q. 0. density.Continued dry weight basis leaf ( 5 measurements) q.317 0. specific heat: 273-379 K (32O-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal 5-l ) Cp(J g.1 155 Btu lb'l cal q1 J g- root (4 measurements) qv(gross) q.Woody and Tree Materials CHERRY.4 Btu Ib-l cal7-l J g75PAP CHESTNUT.K ) g-' = 0.0 54. soli .~ .(gross) = 8008 4449 18615 8726 4848 20284 23.CORNELIAN .327 = 0. Castanea Lentata. solid.32 g ~ m .92 g cm- .(gross) = 7177 3987 16682 8343 4635 19393 ash-free dry weight basis std dev. from Costa Rica. air-dried at 105"-110"C (221 "-230°F).368 12DUN 247 .

assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 4385 cal gq. Overall mean specific gravity for whole tre e = 0. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) 7949 Btu Ib.(gross) = 7718 Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: oven-dried. solid.(gross) 8451 Btu Ib. Populus deztoides. MISSOURI.(gross) = 4288 cal g-l q.32 (oven dry weight and green volume). Bark proportion of whole t r e e = 28%.(gross) 4695 cal g-l q.I q.64 cm (1/4 in. Populus deltoides.1 q.(gross) = 19644 J g-' large parts q.(gross) q. Each t r e e was separated into small parts (being less than 0.36 (oven dry weight and green volume). solid.(gross) = 7893 Btu lbll q.) in diameter and roughly equivalent to tops and branches) and large parts with t h e weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in t h e whole tree. gross heat of combustion: oven-dried.(gross) q.64 cm (1/4 in. small parts q.(gross) = 18041 f g- 81GEY 248 . Bark proportion of whole t r e e = 19%.(gross) = 17941 3 g.1 q.1 4416 cal g-l 18477 J g-l whole tree qv(gross) = 8075 Btu IbT I qv(gross) = 4486 cal gq.) in diameter and roughly equivalent to tops and branches) and large parts with the weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in the whole tree. q.(gross) = 18769 J g-l 81GEY COTTONWOOD. NEBRASKA.(gross) = 4312 cal g 1 . Each t r e e was separated into small parts (being less than 0. Overall mean specific gravity for whole t r e e 0.1 whole t r e e q.Woody and Tree Materials COTTONWOOD. small parts q.(gross) = 18347 J g-' large parts q.(gross) = 7762 Btu Ib.

(gross) = q. AMERICAN. Material is a shrub. hence. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise. q. then ground and pelleted. moisture content 6. stem and branch bark = 6. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of the Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.(gross) = q. are on an as-determined basis. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Cornus aanguinea.4 26.(gtoss) 16087 J g-' JJCHA/MIT . gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. of mean stem and branch wood (3 measurements) q. Samples were dried at 85°C (185"F). leaf = 14.3%.3%.4 115 Btu lb-' cal9-l f g- root (3 measurements) q.0 15.(gross) = q.7%. solid. Ash content of s t e m and branch wood = 0.(gross) = q.(gross) 8300 461 1 19292 834 1 4634 19389 50.(gross) = 6921 Btu lbl 1 q.9 113 Btu lb-I ca1q-l J g- leaf ( 5 measurements) q. assume values refer t o room temperature. BARK.(gross) q. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure. Ulrnus arnericana. root = 8. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil.6 28. dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev.(gross) = q.(gross) = qv(gross) = q.3%.Woody and Tree Materials DOGWOOD.(gross) = 8525 4736 19815 9104 6058 21 163 48. values not corrected for moisture or ash content. solid.(gross) = 786 1 4367 18272 8570 476 1 19920 27.0 62. ash content = 9.3 27.8 Btu lb-' ca1q-l J g75PAP ELM.6%.(gtoss) 3845 cal gq.1 118 Btu lb" cal J g- q1 stem and branch bark ( 5 measurements) q. BLOOD-TWIG.(gross) = 7414 41 19 17234 8633 4796 20066 49.1%.

Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 81.76.72. hydrogen = 5.(gross) = 19420 J g-' net heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.' q. air-dried a 105°-1100C (221 '-230OF). WHITE. and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.(gross) = 4641 cal gq.. f q.Woody and Tree Materials ELM. qv(gross) = 8355 Etu lb. and fixed carbon = 17.Zmus arneril-ma.(net) 7843 Btu lb.solid.' qv(net) = 4357 cal gqv(net) 18230 3 g-l 85 JEN/EBE 250 .13.360 )lid. = 0. 0.42. chlorine = 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. ash content = 0.30.00.325 = 1. density.97. oxygen = 43. determination performed at 30 a t m 0 2 . and residue (ash) = 0.82.64gcm- Y.325 = 0. sulfur = 0. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49. nitrogen = 0.01. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223'F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') C (cal -1 K -1 ) p -1 Cp(J g K ) ! 12DUN EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS.87.

(net) = 18030 J g85 JEN/EBE EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS. hydrogen = 5.18. and residue (ash) = 0.89.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. chlorine 0. ash content = 1.01. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48. and fixed carbon = 16.12.60.(gross) = 4625 cal g-l q.13. nitrogen 0. hydrogen = 5. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 82.(net) = 4309 cal g l q. nitrogen = 0. oxygen = 44.93. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(net) = 4338 cal gil qv(net) = 18150 J g85 JEN/EBE 25 1 .33.(gross) = 19350 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. ash content = 0.1 q. chlorine = 0. qv(gross) 8273 Btu lbi' qv(gross) 4596 cal gqv(gross) = 19230 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. solid. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48.(net) = 7757 Btu lb. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.92.52. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 81. q.20. sulfur = 0.30.39.01. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. and residue (ash) 1.(gross) = 8325 Btu lb. solid.08. q.Woody and Tree Materials EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS.10.(net) = 7808 Btu lb-I q.41.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.' q. and fixed carbon = 17.18. sulfur 0.55. oxygen = 45. q.15.

(gross) = 9182 Btu Ib. and nitrogen = 8.(gross) = 21079 J g-l I883GOT FIR. moisture content = 6. dry basis.(gross) = 21343 J g-l 78SHA/LIT .36%.(gross) = 20598 J g-l 55CHA/MIT FIR. gross heat of combustion: values refer to ash-free dry weight and assume values refer t o room temperature. solid. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. air-dried at 110'-1 lSoC (230"-240"F). q.. BARK. nitrogen. 50. 5. 0.0. Samples were removed from 7-year-old trees and had a concentration (in milligrams per gram ash-free dry weight) of starch = 41.35% and char yield 15. Composition is ash = 0. Abies balsamea.5%. hydrogen. solid. ash. q.(gross) = 13930 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 7740 cal gq.4%.92%. Populus spp. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. solid.(gross) 32370 J g-l 82SUS FIR. Pinus silvestri. are on a n as-determined basis. ultimate analysis: carbon.1 q. DEAD WOOD. crude fat = 101. NEEDLES. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. ash content = 2.1 q.05%.(gross) = 5101 c a l g-l q.(gross) = 4923 c a l gq. qv(gross) = 8861 Btu lbi 1 q.(gross) = 9068 Btu lbl 1 qv(gross) = 5038 c a l gq.8. solid. BALSAM. BALSAM. ash free. Dead wood was air-dried at room temperature. hence.1 qv(gross) = 4680 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 19600 J g.Woody and Tree Materials EXCELSIOR. 0.28%.7. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to toom temperature. Abies balsarnea.3%. total sugar = 130.7. fuel q. assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion: 20°C (68'F).(gross) char (from 500°C heating) 8430 Btu lb.

DOUGLAS.Woody and Tree Materials FIR.1%. fuel q.48 g cm specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O .(gross) = 12860 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 31900 J g-l 82SUS FIR. = 0. Bark samples were air-dried at room temperature. BARK. dry basis. air-dried at 105'4 10°C (221"-230"F). 0.(gross) = 23960 3 g-l chat (from 500°C heating) P-' q. Pseudotsuga menzeisii.2%.368 12DUN FIR.15% and char yield 20. assume values refer to room temperature.327 = 0. dry basis. Wood was air-dried at room temperature. Pseudotsuga menzeisii. Composition is ash 1.(gtoss) 4840 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20250 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 13720 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 7620 cal gq. solid. DOUGLAS. assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. fuel q. solid. density. 92F gross heat of combustion: ash-free.(gross) = 10310 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 5730 cal gq.(gross) = 7140 cal gqv(gross) = 29890 J g-l 82SUS 253 . Pseud tsuga taxifolia. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 5 0 O O C (932°F) in nitrogen.25% and char yield = 37. DOUGLAS.(gtoss) 8710 Btu lb-I q.K ) -9. solid.327 1. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 5 O O O C ( 3 ' ) in nitrogen.) F' Cp(cal yl2-l) Cp(J g. Composition is ash 0.

DOUGLAS. Samples were air-dried at room temperature. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample t o 500°C (932OF)in nitrogen. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q.(gross) = 13740 Btu Ib-I q. DOUGLAS.(gross) = 22300 J g-l FIR.(gross) = 8640 Btu lb. Lumber was air-dried at room temperature.2%. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.(gross) = 31940 J g-l 82SUS FIR. FOLIAGE. dry basis. dry basis.25% and char yield = 29. solid.(gross) = 7630 cal g-l q. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 4800 cal g-l q. Composition is ash = 0.(gross) 13640 Btu 1 q. solid. fuel q. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. solid. Composition is ash = 4.(gross) 5510 cal g-l qv(gross) = 23050 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) 13360 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 7420 cal gq.(gross) = 7580 cal gq.(gross) = 9920 Btu lb. DOUGLAS. Pseudotsuga menzeisii. Composition is ash = 0. dry basis.1 q.(gross) = 20090 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) q.(gross) = 31710 J g-' 82SUS qv(gross) = 9590 Btu lb. Pseudotsuga menzeisii.1 q. LUMBER. freeze-dried to < 10% moisture content. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 31050 J g-l P-' 82SUS 254 .Woody and Tree Materials FIR.2%.6%. assume values refer t o room temperature. ROTTEN WOOD.18% and char yield = 22. Pseudotsuga menteisii.(gross) = 5330 cal g-l q.1 q.16% and char yield = 40. fuel q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.

58. solid.75. solid.00. fuel q. Abies grandis.02. nitrogen = 0. Composition is ash = 0.(net) = 4479 cal g . assume values refer t o room temperature. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49.(gross) = 4840 cal g-l q.25. DOUGLAS. ash content = 0. chlorine = 0. STEMS. hydrogen = 5.7%. q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.(gross) = 8583 Btu lbll q. GRAND.01. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q.(net) = 18740 J g85 JEN/EBE 255 .57% and char yield = 27. solid.(gross) = 7650 cal g-' q.(gross) = 5350 c a l g-l q.' q.05. Stem samples were branches < 0. dry basis. and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. and residue (ash) = 0.(gross) = 9630 Btu lb-I q. sulfur = 0. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 83.(gross) = 20250 J g-l FIR. Composition is ash = 2.01.17. oxygen = 44.(gross) = 8710 Btu lb-I q.(net) = 8062 Btu lb.(gross) qv(gross) 13640 Btu I 7580 cal g-' 31710 J g-l P-' 82SUS FIR. q.1 q.(gross) = 13770 Btu lb.9%.(gross) = 32000 J g-l 82SUS q.49% and char yield = 20. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample t o 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen.(gross) = 22380 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) q. q.25 in. Wood sample was air-dried at room temperature. dry basis. and fixed carbon = 16. Pseudotsuga menzeisii. WHITE. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample t o 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen.98. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 4768 c a l gqv(gross) = 19950 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. determination performed at 30 a t m 0 2 . diameter with foliage removed and freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content.Woody and Tree Materials FIR.

(gross) = 8750 Btu lb. dry basis.(gross) = 7930 c a l gq.(gross) 31900 J g-' 82SUS 256 . Wood samples were air-dried at room temperature. Abies concolor.67%. Average yearly decomposition of t h e forest floor for white fir is: litter. assume values refer t o room temper at ur e .3%.(gross) = 9238 Btu lbi 1 q. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932'F) in nitrogen. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.(gross) = 5132 cal gq.(gross) = 13720 Btu 1F-l q. solid. Samples were air-dried at room temperature.46%.(gross) = 4860 cal g-l q.(Gross) = 20570 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) q. solid. fuel q.(gross) = 14270 Btu I q. Material was obtained from Whitaker's Forest in Tulare County. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.1 5188 cal g-l 21707 J g-l 5 duff q. 6. The layer was collected from t h e understory of t h e forest floor.(gross) q.1 q.1 q.(gross) 4939 c a l -1 20665 J g q. WHITE. 1.(gross) = 33180 J g-l 82SUS FIR. duff. Abies concotor. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. WHITE. WHITE. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. branch-twig qv(gross) = 8990 Btu lb-I q. Abies concolor. California. dry basis.(gross) = 20340 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) q. Composition is ash = 0.(gross) 7620 cal gq. assume values refer to room temperature. ROTTEN WOOD. ash-free.55% and char yield = 22.1%.Woody and Tree Materials FIR.(gross) = 4920 cal g-l q.15% and char yield = 21. fuel q.(gross) 9338 Btu lb. with predominant soil series of Shaver sandy loam derived from granitic parent material. solid. Composition is ash = 0.(gross) = 21472 J g-l 78AGEIWAK FIR.(gross) = 8850 Btu Ib.(gross) litter qv(gross) q.

6%. air-dried at 105"-11O0C (221 '-230'F) density.(gtoss) = 8626 Btu l b i I q. ash content = 1.(gross) = 4890 cal gq. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. 66FRY 257 .(gross) 20460 J g-l 55CHA/MIT HEMLOCK.Woody and Tree Materials HEMLOCK. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of aG-dried bark. EASTERN. qv(gross) 8802 Btu lb.45 g c m-3 .2%.(gross) = 4792 c a l gq. 68KAI/FRI. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. air-dried.. moisture content 6. I q. 0. hence. BARK. solid. q. are on an as-determined basis. Tsuna canadensis.(gross) 20050 J g-l 12DUN. specific heat: 273-379 K (32'-223'F) gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. WESTERN Tsuga heterophylh.

Woody and Tree Materials I HEVEA (RUBBER TREE).(gross) = 4372 cal 5.3 J g-l 83LEO HEVEA (RUBBER TREE).(gross) = 8377 Btu lb.2 Btu Ib-I 68 q.(gross) 4375 cal g-l q. and pelleted in units of about 1 g each.(gross) = 18355 J gleaves plus petioles plant parts q.(gross) = 8037 ? 30.(gross) = 7897 Btu lb. milled to a powder.(gross) = 18682 f 70.(gross) = 4387 cal g . milled t o a powder and pelleted in units of about 1 g each. q.(gross) = 7765 Btu lb.(gross) = 9000 Btu lb-I q.(gross) 20196 J g-l branches qv(gross) = 7870 Btu lb.' q. gross heat o combustion: dry weight basis. used 30 a t m oxygen.(gross) = 8689 Btu Ibi 1 q. Material came from mature trees growing on Rengam series soils in Kuala Lumpur.(gross) = 4654 cal g. assume values refer f t o toom temperature.1 q. 1 q. trunk and main-stem plant parts q.(gross) = 7974 f 30. used 30 atm oxygen.8 cal g-' q.(gross) = 4479 k 16.(gross) = 4430 f 1 .(gross) = 20920 J g-' main-stem bark qv(gross) = 7675 Btu Ib.1 q. Malaysia. gross heat of combustion: dry weight basis.(gross) = 7875 Btu lb.2 Btu lb.3 J g-' leaves q.2 Btu 1 q. Material c a m e from mature trees growing on Rengam series soils in Kuala Lumpur.1 q. solid. Samples were oven-dried at 80°C (176OF) to constant weight.1 q.1 q. qv(gross) = 18292 3 g 83LEO 258 .(gross) = 8062 f 30.(gross) = 18305 J g-' trunk wood q. branch bark q.(gross) = 4465 f 16. CLONE RRIM 527.(gross) = 17841 J g-l main-stem wood q.3 J g- s' petioles q. Malaysia.(gross) = 4264 cal g-' q.(gross) = 19472 J g-l t tunk bark q. assume values refer to room temperature.I q.(gross) = 4314 cal g-l q.(gross) = 4827 cal gq.(gross) = 18050 J g-l branch wood q. solid. cal q.(gross) = 18740 ? 70.8 cal q.(gross) = 5000 cal g-l q. Samples were oven-dried at 80°C (176'F) to constant weight.(gross) = 18535k 70.

solid.30% moisture q. used 30 a t m oxygen.(gross) = 4213 cal g-l q. genus Carya. CLONE RRIM 707. milled to a powder.(gross) = 18564 J g-l leaves plus petioles plant parts branches q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 7906 Btu lbi 1 qJgross) = 4392 cal g. solid. and pelleted in units of about 1 g each.(gross) = 4437 cal gq. Malaysia. trunk and main-stem plant parts qv(gross) 7987 Btu Ib.Woody and Tree Materials HEVEA (RUBBER TREE).(gross) = 18376 J g- q.(gross) = 8455 Btu lbi 1 q.(gross) = 4697 cal gq. as received: 10. assume values refer to room temperature. q. gross heat of combustion: dry weight basis.(gross) = 7583 Btu lb-' q.(gross) = 19652 J g-l 22PAR/DAV 259 .(gross) = 17626 J g-l air-dried one hour at 105°C (221°F) q. Material came from mature t r e e s growing on Rengam series soils in Kuala Lumpur.' q. Samples were oven-dried at 80°C (176°F) t o constant weight.(gross) = 9094 Btu lb-' qv(gross) = 5052 cal g-l qv(gross) 21138 J g ' 83LEO HICKORY.

Material was collected from the southern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in bottom-. 0. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) 7538 Btu lbi 1 q ( ross) 4188 cal gq$ross) = 17523 J g-' foliage q.Woody and Tree Materials HICKORY. solid.(gross) 21530 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) 13720 Btu 1 q.(gross) 31880 J g-' 82SUS .9%.(gross) = 8237 Btu Ibi 1 q. gross heat of combustion: 20°C (68"F).(gross) = 4203 cal gq. bole wood q.ash free.(gross) = 7620 cal gq.1 q. BARK.Carya spp.(gross) = 8122 Btu lb. 48. Samples were dried at 70°C (158'F) to a constant weight.(gross) = 18878 J g-' branch bark q. swamp. reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each tree and six trees per species were used.and wet flat-land natural stand sites. 8536 Btu lb. fuel q. air-dried 110°-1150C (230"-240°F'). gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.74% and char yield = 27. values are on a dry weight basis.(gross) = 4616 cal g-l q.' q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.(gross) = 19313 J g-' bole bark q.(gross) = 19146 J g-' 82GOW/FRE branch wood q. UTAH. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932'F) in nitrogen. 0. hydrogen.50%. solid.(gross) = 4576 cal gq. Juniperus osteosperma..(gross) = 7565 Btu lb.(gross) = 8309 Btu lb.1 q. Composition is ash = 17.(gross) q.' q.(gross) = 4742 cal g-' q.(gross) = 9260 Btu lb.06%.(gross) q. dry basis.(gross) = 4512 cal gq.20%. nitrogen.(gross) = 19841 3 g-l 1883GOT JUNIPER. ultimate analysis: carbon. ash. solid.99%.1 qv(gross) 5150 cal g-' q. Carpinus betulus. Bark was air-dried at room temperature.(gross) = 17595 J g-' HORNBEAM. 6.

(gross) = 30590 3 g-I 82SUS JUNIPER. Juniperus osteosperma. fuel q. Composition is ash = 0.2%. Char was obtained from heating th e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. FOLIAGE.22% and char yield = 24.(gross) = 32290 J g ' - P-' 82SUS .(gross) = 4940 cal g-' q. assume values refer t o room temperature. Larix occidentalis. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 400°C (932'F) in nitrogen.5%. Stem samples were branches less than 0.(gross) = 20660 J g ' - q. solid.1 q.(gross) = 8530 Btu lb-' q. dry basis.05% and char yield = 26.(gross) = 7390 cal g-l q.(gross) = 7720 cal gq. dry basis. freeze-dried to < 10% moisture content.25 in. fuel char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) 10020 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 5560 cal gq. solid.(gross) = 4740 cal g ' q. Juniperus osteosperrna. UTAH. assume values refer t o room temperature. solid.(gross) = 13310 Btu lb-I q.(gross) = 30930 J g-l 82SUS LARCH.(gross) = 19830 f g-' char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 13890 Btu 1 q. dry basis. UTAH.W d y and Tree Materials JUNIPER.(gross) = 23280 f g-l qv(gross) = 13160 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 7310 cal gq. W -2d was air-dried at room temperature. STEMS. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932'F) in nitrogen.(gross) = 8890 Btu lb. assume values refer t o room temperature. diameter with foliage removed and freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content. gross heat ofcombustion: ash-free.19% and char yield = 20. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. Composition is ash = 4. Composition is ash = 6. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q.7%.

1 char (from 500°C heating) q.17% and char yield = 23.(gross) = 7300 cal gq. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 23820 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) P-' q. moisture content = 6. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Composition is ash = 0.(gross) = 8700 Btu lb-I q.(gross) q. are on an as-determined basis. BARK. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. ash content 1. 1 q.(gross) = 4558 cal g" q. Bark samples were freeze-dried at room temperature. BARK. dry basis. WESTERN. solid.1 q. fuel q. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. solid. Larix occidentdis. fuel q. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. LUMBER. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.(gross) 32150 J g-l 82SUS LARCH.(gross) = 10250 Btu I qv(gross) = 5690 cal gq. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 30540 J g-' P-' 82SUS LARCH.(gross) = 13830 Btu lb.Woody and Tree Materials LARCH.20% and char yield 37.6%. solid. Larix accidentatis. Wood was air-dried at room temperature. hence.7%.(gross) 7680 cal g-' q. Larix occidentalis. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.(gross) 13140 Btu 1 q. Composition is ash = 1. 8204 Btu lb.(gross) = 4830 cal g-' qv(gtoss) = 20220 J g.3%.7%. dry basis.(gross) = 19071 J g-' 55CHA/MIT 262 .

ultimate analysis: carbon.(gross) = 20100 J g-l samples with intermediate amounts of throughfall q. exposed roots.16%. RIPE HARDWOOD MIXTURE. 4.(gross) = 4930 cal gq. Material was collected for one year in a 79-year-old. proximate analysis as received: moisture.4%. 95. New Zealand Nothofagus solandri variety forest.1 q. sulfur. including material from rainfall.4%. Throughfall was taken as suspended and dissolved material tainwashed from t h e plants.25%. surface-washings from plants.2%.(gross) = 20629 f g-l 66KA1 LITTER FALL.1 q. and recretions from leaves. hydrogen. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. as received q. branch material qv(gross) = 8300 Btu Ib-l q. ash.(gross) = 19700 J g-l floral material qv(gross) = 8600 Btu lb.(gross) = 20100 J g-1 samples with negligible amounts of throughfall q. 0. 19.1 1%. 9.99%. low-altitude.(gross) 8600 Btu lb.97%.15%.0%.92%.(gross) = 8300 Btu lb-I q. bryophytes. solid. 4.29%.Woody and Tree Materials LEAVES.(gross) = 4800 cal g-' q. TREE. 0. 3. solid.82%.(gross) = 7990 Btu lbqv(gross) 4439 cal g-' qv(gross) 18571 J g-l 1 dry basis q. oxygen. litter or soil. gross heat of combustion: dry weight and assume values refer to room temperature. 30. 0. volatile matter. An even-aged stand of Nothofagus with a sparse subcanopy vegetation was chosen having the following percentage of ground covers (rejecting t r e e base points). fixed carbon.(gross) = 4800 cal gel q.(gtoss) = 4700 cal g-l q.(gross) = 8874 Btu l b l l q.34%.(gross) = 19200 J g-l (more) 263 . 6.(gtoss) 4600 cal g-l q. ash. and vascular plants. 6. nitrogen. 66. 52.

02. sulfur = O.94.93.OO. and fixed carbon = 18. hydrogen = 5. q.Continued samples with large amounts of throughfall q. ash content = 0. oxygen = 44. BLACK. and residue (ash) = 1. determination performed at 30 atrn 0 2 . qv(gross) 8479 Btu lb.00. and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.73. Material is considered biomass fuel and has roximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration VCM) 80.57.57. q.Woody and Tree Materials LITTER FALL . chlorine 0.(gross) 4300 cal g-' q.06.(gross) = 8350 Btu Ib. and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.97. hydrogen 5.Ol. Also the ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 50. P b 0 gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. and residue (ash) = 0. sulfur 0. nitrogen 0.(net) 7830 B t u l b i I qv(net) = 4350 cal gi qv(net) = 18200 J g- 85JENEBE .(gross) = 7700 Btu lb-I q. solid.95. qv(net) = 7980 Btu Ib. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 82. Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48. Arbutus rnenzeisii.(gross) = 471 I cal g-l qv(gtoss) 19710 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. chlorine 0.26.80.(gross) = 18000 J g-l 72BAG LOCUST. oxygen 41.71. solid. ash content = 0.1 q.(gross) = 4639 cal g-l qv(gross) = 19410 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.44.96. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.08.0 I .99.1 q. nitrogen = 0.(net) 18550 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE MADRONE.I qv(net) = 4434 cal g-1 q. and fixed carbon = 16. determination performed at 30 a t m 0 2 .

Arctostaphylos gZanduZosa. assume values refer t o room temperature. sulfur = 0.(gross) = 8303 Btu lb-I q.Woody and Tree Materials MA1 CHAMPAH. from Thailand.(gross) = 31410 J g-l 82SUS 265 . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Composition is ash = 3. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. dry basis.(gross) = 19300 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. chlorine 0. ash content = 0. freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content.29.(net) = 18090 J g85JEN/EBE MANZANITA. Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48.1 q. solid.32 g ~ m . density. MicheZia.(gross) = 7750 cal gq.17. GREENLEAF.82.19% and char yield = 30.351 Cp(J g K-l) 12DUN MANZANITA.89.7%.323 = 1. solid. qv(net) = 7783 Btu lbll qv(net) = 4324 cal g l q.02. and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 81. air-dried at 105"-1 10°C (221"-230'F). and fixed carbon = 17.18.(gross) = 13940 Btu I q. nitrogen = 0. oxygen = 44.(gross) = 5190 cal g-' qv(gross) = 21730 f g-l char (from 500°C heating) q. hydrogen = 5.94. determination performed at 30 at m 02. FOLIAGE.68. solid. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-I O . and residue (ash) = 1. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.) F' Cp(cal-q -1 K -1 1 = 0.01.00. 0. q.(gross) = 46 13 cal g-l q.~ . fuel q.323 = 0.(gross) = 9330 Btu lb. ArctostaphyZos.

8 43. 13 Btu lb-l cal Jg- root (4 measurements) q.(gross) 7837 4354 18217 8732 4851 20297 54 . sulfur. hydrogen. Samples were dried at 85°C ( S ' ) then ground and pelleted.(gross) = qv(gross) = 7607 4226 17682 8429 4683 19594 49. Ash content of stem and branch wood = 1. 4.10%.Woody and Tree Materials I MAPLE.40%. 76.(gross) = 19050 J g-' 68KAI/FRI. 50.0%. 0. Acer campestre. fixed carbon.(gross) = 4553 cal gq. 5. ash. 30 . solid. 0. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure.(gross) q.1%.(gross) = 7879 4377 18313 8750 4861 77.' q. one of the dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Querceturn petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil. assume values refer to room temperature. stem and branch bark = 9.3%.2%. Material is a tree.7%.90%.(gross) q. leaf = 10. ultimate analysis: carbon. root = 10. solid.(gross) q. q.(gross) q. 19. oxygen.0%. The ISF. ash. 4.2 20338 181 Btu lb-I cal9-1 J g- 75PAP 266 . of mean stem and branch wood (4 measurements) q. 66FRY MAPLE.50%. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of the Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.3%. genus.(gross) qv(gross) = 8343 4635 19393 8440 4689 19619 30.6%. 0.7 69.10%. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture.7 116 B t u lb'l cal Jg- leaf (6 measurements) q.0%. dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev.9 Btu lb-I cal q1 q-' J g- stem and branch bark ( 5 measurements) qv(gross) = q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.9 27. nitrogen. 39. volatile matter. Acer.(gross) = 8195 B t u lb. ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while the temperature was increased stepwise. HEDGE.1 16.(gross) = q.

twigs = 2. Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in the live crown of the tree).(gross) = 20 146 (109) J g-l branch without bark q. solid. solid. two-thirds.(gross) = 4808 cal 6 . 1 qv(gross) = 4557 cal gq. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at the base. bark = 6.(gross) = 4760 c a l gq.' q. RED. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0. thermochemical calorie used and values were expressed on a dry matter basis and adjusted for h e a t of formation of nitric acid.(gross) 8957 Btu lbl 1 qv(gross) = 4976 cal gq.(gross) = 4792 (14) cal gq.' q.(gross) = 20820 J g-l qv(gross) = 8203 Btu lb.(gtoss) = 8737 (38) Btu lbll q. Acer rubrum. mean a g e = 12.796.2%.(gross) = 20050 (59) J g.(gtoss) = 8467 (47) Btu lbi 1 q. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 20309 (88) J grl branch with bark q.(gross) = 8734 (43) Btu lb-I q ( ross) 4852 (24) cal g-l q$ross) = 20301 (100) J g-' (more) 267 . gross heat of combustion: oven dry weight basis. Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185'F) to a constant weight gross heat of combustion: Assume values refer t o room temperature. Material came from various locations in New Hampshire. bole with bark q.(gross) = 19066 J g-l branches: qv(gross) = 8568 Btu l b l 1 q. one-third.(gross) = 4815 (26) cal gq. RED.Woody and Tree Materials MAPLE. mean basal stem diameter = 7. Acer rubrum.1%.4%.(gross) = 4770 cal g-" qv(gross) = 19958 J g-l leaves: q.5%? and leaves = 5.51%.(gross) = 19916 J g-' 79NEE/STE MAPLE. wood: q. branches 1.(gross) = 201 17 J g bark: twigs: qv(gross) = 8586 Btu Ib-' q.8 cm. and at top of t h e stem).(gross) = 4854 (21) cal gq.(gross) = 8626 (25) Btu lb.(gross) = 8654 Btu Ib. q. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses are standard errors. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 10.7 years.1 bole without bark q.

(gross) = 8764 Btu lb.(gross) = 17782 J g-l foliage q.(gross) = 19610 J g. solid. Acer rubrum.Woody and Tree Materials I MAPLE.(gross) = 4687 cal gq.(gross) = 8345 Btu Ibi 1 qv(gross) = 4636 cal gq. RED. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. values a r e on a dry weight basis.Continued foliage q.(gross) = 4445 cal g-l q.(gross) = 21196 J g-l SlMUS/HOC MAPLE.and wet flat-land natural stand sites.(gross) = 20372 J g-' SZGOW/FRE 268 . Material was collected from the southern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in bottom-. Samples were dried at 70°C (158OF) t o a constant weight.1 qv(gtoss) = 4250 cal g-l q.(gross) = 5066 cal gq.(gross) = 19397 J g-l branch bark qv(gross) = 7650 Btu lb.I q. swamp. q. RED . 1 q. bole wood branch wood b' qv(gross) = 8437 Btu I.(gross) = 9 119 Btu lb.(gross) = 18598 J g-l q.(gross) 8001 Btu lb.1 q.1 bole bark q.(gross) = 4869 cal g-l q. reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each t r e e and six trees per species were used.

66 g cm- 4. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 18610 J g-l q.) in diameter and roughly equivalent t o tops and branches) and large parts with the weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in t h e whole tree.K ' -) q = 0. small parts whole t r e e q. solid. 1 qv(gross) = 4448 cal gq.(gross) = 8023 Btu Ibqv(gtoss) = 4457 cal g-l qv(gross) = 18648 J g-l 1 82GEY MAPLE. SILVER. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal -1 &) Cp(J g. Overall mean specific gravity for whole tree = 0.(gross) 4484 cal g-l qv(gross) = 18761 J g-' large parts qv(gross) = 8006 Btu lb.327 = 1. solid. Acer saccharurn.64 c m (1/4 in. Bark proportion of whole t r e e = 19%. gross heat of combustion: oven-dried. SUG R.40 (oven dry weight and green volume). Acer saccharinurn. density. Each t r e e was separated into small parts (being less than 0. 0. air-dried at 105°-1100C(221"-230°F).327 = 0.(gross) = 8071 B t u Ib-I q.368 12DUN 269 .Woody and Tree Materials MAPLE.

Acer saccharurn.(gross) = 20966 J g-l 81MUS/HOC MAPLE.(gross) = 4874 (29) c a l g-' q.1 q.1 55CHA/MIT .1 q. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. BARK. solid. one at top of t h e stem).1 qv(gross) = 4873 (102) c a l g-l qv(gross) 20389 (427) J g-l branch without bark qv(gross) = 8863 (103) Btu lb-l qv(gross) = 4924 (57) c a l g-l qv(gross) = 20602 (238) J g-l q.(gross) = 501 1 c a l g-l q. two-thirds. Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in the live crown of the tree). ash content = 6.(gross) = 8773 (52) Btu Ib. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses are standard errors. Material came from various locations in New Hampshire. thermochemical f calorie used and values were expressed on a dry matter basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid. gross heat o combustion: Assume values refer to room temperature. solid. hence. moisture content = 6.3%.(gross) = 4056 c a l g-l q. bole with bark q.(gross) = 4836 (88) c a l gq.0%.(gross) = 8705 (158) Btu 1 q. values not f corrected for moisture or ash contents. are on a n as-determined basis. SUGAR. one-third. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. SUGAR.Woody and Tree Materials I MAPLE. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at the base.(gross) = 20393 (122) J g-' foliage branch with bark qv(gross) = 8771(184) Btu Ib.1 q.(gross) = 9020 Btu lb. Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185'F) t o a constant weight. Acer saccharurn.(gross) = 7301 Btu lb.(gross) = 20234 (368) J g-l bole without bark q.(gross) = 16970 J g. q.

(gross) q. assume values refer to room temperature.4 123 Btu lb-I ca1q-l J g- stem and branch bark ( 5 measurements) q. I I8025 134 Btu lb" c a l ~ ' f g75PAP 27 1 . stem and branch bark 7.(gross) = q.(gross) = q. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise.Woody and Tree Materials MAPLE. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.6%.(gross) = q. Ash content of stem and branch wood = 0. dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis s t d dev. TATARIAN. leaf = 5. Samples were dried at 85°C ( 8 ' ) then ground and 15F.(gross) = 7754 4308 8235 4575 19142 57. pelleted.5 266 Btu lb-' cal7-l 3 g- leaf ( 6 measurements) qv(gross) = qv(gross) = q. of mean s t e m and branch wood (3 measurements) q. solid. Acer tataricurn.9 29.(gross) = 8046 4470 18720 8525 4736 19815 110 61. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil. gross heat of combustion: at 20 atrn oxygen pressure.(gross) = q. root = 5.(gross) = q. Material is a tree.(gross) = 8298 4610 19288 834 1 4634 19389 52.2 256 Btu lb-I cal J g- q1 root (3 measurements) q.8 32.61%.5%.8%.(gross) = 7970 4428 18527 861 1 114 4784 20016 63.

(gross) = 30880 J g-l 82SUS 27 2 .16%. dry basis. 0. solid. DEAD FOLIAGE.Woody and Tree Materials I OAK. 50. The litter was air dried at room temperature. Quercus velutina. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. q.(gross) = 2 1270 J g-l q. ash free. ash. air-dried one hour at 105°C (222 O ) F. Composition is ash = 3. ultimate analysis: carbon. 0.1 q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. 6.37%.(gross) = 13290 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: 2OoC (68°F).9%.(gross) = 5080 cal g-' q.1 q. room temperature. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q.46% and char yield 28. qv(gross) = 8296 Btu l b l l qv(gross) = 4609 cal gq. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) 8562 Btu lb.(gross) = 19284 J g-l species not identified.(gross) = 4756 cal g-l q. Quercus peduncutata.1 q. nitrogen.(gross) = 7380 cal g-l q. air-dried at 110"-115°C (230"-240"F).(gross) = 19899 J g-' 22PAR/DAV OAK.09%.02%. hydrogen. BLACK.(gross) = 9150 Btu lb.

3 41.Woody and Tree Materials OAK. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise.5%.(gross) = 7675 4264 17841 8440 4689 19619 54.7%.(gross) = 7997 4443 18590 8926 4959 20748 30. light-adapted leaf = 6.(gross) = q. of mean Btu lb-l cal y1 J g- branch wood ( 3 measurements q. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climatonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil.(gross) = q. trunk bark = 10.q-l J g- trunk bark (4 measurements) qJgross) = q.3 127 Btu lb-I ca1q-l J g- twig (4 measurements) q. shade-adapted leaf = 6. then ground and pelleted. assume values refer to room temperature.4%.8 19.2 197 Btu lb-I cal4-l J g- light-adapted leaf (5 measurements) q.(gross) = q. Quercus petraea.(gross) = qJgross) = qv(gross) = 8545 4747 19861 8582 4768 19949 35. dry weight basis trunk wood (4 measurements) q.7 69. Samples were dried at 85°C (l8S0F). .% gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure.1%. Material is a tree.(gross) = qJgross) = qJgross) = 8363 4646 19439 8694 4830 20209 85.0%.9 q.9 83.3%.0 21. root = 6.(gross) = q. branch bark = 9. solid. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.(gross) = 8518 4732 19799 8620 4789 20037 38.3 Btu lb-' ca1.1 16.0%.0 47.5 30.3 ash-free dry weight basis std dev.1 88.3 173 Btu lb-' cal9-l J g(more) 273 . Ash content of trunk wood = 0.9%. DURMAST. acorns = 2 6 . twig = 3. branch wood 1.(gross) = Btu lb-I cal 5-l J g- branch bark (4 measurements) q.(gross) = qJgross) = qv(gross) = 8698 4832 202 17 9259 5144 21522 74.

4%.(gross) = 18665 J g.33%. NORTHERN RED.4%. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. and lignin. 23. P gross heat of combustion: oven-dry basis.0 32.1 55CHA/MIT 274 . are on a n as-determined basis. 1 q. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.1 34 Btu Ib-I cal J g- F1 root (3 measurements) q. hence.(gross) = 19945 J g-' 78MUR/MAS OAK.(gross) = q. of mean shade-adapted leaf (5 measurements) qv(gross) = qv(gross) = qv(gross) = 8329 4627 19359 8905 4947 20698 59. Quercus rubra.(gross) = 8030 Btu Ibi 1 q.Continued dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev.7 26.(gross) = 8089 4494 18803 8692 4829 20205 47. NORTHERN RED. 33. DURMAST .5 111 Btu Ib-I cal J g- q1 75PAP OAK. solid. qv(gross) = 8581 Btu lb. ash content = 5. moisture content = 4.(gross) = 4461 cal gq.(gross) = q. 42.81%. Quercus rubra.0389-(0. assume values refer to room temperature. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents.(gross) = qv(gross) = qv(gross) = 8377 4654 19472 8604 4780 20000 15 8. values are reported in international British thermal units per pound and converted below into thermochemical units.86%. The relationship etween gross heat of combustion and moisture content (MC) is given by: enqv(Btu lb.(gross) = 4767 cal gq.0107)MC(%) for EFW. q. hemicellulose. BARK.Woody and Tree Materials OAK.8 137 Btu lb-I cal J g- c' acorns (3 measurements) q.) = 9. Material was extractive-free wood (EFW) comprising cellulose.

thermochemical f calorie used and values were expressed on a dry matter basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid.(gross) = 4967 cal gq.385 12DUN OAK. bole with bark qv(gross) = 8780 (45) Btu qv(gross) = 4878 (25) c a l g-l q. Q ercus rubra.K-l) .9 = 0. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at t h e base.(gross) = 8654 ( 5 6 ) Btu qv(gross) = 4808 (31) cal gq.(gross) q.331 = 0. Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in t h e live crown of t h e tree). gross heat o combustion: Assume values refer to room temperature. and at top of t h e stem). RED. ~ . specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal 4-l C ( J g. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses ate standard errors.Woody and Tree Materials OAK.density. RED.(gross) 8797 (56)Btu Ibl 1 4887 (31) cal g20447 (130) J g-l branch without bark q.(gross) 201 17 (130) J g-' $' 275 . 105"-110"C (22I0-23O0F). solid.(gross) = 20410 (105) J g bole without bark qv(gross) 8654 (45) B t u lb.(gross) = 201 17 (105)J g foliage q.1 q. 1 q. Material came from various locations in New Hampshire.(gross) 4808 (25) cal .62 g c m -3 . Quercus rubra. one-third. two-thirds. solid. Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185°F)to a constant weight. air-dried at 0.(gross) q.l: g q.(gross) = 20782 J g-l 82MUS/HOC branch with bark q.(gross) = 8941 Btu Ib.331 = 1.

and residue (ash) 2. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 47. TAN.40. ash content = 3. BARK. nitrogen 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.40.01. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in petcent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 83. chlorine = 0. ash content = 1. ash content = 1.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.11. qv(gross) 7916 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.67. sulfur 0. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. SAPWOOD.1 85JEN/EBE . P gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. qv(gross) q.1 4524 c a l g-l 18930 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 73.(gross) = 4398 c a l 5. qv(gross) = 8204 Btu lb.93. and fixed carbon = 23.W m y and Tree Materials OAK.03.01.00.12. determination and performed at 30 a t m 02.49. TAN. qv(net) = 7628 Btu Ib. and fixed carbon = 15. Material is considered biomass fuel and has roximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration VCM) = 80. solid. solid. and fixed carbon 17.' qv(net) = 4238 cal 81 qv(net) = 17730 J g- 85JEN/EBE OAK.93. corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.81.36. hydrogen 5. qv(gross) = 18400 J g 85JEN/EBE OAK. oxygen = 44.' q. solid. 1 qv(gtoss) = 4558 cal gqv(gross) = 19070 J g.62.(gross) qv(gross) 8144 Btu Ib.12. TAN.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.

(gross) = qv(gross) = 8523 4735 1981 1 8617 4787 20029 30.2 22.0 100 Btu lb-I cal q-1 J g- branch wood (3 measurements) q. of mean Btu Ib-I cal J g- r1 trunk bark (7 measurements) q. TURKEY.2%.2 24. shade-adapted leaf = 6. twig = 5. dry weight basis trunk wood (3 measurements) q. Ash content of trunk wood = 1.4%.0 100 Btu lb-I cal J g- twig (4 measurements) qv(gross) = q.4 16.9 q. one of the dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil. light-adapted leaf = 5.(gross) qv(gross) 890 1 4945 20690 9412 5229 22878 41.2 55.6%.2 24.4%.1%. trunk bark = 8. branch wood = 1. Material is a tree.1 31. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure.(gross) q. content was determined at 500°C (932'F) while the temperature was increased stepwise.(gross) = q.3%.3%.(gross) 7708 4282 17916 8404 4669 19535 43.3%.(gross) = qv(gross) = q.1 23 1 Btu lb-I cal J q1 a- light-adapted leaf ( 5 measurements) q. acorns = 2.W d y and Tree Materials OAK.(gross) = 8386 4659 19493 9146 508 1 2 1259 43. solid.8 Btu Ib-l ca1q-l J g(more) 277 .(gross) = 8332 4629 19368 8807 4893 20472 99. Quercus cerris.(gross) 95.7 ash-free dry weight basis std dev. branch bark = 8.9 70. The ash 15F.1%.7 133 B t u lb-l cal Jg- branch bark (4 measurements) qJgross) qv(gross) = q. assume values refer to room temperature. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary. root = 4. Samples were dried at 85°C ( 8 ' ) then ground and pelleted.(gross) = qv(gross) 8395 4664 19514 8510 4728 19782 57.(gross) = q.

(gross) = 9151 Btu Ib-1 q.(gross) = qJgross) = 8653 4807 201 12 9227 5126 21447 48. and leaves 3.8%. .0 113 Btu Ib-I cal J g- acorns (3 measurements) qJgross) = q.(gross) = 19987 f g-l bark: twigs: q.(gross) 21271 J g-l q.(gross) = 4756 cal g-l 1 q.(gross) = qJgross) = 8233 4574 19138 8627 4793 34.(gross) = 19899 J g7 9NEE/ STE 278 .Woody and Tree Materials OAK. ash content 1. of mean shade-adapted leaf ( 5 measurements) qv(gross) q. bark = 6. assume values refer to room temperature. Quercus nigra. twigs = 2 6 .(gross) = 8672 Btu Ib-I q.(gross) = 8599 Btu Ib-I qv(gross) = 4777 cal g-l q.(gross) qv(gross) 81 18 4510 18870 8289 4605 19267 15 Btu lb-I 81 .3 years.7 20054 75PAP OAK.7 Btu 1b-l cal J g- 1.(gross) = 4622 cal g-l' q.1 q.Continued dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev.8 cm.7%.(gtoss) 5084 cal g-' q.3%. wood: q. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 14.1%. mean basal stem diameter = 9.(gross) = 4818 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20159 J g-l leaves: q. WATER. solid.(gross) = 8561 Btu Ib-l q. 34 cal f-I J g- root (3 measurements) q.% gross heat of combustion: oven dry weight basis.6 27. 93 80.(gross) = 8320 Btu Ib.(gross) = 19338 J g-l branches: q. mean age = 11.(gross) = q. TURKEY .

qv(gross) = 4663 cal gqv(gross) = 1951o J q.78 g specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu Ib" O-) F' Cp(cal -1 K-1) 7 Cp(J g. WHITE.(gross) = 4621 cal g-l q. solid. Samples were dried at 70°C (158°F)to a constant weight.and wet flat-land natural stand sites. Quercus nigru.(gross) = 19146 J g-' branch bark qv(gross) = 8289 Btu Ibil q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. solid.(gross) = 4605 cal g . Material was collected from the southern Atlantic uf and G l coastal plains in bottom-.Woody and Tree Materials OAK.360 12DUN 279 . air-dried at 105"-110"C(221"-230°F). qv(gross) = 19267 J gbole bark qv(gross) = 8393 Btu I' b .(gtoss) 4576 cal g-l q.325 = 0. reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each tree and six trees per species were used. Quercus alba.1 q. values ate on a dry weight basis.(gross) = 8318 Btu lb. WATER. bole wood branch wood qv(gross) = 8237 Btu lb.325 = 1.1 q.(gtoss) = 19334 J g-' foliage 82GOW/FRE OAK. 0.K' -) = 0. swamp. density.

52.6 I.20. qv(gross) 6995 Btu lbil q. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.7%.I q. ash content = 1.(gross) = 16259 J g-' 55CHA/MIT .04.48. determination performed at 30 atm 02. nitrogen = 0. qv(net) 7886 Btu lb.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.(gross) = 3886 c a l gq. are on an as-determined basis.(gross) = 19420 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. chlorine = 0.38.5%. oxygen = 43.(gross) 4641 cal g-l q. Quercus alba.01. BARK. moisture content = 6. solid.(net) I8330 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE OAK. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. and fixed carbon = 17.13. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. ash content = 10.' qv(net) 4381 cal gq. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. sulfur = 0.28. solid. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 81.Woody and Tree Materials OAK. hence. q. and residue (ash) = I .(gross) = 8355 Btu lb. WHITE.35. hydrogen = 5. WHITE.

values not f corrected for moisture or ash contents. ash content 1. solid.7%.(gross) = 5017 (32) cal gq. are on a n as-determined basis.(gross) = 21033 (138) J g-' bole without bark q.(gross) = 9407 Btu lbi 1 qv(gross) = 5226 cal gq. hence. one at top of t h e stem).(gross) 5027 (33) c a l g-' q.' q. thermochemical calorie used and values were expressed on a dry matter basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid. Pinus banlcsiana. Pinus strobus. bole with bark branch with bark qv(gross) = 9679 ( 3 6 ) Btu lbl 1 qv(gross) = 5377 (31) c a l g" qv(gross) = 22497 (130) J g-' branch without bark q.(gross) 9182 (49) B t u lb-' qv(gross) = 5101 (27) c a l g-l q.Woody and Tree Materials PINE. moisture content 6.(gross) = 21343 (113) J g-' q.(gross) 4867 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20364 J g-l 55CHA/MIT 28 1 . Material c a m e from various locations in New Hampshire. BARK. solid. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses are standard errors. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.(gross) = 21866 J g-' 8 lMUS/HOC PINE. one-third.6%. EASTERN WHITE. two-thirds. Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185'F) t o a constant weight. qv(gross) = 8761 Btu lb. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at the base. JACK. Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in t h e live crown of the tree).1 q. gross heat of combustion: Assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 9049 (59) Btu lb-' q.(gross) 20991 (134) J g-' foliage q.(gross) = 9031 (58) Btu lb.

29058 + 4.(gross) = 7520 cal gq. fuel qv(gross) 10010 Btu 1 q.Woody and Tree Materials PINE LITTER. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. mean extractive content.(gross) = 23686 J g-' 55CHA/MIT 28 2 . specific heat: 333-413 K (140"-284"F).497 = 0. q. EXTRACTIVES. BARK.06 = 0. samples were oven-dried at 100°C (212°F)for 12 hours before measurements were made. LODGEPOLE.34781 + 6. moisture content = 5. Pinus taeda. 0.06945 + 1 0 .(gross) = 31450 J g-l 82SUS PINE. Composition is ash = 31. specific heat: 333-413 K (140"-284"F). solid. are on an as-determined basis. assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Material is partially decomposed pine litter called the IIFII layer air-dried at room temperature. 6. Pinus Eaeda.(gross) = 5661 cal g-' q. hence.2761 = 0. solid.K-l) q1 = 0.9735 x x T T T 69McM PINE. Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' = 0. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents.6%.(gross) = 5560 cal gq.0%. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932OF)in nitrogen. ash content = 2.8%. LOBLOLLY.25406 + 5. LOBLOLLY. unexttacted specific gravity. residue obtained from alcoholbenzene extraction of loblolly pine wood. solid.91% and char yield = 38.(gross) = 13530 Btu 1P-l q.56 x x x T lod3 T T 70McM PINE.(gross) = 23260 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) P-' q. samples were oven-dried at 100°C (212°F)for 12 hours before measurements were made. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.01153 + 9.(gross) = 10190 Btu Ib-' q.49 (oven dry weight and green volume).9 = 0. C (Btu lb-' OF-') Cp(cal P K-~) Cp(3 g. solid. Pinus contorta.04824 + 3. dry basis. DUFF.08% [68McM].

7%.(gross) = 9470 Btu lb.2%. freeze-dried to < 10% moisture content. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. PINYON.1 q. Pinus edulis. fuel q.68 g ~ r n . Char was obtained from heating th e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. LODGEPOLE. 12DUN PINE. qv(gross) = 8951 Btu lbll q ( ross) = 4973 cal gq$ross) = 20807 J g-' 68BOA/KIC PINE.K ) = 1. LONGLEAF. in May and November.410 105°-110"C (221'-230"F). gross heat of combustion: ash-free.21% and char yield = 29.1 char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 13810 B t u I q. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') = 0. Samples were taken at mid-crown position. gross heat of combustion: air-dried weight. assume values refer t o room temperature. dry basis.(gross) = 5290 cal g-l q. Composition is ash = 3. density. Composition is ash 2. freeze dried to < 10% moisture content.(gross) = 9530 Btu lb-I q.(gross) = 7670 cal gqv(gross) = 321 10 J g-l P-' 82SUS PINE. FOLIAGE. Pinus palustris.l =)0. assume values refer t o room temperature. solid. Material was frozen and subsequently dried or preserved in 70% alcohol and then dried. Pinus contorta.(gross) = 13510 Btu 1 q.52% of air-dry weight.(gross) = 22140 J g.~ .337 Cp(J g.(gross) = 5260 cal g-l qv(gross) = 22020 J g-l chat (from 500°C heating) q. Pinus contorta.22% and char yield = 26.(gross) = 7510 cal gqv(gross) = 31400 J g-l 82SUS 283 . at 6300 and 5700 feet altitude. solid.337 Cp(cal ~ ~ 5 . and from young and old trees. NEEDLES. dry basis. Crude protein levels averaged 4. FOLIAGE. solid. solid.Woody and Tree Materials PINE. fuel q. air-dried at 0. assume values refer to room temperature. LODGEPOLE.

(gross) = 20020 J g. Pinus ponderosa. q. chlorine = 0.Woody and Tree Materials I .(gross) = 32400 J g-l p-' 82SUS PINE.(gross) = 4785 cal g. fuel q.' qv(net) = 4493 c a l gqv(net) = 18800 J g-l 85JEN/EBE .54. Pinus eduZis. and residue ash) 0.(gross) q. 64BRO PINE.25. oxygen = 44.17.1 5350 c a l g-l 22390 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 13940 Btu I q. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 82. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49.29. solid.36. Stem samples were branches < 0.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. PONDEROSA. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. PINE. qv(gross) 8327 2 68 Btu Ib. ash content = 0.(gross) q.25 in. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. moisture content of wood -6%.(gross) = 7740 c a l gq. qv(net) = 8088 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. STEMS.06. k gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. solid.30. assume values refer t o room temperature. Composition is ash = 2. dry basis. solid. sulfur 0.99. determination performed at 30 atm 02.3%.(gross) 8613 Btu Ib.23% and char yield = 22. hydro en = 5.03. and fixed carbon = 17.1 q.01.1 qv(gross) 4626 ? 38 cal g-l qv(gross) = 19355 k 159 J g-' 67ROB. diameter with foliage removed and freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content. PINYON.1 net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Samples were conditioned t o moisture equilibrium at 27°C (80°F) and 30% relative humidity.1 q. PONDEROSA.(gross) 9630 Btu lb. nitrogen = 0.

A2 78 FOLIAGE. dry basis.(gross) 4980 cal g-l q.2%.(gross) = 20x20 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) 14130 Btu 1 qv(gross) 7850 cal gqv(gross) = 32850 J g-' 82SUS PINE. solid.(gross) = 21577 J g-l q. Material was obtained from Whitaker's Forest in Tulare County. Pinus ponderosa. Average yearly decomposition of t h e forest floor for ponderosa pine is: litter. California. Pinus ponderosa. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q.Woody and Tree Materials PINE.(gross) = 10240 Btu lb.80%.(gross) = 9470 Btu lb.(gtoss) = 5016 cal g- q.(gross) = 5689 cal g-l q. with predominant soil series of Shaver sandy loam derived from granitic parent material.5%. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. dry basis. assume values refer to room temperature. duff.(gross) = 20987 J g-' duff q.(gross) = 23803 J g-' 78AGE/WAK PINE.(gross) = 5260 cal g-l q. Composition is ash = 2. fuel qv(gross) 8960 Btu lb.(gtoss) = 7770 cal gq.1 q. 2. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.(gross) = 5157 cal gq. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen. assume values refer t o room temperature. solid.33% and char yield = 19. Composition is ash = 0.(gross) 32510 J g-l q. solid.(gross) = 9283 Btu lbl 1 q. PONDEROSA.1 q. Pinus ponderosa. ash-free.(gross) = 13990 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 22010 J g-l P-' 82SUS 285 .16%. The layer was collected from t h e understory of t h e forest floor.(gross) = 9029 Btu lbl 1 q.39% and char yield 25. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen. PONDEROSA. freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Wood was air-dried at room temperature. 11. PONDEROSA.1 q. branch-t w ig litter q.

Composition is ash = 0.(gross) = 13740 Btu 1 q.(gross) 30470 J g.(gross) = 31940 3 g-l 82SUS 286 .63% and char yield = 29. fuel q. dry basis. Composition is ash = 2. dry basis. fuel q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. DEAD FOLIAGE. assume values refer to room temperature. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen.1 q. CA 77 FOLIAGE. Pinus ponderosa.52% and char yield = 46.4%. fuel q.Woody and Tree Materials I .75% and char yield = 26.(gross) 5480 cal g.1 P-' 82SUS PINE.(gross) = 20550 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) q. PINE.(gross) = 9470 Btu lb-I q. freeze-dried to < 10% moisture content. The litter was air-dried at room temperature. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen.1 q. BARK. solid. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen.(gross) = 22910 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) q. solid.(gross) = 8840 Btu lb.5%.(gross) = 14190 Btu lb. Composition is ash = 3. Bark samples were air-dried at room temperature. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.Pinus ponderosa.(gross) = 32980 J g-l 82SUS PINE.(gross) = 22010 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) q. PONDEROSA. Pinus ponderosa.1 q.9%. assume values refer to room temperature. PONDEROSA. dry basis.(gross) = 7630 cal gq. PONDEROSA.(gross) = 5260 cal g-l q.1 q.(gross) = 9860 Btu lb.(gross) = 13110 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 7280 cal gq. solid.(gross) = 7880 cal g-' q.(gross) = 4910 cal g-l q.

dry basis.94% and char yield = 29. assume values refer t o room temperature. assume values refer to room temperature. Pinus ponderosa.(gross) = 9020 Btu lb. dry basis. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.(gross) = 22270 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 13990 Btu 1 q. fuel q.(gross) = 9580 Btu 1 q. MT 77 FOLIAGE. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.(gross) = 5320cal q.(gross) = 32510 J g-' P-' . PONDEROSA. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. solid. MT 78 FOLIAGE.(gross) = 32600 J g-l 82SUS PINE. PONDEROSA. Composition is ash = 2.(gross) = 20970 J g-' q.3%. PONDEROSA. solid. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 22400 J g. Composition is ash = 2.(gross) = 9640 Btu lb.61% and char yield = 26. Lumber was airdried at room temperature.1 q.(gross) = 7770 cal gq. Pinus ponderosa. dry basis. Pinus ponderosa.1 char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 14030 Btu lb-' qv(gross) = 7790 cal g-' q. freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content. Composition is ash = 0.(gross) = 14120 Btu 1 q.0%. solid.9%. HEARTWOOD LUMBER.(gtoss) = 32820 J g-l P-' 82SUS PINE. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. Chat was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen.(gross) = 7840 cal gq.Woody and Tree Materials PINE. 82SUS 287 .(gross) = 5010 cal g-' q.1 q. freeze-dried to < 10% moisture content. fuel q.(gross) = 5350 cal g-l q.24% and char yield = 20. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.

60%. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. moisture content = 6 4 .Woody and Tree Materials PINE. fuel q.(gross) = 9300 B t u Ib.(gross) = 31700 J g-l P-' 82SUS PINE. California.(gross) = 2 I6 I0 f g-' char (from 500°C heating) q. Pinus elliottii. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932'F) in nitrogen.(gross) 9220 Btu Ib-1 q.1 5203 cal g-' 21769 J g-' 78AGElWAK 288 . with predominant soil series of Shaver sandy loam derived from granitic parent material.(gross) = 21430 J g-l duff qv(gross) qv(gross) q.(gross) = 21543 J g-' q. dry basis. solid.' q ( ross) = 5001 cal gq$ross) = 20924 J g-l 55CHAIMIT PINE. Composition is ash 1. The layer was collected from the understory of t h e forest floor. assume values refer to toom temperature. SUGAR. SLASH. SLASH.(gross) = 7580 cal g-I q. hence. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.1 q.% gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. solid. qv(gross) = 9002 Btu lb. Material was obtained from Whitaker's Forest in Tulare County. FOLIAGE. .6%.(gross) 9365 Btu lb. freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content. branch.t wig litter qv(gross) = 9268 Btu lbi' qv(gross) 5249 cal gq. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. 8.(gtoss) = 5170 cal g-' q.Pinus elliottii. ate on a n as-determined basis. BARK. solid. 2. ash free.(gross) = 13640 Btu q. ash content = 0.5%.54% and char yield = 29. duff.(gross) = 5 122 cal g-' q.56%. Average yearly decomposition of the forest floor for sugar pine is: litter. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Pinus tambertiana.

53% and char yield = 34.(gross) = 4592 cal g-l q. Pinus strobus.1 q.25 g ~ m ' ~ .(gross) = 19213 J g-l 68KAI/FRI. 7. WHITE. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) F' Cp(Btu lb-I O . fuel q. solid.331 = 1.76%. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.331 = 0.(gross) 13370 Btu 1 q. Pinus monticola. proximate analysis. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. 66FRY POPLAR. The litter was airdried at room temperature.(gross) = 4803 cal gqv(gross) = 20096 3 g-l 22PAR'iDAV q.14%. WHITE. 14.1 qv(gross) 5200 cal g-' q. air-dried at 105"-110"C (221"-230°F).K ) = 0.(gross) = 7430 cal gq.10%. SAWDUST. density. assume values refer t o room temperature.Woody and Tree Materials PINE.(gross) = 7722 Btu lbi 1 qv(gross) = 4290 cal gqv(gross) = 17948 J g-' 289 . Pinus strobus.) Cp(cal ql5-l) Cp(J g.(gross) = 21760 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) q.(gross) = 31080 J g-l 82SUS PINE. ash. solid. Composition is ash = 3. as received: 10. gross heat of combustion: air-dried. volatile matter. solid.0%.385 12DUN PINE. 78. assume values refer to room temperature. qv(gross) = 8266 Btu lb.69% moisture air-dried one hour at 105°C (221°F) q.(gross) = 9360 Btu lb.(gross) = 8645 Btu lbl I q. WESTERN WHITE. 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. DEAD FOLIAGE. genus Populus. dry basis. fixed carbon.0%. 0. a s delivered: moisture.

4%.63%.(gross) = 4800 cal gq.496. and fixed carbon = 16. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.I q. hydrogen = 5. oxygen = 43.' q.43. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 82.(gross) = 8674 Btu Ib. Liriodendron tulipifera. and leaves = 5.2%. chlorine = 0.7 cm. I q. mean age = 14 years.85. and residue (ash) 1.3%.33. Also the ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 48.' q. sulfur 0.(gross) = 9121 Btu l b l 1 q. branches 1. solid. solid.(gtoss) 4819 cal g-l q.35. YELLOW.4%. mean basal stem diameter = 9.47.69.(gross) = 19376 3 g-l branches: q.(gross) = 4631 cal gq.and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.(gross) = 19380 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(net) = 4348 cal g l q. bark 4.45.(gross) = 5067 cal gqv(gross) = 21200 J g-1 290 .10.(gross) = 8640 Btu Ib.01. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.(net) = 18190 J g- 85JEN/EBE POPLAR.(gross) = 20162 J g-' bark: qv(gross) = 8336 Btu Ibl 1 q. wood: q.(gross) = 8337 B t u lbl I qv(gross) = 4632 cal gq.Woody and Tree Materials I POPLAR. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0. assume values refer to room temperature. qv(net) = 7826 Btu lb. twigs 2.(gross) = 4782 cal gqv(gross) 20008 J g-' leaves: q.(gross) = 20083 J g-' 79NEE/STE twigs: qv(gross) = 8608 Btu Ib. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 20. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight basis. q.32. nitrogen = 0. ash content = 1.

59. 12. mean age = 10. potassium.6%.(gross) = 8386 Btu Ibl 1 q.Woody and Tree Materials POPULUS HYBRIDS. Cercis canadensis. solid.80% of oven-dry weight.(gross) = 19493 J g-' 79BOW/BLA REDBUD.(gross) = 8528 Btu lbl I q.3 years. Sample specimens were composite wood/bark from 4-year-old trees of seven hybrids. gross heat of combustion: oven dry weight basis. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 4738 cal gq. mean basal stem diameter = 6. solid.1 79NEE/STE 29 1 .5%. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0. twigs = 2.5 cm. and total extractives. 0.2%.1 branches: twigs: q. magnesium.35. and leaves 5. 0. q.(gross) = 4864 cal g-l q.1% and 16.1 qv(gross) = 19376 J g.2% extractive f r e e oven-dry weight.(gross) = 20351 J g-' bark: qv(gross) = 8336 Btu lb-l qv(gross) = 4631 cal g.596. wood: q. Holocellulose and pentosan a re 67. 0.2.06.2%. Selected nutrients given in percent of oven-dry weight a r e phosphorus. assume values refer to room temperature.1 q.9696.(gross) = 8525 Btu q. respectively. 0.(gross) = 8755 Btu lb.08. calcium.(gross) 4659 cal gq. branches = 1. Average ash content is 0. bark = 5.(gross) = 19824 J g.(gross) = 4736 cal gqv(gross) = 19815 3 g-l leaves: $' qv(gross) = 9158 Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 5088 cal g-l qv(gross) 21288 J g-l q. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) 9.

(gross) = 19580 J g-l 85JEN/EBE REDWOOD. solid. chlorine 0.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.72. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 50. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 79. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.40.1 qv(gross) 4952 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20720 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. oxygen 42. HEARTWOOD. BARK.05.(gross) = 21 140 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE . determination performed at 30 a t m 02.17.I qv(gross) = 5053 c a l g-l q.92. qv(gross) = 8424 Btu Ib. nitrogen = 0. and fixed carbon = 19. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.Woody and Tree Materials I REDWOOD.60. ash content = 1. hydrogen = 5.(gross) = 4680 c a l gq.02. solid.44.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. and residue (ash) 0.36.55.03. ash content = 0. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. ash content 0.98. solid. qv(gross) = 9095 B t u lb.64. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.96.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. and fixed carbon = 19. sulfur = 0.' q.28. qv(net) = 8393 Btu l b l l qv(net) = 4663 c a l gi qv(net) = 19510 J g85 JEN/EBE REDWOOD. and fixed carbon = 29. q. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 80.(gross) = 8914 B t u lb.88. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 68.

and fixed carbon 19. Material was obtained from Whitaker's Forest in Tulare County. ash content 0.(gross) = 5109 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 21376 J g"' 78AGEIWAK 293 .12. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 80. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. ash content = 0. The layer was collected from t h e understory of t h e forest floor.(gross) = 20980 J g-' 85JEN/EBE REDWOOD. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Sequoiadendron giganteurn. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.40%. solid. GIANT.77%. solid. and fixed carbon = 18. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 81.67.1 qv(gross) = 4936 cal g-' qv(gross) = 20652 3 g-' litter q.(gross) = 4854 cal g-l q.(gross) = 5014 cal g-l q. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 20310 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE SEQUOIA.19. q. branch-twig duff qv(gross) = 9225 Btu lb.1 q.(gross) = 21435 J &-I q. 2. California.Woody and Tree Materials REDWOOD.18.(gross) = 8885 Btu lb.(gross) = 9026 Btu lb.(gross) = 9196 Btu lbq. with predominant soil series of Shaver sandy loam derived from granitic parent material.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.21. ash-free. MILL WASTES. Average yearly decomposition of t h e forest floor for giant sequoia is: litter. qv(gross) 8738 Btu lb.' qv(gross) 5123 cal gq.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.1 q. 11. duff.63. SAPWOOD.

values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. assume values r e f e r to room temperature. sulfur. gross h e a t of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight. ft-3. when moderately packed t h e average density 24. SAWMILL RESIDUE.Woody and Tree Materials I SOUTHERN HARDWOOD.41%. solid. q. volatile m a t t e r . assume values r e f e r to room temperature.(gross) = 8017 Btu lb. collected from 6 sawmills near Baton Rouge. ash. BLACK. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r to room temperature. 3. The average moisture content is 184%. ash content = 2. Material is mixed sawdust and bark residue from hardwood t r e e s a f t e r i t has been piled and exposed t o t h e weather.I q. I . 3.4 Ib ft-3. nitrogen.(gross) 18635 J g-l 76CAS/CHO SOUTHERN HARDWOOD.82%. and value is a n average. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight.5%.20%. fixed carbon. ash.07%. 4.(gross) = 9547 Btu Ib. 20. The average moisture c o n t e n t is 107%.(gross) = 8046 Btu lb.35%.13%.19%. Louisiana.1 qv(gross) = 5304 cal g-l qv(gross) = 22 19 1 J g. BALSAM. moisture content = 6. air-dried at 80°C (176'F) q. average density 29. Picea mariana.' qv(gross) = 4581 cal gqv(gross) = 19167 J g-' 55CHA/MIT 294 . ultimate analysis: carbon. solid. qv(gross) = 8246 Btu Ib.(gross) 1360 c a l qv(gross) = 5692 J g \ -5 -1 68KAI/FRI SPRUCE.solid. FRESH. 0.= 4470 cal g-l qv(gross) = 18702 J g-' 76CAS/CHO SPRUCE. q. 5 I . a r e on an as-determined basis.76%. 0.1 q. PILED. Material is mixed sawdust and bark residue coming directly from t h e mill (generated t h e same day) collected from 6 mills around Baton Rouge.1 qv(gross).(gross) 4454 c a l g-l q.0 Ib green wt. hence. hydrogen. moisture.0%. proximate analysis as received: moisture. SAWMILL RESIDUE. Louisiana. 74.44%. BARK. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. and value is a n average.solid. 6.4 1%.1 as received qv(gross) = 2448 Btu Ib. Abies Zasiocarpa.

hydrogen. ENGELMANN. solid.(gross) = 21309 J g-' 1883GOT SPRUCE PINE.0645 3. Pinus glabra. qv(gross) = 9167 Btu Ib. q.(gross) = 19430 J g-l 55CHA/MIT SPRUCE. are on an as-determined basis. solid. specific heat: 333-413 K (140"-284"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal -1 K-1) Cp(J g-' K-') = 0. air-dried at 110°-1150C (230°-2400F).4489 x x x T + 1. carbon. BARK.37%.(gross) = 8359 Btu lb.577 x = -0. BARK.137 x loL2 T + 2.3. samples were dried for 8 hours in a vacuum oven at 103OC (217°F). specific heat: 333-413 K (140°-284"F) C.2822 T + 5. gross heat of combustion: at 2OoC (68OF). gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.201 x T T T 68KAI/FRI SPRUCE PINE. 6. ash.1 qv(gross) = 5093 cal g-' q.1. solid.(gross) = 4644 cal g-l q. Pinus abies.(Btu lb-' O .) F' PCp(cal 51 .2472 + 5. solid.1 Cp(J g.0389 + 4.1493 x T2 T2 10-5 T2 68KAI/FRI 295 . moisture content = 5. Pinus gZabra. ash content = 2.04%. bark specimens oven-dried at 152OC (306°F).Woody and Tree Materials SPRUCE.2.5855 x 0. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents.7859 . NORWAY.3383 .5%.31%.5%. ash free.0091 + 1. 50.004 x = -0. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. 0. nitrogen.20%. 0.K ) 9-1 = 0. Picea engehannii.1 q.2882 . hence.

7%. Liquidambar styraciflua.(gross) = 4658 cal gq.1 q.332 = 0.(gross) = 4684 cal gq.(gross) = 8431 Btu lbll q. mean age = 10 years. RED*Picea rubens.(gross) 8384 Btu lb. q Cp(J g. branches 2.K-') 0. gross heat of combustion: oven dry weight basis. -3') 0.47%.(gross) 8224 Btu Ibl 1 q.(gross) = 19673 J g-l q.(gross) = 8498 Btu lbl' q. and leaves = 3. specific heat: 273-379 K (32'-223"F) C.(gross) = 19753 J g-l bark: q.3%.(gross) = 19598 J g-l leaves: q. wood: twigs: q.) F' Cp(cal . solid.(Btu Ib-' O .(gross) = 4702 cal g-l q.(gross) = 8464 Btu Ib. bark = 5.Woody and Tree Materials I SPRUCE. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood 0.(gross) = 4721 cal gq.9%.1 79NEE/STE 296 . mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 16. mean basal stem diameter = 7.0%. assume values refer to room temperature. twigs 3.0%. solid.(gross) = 4569 cal gqv(gross) = 19117 J g-l branches: q.39 g cm -3.(gross) = 19489 3 g.389 12DUN SWEETGUM.1 &) IJ density..' q.0 cm.332 = 1. air-dried at 1O5"-11O0C (221'20F.

Liquidambar styraciflua. hence. Samples were dried at 70°C (158OF)t o a constant weight. ash content = 5.Woody and Tree Materials SWEETGUM.(gtoss) = 19150 J g-l branch bark q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. moisture content = 6.1 qv(gross) = 4722 cal g-l q.(gross) 19757 J g-l 82GOW/FRE SWEETGUM.and wet flat-land natural stand sites. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents.(gross) = 17560 J g-' foliage qv(gross) = 8500 Btu lb.1 qv(gtoss) = 4577 cal g-l q.(gross) = 4139 cal gi1 qv(gross) = 17318 J g 55CHA/MIT 297 .1 4552 cal g-l 19046 J g-' branch wood qv(gross) = 8239 Btu Ib.7%. bole wood qv(gross) qv(gross) qv(gross) 8194 Btu lb.(gross) = 4197 cal g-l q. values ate on a dry weight basis. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. solid.(gross) = 7555 Btu lb-I q. Material was collected from the southern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in bottom-. qv(gross) = 7450 Btu Ib-I q.(gross) = 4390 cal g-l q. reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each t r e e and six trees per species were used.2%. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. solid. swamp. BARK.(gross) = 18368 3 g-l bole bark q.(gross) = 7902 B t u lb-I q. a r e on an as-determined basis. Liquidambar styraciflua.

twigs 1.' qv(gross) = 4872 cal gq.(gross) 8602 Btu lb-' q.6%.1 q.7%. solid. PZatanus occidentalis. Each t r e e was separated into small parts (being less than 0. and leaves = 4. AMERICAN. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0. branches = 1. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 21635 J g.4 em.) in diameter and roughly equivalent to tops and branches) and large parts with the weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in t h e whole tree.(gross) = 19995 J g.1 whole tree qv(gross) = 8269 Btu lbi' qv(gross) = 4595 cal gqv(gross) = 19221 J g-l 8lGEY SYCAMORE.Woody and Tree Materials SYCAMORE.64 cm (1/4 in. PZatanus occidentaZis.(gross) = 4624 cal g-l q. bark = 4.3%. gross heat of combustion: oven-dried.(gross) = 19347 J g. Overall mean specific gravity for whole t r e e = 0. gross heat o combustion: oven dry weight basis. small parts q.1 branches: qv(gross) = 8741 Btu lb-I qv(gross) 4856 ca1g-l qv(gross) 20318 J g-l 79NEE/STE . mean age = 11.1 bark: q.(gross) = 18836 J g-l large parts q. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 8.42 (oven dry weight and green volume). Bark proportion of whole tree 18%. assume values refer to room f temperature.(gross) = 8561 Btu l b y qv(gross) = 4756 cal gq.(gross) = 19899 J g-l twigs: qv(gross) = 8770 Btu lb.(gross) = 8104 Btu lb-' q. wood: q. mean basal stem diameter = 9.(gross) = 8323 Btu lb-I q.3 years.(gross) = 4779 cal g.8%. solid.596.54%.(gross) = 20384 J g-' leaves: qv(gross) 9308 Btu lbll qv(gross) = 5171 cal gq.(gross) = 4502 cal g-l q.

swamp. INTERIOR.(gross) = 17209 3 g-l 55CHA/MIT TUNDRA. hence. assume values refer t o room temperature. solid. Sample material was top layer of black-spruce understory. dry basis. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.(gross) = 8442 Btu lb.1 q. moisture content 6. a r e on an as-determined basis. WATER.(gtoss) = 8532 Btu Ib-I q.AMERICAN. values are on a dry weight basis. fuel q.(gross) = 4764 cal g-l q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Composition is ash = 34.10% and chat yield = 33. ash content 5.(gross) = 19832 f g-' (more) 299 . Samples were dried at 70°C (158°F) t o a constant weight. PZatanus heterophyh.1 q. qv(gross) = 7403 Btu lb.(gross) = 8575 Btu lb-l q.(gross) = 20290 J g-' char (from 300°C heating) q. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. BARK.(gtoss) 4113 cal g-' q. solid.(gross) = 32020 J g-' 82SUS TUPELO:.(gross) = 8730 Btu Ib-' q.1 q.5%.4%.(gross) 19435 3 g-I bole bark q. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each t r e e and six trees per species were used. Nyssa aquatica.Woody and Tree Materials SYCAMORE:.(gross) = 13780 Btu 1 q.8%.and wet flat-land natural stand sites. solid. Material was collected from t h e southern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in bottom-.(gross) = 4690 cal g-' qv(gross) = 19623 J g-' b tanc h bark q. Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi.(gross) = 19933 J g-' branch wood q.(gross) = 4645 cal g-' q. bole wood qv(gross) = 8361 Btu lb.(gross) 7650 cal gq.(gross) = 4850 c a l g-' q.(gtoss) 4740 cal g-l q. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.

(gross) = 849 1 4717 19736 8548 4749 I9870 16 9. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeaecerris) on brown forest soil. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while the temperature was increased stepwise.0 38 Btu lb-l cal J g- c1 stem and branch bark ( 5 measurements) q.Continued foliage q.6 45. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure.(gross) q.(gross) = q.6 19.8 99. Ash content of stem and branch wood = 0.(gross) = 8820 B t u Ib. leaf 9. of mean s t e m and branch wood (3 measurements) qv(gross) q. solid.5%.(gross) q.9 192 Btu lb-I cal J g- q1 root (3 measurements) q.1%.(gross) 8305 4614 19305 9041 5023 21016 35.8 23. then ground and pelleted.(gross) 20502 J g-' 82GOW/FRE WARTY-BARKED SPINDLE TREE.6 Btu Ib-' cal J g- leaf (5 measurements) q.3%. root = 8. Material is a tree. dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev.8 Btu Ib-I cal J g- q-' 75PAP 300 .(gross) = q.8 82.(gross) q. stem and branch bark = 6. at 300 rn above sea level located in t h e southern part of the Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.(gross) q.Woody and Tree Materials TUPELO. WATER . Samples were dried at 85°C (185"F).(gross) q. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) 8215 4564 I9096 9074 504 1 21092 82. Eonyrnus verrucosus.(gross) 8548 4749 19870 9146 508 1 21259 42.1 qv(gross) = 4900 cal g-l q.7%.

solid.1 whole tree q.(gross) = 8017 Btu lb-l qv(gross) = 4454 cal g-l qv(gross) = 18636 J g. SANDBAR. are on an as-determined basis.(gross) = 4401 cal g-l q.(gross) = 16661 J g-l JXHA/MIT WILLOW. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. moisture content = 6. BARK.1 q. gross heat of combustion: oven-dried. Salix exigua.(gross) = 18414 f g-' 8 1GEY 30 1 . assume values refer to room temperatule. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. SaZix nigra.1 qv(gross) = 4413 cal g-l qv(gross) = 18464 J g-' large parts q. BLACK. ash content 6.0%.(gross) = 7168 Btu lbl 1 qv(gross) = 3982 cal gq. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. Bark of whole t r e e = 25%.64 c m (1/4 in. Each tree was separated into small parts (being less than 0. small parts q. Overall mean specific gravity for whole tree = 0. hence.38 (oven dry weight and green volume). q.(gross) = 7943 Btu lb.7%.) in diameter and roughly equivalent to tops and branches) and large parts with t h e weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in t h e whole tree. solid.W d y and Tree Materials WILLOW.(gross) = 7922 Btu lb.

Miscellaneous .

~ .602 J g. cellulose nitrate. [ C 6 H ~ N 0 7 I x .67010.33N2.36N2.27 grade C (type 11) C6~7.383 c a l 4 .(gtoss) = 8816 3 60140 AN/TNT q. q.115 nitrogen.0 .68N2.(gross) = 3260 Btu Ib-I q.383 Btu Ib-' OF-' =P Cp = 0.(gtoss) = 18I 1 cal q.34 grade D (pyroxylin) C6H7.64 gross heat of combustion: at 30°C (86'F) for EO.(gross) = 7316. Cellulose does not form nitrate in a stoichiometric manner.1 qv(gross) = 1219 cal q.(gross) = 5100 J 50/30 AN/TNT q.25427N Btu lb-I q. 80/20AN/TNT .59 g ~ r n .K-1 71USA.l K-I Cp = 1. gross heat of combustion: 25°C (77°F).(gross) = 4176. 1. < < . 60/40 AN/TNT. 74DEC/WAR 305 . mononitrocellulose: dinitrocellulose: ttinitrocellulose: cellulose nitrate. the degree of nitration is measured by the percent of nitrogen in the ester. an explosive mixture of ammonium nitrate (AN and trinitrotoluene (TNT).1 q. solid. ~ O 14.26N2.48 grade C (type I) CgH7.N .Miscellaneous AMATOL. 7OCOX/PIL.1351.0. 1 1. solid.14% nitrogen ~ grade B (guncotton) C6H7. cellulose nitrate.76% nitrogen [C6H8N20.67010.74010. I 1% nitrogen [ C G H ~ N lIx.3200.. = 0. 6SWAG/EVA CELLULOSE NITRATE.46 g crn-'.6. 1. fraction q. calculated from the composition of the mixture.(gross) = 2194 Btu Ib. ~ .14126N cal g-' q. cellulose nitrate.(gross) = 7577 J g- 9-1 specific heat: for t h e temperature range 293-353 K (64'-176"F) for 50/50 AN/TNT mixture.60 g ~ m .50/50 AN/TNT.(gross) = 2107 cal q. Density of cast material: 80/ZO AN/TNT.4 . N = wt.(gross) = 3793 Btu lb. 1.8 .59103N J g-l SOJES/PRO.$.(gross) = 17472.

gross heat of combustion: mean values were for dry weight basis. The relationship of organic protein nitrogen to tissue weight is 3.Miscellaneous CORAL BRANCH TIPS. cyclotrimethylenetrinitr mine (RDX). solid. q. The branches (excluding tips). calculated from the composition of t h e mixture.21%.25 = 0. trinitrotoluene (TNT). Africa. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) q.EuniceZZa papiZ2osa. The 2 c m apex of t h e branches were oven-dried at 55°C (131°F) t o constant weight. Material was t h e mesoskeleton of t h e gorgonian tropical reef-building coral (Octocorallia) from t h e Atlantic side of Cape Peninsula. qv(gross) qv(gross) qv(gross) 1549 k 327 Btu 1 860 2 182 cal g3600 2 760 J g-l P-' 79VEL/KIN DBX. 18%.solid. 68WAG/EVA. correction for endothermy was used t o ensure accuracy.05 7 1USA.80 mg g-'. There was a 50% water loss per gram dry weight. and ramification points were oven-dried at 55°C (131'F) t o constant weight. Because of high CaC03 content of t h e tissue. 14 samples were used.EuniceZZa papillma. assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion: mean values were for dry weight basis. middle sections of branches.68 g c m -3 . density. 1.(gross) qv(gross) q.25 = 1. Th relationship of organic protein nitrogen t o tissue weight is 3. t h e tissue correction for endothermy was used t o ensure accuracy. solid.(gross) 1777 2 379 Btu I 987 2 210 cal g4130 2 880 J g-' P-' 79VEL/KIN CORAL BRANCHES.K q-' 5-l) 1 = 0.1 q. 21%. assume values refer t o room temperature.62 mg g-f. 73KRI/LIC 306 .63 ? 0. Material was the mesoskeleton of t h e gorgonian tropical reef-building coral (Octocorallia) from t h e Atlantic side of Cape Peninsula. Samples were taken from 14 colonies. 7OCOX/PIL. aluminum. Samples were taken from 14 colonies. Africa. 6082 Btu lb.40%.68 ? 0. 14 samples were used. Because of high CaC03 content. There was a 41% water loss per gram dry weight. ammonium nitrate (AN).(gross) 3379 c a l g-l qv(gross) 14138 J g-l specific heat: 268 K (23°F) Cp(Btu lb-I Cp(cal Cp(7 g. 76WAG/EVA.

solid.4 cal g-' q. CEYLON.699 + 3. qv(gross) 14106 f 3.(gross) = 12664 f 4.25% ash. corrected for ash content. (trademark.8 2 2. solid. q.356 + 4. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content. gross heat of combustion: at 25'C (77"F). Dow Chemical Co.1 q. Main constituents a r e cholesterol esters of higher molecular weight fatty acids. liquid.6 Btu lb-l q. BUCKINGHAM. ARTIFICIAL. (lanolin).40 x = 0.0 f 0. WOOL.8 5 2.). 17530 f 6.(gross) 9741 f 3 5 cal g .111 x 0.2% ash. 2.(gross) = 40756 k 14.9 B t u lb. average of 2 samples q. solid.3 Btu -p-l 1 q.3 Btu lb.6 J g-l 64PAL/REI GRAPHITE. spectroscopic grade. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77'F).Miscellaneous DOWTHERM A.(gross) = 7836.0 c 1 g-l qv(gross) = 32789 2 8 J g- 7 38DEW/HAR GRAPHITE. a mixture of diphenyl and diphenyl oxide. National Carbon Co. corrected for ash content . qv(gross) = 14085 ? 0.(gross) q. gross heat of combustion: at 25OC (77"F). average of 2 samples.(gross) 32785 f 10 J g-l 38DEW/HAR GRAPHITE. specific heat: 323-513 K (12Z0-464'F) Cp(Btu lb-l OF-') CJcal K-I) Cp(J g.167 + 7.K-') q1 = 0.(gross) = 7035.5 c 1 g-' qv(gross) = 32740 ? 2 J g- 7 38DEW/HAR 307 .1 qv(gross) = 7825. average of 2 samples.096 x T T T 60BOW/GAR FAT. solid. 0.

7 cal gq.average of 2 samples.9 2 1.265 g ml-'.4 Btu Ibl q.4 129 0.Miscellaneous GRAPHITE.1 Btu 1 b l1 q. solid.3724 1.(gross) = 14083 k 5.85 6.3698 1.3949 1. solid. t h e tanning agent produces a transformation in t h e protein composition of t h e skin rendering i t resistant t o putrefactive bacteria.5606 1.59 3.6 J g-l 65LEW/FRI GRAPHITE.1 q.3730 0.3844 0. specific heat: 298 K (77°F) moisture content. 0. (sample 1) annealed at 2200°C (3992*F).9 0 1. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C ( 7 F 7') sample 1 q.81 0.(gross) = 14121 +.2 k 12.3334 0. having a density of 2.204 g ml-( (sample 2) annealed at 3O0O0C (5432'F).(gross) = 32735. gross heat of combustion: at 25'C (77OF).3397 1.(gross) = 7836.32 2.PYROLYTIC. TICONDEROCA.20 7.(gross) = 14105 2 1.6083 1.0 c 1 g-l q.15 I .83 9.3835 0. q.3274 0.3835 0.6046 1.1 2 7.33% ash.(gross) = 7823. having a density of 2.3844 0.3844 0. increasing its strength and abrasion resistance.3334 0. % vegetable-tanned Cp(Btu lb" OF-') Cp(cal g-l K .6083 I .3 1 10.4 129 I .3202 0. an animal skin or hide t h a t has been permanently combined with a tanning agent.8 Btu lb.3280 0. 3.3730 0.3280 0. corrected for ash content.Total gas content is less t a n I ppm.0 c a l gq.~ ) C+J g-l ~ .1 J g-' sample 2 1 q.3202 0.(gross) = 7844.(gross) 32823.9 k 3.(gross) 32786 4 4 J g -7 38DEW/HAR LEATHER.3844 0.3274 0.0 i 1.7276 (more) 308 .

4962 1.3404 0.29 0.3266 0.4426 1. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon.07 0.01%.4098 13.12 4. hydrogen. sulfur.3665 1.96 chrome-retanned 0 1.I q.23 11.(gross) = 4027 cal g-' q.3576 0.(gross) = 4351 cal g-l q.98 0.16%.3606 0.363 1 1.23 0.3631 0.3404 0. 21.OO%.3045 0.83%. nitrogen.12%. 22.3266 0.86%. volatile matter. solid. 22.3606 1.2740 1.3576 0.39 11.3287 0.5636 1.Miscellaneous LEATHER . 57. ash. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.3474 7.7246 Cp(Btu Ib-' O . proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture.(gross) = 7249 Btu Ib.3893 0.3841 0.607 1 1. 5.98%.3448 0. 42.(gross) = 18203 J g-l 66KAI q. 14.3448 0.3474 0.52 2. 7. fixed carbon.4468 1.46%.5088 55KAN LEATHER. SHOE.) F' Cp(cal g -1 K -1 Cp(J g-l K ' -) 3.1 q.3045 0.Continued moisture content.26%.3841 0.2918 0. 1.3287 0. 5.3893 0.3737 0.2209 1.6288 1.5192 1.3737 0.(gross) = 16847 J g-l .2918 0. oxygen.46 14.59 9. ash.4242 1.3753 1. % chrome-tanned 0 1.69 7. as received dry basis qv(gross) = 7832 Btu lb.32%.23 9.4098 0.3438 0.3458 0.4535 1.

which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule 194. The saponification number. solid.54 260.58 112.65 50.65 g gross heat of combustion: 25OC (77OF).5%.(gross) = 3027 c a l g-l q.32 64.1 Lf = 19. cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine(RDX). The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 69. density.(gross) = 2774 cal g-l qv(gross) = 11606 J g-l 71USA. REFINED.38 124. qv(gross) 4993 Btu Ib.00 4 I .(gross) = 12665 J g-l 71USA PENTOLITE. solid.89 29.00 17. dioctyl phthalate.37 90. unmodified polystyrene. 1.76 0. liquid.75 270. calculated from the composition of t h e mixture. 7OCOX/PIL 310 .96 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58" to 131°F).32 62.57 131 0. 55RIE PB-RDX. temperature ("0 -50 -25 0 25 50 55 ("F) -58 -13 32 77 122 Btu Ib-I Ho(t)-Ho(-500C) cal g-l J g-l 0.89 53.06 210. 1. a n explosive mixture of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and pentaerythritol t e t r a n i t r a t e (PETN).(gross) = 5449 Btu Ib-I q.2 Btu lb.5%.Miscellaneous NEAT'S FOOT OIL. q. Lf = 34. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 13 1O ) F.0 cal -.1 q.90%. 50/50 PETN/TNT. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.00 9. 8.18 116.

liquid.(gross) = 12385 J g"' 71USA PROPELLANT.K-') 5 = 0.222 + 5. mixture of terphenyl hydrocarbons. f qv(gross) 5328 Btu lb. BAKELITE RESIN BINDER FUEL.). specific heat: 453-593 K ( 5 ' 6 8 F 36-0') Cp(Btu lb-I O . %) Btu lb-I 1996 ? 18 2102 ? 41 2342 2 14 q.(gross) = 6948 c a l gqv(gross) = 29070 J g-l P-' 76GIR/ARO PROPELLANT. copolymer (wt. q.(gross) cal g-l 1109 ? 10 1168 +_ 23 1301 f 8 J g-' 4640 4887 2 2 30 25 20 42 96 5443 2 33 74RAS/KIS SANTOWAX R. solid. (trade mark. solid.452 x T 60BOW/GAR 31 1 . Monsanto Co. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. t h e reaction was completed by adding benzoyl peroxide and maintaining t h e solution at 50°C (122°F) for another 24 hours until it became sufficiently viscous.Miscellaneous POLYVINYL NITRATE. OS/AP. solid.256 x lo-' T = 0. used in explosive applications. (OS/AP) = (oxygen-styrene copolymer) .(gross) = 12506 Btu 1 q.ammonium perchlorate composite propellant.929 + 2.86 10-4 T = 0.372 + 3.) F' Cp(cal -1 +) Cp(J g. Oxygen-styrene copolymer was prepared by passing oxygen at 1 a t m through styrene for 24 hours in t h e presence of azobisisobutyronitrile. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. repeating unit: C2H3N03. Material is a phenolformaldehyde casting resin used as a binder fuel. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.1 qv(gross) 2960 cal g-l q.

68%. 4. 32. wax. semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons having a melting point range from 380-60°C (100"-140"F). ash. nitrogen.1 q.15%. 30. 20. 1. 5.902 g crn-'.73%. ash. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture.(gross) = 11050 cal q. 55. sulfur. oxygen.Miscellaneous I1 VACUUM CLEANER CATCH.1 q. hard 0.(gross) 3756 cal gq. 8. repeating unit: CH2. qv(gross) = 19890 Btu lb. volatile matter. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.colorless or pale yellow petroleum jelly.09%.34%. as received qv(gross) = 6390 Btu Ib. solid. gross heat of combustion: 25°C (77°F) q.solid.08%.47%.51%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. solid. fixed carbon. density.(gross) = 6761 Btu q.26%.(gross) = 19888 Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 11049 cal qv(gross) = 46229 J 56MAG 312 . freezing point 53"-55"C (127"-131°F). PARAFF N. hydrogen. 6.(gross) = 46233 J 56ROT/BEC WAX.(gross) = 3550 cal gqv(gross) = 14854 J g-' dry basis q.69%. ultimate analysis on dry basis in percent by weight: carbon.(gross) = 15714 3 g-' $' 66KAI VASELINE. 35.

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J. 1 (1985). Chemical Thermodynamics Division. and Ebeling. Jenkins.85COL 85fENIEBE Colbert. 321 . Energy Biomass Wastes. National Bureau of Standards Certificate SRM 1657. J. 1985. M. M.. 9th.. B. C. ( 1985).

In some cases. Reed. and can form a supplement t o the representative heats of combustion shown in this publication.1% respectively.51.0686 S kJ/g Note that in general the last two terms will be very small compared t o t h e first three.7% and 2. 323 . charcoals. In 1978. (where ni is t h e number of moles of each element in the formula) to estimate t h e h e a t of combustion for biomass in which the formulas a r e given. N.322 nH . and A are the weight' percents of carbon.696. on 15 samples of biomass and 5 samples of char and found average etrors from the measured values of 1. The equation in the modified SI form is: HHV 0.45 S Btu/lb (where C.916 yN o) kJ/mole on a dry.0153 A + 0. so t h a t this suggests t h a t the method can be used for all biomass solids. dry basis) of coal (IGT. The average absolute error for each of these materials was 1. The heat of formation can be calculated from the heat of combustion from using the equation: where AH$) and AH.6. + sulfur-free basis.78 H . as well as two others. 0. hydrogen.092 nc + 1. Thus. Reed (1985) has extended t h e IGT equation t o a wide variety of carbonaceous materials. the Institute of Gas Technology developed a formula for predicting t h e higher heating values (heat of combustion) (HHV. The equation is also useful in the molecular form: AH^ 4.58 A + 29.341 C + 1.1. and 2.12 (0 + N) .Appendix A A FORMULA FOR THE EMPIRICAL ESTIMATION OF THE HEATS OF COMBUSTION OF CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS (Thomas B. pyrolysis oils.322 H . while t h e heats have not been measured. This table includes representative samples of biomass. 2. 1979) Graboski and Bain used this formula.1978) HHV = AHc = 146. and ash respectively).53 (0+ N) . This equation was derived by correlating t h e thermal data with t h e composition on more than 700 samples of coal.6%. S. oxygen. and tars taken from t h e literature but not included in this handbook. the composition of carbonaceous materials is known or can be estimated.0.5%. it seems t h a t the above equations form a reliable basis for predicting biomass thermochemical d a t a where measured heats a r e not available.(H2) are the heats of combustion of carbon and hydrogen. 1.5% respectively. In the Survey of Biomass Gasification (Reed.58 C + 568.0. H. sulfur. The above equations were used t o calculate thermal data for the biomass-related materials shown in Table A-1. nitrogen. The error of actual measurements of composition and heats of combustion probably exceeds this. ash-free. A collection of representative data for biomass and wastes appears in the main body of this publication. Solar Energy Research Institute) In modeling biomass reactions and reactors i t is necessary t o have values for t h e heats of formation and combustion of t h e various materials considered.

5.8 84. 38 .2 6 0 42.3 25 -0.5 96 . 6.7 7.004 NA Diebold Tillman Tillman Reed (1981) Bourgeois Bourgeois Reed (1985) 51.98 31 7 .96 29. 53 . degrees Celsius.5 3.8 57. 26 57 .82 28. II 00 0. 59 .09 33.4 .5 37.47 .60 33. 33 18.035 -0.2 . 32 84.2 32. 69 1. Calculated and Measured Heats of Combustion for Various Biomass Materials Using an Empirical Formula Name Biomass Components Cellulose (Avicel) Lignin (Indulin) Biomass Pine Sawdust Maple Douglas Fir Paper Maritime Pine Chestnut & O a k "Typical biomass" Primary Oils Primary Oils R 35CS Primary Oils R 40CS Primary Oils R 40PS Chars Torref ied Pine Torr.5 7.5 5.1 55 .92 33.93 28.44 34. 86 80. 59 .8 63.37 33.22 18. 31 12.002 Avg Abs e r r o r 0. Run 59 FP Char.5 8. 28 .029 0.3 6.62 28.28 21.02 29.029 * 280 Boutgeois 275 Bourgeois Tillman Reed (1981) Reed (1981) Reed (1981) Reed (1981) Reed (1981) Reed (1981) Reed (1981) Diebold Diebold Diebold Diebold 549 57I 641 94I 625 625 625 so0 60. 70 1.Table A-I.81 24.1 02 20. 89 1. ash-free basis.022 -0. 26 50.77 20. 37 .002 0. 39. 56 . Run 54 FP Char. 1. .Run 56 Sec Tats .035 -. 3.025 Sec T a r s .1 2.50 2. I 31 2. 1I 00 -0. Chestnut & Oak Charcoal Fir Bark C h a r Grass Straw Char Rice Hull C h a r Redwood Charcoal Oak Charcoal Oak Charcoal Redwood Charcoal FP Char. 19 .024 0.016 0 0 I2 . 26 .0 I6 0.9 .49 50 .1 84 2.08 33.3 .36 31.07 31. 48 32. 77 8. 65 2.Run 59 650 Diebold 730 Diebold 825 Diebold 8.010 2.7 00 1 ..4 71 26.7 92 2.015 0. 25. 28 46.0 I5 0. 5 6 44.I 57 .3 5. Run 53 FP Char. 93 53 . 2.008 0.9 05 19. 77 NA NA 1.82 2.4 6 4 40.3 12 1.5 5.5 47 26. 38 84 .9 05 2. Wt% C H 0 Heat of Combustion Measured Calculated HHV-kJ/g HHV-kJ/g Error (Meas-Calc) Measured * * Mok Mok 43. 000 . 12. 6 1 41.0 39 2.025 . 76 57.4 5.5 5.0I I 0.031 -0.85 2.9 08 NA NA -0.2 34 . 19 31.44 Diebold Diebold Diebold 54.016 -0.I 9.59 34. 50 . 6 2 47. 1.40 34.2 Avg 33.7 .42 24.I 52.Run 55 Reference Composition Dry.055 -0.9 2. 16 77.1 03 22. I7 00 0.20 NA Avg Abs e r r o r 0.32 3. 22 8.30 22.7 . 54 7.3 51. Run X Secondary Tars Sec Tats . 3. 5.4 -0.63 33. 6 2 41.09 Avg Abs e r r o r * Temperature of formation. 68 63 .1 42.016 21.7 38 .0 I5 -0..8 18 34.40 2.I 82.0 27 32.1% 29. 04 2.009 -0.3 2.6 15 1.25 33.5 87 27.7 22 Abs e r r o r -0.8 36.88 2. 1.6 68.

. ( I 985). (198 I).References for Appendix A Reed. Bourgeois. Originally published as Survey o f Biomass Gasification. 111. Department of Commerce. Mok. Coal Conversion Systems TechnicaZ Data Book. Solar Energy Research Institute. DOE Contract EX-76-C-0 1-2286. H.A. Noyes Data Corp. and M. Reed. and J. D.: Park Ridge. p 48. US. Academic Press: New York. 153. Available from NTIS. (1985). Elsevier Applied Science Publishers: London. 5285 Port Royal Road. (National Technical Information Service. In Press. VA 22162). SERI/TR-33-239. (1978).” BioEnergy 84. Wood as an Energy Source. T.Private Communication. Vol. ed.. ( I 985). T. Springfield.J. p.P. J. eds. July 1979. Tillman. Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). J. Ellegard. . NJ. “Totrefied Wood from Temperate and Tropical Species. (1985). 3 VO~S. Solar Energy Research Institute. 325 . (1978). Egneus and A. Thermochemica Acta.B. Dort. W.P. Antal.B. Biomass Gasification-PrincipZes and Technology. Private Communication. Diebold.

Also listed are names and addresses of several likely continuing sources of new information on heats of combustion of biomass materials.58 C + 568. Institute of Gas Technology. (Several entries in this handbook come from this source. Graboski. forest residues. orchard prunings. Coal Conversion Systems Technical Data Book. (1978).B. and (d) a combination of carbon. In Reed. Ebeling (1985). and (c) t h e IGT correlations (see below). M. N. (c) carbon only. from ultimate analysis. and R. Institute of Gas Technology.6. Correlation equations a r e derived to predict heating values (dry basis) from (a) ash content only. ed.. HHV(Btu/lb) = 146. B. D. VA. and J. this is only a sampling and shows the diversity of sources of such published information. Noyes Data Corporation: Park Ridge. 3 26 . this is only a small sampling of the extant data.53 (0 N) . Bain (1981). Still. References t o Correlations and General Remarks about Biomass Fuel Values 1. Florida. food and fiber processing wastes.Appendix B ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON HEATS OF COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS MATERIALS The main body of this publication contains several hundred listings of measured heats of combustion of biomass materials. Uses t h e simple correlation: HHV (Btu/lb) = 188 C-718 4. based on experimental d a t a for 62 samples of field crop residues.76 C + 621 H . (b) ash and volatile m a t t e r from proximate analysis. Springfield. hydrogen. Develops correlations. Biomass Gasification: Principles and TechnoZogy.78 H . Wood as an Energy Resource.J. "Correlation of Physical and Chemical Properties of Terrestrial Biomass with Conversion'' in Energy from Biomass and Wastes I X . Three correlations are compared for whole biomass and for chars: (a) The historical Dulong-Berthelot equation: HHV (Btullb) 146.M. A. Tillman.45 S + This correlation.A.51. Jan. pp. vineyard prunings.96 S.) 2. (1978). and land-based crops. DOE Contract EX-76-C-0 1-2286. Jenkins. 4 1-7 1. T. materials for which heats have been determined. 3.N+o + 39. Again. (b) t h e Tillman correlation (see below).M. 1985. New York: Academic Press. and oxygen content from ultimate analysis. often special. which works well for both whole biomass and chars. Lake Buena Vista.58 A + 29. Available NTIS. is discussed and applied in Appendix A of this publication. Listed below a r e several references t o additional.

exceeded 10%. Baker. St. Results have been reported in Conversion of Cellulosic Wastes to Liquid FueZs. DOE Interim Report No. B. protein from 0. Arizona. etc. 310 Cedar St. Kuester's laboratory has measured t h e heats of combustion and composition of more than 100 highly diverse forms of biomass (from almond shells to skunkbrush). A set of formulas of a type commonly used by combustion technologists is also provided for estimating combustion system heat losses and net recoverable h e a t energy per pound of fuel as-fired.8%. Canada.7%. A general discussion of t h e heating value and burning characteristics of cord wood for home heating. t h e overall mean calorific value was found t o be 21. A literature review was conducted t o obtain reliable.5. References t o Extensive Collections of Heats of Combustion of Biomass Materials 1. based on fuel higher heating value. Information was obtained for 48 tree species native t o Canada and is presented in tabular form. Fiber Fuels Institute.9%. and ambient temperature assumptions.L. cellulose from 17. Contract No. (February 1983. foliage. For indigenous species.9%.35 MJ/kg for hardwoods.18 MJ/kg for softwood materials (i. Paul. A survey of reported d a t a on higher heating values for various species of wood and bark fuels is provided. (October 1984). A. stem wood. In a multi-year program for DOE." American Forest. Forintek Canada Corp. 6. Arizona S t a t e University. Ince.8% t o 28. stack gas temperature. (Fiber Fuels Institute. J. Determination of Available Heat of Combustion Data for Canadian Woody Species. boiler. Tempe. Kuester.1% to 25. A reference source is provided for estimating t h e amount of heat energy t h a t may be recovered using wood or bark fuel in a typical furnace.e. 2. DE-AC02-76CS40202. moisture content. Calorific d a t a a r e also presented for hybrid poplar and for several foreign species commonly planted in Canada. How t o Estimate Recoverable Heat Energy in Wood or Bark FueZs. COD-2982-83. Peter 3. Forest Service. 51-52. Heating values (dry basis) vary from 7400 t o 12. Ontario. or hot air combustion heat recovery system.August 1982. lignin from 7. and excess air. (1985). J.. Standards Specifications Development. (1979).). Final Report. Phase I Activities. GTR FPL 29. pp.A. Forest Products Laboratory. in some instances.. Kryla. and lipids from 5. ENFOR Project P-256. Variation between reported values for a component of a particular species was found t o be generally less than 5% but.3%. 45-47. experimentally determined calorific data for t h e various components of Canadian tree species. Ottawa.1% to 35. USDA.7% to 46.) compared t o 19. MN 55101) 327 . s t e m bark. 3.1% t o 14. (February 1984). Fisher. J. "New Findings on Wood Fuel Values. and in a forthcoming Summary Report.700 Btu lb'l for materials with ash ranging from 0.M.

Goering.C. Res.. 12 489. 4 . P.R. Mudge. and S-C. 13. A. "Heat of Combustion of Various Southern Pine Materials. (December 1969). 328 9. Hall." Can. and S. (1982). "Heat of Cornbustion.Wang. 8. W. ." In Fundamentals of TherrnochemicaZ Biomass Conversion. Ash Content.W. Chang.H. P. S. T a l o r i m e t r i c Analysis of Fungal Degraded Wood." TAPPI 38 ( 5 ) 315. Bowersox. For. ''Calorific Value of Wood as Affected by Sample Particle Size and Radial Position in Stem.. Corvallis. T. l'Gross Heat of Combustion of Living and Spruce Budworm-Killed Balsam Fir. Inc.B. E. D.E.T. and S-C. S. 3. Kossuth. Huffman. Heakin. C. Southern Forest Experiment Station. Inst.. Kryla. "Determination of Calorific Values and Energy Content in Hevea Trees.J. MD. (1983). Pryde. and L. and W. J.R. Turpentine. Wood and Bark as Fuet. R.W. Milne. and wastes. Gainesville." Wood and Fiber Science 16 ( 4 ) 518. Jr. 7. Forest Research Laboratory. 6. Schwab. T. ash analysis..V. C. Merrill." Wood Science 13 (1) 26. Blankenhorn.: Rockville. (1985). (1983). 11. Oregon State University. Energy and Chemicah from Woody Species in Florida. M." Transactions of the ASAE 25 ( 6 ) 1472." J . 2.L. University of Florida. Rockwood. Y . (1979). J . Selected Publications of Biomass Heats of Combustion 1.E.B.J. New York.A.PE and R. D. 'Fuel Properties of Eleven Vegetable Oils. "Energy Value of Paraquat-Treated and Resin-Soaked Loblolly Pine. "Resin Acid. NC.W. Nutrient Content and Chemical Content of Populus Hybrids. (1973). Caloric Value of Some Forest FueZs of the Southern United States. "Chemical Composition of Common North American Pulpwood Barks. (August 1973). Blankenhorn. Kossuth. peat.V. C. (1980).M. Roberts. ORNL/Sub/8 1-9050/ I.L. Murphey. 12. Huffman. Malaysia 31 ( I ) 1.This report contains as received and dry-basis heating values for about 50 samples of pelletized fuels from forest and agricultural residues." Wood Science 5 ( 3 ) 194. J. For many samples. Daugherty. ultimate and proximate analysis. Barnes.R. J.K. (1981). Sinclair. and physical properties are also reported.K. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers.P. 14. Ottone. Wang. USDA Forest Service Research Note SE-120.K. Baldwin. 5.A. S. Roberts. Biomass as an Alternative Fuel. and A.R. Hough. et al. (1984). Government Institutes. W. and S. Edited by R. E.P. Overend. Res." Wood and Fiber 16 (3) 398. (1983). S. Leong. and Caloric Content of Paraquat-Treated Slash Pine. D. Research Bulletin 14. (1955). Mitchell. Rubb. 10.. Asheville. Corder.P.'' Wood Science 1 1 (4)257..A. D. Howard.

Paul.O. Ranney.. R. New Orleans.. 705 Spear Street. Box 19687. Major activities in short-rotation forestry for energy. CA 94710.O. 16.15. USDA. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 329 3. Blankenhorn. and P. 800 Chemin Montreal Road. PA 191 18. Box 5 130. Southeastern Forest and Range Experiment Station. 15. Agricultural Research Service. 701 Loyola Ave. Forest Service. IL 61604. 14. P. Forest Service. Northern Regional Research Center (NRRC).. St. n. P. Forest Service. Lee Blvd. Agricultural Research Service. 1100 Robert E. USDA. Postal Service Bldg. Canada K16 325. Agricultural Research Service.O.. 200 Weaver Blvd. 8. Philadelphia. Forest Products Laboratory.. Forest Service. North Central Forest and Range Experiment Station. Agricultural Research Service. UT 84401.. TN 37830. VT 05402. USDA. 1815 N. Oak Ridge. USDA. DOE Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division Woody Species Program. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. USDA. 6. Burlington. 13. Forintek Canada Corporation. 1992 Folwell Ave. P.. 809 NE 6th Ave. USDA. 5. University Street. 600 E. MN 55108. . Eastern Regional Research Center (ERRC). Madison. Peoria. Ottawa. Ontario.O.R. Fort Collins. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Baileys. Box X. Forest Service. Forest Service. D. WI 53705. Berkeley. Forest Service. CA 9470 I. Prospect Ave. USDA. 11.lI Wood Science 15 ( I ) 19. USDA. LA 701 13. PA 19008.W. (1982). Box 968. USDA.. Forest Service. "Calorific and Porosity Development in Carbonized Wood. 2.. 4. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. USDA. 12. 240 W. 10. Ogden. Portland. Box 2451. 1960 Addison St. Western Regional Research Center (WRRC). 370 Reed Rd. Mermaid L . J. 7. P. Asheville. USDA. US. OR 97232. Southern Forest and Range Experiment Station. Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC). USDA. Sources of Information-Government Programs. (P. USDA. Northeastern Forest and Range Experiment Station. 800 Buchanan St. Berkeley.. Forest Service. NC 28804. 9.. 1. LA 70179.O. Forest Service. Northeastern Forest and Range Experiment Station. USDA. New Orleans. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. Broomall.T. 507 25th St. CO 80526.

College Station Rd. . USDA. 18.. USDA.17. 330 . Agricultural Research Service.)Agricultural Research Center. Athens. MD 20705. Beltsville.. P O Box 5677. Agricultural Research Service. GA 30613. Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. Russell (Richard 8.

Symbols in parentheses are alternates.TS Massieu function: J = -A/T Gibbs energy: G = H . or Gibbs function. 1969. CONVERSION FACTORS. ATOMIC WEIGHTS Symbols for Thermodynamic Quantities The symbols indicated in this Appendix are those adopted by t h e International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). Also indicated a r e other commonly used symbols and names of quantities not accepted by IUPAC. accepted but not recommended by IUPAC. The commonly encountered t e r m free energy in American work on thermodynamics almost invariably refers t o Gibbs energy. Gibbs f r e e energy. UNITS. Planck function: Y Primary Symbols -G/T thermodynamic t e m p e r a t w e (absolute temperature) Kelvin temperature Celsius temperature molar gas constant Boltzmann constant heat work internal energy enthalpy: H = U + pV entropy Helmholtz energy: A = U .Appendix C SYMBOLS. This usage of t h e t e r m f r e e energy and t h e symbol F a r e being discouraged by t h e IUPAC because of confusion with t h e Helmholtz energy and t h e common European usage of F for t h e latter.TS compressibility factor: 2 = pV/nRT heat capacity specific heat capacity (heat capacity divided by mass) heat capacity ratio: C /Cv P Joule-Thomson coefficient thermal conductivity thermal diffusivity: a = 1/pCp coefficient of heat transfer cubic expansion coefficient: u = (aV/aT) /V P isothermal compressibility: k = -(aV/ap)T/V pressure coefficient: B = (ap/aTIV . NOTE: The Gibbs energy is frequently called f r e e energy.

cjzi 2 I f m i z i L or 1 xB mole fraction of substance B: = nB/cini -- mass fraction of substance B volume fraction of substance B molality of solute substance B (amount of B divided by t h e mass of solvent) concentration of substance B (amount of B divided by the volume of t h e solution) mass concentration of substance B (mass of B divided by t h e volume of t h e solution) stoichiometric coefficient of substance B (negative for reactants. molality basis activity coefficient. for t h e reaction H20 + H2 + 3 02.S area volume time mass density (mass divided by volume) pressure relative atomic mass (also called "atomic weight") v t m P P A. concentration basis osmotic coefficient Selected Symbols for Other Quantities in 'hermodynamics A. (The general equation for a chemical reaction is 'vgB = 0. positive for products).H20 = 01 e x t e n t of reaction: (dc = dng/Vg) equilibrium constant degree of dissociation charge number of a n ion B (positive for cations. 1 H2 + 0 2 . negative for anions) activity. [Example: B. relative activity of substance B activity coefficient. .I chemical potential of substance B relative molecular mass (also called "molecular weight") Avogadro constant number of molecules absolute activity of substance 8: 1~ = exp(uB/RT) fugacity amount of substance osmotic pressure ionic strength: I = I C I = 7 . mole fraction basis activity coefficient.

second: The second is t h e duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of t h e radiation corresponding t o t h e transition between t h e two hyperfine levels of t h e ground state of t h e cesium-I33 atom. mole: The mole is t h e amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there a r e carbon atoms in 0. ions. kelvin: The kelvin is t h e fraction 1/273. Quantity length mass time temperature electric current luminous intensity amount of substance plane angle solid angle Symbol m kg S 3 K A cd rnol rad sr candela: The candela is t h e luminous intensity.Base Units and Supplementary Units Name of Unit meter kilogram second kelvin ampere candela mole radian steradian placed 1 meter apart in vacuum. in t h e perpendicular direction? of a surface of 1/600 000 square m e t e r of a black body at t h e temperat u r e of freezing platinum under a pressure of 101 325 newtons per square meter. and Prefixes SI Symbol T G M k h da d C Prefix Name tera Multiplication Factor aiga m FI n P f a mega kilo hecto deka deci centi milli micro nano pic0 femto atto 333 .International System (SI) SI . would produce between these condu ors a force equal t o 2 x 10 newton per meter of length.Units of Measurement . NOTE: The elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms. The kelvin is used both for thermodynamic temperature and for thermodynamic temperature interval. molecules. or specified groups of such particles. Definitions of the SI Base Units meter: The meter is t h e length equal t o 1 650 763.16 of t h e thermodynamic temperature of t h e triple point of water. ampere: The ampere is t h a t constant current which.73 wavelengths in vacuum of t h e radiation corresponding t o t h e transition between t h e levels 2plO and 5d5 of t h e krypton-86 atom. k Logram: The kilogram is equal t o t h e mass of the international prototype of t h e kilogram. electrons? other particles. of negligible cross section.012 kilogram of carbon-12. if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length.

A-l A V-l S F Wb c * v-l v-s Wb.A-' V.s** N * m-2 J rn2 kg s-' rn 2 mkg..kg .cd.-I C v D W.I SI Derived Units (Partial Listing) Symbol for SI unit force pressure energy Definition of SI unit Qther Definitions newton pascal joule watt coulomb volt ohm siemens farad weber henry tesla lumen lux hertz N Pa rn kg sd2 m-' .sr S Ix Hz -1 334 .5 -3 - N-m power electric charge electric potential difference electric resistance electric conductance electric capacitance magnetic flux inductance magnetic flux density luminous flux illumination frequency W f .A-' Wb-rn-2 H T Irn cd-sr rn -2 .

335 .665 x 10-2N-rn- 9 3.) kilogram force atmosphere tort millimeter of mercury kilowatt-hour thermochemical calorie" thermochernical Btu* IT calorie* * * IT British thermal unit*** degree Rankine Symbol in. [T(OR) = l. [t("C) = T(K) .59237.056 J* * ** 5/9 energy temperature (thermodynamic) temperature temperature volume "R "C "F 1 K***** degree Celsius degree Fahrenheit liter K****** - * ** *** The thermochemical calorie and thermochemical Btu are used in this publication.273.35 J** energy energy 4.671.1868 J 1055.m-2 13. IT refers to International Tables (International Steam Tables).151.5951 x 98 .8) x **** ***** ****** ******* 453. [T("R) = t("F) + 459.8) x 453.8t("C) + 321. [t("F) = 1. The exact relationship is: 1 BtuIT = (4.Other Units Exactly Defined i Terms of SI Units (Partial Listing) n Name length mass force pressure pressure pressure energy energy inch pound (av.806 65 N 101 325 N-m-2 (101 325/760) N.453 592 37 kg kgf atm Torr mmHg kWh calth Btuth calIT BtuIT 9.54 x lo-' m 0.1840/1.1868/1.ST(K)]. The exact relationship is: 1 Btuth = (4.6 x lo6 J 4.671.184 J 1054. lb Definition 2.St(OC) + 491.59237 [T("R) = l.

g pound .therrnochernical units IT .K In t h e chemical literature.B t u gram .1868 J 336 .O F Celsius degree . Energy Conversion Factors I calth = 4.1840 J I calIT = 4. but rarely is the joule subscripted in any way. authors occasionally identify t h e calorie or British thermal unit as either t h or IT.Conversion Factors Subscript: Subscript: Abbreviations: t h ." C Kelvin .International Steam Table units calorie . An absence of any subscripting to indicate t h e kind of energy unit is t h e more common occutrence.cal joule .J British thermal unit .lb Fahrenheit degree .

Temperature Conversion Factors: 1.8)K (18K . R 82.987 19 ( 6 ) calth rnol-' K-l Molar Gas Volume. CODATA Bulletin No.8("C) + 32 273. Dec.8 (1.67 + O F = 459.31441 (26)J mol-I K-' 1.15 K and po = 1 a t m ) V. . V 0. = R To/po *Physical Constants were taken from t h e International Council of Scientific Unions.) O R "F =K =K = "R 459.67 + O F Phvsical Constants* Gas Constant. The digits in parentheses following a numerical value represent the standard deviation of t h a t value in terms of t h e final listed digits.15 + "C r(459.67) + 'F]/1.0568 (26) cm3 a t m rno1-l K'I 8. 11. 337 . 1973.02241383 (70) m3 rnol-I (at To = 273.

653-674 (1984).078 k 4 12.Atomic Weights of the Elements 1983 (Scaled t o -r (12C)=12) A N.948 74.453 51. The values of fir(€)given here apply to elements as they exist naturally on earth. Chem.904 112.811 k 5 79. (b) Unnilpentium.998403 (a)-(d) Systematic names: (a) Unnilquadium.E.75 2 3 39. unless otherwise noted.9804 10. Holden and R.0 1218 208. Pure & Appl.9216 137.26 151.50 2 3 g g r A A 85 56 97 4 83 5 35 48 55 20 Bk Be Bi B Br Cd m r g g cs Ca Cf C Ce c 1 Cr cu co Cm DY Es Unq UnP Unh Uns Er Eu Fm F 98 6 58 17 24 27 29 96 66 99 104 105 106 107 68 A r g r A g A A A A A 63 100 9 167. Alphabetical order in English Names Actinium * A lu m in iu m Americium * Antimony (Stibiurn) Argon Arsenic Astatine* Barium Berkelium* Beryllium Bismuth Boron Bromine Cadmium Caesium Calcium Californium* Carbon Cerium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Curium * Dysprosium Einsteinium * Element 104" (a) Element 105* (b) Element 106" (c) Element 107* (d) Erbium Europium Fermium* Fluorine Symbol Ac A1 Atomic Number Atomic Weight Footnotes A Am Sb Ar As At Ba 89 13 95 51 18 33 26. Martin. The footnotes to this Table elaborate t h e types of variation t o be expected for individual elements.12 35. (c) Unnilhexium.9054 40.41 132.9332 63. IUPAC Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances The atomic weights of many elements a r e not invariant but depend on t h e origin and treatment of t h e material.L.33 9.98154 A 121. 56.011 140. When used with due regard to t h e footnotes they are considered reliable t o k1 in t h e last digit.546 2 3 162.9961 2 6 58. (d) Unnilseptiqqm 338 .96 2 3 g g A 18.

179 Fr Gd Ga Ge An Hf He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Lr Pb Li Lu Mg 82 3 71 12 23 101 80 42 60 10 93 .80 138.723 2 4 72.0067 0 Pd P Pt Pu Po K 190.967 24.42 30. 28 41 7 102 76 8 46 15 78 94 84 Mn Hg Md Mo Nd Ne NP Ni Nb N No 0s 58.9077 Pt Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rb 86 75 45 37 44 62 186.9665 178.69 92.9055 83.9064 14.00794 ? 7 114.07 2 2 150.49 ? 3 4.25 2 3 69.2 6.94 144.9380 200.22 ? 3 55.4678 k 3 101.Atomic Weights 1983 (cont'd) Names Francium* Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium* Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Mendelevium* Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium* Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium* Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium* Polonium * Potassium (Kalium) Praseodymium Promethium* Protactinium* Radium* Radon* Rhenium Rhodium Rub id iurn Ruthenium Samarium Symbol Atomic Number 87 64 31 32 79 72 2 67 1 49 53 77 26 36 37 103 Atomic Weight 157.207 102.002602 ? 2 164.97376 195.9994 f 3 106.24 2 3 20.9304 1.59 ? 3 95.9055 ? 3 207.0983 140.305 54.2 15.36 2 3 Ru Sm 339 .82 126.941 ? 2 174.9045 192.847 ? 3 83.08 2 3 19 59 61 91 88 39.59 f 3 196.

0855 k 3 107. A A Radioactive element t h a t lacks a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition. tabulated A.9059 X Y 65.I Atomic Weights 1983 (cont'd) Names Scandium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium (Natrium) Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium * Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium" Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten (Wolfram) Uranium * Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Z inc Zirconium Symbol Atomic Number 21 34 14 47 11 38 16 Atomic Weight 44. measurable quantities of Thorium 230 (Ionium) c a n be found.066 f 6 180.62 32.98977 87. The difference between t h e atomic weight of t h e element in such specimens and t h a t given in t h e Table may exceed considerably t h e implied uncertainty. 3c Element ha5 no stable isotopes.39 2 2 91.60 f 3 158. r range in isotopic composition of normal terrestrial material prevents a more precise -r (E) being given. In certain places.8682 f 3 22.038 1 168.(E) value should be applicable t o any normal material.710 f 7 47.224 2 2 g geologically exceptional specimens are known in which the element has an isotopic composition outside t h e limits for normal material.9342 118. Y Uranium is the only element with no stable isotopes but which has a characteristic terrestrial composition of long-lived isotopes such that a meaningful atomic weight can be given for natural samples.29 f 3 173.85 f 3 238.95591 2 1 78.0289 50. X Thorium has a well defined (mononuclidic) composition in minerals with only rare exceptions.9479 Footnotes sc Se Si Ag r Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb r A T 1 Th Tm Sn Ti W U 73 43 52 65 81 90 69 50 v Xe Yb Y Zn Z r 22 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 127.96 ? 3 28.383 232.9254 204. however (most notably in ocean water). 340 .88 f 3 183.04 2 3 88. Substantial deviations in atomic weight of t h e element from t h a t given in t h e Table can occur.9415 131. m modified isotopic compositions may be found in commercially available material because i t has been subjected to a n undisclosed or inadvertent isotopic separation.

... ............................................................................................................... PEMBINA BENTONITE......................... 237................................................................. 12 ................................................................................... 238 .............................................. GREEN ASH.................................................................... 236 ................. FORMITE VIIIOS BARLEYOIL BARLEY STRAW BARNACLE BEAN STRAW BEANS..................BARK BIRCH................................. ................................................................. UNHARDENED 80NICKEL-20CHROMIUM a-BRASS a-CELLULOSE........................................................................... 238 ........... BARK ALFALFA........ 143 ..................................... 55 78 127 127 143 144 144 239 239 240 240 241 ....................... 11 ............................................................ STRAW ALGAE ALMOND HULLS ALMOND................. COMMERCIAL BEEFWOOD (SHE-OAK) BEETLE BEETS BENTONITE................................. 173 ..................................................... PAPER BIRCH.................... 34 .......................................... 77 .. 2 3 7 .......... 77 .............................................METHYLOLMELAMINE.............. 11 ................................FOLIAGE ASPEN.... 10 .. 78 ..... QUAKING ASPEN.......................5-METHYLOLMELAMINE....5................................................... 35 ............. 103 ........... STEMS BIRCH BIRCH.................................. 9 . ............................ 9 . 213 .................................................................................. 67 .......................................... YELLOW BIRCH............. HARDENED 2..................... ....... 167 .................. QUAKING.......................... 233 .............................................................................. NAVY.......... .................................................................................................................................................................. FROM LOBIBLLY PINE WOOD ALDER... 236 .................. ORCHARD PRUNINGS ALMONDSHELLS ALMONDS ALUMINUM ALUMINUM 2024-T4 ALUMINUM7075-T6 AMATOL ARALDITE ARCHANGEL (WOOD BETONY OR BLIND NETTLE) ASH ASH.... 173 ..... 167 ................ 33 ................................... 233 ............. DRY BEECH BEEF SUET.............................................. SEED............................ ............................................ WHITE ASPEN............... RED............................................................................................................................. 10 .................................................. 236 .............................. ............................. .............. 143 .... GREEN BEANS.............. 77 ..... 235 .............................. 233 .................................................................................. BARK ........... EUROPEAN BLACK ALDER. ........... 305 ............................................................. 55 ...................................................................... PAPER................................. 34 1 ................................ ..BARK ASPEN................. 234 ........... QUAKING.......................................... 35 . 34 ................. TREMBLING ASPHALT BABASSU HUSKS BAKELITE VARNISH............................................Name Index Page 2........ WHITE............................................................................... FOLIAGE BIG SAGEBRUSH........................................................................................ WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH BIG SAGEBRUSH..................... YELLOW....................................................................

. 146 . 13 ................................... 80 .......... HOLOCELLULOSE.............. ........................................ 56 CHROMIUM ........................................... 68 ................. VINEYARD PRUNINGS CADMIUM CARDINAL GRAPES.................. 245 CHERRY............................................................. 242 ...... GL-622 BUTADIENE-STYRENE COPOLYMER........................................................ 80 ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 79 ............... 243 ................. 37 CHYMOTRYPSIN ...... 55 ............... 213 ... 79 ..... FRONDS BROAD-LEAVED STITCHWORT (MOODSTARWORT) BROWN PAPER BULBIFEROUS TOOTHWORT (TOOTH-CRESS) BUTADIENE-STYRENE COPOLYMER................68 ................................................................................... 69 .................................... 168 .... SUMMER BUTTERFAT.............. 169 ................................................................ 145 56 ......... 191 CILIATE .................................... VINEYARD PRUNINGS .............................................................. 36 ....... X-454 BUTADIENE-STYRENE COPOLYMER........................................................................................ 168 ........... 144 ...................................................... MILK CASTOR OIL CATTAILS CATTLE CAULIFLOWER CEDAR.... 305 .................................................................................. 68 .......................................................................... 169 .................... WOOD CHEATGRASS............................................ 241 .. 145 .. RED CELLULOID CELLULOSE CELLULOSE DIACETATE CELLULOSE...................................... 14 CHERRY ........................... BARK BOVINE CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN A BOXELDER BRACHIOPOD BRACKEN FERN...................... 68 ..... 13 ................................................................................................................ 245 ......................................................................................................................................... WINTER CABBAGE CABBAGE WOOD CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPES. 244 ............... 242............................ 137 ................................................................................................. 247 CHITON .......................................................................... FROM LOBLOLLY PINE WOOD CELLULOSE NITRATE CELLULOSE TRIACETATE CEMENT HYDRATES CHAMISE............... 244 ................... 246 CHESTNUT ......................................... CURED CHENIN BLANC GRAPES................. 128 .......... 145 ...................... 169 342 .................. CORNELIAN ................................................... 246 CHERRY.......................................................... 191 ........................................I Name Index Page BIVALVE BLACK WALNUT................................. VINEYARD PRUNINGS CARROTS CASEIN.................................. FOLIAGE CHAPARRAL CHARCOAL......................................... 170 ............. ORCHARD PRUNINGS BLACKGUM BLACKGUM......... BLACK ..................................................................................................................... 243 ........... 67......................................................................................................................................................................... X-478 BUTENE-1-POLYSULFONE BUTTERFAT........................................... 56 cis-BUTENE-2-POLYSULFONE ....... 191 ........................................ 55 ....................................................................... 12 ...... 80 ...............

.........................K.................. CHINA CLAY......................... .................... DUST COCONUTOIL COKE COKE BREEZE COLLAGEN COLTSFOOT CONSTANTAN COPEPOD COPPER CORALBRANCHTIPS CORAL BRANCHES CORN (MAIZE).......................................... ......... CANNEL COAL.................................. BITUMINOUS COAL.. ...................................................................................... SUB-BITUMINOUS COCKS-FOOTGRASS COCOA BUTTER COCOA HULLS COCOBOLA NEGRA COCONUT COCONUT FIBER............................................................... .................................................... ................................................................................................................................... BITUMINOUS (LOW GRADE) COAL...........................................................................................................................................................4 CLAY...................... REFINED COTTONWOOD..................................................................................................................... ..................... BITUMINOUS (MEDIUM GRADE) COAL........................ ..................................................... ....................................................... ............................................... ..................................................HYDROGENATED COTTONSEED OIL...Name Index Page CITRUS FRUIT... ........... ........... . .........................................................MOROCCANNO................ 81 56 128 129 129 129 130 146 103 104 104 104 105 105 105 106 106 146 81 14 247 81 15 214 106............................. ................................................................. .........PLASTIC KAOLIN CLAY.... ........................................................................................................................... ......................................................... ... NEWTON ABBOT BALL CLOVEROOT (HERB BENNET) COAL............... .......................................................................... ....... ................ .............. ........................................................ ................. ........ .......... ........................... ............................. BITUMINOUS (HIGH GRADE) COAL.............................. ............................................................................................................................................ .................. 107 107 192 147 38 57 38 306 .............................. 306 82 15 215 215 16 137 16 17 69 215 216 216 248 248 82 147 217 ...... ANTHRACITE COAL............................... ....... MISSOURI COTTONWOOD......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ......... ..... RINDS AND SEEDS CLADOCERA CLAY..................................................................................................... SEMI-BITUMINOUS COAL..................................... ................................................... ......................... .... NEBRASKA COWPEAS COWSLIP LUNGWORT CRAMBEOIL ............................................... ............... ..................... GREEN CORNCOBS CORNOIL CORNOIL(MAIZE) CORNSTOVER CORRUGATED BOX COTTONGINTRASH COTTONSTALKS COTTON(THREAD) COTTONSEED O L I COTTONSEED OIL.... SEMI-ANTHRACITE COAL................................... ........................... ........ ............. ...................................................................... HALLOYSITE (DJEBEL DEBAR) CLAY... ................................. . ................................................ ....................... ........

.. 253 ........................ FOLIAGE FIR................... 85 ................... ...................................... ........................ ....... DOUGLAS.. ........................ ...... RYE FAT............................................... ............... 252 ..................................... 252 ............................ HARDENED EPILOX EGI............................................................STEMS FIR............................ BUTTER FAT.... ............ BALSAM.............. LUMBER FIR................................................................. WHITE ....... 254 ........................................................................................................................... AMER1CAN...... LARD FAT.......... .................................................... .................................................. 85 ............................. WHEAT FAT.............. BARLEY FAT.............................................. 86 83 249 250 148 17 171 172 250 251 251 252 83 83 84 84 84 84.................... ANIMAL FAT................................. ........ PORK FAT................................................................................ WHITE......................................................................................... MUTTON FAT.................. 86 ............. 85 .................. ..................................................................... WOOL FILTER PAPER WHATMAN FIR FIR.......................................... 69 .................. SOY BEAN 82 306 170 69 170 207 148 249 307 171 83 ..................................... ELM.. 255........... ............................................ ................................................................... WHITE FIR.................................................................................... OAT FAT...................TWIG DOWTHERMA DURETHAN U20 EGG ALBUMIN ................................................................................................................................... DOUGLAS................. . ........................BLO0 D.............. GRAND FIR........................................................................................... ................................... ............................... 57 ............................................................................................................................................................ 254 254 ...................... EGG YOLK .. UNHARDENED EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS EXCELSIOR.................. 85 .................... NEEDLES FIR........................... DOUGLAS................... ORCHARD PRUNINGS .. ROTTEN WOOD FIR............................................................................. 86 ...........................ROTTEN WOOD FLATWORM FLATWORM...............................................................................................................Name Index Page CUCUMBERS DBX DELRIN DEXTRIN DICYANDIAMIDE (TECHNICAL) DISCARDED AUTOMOBILES TIRES DOG VIOLET DOGWOOD............... ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE ................................................BARK .................... 255 .. ELM......... 255 .... 256 256 ............... ......................................................................... ....BARK FIR.. FRIED FAT............................................. TERRESTRIAL FLOUR.................. ......... 57 .............................. 307 ............. DEAD WOOD FAT.BARK FIR........ DOUGLAS................................................... 253 ......................... ............. EPILOX EGI........ 252 .................................... DOUGLAS.............. BALSAM......... ENGLISH WALNUT.... .................................................................................... ....... DOUGLAS FIR....................... ........BEEF FAT......................

... 114 ...... .................... 194 .. .... ....................................Name Index Page FL0UR............. ....................................... 109 109 109 110 110 110 115 ...................... ..... .............. .................................... COED-3 WESTERN KENTUCKY COAL DERIVED FUEL........... ..... ...................... ....................... ...... ............................ . ................. .................................. 88 ............ . 172 ......... COED-2 UTAH COAL DERIVED FUEL..................... 307 307 307 308 308 150 .......................... PYREX GLASS.............................. ............... APIEZONR GREASE...................SOD A-LIME GLASS.. .................... ................ ..... PYROLYTIC GRAPHITE................ 87 58 137 -87 148 108... .. ..................................................................... APIEZONP GREASE.................. 130.................... ............ .. ........... ............................................................................. . .............................. .................. 131 ..................................... ... APIEZONT GREASEWOOD .......................... NATURAL GASOLINE GELATIN GELATINE GERMANDER SPEEDWELL (ANGELISEYE) GEWURZTRAMINER GRAPES...................... .. .......................... CADDIS FOODCARTONS FOOD WASTES.................. RJ-4-1 RAMJET FUEL........... ......................... .................................................... * * l l l FUEL..... ........................................................... TAR SANDS (ALTERNATIVEJET FUEL) GALLBERRY.. ....... BUCKINGHAM GRAPHITE............................... ..... APIEZON N GREASE................... THOMPSON SEEDLESS GRAPHITE................... 345 115 116 117 117 117 150 .WHEAT FLY..................... ..................................... 18 ......................................... PETROLEUM-A DERIVED FUEL....... CEYLON GRAPHITE...................... * ........................... .................................. ................................................................... 11.. .. ..................................... COED-5 WESTERN KENTUCKY COAL DERIVED FUEL.............. .......... ....... 207 . VYCOR GLIADIN GLUTEN GLUTENIN GLYCOGEN GLYPTAL GR-SRUBBER GRAPE POMACE GRAPES............................... -112 ............ ...... 193 . ARTIFICIAL GRAPHITE.... .................... .............................................. * * .... TICONDEROGA GRASS....................................... ..................... 149 .... 113 .................................................................... ....................................... 111 ... .................................................... COED-4 UTAH COAL DERIVED FUEL.................................. .....2 ...... VEGETABLE FOURWING SALTBUSH FUEL................... FUEL.................................................. 193 ..................................................................................... APIEZON S GREASE........... 149 ......R J-6RAMJET FUEL.............. 131 ............ 115 ......... ............................. ............ AVIATION FUEL................. 114 ......... COED-1 FMC WESTERN KENTUCKY COAL DERIVED ... . ....... ............ FOLIAGE GAS..................... ........... . ...... ............ ....... 132 ..................... PARAHO O L SHALE DERIVED I FUEL.................... ............. ...................................................... 88 .................R J-4 RAMJET FUEL...................................................................Ill ...................... ............................. ........................................... 70 ..... 18 .......... .... VINEYARD PRUNINGS GLABER CRESS GLASS.......... LAWN CLIPPINGS GREASE.............GASOLINE FUEL7JP-9RAMJET . ......... 149 .. 192 ............... ...... . ............................... ...................................

................. 58 ......................... WESTERN............................................ 152 ........................................................... BARK LARD................ 70 ..... ...... 150 ........................................... 260 ................................. CLONE RRIM 707 HICKORY HIGH OLEIC SAFFLOWER O L I HOMINY HONEYDEW MELON HORNBEAM HYDRA....... LUMBER LARCH...................... CURED INCONEL.......... 89 .............................................................. ............... ........ 259.................................................... 70 ...................... LOBLOLLY PINE WOOD ....................................................................................................................... 152 .............................................. ........................................................... 58 .... 194 ............................................................. 346 91 42 308 309 263 152 71 71 71 ........................................................................................................................... EASTERN............................. 40 .................................. 70 ....... SHOE LEAVES.......... ANNEALED INCONELttX" INSULIN................. WESTERN HERB ROBERT (RED ROBIN) HERBS.............217 ................ . 118 ..... TREE.......................................... 90 ............................ 89 ...... 261 ................. 151 .. 257 ..... BOVINE ZINC INULIN INULIN TRIACETATE IRISH SHAMROCK (EUROPEAN WOOD SORREL) IRON IRON......................................................... 90 ... BARK HEMLOCK............ 90 ............................................. 260 .......................................................................................... 217 ................................................ 259 ...................... SUN IX GROUND NUT SEED O L I GUPPIE HASTELLOY X HEMICELLULOSE HEMLOCK............................................................ 261 ................................... CLONE RRIM 527 HEVEA (RUBBER TREE)... GREEN IDAHOFESCUE................................... HARDWOOD LIGNIN...................................................................... 262 ............................... UTAH............................ ALPINE TUNDRA HERRING OIL HEVEA (RUBBER TREE) HEVEA (RUBBER TREE).................................... 262 ................................STEMS JUNK MAIL JUPITER'S-DISTAFF KEROSINE LADY FERN LARCH LARCH.......................... 42 ...FOLIAGE JUNIPER................................ 260 ........................................... 40 .. ............................................................... .................................................................................................. 151 ............. RIPE HARDWOOD MIXTURE LETTUCE MURALIS LIGNIN LIGNIN............. BARK LARCH........................................................................................................ AMERICAN COMMERCIAL LARD.................................................................................................CAST iso-BUTENE POLYSULFONE (2-methylpropene polysulfone) JUNIPER........................... 257 .................. 151 ........ 40 ............... UTAH.... 261 .......................... .......................................................................... .............. 255 ........................................ GERMAN COMMERCIAL LEAD LEATHER LEATHER........................................................ UTAH......... 170 ............................................................................................................................Name Index Page GROATS......................................... 39 ................................................................ 258 ................. 262 ..........BARK JUNIPER.................. 138 .........................................................

............................... TABLE MARGARINE.................. ....................... COOKED SCRAPS MELICGRASS MELINEX FILM MERCURIALIS PERENNIS MERCURY MERLOT GRAPES.............................................. SOFTWOOD LIGNITE LINSEED OIL LINSEED OIL......................... ........ ....... SILVER MAPLE............................................ ..... .....................................................Name Index Page LIGNIN..... .................................. ............................................................................................. .................................... REFINED NEWSPRINT NICKEL NORYL RESIN 111 NYLON4 NYLON-6........... ................... ...... ............................................. ....................... PIG MANZANITA MANZANITA........................................... ................... AROMATIC NAPHTHA........ ......................................... ................................................... CORN (MAIZE) MEAT.................................................... ............SUGAR......... ....... .......... ............... 44 44 154 155 173 118 119 119 119 119 310 138 44 174 1 7 ~ 176 .......... .............................................. 265 266 266 267........................................... GREENLEAF.............................................................................................................. 270 270 271 92 92 153 93 93 153 173 154 43 19 58 ......................................... VINEYARD PRUNINGS MITE MONEL M0NEL"K" MOSSES.......... ............................................. ............ ..... ALPINE TUNDRA MOUNTAINRUSH MYLAR FILM NAPHTHA..................................................................................................................... .............. ................................................................. ............................... FOLIAGE MAPLE MAPLE...................................................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................................................... 347 ..... .................. .......... ..................................... ........BARK MAPLE.............................. ............................................................................................................. HIGH BOILING NAPHTHA................................... .................................... ALASKA NAPHTHA.. 6 ................................. ............................................................................................ .......................................................................................................................... ....... 268 269 269.................................. ..................................... 72 118 218 219 263 264 172 19 264 138 265 153 91 72 245 ................................ ......................................... ............. RED MAPLE......................................................... ................................................... HEDGE MAPLE..... ........................................................................... UNREFINED LITTER FALL LOCUST.................... LOW BOILING NEAT'S FOOT OIL..............TATARIAN MARGARINE............................. J E T NAPHTHA............................................................... ................... ............................................................................... ... .................. BLACK LUCITE MACADAMIASHELLS MADRONE MAGAZINE MAICHAMPAH MALE FERN MALTINGBARLEY MANURE............... SUGAR MAPLE.... ............. COMMERCIAL MEADOW-RUE ISOPYRUM MEAL...........................................................................................

....................... 217 ............ LOBLOLLY PINE WOOD ' ............................................................................................................................................. 138 ..... 151 .............................................................................................................. 152 - - ............................. LUMBER LARCH.................................................................... 40 ................................................................. 58 ...................................................................... 263 ......... GREEN IDAHOFESCUE................................................ 150 ....................................................... 259 ................. 70 .................................. 40 ................................................... 258 ........................................................... BARK HEMLOCK........................................................................................................................... 58 .......................................................... 89 .............................. 90 .... WESTERN....................................... 70 ................................................ CLONE RRIM 707 HICKORY HIGH OLEIC SAFFLOWER OIL HOMINY HONEYDEW MELON HORNBEAM HYDRA.................................................. 170 ......................... SHOE LEAVES..... 346 71 71 71 .............. 262 .......... 261 ............CAST iso-BUTENE POLYSULFONE (2-methylpropene polysulfone) JUNIPER................. 262 ........................................ 260 ....................... 151 .............................. FOLIAGE JUNIPER.......................... BOVINE ZINC INULIN INULINTRIACETATE IRISH SHAMROCK (EUROPEAN WOOD SORREL) IRON IRON.. 308 .............................. CLONE RRIM 527 HEVEA (RUBBER TREE)...................... 261 .......................................................... 70 ................................................ 257 .............. .......................... 151 .......................................... SUN IX GROUND NUT SEED O L I GUPPIE HASTELLOYX HEMICELLULOSE HEMLOCK.............................. 261 ............................................................................................ WESTERN HERB ROBERT (RED ROBIN) HERBS..... CURED INCONEL.............................. GERMAN COMMERCIAL LEAD LEATHER LEATHER................................................. TREE......................................... UTAH.. 194 ...................... 152 ............................................................................... 309 . 42 ...................... 90 ........... RIPE HARDWOOD MIXTURE LETTUCE MURALIS LIGNIN LIGNIN............................. UTAH.......................................................... 118 ....... 257 ........... 260 .................... 152 ........... 89 ......... 260 ... 90 .............. 40 ...................... ...............I Name Index Page GROATS... ANNEALED INCONEL'X" INSULIN........... ...................................... 41 . 259...................... ALPINE TUNDRA HERRING OIL HEVEA (RUBBER TREE) HEVEA (RUBBER TREE)..... BARK LARD............. AMERICAN COMMERCIAL LARD........................ 39 ..................................................................... 91 .................................................................... 217 .............. HARDWOOD LIGNIN.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 258 .. EASTERN.......................UTAH...............STEMS JUNK MAIL JUPITER'S-DISTAFF KEROSINE LADYFERN LARCH LARCH.. BARK LARCH.............................BARK JUNIPER................................................................... 262 .................

............. LODGEP0LE...... 291 349 ........... 181 ........... 180 ................... PONDEROSA.........Name Index Page PINE................................... 155 ....................................................... PONDEROSA...................... 284............................. 139 ... 182. SUGAR PINE............STEMS PINE.................. 283 ........................... 286 ................................................................................................................................................................................. CA 77 FOLIAGE PINE.................................... 184 ............................................................................... 181 ........... 183 .......... PONDEROSA. 311 .................. 290 ........... 180 ....... 286 ................4'-DIOXYDIPHENYL-2............................................................. PONDEROSA........................................................................................................................... 182 . 179 ................. 185 ............... LODGEPOLE...... 156 ...........FOLIAGE PINE........... 287 .................. 181 ........ I-DIFLUOROETHYLENE POLY-I-BUTENE POLY-2.................. 289 . PONDEROSA....... LONGLEAF PlNE............... 288 .......................................... DEAD FOLIAGE PINE................ 4-CYCLOHEXYLENE) POLY-I........................ PINYON.................................... MT 78 FOLIAGE......SAWDUST PINOT NOIR GRAPES.......................................... 22 ............. HEARTWOOD LUMBER PINE..........................................FOLIAGE PINE................................... 183 ........................................................................... FLOWER GARDEN PLANTS............................................... 6-DIMETHYLPHENYLENE ETHER POLY-4.......................... SLASH.. 287 ..... 285 ................................................ 283 .................................. YELLOW POPPY SEED OIL............................................. 284 ............. 223 ......................... MT 77 FOLIAGE PINE............................. 288 .................................FOLIAGE PINE................... 179 ............. 21 ........ 283 ............... PINE. 195 ........ 289.. PONDEROSA PINE........................................... WHITE PINE.................................................... 285 .................................................................... 289 . 290 ............ 183 ........................ WESTERN WHITE...... 180 ......... PINYON................. PONDEROSA............................................................. VASCULAR AQUATIC PLASTIC COATED PAPER POLY(0XY-2-METHYL-1.........BARK PINE......... BLEACHED POPULUS HYBRIDS ................. TRUNK POPLAR POPLAR................................... SLASH.......... BARK PINE.............. 289 ..................... 181 .......... 184 ... TAIL PONDMURREL..................... 59 ....................................... 184 ................................................................................................. PONDEROSA..... VINEYARD PRUNINGS PISTACHIOSHELLS PLANTS..... 1-DICHLOROETHYLENE POLY-I................. 288 ............................. WHITE. 179 ............. 283 ............................... 286 ............................................................................................ 59 ............. DEAD FOLIAGE PINE.................. NEEDLES PINE......... A 2 78 FOLIAGE PINE............................ 2-PROPANE CARBONATE POLY-€-ENANTHOLACTAM POLY-=-METHYL STYRENE POLY-iso-BUTENE POLY-N-ETHYL-N-METHYL PROPIONAMIDE POLYACENAPHTHYLENE POLYALLYLPHTHALATE POLYBUTADIENE 41°F POLYBUTADIENE 122°F POLYETHYLENE POLYPROPYLENE POLYSTYRENE POLYUREA (POLYHARNSTOFF) POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POLYVINYL NITRATE POND MURREL............... 287 ................

............... BARTLETT PEAT PECANS PENTOLITE PERILLAOIL PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN................ HARDENED........................ ........ 276 .......... HARPENED (EDELKUNSTHARZ B) PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN...................... 120 ............................................... PEANUT BUTTER... LOBLOLLY... TAN OAK....................................... HARDENED PALMOIL....................... 280 ........ 94 ....................... 220 221 222 310 ......................................................FUEL OIL......... 9 5 .... 278. DUFF PINE. 282 ................. 310 ..... NORTHERN RED..................CRUDE 011....... 281 ............................................... 2 7 ~ ................... 219 ................ 272 .......... 123 ................................................................. 95 .................................................................. 194 ............BARK OAK.............. 178 - ....... ................... PEANUT HULLS ................................................................ PEANUTOIL ..............................UNREFINED PEANUTS PEARS........................................................ SPENTSHALE OLIVEOIL OLIVEOIL.............. DURMAST OAK.................... 223 ...............................................................BARK PINE LITTER........ .............................................................. 282 348 20 94 21 222 222 ..................................................................................SAPWOOD OAK........ PB-RDX .......................................... 274 .... 277 ......................... BARK OAK.. BARK OATOIL OATS OATS............................................................................................ 272 ...................... UNREFINED PALM-KERNELOIL ..................282 ....... 282 ......................... LODGEPOLE........ SUN11 OIL................ 276 ............................................................................................. WATER OAK.......................................... 122 ....................................... 274 ...... RED OAK................................... BLACK................... 280 .......................... UNHARDENED PHENYLALANINE POLYMER PINE9EASTERNMHITE PINE................................................................178 .................. DEAD FOLIAGE OAK.................................................................... 122 . WHITE........ ....... TURKEY OAK................................................................................................. TAN............................. PEACH PITS ........ WHITE OAK...................... 93 ........ 279. 279 ................................................................................................... 220 20 ......................... JACK....................................... 9~ .................................... PARAFFIN OIL....................................................... 276 .................................................................................................................................................................. RAW SHALE OIL.................................................. TAN....... .. ........................ 219 ................................................................ N O R T H E R N R E D OAK.............................................. BARK ....................................................................................................I Name Index Page NYLON-6910 OAK OAK............................................................................................................................. ITALIAN OLIVE PITS PALMOIL............ 121 ............. 273 ............................. 281 .................................................. 121 ............................................. 179 ............ EXTRACTIVES PINE... LOBLOLLY PINE......................GAS OIL.... PEANUTOIL........ 120 .............

................................. 140 ............................................................... STAINLESS STEEL............ 294 .......209 TITANIUM............................................................................................................................................ 228 .............................................................................. 63 ....................... ............................................... 229 ............................ 297 SYCAMORE ....... 29...................................................................................................................... 72 ..... UNREFINED SUNFLOWER................................ 72 ............................. 48 TIRE ............................................ 298 SYCAMORE.. BALSAM SPRUCE.................. 295 ...................... 73 TEFLON ... 49 TITANIUM.................................. BLACK.................................................................................................... 296............T i-ISOA ...... 63 .... 22.............................................................. 297 .........Name Index Page ........................9 ......................... 158 .......... 295 .................... ENGELMANN................................. 4? 46 ...... STAINLESS 446 STINGING NETTLE SUDANGRASS SUGARCANE BAGASSE SULFITE LIQUOR.............................. 298 SYCAMORE................................................................... NPLNO............ 45 ................................ 73 ......................................... 47 ......................................................................... SAWMILL RESIDUE...... 296 ..................... 25.................................................................... 62 .............. FRESH SOUTHERN HARDWOOD................................................................ 299 TALLOXEYE ............ ............................... ..... CHESTNUT .......... 227 .......... 27 TIN .................... 1......................................... 294 .................................... BARK SPRUCE....................... BARK SPRUCE...................................................................................... REFINED SPITBUG SPREADING RABBITBRUSH SPRUCEPINE SPRUCE PINE..................................... 27 TOUCH-ME-NOT ........ 160 .................. 159 ....................... SPENT SUNFLOWEROIL SUNFLOWER OIL..... QUEBRACHO ...... 294 ........ 19 STEELSSAE-1010 STEEL.. 227 ......................... VINEYARD P R U N I N G ........................... AQUATIC SOUTHERN HARDWOOD.................. 46 ........................................... STAINLESS 347 STEEL............................................ 49 TOKAY GRAPES...................... RED SPURGE ALMOND STARCH STARCH TRIACETATE STARFISH STEEL................BARK ........ BARK 35 1 .................. 160 TANNIN EXTRACT.................. SAWMILL RESIDUE............ 159 ........................................ 26 ................................T i-75A ............................................ 294 ................ AMER1CAN... VINEYARD PRUNINGS ............................................................................................................. 169 SNAIL SNAIL...................................................... NORWAY SPRUCE................... 29................................ BARK SPRUCE................................ 6 3 ..... .. SEED O L I SWEET WOODRUFF SWEETGUM SWEETGUM.......... AMERICAN ................................. PILED SOW-TEAT STRAWBERRY (WOODLAND STRAWBERRY) SOYBEANOIL SOYBEANOIL................................... I61 trans-BUTENE-2-POLYSULFONE .................................................................... ........................................................... ........... 73 TANNIN EXTRACT...........I86 THOMPSON SEEDLESS GRAPES.......................................

................................... 224.... 157 SHRUBS................................................................................. 61 SHEEP................... BLOOD ... BRINE .............................. 132 ............................................... HIDE .................................... CARCASS ............. CUTTINGS.................................................................... 293 REDWOOD........................................... 225 SAFFLOWERSTRAW ........ 195 SAW-PALMETTO.............. 24 RICE STRAW.................................................... .... EVERGREEN.............................. 2 9 ~ REDWOOD........................ 158 SHRUBS....... 60 SHEEP........................................ 62 SHRIMP............................. 311 .......................... ALPINE TUNDRA ................................... ....................................... GIANT ................................................... ROUGH (ITALIAN ORIGIN) ................................................................... 62 SHRUBS...................................... REFINED RAPESEED O L I REDBUD ................. BAKELITE RESIN BINDER FUEL PROPELLANT.......... 204 REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL ........ MILL WASTES ............................................................................................. 201 REFUSE... 156 RUBBER-SULFUR COMPOUNDS ............................ 203 RESIN...... VISCERA .. SWAMP PADDY ....... 97 RICE........ 96 RICE.. 224 ............ 225 SAFFLOWEROIL .................. 22 . I 226 SHEEP................. 23 RICE ................. 157 SEQUOIA........... EVERGREEN......... 203........................................................................... WEATHERED (COLLECTED 1/2 YEAR AFTER HARVEST) .......................................... INGESTA-FREE BODY ........................................................ 156 SEDGE GRASS ...................................................................................... OS/AP PRUNE PITS PURIFIED NATURAL RUBBER HYDROCARBON RAPE OIL................ SHELLED (ITALIAN ORIGIN) ......... 311 ............................... 23 RICE. SAPWOOD ........................ FULLY FINISHED (ITALIAN ORIGIN) ................................................................................................................................. 24 RICE............................. 25 SANTOWAX R .................................................. WHITE PROPARGYL AZIDE POLYMER PROPELLANT..... FRONDS ....................... 202....................................................................................................................................................... 293 REFUSE .............. MUNICIPAL ......... 350 .. HEARTWOOD .............................NameIndex 'i Page .................................... 185 96 ...... 311 SARCOSINE POLYMER ..... 292 REDWOOD.................................................. 158 PORCELAIN POTATO.................. 291 REDWOOD ................................................................................................... 1 8 ~ RIBIER GRAPES. 97 RICE STRAW (COLLECTED AFTER HARVEST) ............................................ 292 REDWOOD.............................................................. BARK ........... 186 RUBBER .............................................................................. DECIDUOUS.. 96 RICE HULLS .... 208 RUBBER RABBITBRUSH .............. ABS I .............. ALPINE TUNDRA ....................................................................................................... 60 SHEEP. 209 RYE OIL ...................................................... 201............................................. 225 .................... VINEYARD PRUNINGS ......... 208 .................................... *61 SHEEP.............................................. 293 SESAME O L .............................................. 98 RILSAN ..............