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September 2004
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iii
Contents
1 Amplifiers and Mixers
Introduction............................................................................................................... 11
CurveFitting Algorithm............................................................................................. 11
AGC_Amp (VoltageControlled Ampliﬁer for AGC loops) ......................................... 13
AGC_PwrControl (Power Control Block for AGC loops) ........................................... 16
Ampliﬁer (Obsolete RF System Ampliﬁer) ................................................................ 19
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer) ............................................................................. 117
AmpliﬁerVC (Ideal VoltageControlled Ampliﬁer) ...................................................... 141
AmpSingleCarrier (Single Carrier Ampliﬁer)............................................................. 142
FreqMult (Ideal Frequency Multiplier) ....................................................................... 144
LogACDemod (Demodulating AC Logarithmic Ampliﬁer) ......................................... 146
LogDC (DC Logarithmic Ampliﬁer) ........................................................................... 147
LogSuccDetect (Successive Detection Logarithmic Ampliﬁer .................................. 148
LogTrue (True Logarithmic Ampliﬁer)........................................................................ 149
Mixer (First RF System Mixer, Polynomial Model for Nonlinearity) ........................... 150
Mixer2 (RF System Mixer) ........................................................................................ 155
MixerWithLO (Mixer with Internal Local Oscillator)................................................... 183
OpAmp (Operational Ampliﬁer) ................................................................................ 185
OpAmpIdeal (Ideal Operational Ampliﬁer)................................................................ 188
VMult (Voltage Multiplier).......................................................................................... 190
2 Filters
Introduction............................................................................................................... 21
Filter Categories ....................................................................................................... 21
References ............................................................................................................... 25
BPF_Bessel (Bandpass Filter, BesselThompson)................................................... 26
BPF_Butterworth (Bandpass Filter, Butterworth) ..................................................... 27
BPF_Chebyshev (Bandpass Filter, Chebyshev)....................................................... 29
BPF_Elliptic (Bandpass Filter, Elliptic)...................................................................... 211
BPF_Gaussian (Bandpass Filter, Gaussian) ............................................................ 213
BPF_PoleZero (Bandpass Filter, Pole Zero)............................................................. 214
BPF_Polynomial (Bandpass Filter, Polynomial)........................................................ 216
BPF_RaisedCos (Bandpass Filter, RaisedCosine) ................................................. 217
BSF_Bessel (Bandstop Filter, BesselThompson) ................................................... 220
BSF_Butterworth (Bandstop Filter, Butterworth) ...................................................... 221
BSF_Chebyshev (Bandstop Filter, Chebyshev)........................................................ 222
BSF_Elliptic (Bandstop Filter, Elliptic) ...................................................................... 224
BSF_Gaussian (Bandstop Filter, Gaussian)............................................................. 226
BSF_PoleZero (Bandstop Filter, Pole Zero) ............................................................. 227
BSF_Polynomial (Bandstop Filter, Polynomial) ........................................................ 228
iv
BSF_RaisedCos (Bandstop Filter, RaisedCosine) .................................................. 230
HPF_Bessel (Highpass Filter, BesselThompson) ................................................... 233
HPF_Butterworth (Highpass Filter, Butterworth) ...................................................... 234
HPF_Chebyshev (Highpass Filter, Chebyshev)........................................................ 235
HPF_Elliptic (Highpass Filter, Elliptic) ...................................................................... 236
HPF_Gaussian (Highpass Filter, Gaussian)............................................................. 237
HPF_PoleZero (Highpass Filter, Pole Zero) ............................................................. 238
HPF_Polynomial (Highpass Filter, Polynomial) ........................................................ 239
HPF_RaisedCos (Highpass Filter, RaisedCosine) .................................................. 240
LPF_Bessel (Lowpass Filter, BesselThompson)..................................................... 243
LPF_Butterworth (Lowpass Filter, Butterworth......................................................... 245
LPF_Chebyshev (Lowpass Filter, Chebyshev) ......................................................... 247
LPF_Elliptic (Lowpass Filter, Elliptic)........................................................................ 249
LPF_Gaussian (Lowpass Filter, Gaussian) .............................................................. 251
LPF_GMSK (Lowpass Filter, GMSK) ....................................................................... 253
LPF_PoleZero (Lowpass Filter, Pole Zero)............................................................... 255
LPF_Polynomial (Lowpass Filter, Polynomial).......................................................... 256
LPF_RaisedCos (Lowpass Filter, RaisedCosine) ................................................... 257
SAW_Filter (Saw Filter) ............................................................................................ 260
3 Modulators and Demodulators
Introduction............................................................................................................... 31
AM_DemodTuned (AM Demodulator, Tuned)........................................................... 33
AM_ModTuned (AM Modulator, Tuned) .................................................................... 34
FM_DemodTuned (FM Demodulator, Tuned) ........................................................... 35
FM_ModTuned (FM Modulator, Tuned) .................................................................... 37
IQ_DemodTuned (I/Q Demodulator, Tuned) ............................................................. 39
IQ_ModTuned (I/Q Modulator, Tuned) ...................................................................... 310
N_StateDemod (NState Demodulator).................................................................... 311
N_StateMod (NState Modulator) ............................................................................. 312
PI4DQPSK_ModTuned (PI/4 DQPSK Modulator, Tuned)......................................... 315
PM_DemodTuned (PM Demodulator, Tuned)........................................................... 317
PM_ModTuned (PM Modulator, Tuned) .................................................................... 318
PM_UnwrapDemodTuned (PM Unwrapped Demodulator, Tuned) ........................... 319
QPSK_ModTuned (QPSK Modulator, Tuned)........................................................... 320
4 Passive System Components
AntLoad (Antenna Load) .......................................................................................... 42
Attenuator (Attenuator) ............................................................................................. 44
Balun3Port (Balun, 3port)........................................................................................ 49
Balun4Port (Balun, 4port)........................................................................................ 411
Balun6Port (Balun, 6port)........................................................................................ 413
Circulator (Ideal 3Port Circulator)............................................................................ 414
v
CouplerDual (Dual Coupler) ..................................................................................... 416
CouplerSingle (Single Coupler) ................................................................................ 418
Gyrator (Gyrator) ...................................................................................................... 420
Hybrid90 (Ideal 90degree Hybrid Coupler).............................................................. 421
Hybrid180 (Ideal 180degree Hybrid Coupler).......................................................... 423
IsolatorSML (SMLIsolator)........................................................................................ 425
LOS_Link (LineOfSight Antenna Link) ................................................................... 427
Pad (Pi or Tee Format) ............................................................................................. 429
PhaseShiftSML (Phase Shifter)................................................................................ 432
PwrSplit2 (2Way Power Splitter).............................................................................. 434
PwrSplit3 (3Way Power Splitter).............................................................................. 435
TimeDelay (Time Delay) ........................................................................................... 436
Transformer (Ideal 4Port Transformer) .................................................................... 437
TransformerG (Transformer with Ground Reference) ............................................... 439
TwoPort (2Port Model)............................................................................................. 440
5 Phase Lock Loop Components
DivideByN (Divide by N) ........................................................................................... 52
PhaseFreqDet (Frequency Detector, Baseband)...................................................... 55
PhaseFreqDet2 (Frequency Detector, Baseband).................................................... 59
PhaseFreqDetCP (Frequency Detector, Baseband with Charge Pump) .................. 513
PhaseFreqDetTuned (Phase Frequency Detector, Tuned) ....................................... 514
PhaseNoiseMod (Phase Noise Modulator) .............................................................. 517
VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) ......................................................................... 519
VCO_DivideByN (VCO Divide By N) ........................................................................ 522
6 Switch and Algorithmic Components
Comparator (Comparator) ........................................................................................ 62
ClockLFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register)........................................................... 63
Differentiator (Differentiator) ..................................................................................... 67
DPDT_Static (Double Pole Double Throw Switch, Static) ........................................ 68
IntegratorSML (Integrator) ........................................................................................ 610
LimiterSML (Limiter) ................................................................................................. 611
ParallelSerial (Parallel to Serial Shift Register) ........................................................ 613
PathSelect2 (Coordinated set of Single Pole Double Throw Static Switches) .......... 614
QuantizerSML (Quantizer)........................................................................................ 616
ResetSwitch (Reset Switch) ..................................................................................... 618
SampleHoldSML (Sample Hold)............................................................................... 619
Sampler (Sampler) ................................................................................................... 620
SerialParallel (Serial to Parallel Shift Register) ........................................................ 624
SPDT_Dynamic (Single Pole Double Throw Switch, Dynamic)................................ 625
SPDT_Static (Single Pole Double Throw Switch, Static).......................................... 627
SwitchV (Voltage Controlled Switch) ........................................................................ 629
vi
SwitchV_Model (Voltage Controlled Switch Model).................................................. 631
VSum (Voltage Summer) .......................................................................................... 632
7 Tx/Rx Subsystems
RF_PA_CKT (RF Power Ampliﬁer Circuit) ................................................................ 72
RF_RX_SML (RF Receiver) ..................................................................................... 73
RF_TX_SML (RF Transmitter) .................................................................................. 74
8 System Data Models
Introduction............................................................................................................... 81
Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models.............................................................. 82
AmpH1H2 (Ampliﬁer/Fundamental and 2nd Harmonic vs. Input Power).................. 84
AmpH1H2_Setup (Ampliﬁer/Fundamental and 2nd Harmonic vs. Input Power Setup)86
AmpliﬁerP2D (P2D File Ampliﬁer; FDDBased, for Single Carrier Signal) ............... 88
AmpliﬁerP2D_Setup (Extractor Component for AmpliﬁerP2D)................................. 812
AmpliﬁerS2D (S2D File Ampliﬁer, Polynominal Model for Nonlinearity) ................... 814
AmpliﬁerS2D_Setup (Extractor Component for AmpliﬁerS2D)................................. 819
AmpLoadPull (SDD LoadPull Ampliﬁer) .................................................................. 822
Balun3Port (Balun, 3port)........................................................................................ 824
Balun4Port (Balun, 4port)........................................................................................ 826
IQ_Demod_Data (IQ Demodulator Behavioral Model) ............................................. 828
IQ_Demod_Setup (IQ Demodulator Setup).............................................................. 830
IQ_Mod_Data (IQ Modulator Behavioral Model) ...................................................... 832
IQ_Mod_Setup (IQ Modulator Setup)....................................................................... 834
LoadPullSetup (Load Pull Setup) ............................................................................. 836
MixerHBdata (2Tone HB Mixer)............................................................................... 838
MixerHBsetup (2Tone HB Mixer Setup)................................................................... 841
MixerIMT (Obsolete Intermodulation Table Mixer).................................................... 843
MixerIMT2 (Intermodulation Table Mixer) ................................................................. 848
VCA_Data (Voltage Controlled Ampliﬁer) ................................................................. 856
VCA_Setup (Voltage Controlled Ampliﬁer Setup)..................................................... 860
Index
vii
viii
11
Chapter 1: Ampliﬁers and Mixers
Introduction
The Filters  <ﬁlter type> and S ystem  <device type> palet t es cont ain t wo
fundament ally differ ent t ypes of behavior al syst em models.
Filters, S ystem  Amps & Mixers, and S ystem  Mod/ Demod can be classiﬁed as
topsdown system models t hat suppor t a t opsdown syst em design ﬂow wher e model
behavior s ar e char act er ized by a small number of independent par amet er s such as
fr equency, power and load. They ar e oft en r efer r ed t o as parameterbased behavioral
models.
S ystem  Data Models can be classiﬁed as bottomsup system models t hat suppor t a
bot t omsup ver iﬁcat ion ﬂow wher e model behavior s ar e ext r act ed fr om a simulat ion
(or measur ement ) of a t r ansist orlevel cir cuit . They ar e oft en r efer r ed t o as
databased behavioral models.
The parameterbased behavioral models t ypically pr ovide super ior speed r elat ive t o
t he dat abased behavior al models wit h bot h of t hese being vast ly super ior t o a
br ut efor ce t r ansist orlevel simulat ion.
The databased behavioral models t ypically pr ovide super ior accur acy r elat ive t o t he
parameterbased behavioral models as t hey capt ur e act ual behavior s of implement ed
cir cuit component s and not just design speciﬁcat ions.
The differ ences bet ween parameter and databased behavioral models just ify a
palet t e emphasis on ﬂow (all dat abased behavior al models gr ouped t oget her ) r at her
t han funct ionalit y (all ampliﬁer s, mixer s, modulat or s, and demodulat or s gr ouped
t oget her ) and r esult ed in t he addit ion of a S ystem  Data Models palet t e.
The use model for par amet erbased behavior al models is t o simply set a ser ies of
par amet er s pr ior t o using t he model. The use model for dat abased behavior al models
is slight ly mor e involved. For a discussion, r efer t o Chapt er 8, Syst em Dat a Models.
CurveFitting Algorithm
The cur veﬁt t ing algor it hm t o det er mine t he nonlinear behavior of t he syst em mixer
models is based on ﬁt t ing a polynomial t o t he speciﬁed dat a wher e t he sat ur at ion
power (Psat ) is calculat ed when t he der ivat ive of t his polynomial is zer o.
12 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
Pn(x) = a1*x1+a2*x2^2+a3*x^3+...
It is impor t ant t o not e t hat t he coefﬁcient s a4,a6,a8,...ar e always zer o. In only one
case a2 is nonzer o and t hat 's when SOI and TOI ar e speciﬁed.
Her e ar e t he differ ent scenar ios and what or der of polynomial used t o cur veﬁt .
Parameters Order
TOI 3
TOI & AM2PM 3
SOI & TOI
3 a2 ≠ 0
PndB 3
PndB & AM2PM 3
Psat 5
TOI & PndB 5
PndB & Psat 7
TOI & Psat 7
PndB & TOI & Psat 9
AGC_Amp (VoltageControlled Ampliﬁer for AGC loops) 13
AGC_Amp (VoltageControlled Ampliﬁer for AGC loops)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
ZRef = r efer ence impedance for por t s 1 and 2
S11 = por t 1 r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient , complex number
S22 = por t 2 r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient , complex number
Min_dB = minimum gain in dB
Max_dB = maximum gain in dB
NF = noise ﬁgur e in dB
SOI = out put second or der int er cept in dBm
TOI = out put t hir d or der int er cept in dBm
Range of Usage
ZRef > 0
 Sij > 0 (ij=11; 22)
Min_dB < Max_dB
NF ≥ 0 dB
Notes/Equations
1. AGC_Amp is a volt age cont r olled ampliﬁer wit h user deﬁned input and out put
r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient s, min and max gain limit s, and nonlinear it y.
2. This component is a schemat ic design t hat uses int er nal models for TwoPor t ,
Noisy2Por t , Ampliﬁer VC and Ampliﬁer 2. The schemat ic design is shown her e:
14 AGC_Amp (VoltageControlled Ampliﬁer for AGC loops)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
3. See document at ion for t he int er nal component s for t heir usage det ail.
4. The cont r ol volt age at pin 3 is used t o set t he gain. Under small signal
condit ions, gain in dB as a funct ion of t he cont r ol volt age at por t 3: ¸V3 is:
Gain_dB = max( Min_dB, min( Max_dB, _V3))
5. The input impedance at pin 3 is inﬁnit e.
6. Regar ding NF, t he component noise par amet er s (NFmin, Rn, Sopt ) ar e r elat ed
t o NF by set t ing NFmin=NF, Sopt =0, and Rn=max( ZRef/4 × (10
NF/10
1),
t inyr eal), wher e t inyr eal is an int er nal simulat or value for t he smallest r eal
value allowed.
7. Regar ding SOI and TOI, t he AGC_Amp must be out put mat ched in or der t o
validat e SOI and TOI.
By default , SOI and TOI ar e blank r esult ing in no nonlinear it y.
TOI may be set wit hout set t ing SOI.
However, if SOI is set , t hen set t ing TOI is r equir ed.
For mor e infor mat ion about SOI and TOI, r efer t o t he Ampliﬁer 2 component
document at ion.
8. AGC_Amp is r equir ed for deﬁning AGC cont r ol loops in designs t o be simulat ed
wit h t he Budget Cont r oller. Such Budget simulat ion usage r equir es use wit h
AGC_Amp (VoltageControlled Ampliﬁer for AGC loops) 15
t he AGC_Pwr Cont r ol model. See t he document at ion for AGC_Pwr Cont r ol for
det ail AGC cont r ol loop usage.
9. Examples demonst r at ing t his model use in a AGC cont r ol loops ar e locat ed in
t he ADS Examples ar ea at :
$HPEESOF_DIR/examples/Tut or ial/RF_Budget _Examples_pr j. See
Budget _AGC.dsn, AGC_loop_CE_t est .dsn.
16 AGC_PwrControl (Power Control Block for AGC loops)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
AGC_PwrControl (Power Control Block for AGC loops)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
ZRef = r efer ence impedance for por t s 1 and 2
S11 = por t 1 r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient , complex number
S22 = por t 2 r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient , complex number
Fnom = Nominal input fr equency for det ect ion and power cont r ol
AGC_Pr ior it y = AGC pr ior it y for Budget analysis
Tar get Pwr = Tar get power cont r ol level
BW = Closed loop 3dB fr equency
DampingFact or = Loop damping fact or
Nor malizedZer o = Loop nor malized zer o
Ext er nalGain = Open loop gain (volt age r at io) ext er nal t o t his block
Range of Usage
ZRef > 0
 Sij > 0 (ij=11; 22)
Fnom > 0
1 <= AGC_Pr ior it y <= 10
Tar get Power > 0 (Wat t s)
BW > 0
DampingFact or > 0
AGC_PwrControl (Power Control Block for AGC loops) 17
Nor malizedZer o > 0
Ext er nalGain > 0
Notes/Equations
1. AGC_Pwr Cont r ol is power det ect or for use wit h AGC cont r ol loops and
incor por at es an OpAmp loop ﬁlt er wit h out put at pin 3 used for dr iving a
pr eceeding AGC ampliﬁer t owar ds t he gain r equir ed t o achieve t he Tar get Pwr
level at t he AGC_Pwr Cont r ol input .
2. This component is a schemat ic design t hat uses int er nal models for
IQ_DemodTuned, FDD (used as a log amp), and OpAmp act ive ﬁlt er. The
schemat ic design is shown her e:
3. See document at ion for t he int er nal component s for t heir usage det ail.
4. The cont r ol volt age at pin 3 is used t o feedback t o an AGC ampliﬁer (pin 3 of
AGC_Amp) t o achieve an RF amplit ude cont r ol loop.
5. Since t his model is dependant on t ime var ying RF wavefor ms, it is t ypically
useful for Envelope simulat ions when an input modulat ed RF signal exist s at
Fnom.
For Envelope simulat ion, t he AGC_Pr ior it y par amet er is not used.
6. For Budget simulat ions, t his model is used t oget her wit h t he AGC_Amp model
t o deﬁne AGC loops. Budget simulat ion AGC cont r ol loops wor k wit h one t one
and only t he st eady st at e value of t he loop is used.
18 AGC_PwrControl (Power Control Block for AGC loops)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
For Budget simulat ions, t he Fnon, BW, DampingFact or, Nor malizedZer o and
Ext er nalGain par amet er s ar e not used.
7. The t ime domain RF cont r ol loop dehavior is deﬁned for 2nd or der cont r ol loop
oper at ion in which t he OpAmp loop ﬁlt er int er nal t o t his model est ablishes t he
2nd or der cont r ol loop ﬁlt er char act er ist ics for t he combined cir cuit ext er nal t o
t his model plus t his model.
8. The cont r ol loop wor ks t o dr ive t he ext er nal AGC ampliﬁer t o a gain level t hat
is equal t o t he model Tar get Power at t he model out put at pin 2.
9. The loop dynamics follow 2nd or der cont r ol loop t heor y wher eby t he user
deﬁnes t he desir ed Tar get Power, 3 dB closed loop bandwidt h (BW), loop gain
ext er nal t o t his model, and 2nd or der loop par amet er s (Nor malizedZer o and
DampingFact or ) and t he model set s t he int er nal OpAmp r efer ence volt age
(RefVolt ) and loop ﬁlt er capacit ance and r esist ance values (R1, R2, C1, C2). See
t he above schemat ic for t he deﬁning equat ions. The models ut ilizes a log
det ect or deﬁned by use of an FDD model.
10. For Har monicBalance use, t his model behavior default s wit h out put of a DC
signal volt age at pin 3 equal t o t he r efer ence volt age at t he noninver t ing input
of t he int er nal OpAmp.
11. The out put impedance at pin 3 is zer o.
12. For det ail on SecondOr der loop t heor y, see ADS document at ion on
‘SecondOr der Cont r ol Loop Filt er s’. (Alan: Please inser t link t o t his ADS doc
her e).
13. Examples demonst r at ing t his model use in AGC cont r ol loops is locat ed in t he
ADS Examples ar ea at :
$HPEESOF_DIR/examples/Tut or ial/RF_Budget _Examples_pr j. See
Budget _AGC.dsn, AGC_loop_CE_t est .dsn.
Ampliﬁer (Obsolete RF System Ampliﬁer) 19
Ampliﬁer (Obsolete RF System Ampliﬁer)
Symbol
Note 2003C int r oduces an impr oved ver sion of Ampliﬁer : Ampliﬁer 2. Please use
Ampliﬁer 2 for new designs; r efer t o Ampliﬁer 2 document at ion for mor e infor mat ion.
Available in ADS
Parameters
S21 = for war d t r ansmission gain (r eal or complex number ; r efer t o not e 2)
S11 = por t 1 r eﬂect ion (r eal or complex number ; r efer t o not e 2)
S22 = por t 2 r eﬂect ion (r eal or complex number ; r efer t o not e 2)
S12 = r ever se t r ansmission gain (r eal or complex number ; r efer t o not e 2)
NF = input noise ﬁgur e, in dB
NFmin = minimum noise ﬁgur e at Sopt , in dB
Sopt = opt imum sour ce r eﬂect ion for NFmin
Rn = equivalent noise r esist ance
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1 (r eal or complex number )
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2 (r eal or complex number )
ClipDat aFile = clip dat a beyond maximum input power : NO (default ) t o disable; YES
t o enable
ImpNoncausalLengt h = noncausal funct ion impulse r esponse or der
ImpMode =convolut ion mode
ImpMaxFr eq = maximum fr equency t o which device is evaluat ed
ImpDelt a Fr eq = sample spacing in fr equency
ImpMaxOr der = maximum allowed impulse r esponse or der
ImpWindow = smoot hing window
110 Ampliﬁer (Obsolete RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
ImpRelTol = r elat ive impulse r esponse t r uncat ion fact or
ImpAbsTol = absolut e impulse r esponse t r uncat ion fact or
Range of Usage
NF ≥ 0 dB
NFmin > 0
0 < Sopt  < 1
0 < Rn
GainCompFr eq > 0
For S21 = mag/ang
S
21
 > 0
Gain Compression Parameters
GainCompType = gain compr ession t ype:
LIST, use model gain compr ession speciﬁcat ions
FILE, use ﬁlebased gain compr ession dat a
GainCompFr eq = r efer ence fr equency for gain compr ession (if gain compr ession is
descr ibed as a funct ion of fr equency)
Refer ToInput = specify gain compr ession wit h r espect t o input or out put power of
device
SOI = second or der int er cept , in dBm
TOI = t hir d or der int er cept , in dBm
Psat = power level at sat ur at ion, in dBm
GainCompSat = gain compr ession at Psat , in dB
GainCompPower = power level in dBm at gain compr ession for X dB compr ession
point , speciﬁed by GainComp, in dBm
GainComp = gain compr ession at GainCompPower, in dB (default is 1dB)
AM2PM = amplit ude modulat ion t o phase modulat ion, in degr ee/dB
PAM2PM = power level at AM2PM, in dBm
GainCompFile = ﬁlename for gain compr ession dat a in S2D ﬁle for mat
Ampliﬁer (Obsolete RF System Ampliﬁer) 111
Range of Usage for Gain Compression Parameters
When specifying gain compr ession using model par amet er s, only cer t ain combinat ion
of par amet er s will pr oduce st able polynomial cur ve ﬁt t ing. The r ecommended
par amet er combinat ions ar e list ed her e.
Note If unr ealist ic par amet er values ar e used, t he polynomial will become unst able,
r esult ing in oscillat ions.
• Thir dor der int er cept and 1dB gain compr ession par amet er s:
TOI, GainCompPower wit h GainComp=1dB
Range of validit y: TOI > GainCompPower + 10.8
• Thir dor der int er cept and power sat ur at ion par amet er s:
TOI, Psat , GainCompSat
Range of validit y: TOI > Psat + 8.6
• 1dB gain compr ession and power sat ur at ion par amet er s:
GainCompPower wit h GainComp=1dB, Psat , GainCompSat
Range of validit y: Psat > GainCompPower + 3
• Thir dor der int er cept , 1dB gain compr ession and power sat ur at ion par amet er s:
TOI, GainCompPower wit h GainComp=1dB, Psat , GainCompSat
Range of validit y: Psat > GainCompPower +3, TOI > GainCompPower + 10.8
• Secondor der int er cept and t hir dor der int er cept par amet er s: SOI, TOI
• AM t o PM wit h 1dB gain compr ession par amet er s:
AM2PM, PAM2PM, and GainCompPower wit h GainComp=1dB
The value for AM2PM must sat isfy t his condit ion t o avoid a squar e r oot of a
negat ive number :
• AM t o PM wit h t hir dor der int er cept par amet er s:
AM2PM, PAM2PM, and TOI
The value for AM2PM must sat isfy t his condit ion t o avoid a squar e r oot of a
negat ive number :
AM 2PM
180
π
  10
PAM 2PM Gai n Com pPower – ( ) 10 ⁄ ( )
× 10
3 Gai n Com p ( ) 20 ⁄ × – ( )
× <
1
2.34

112 Ampliﬁer (Obsolete RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
If SOI is not speciﬁed, t he ampliﬁer is modeled using a polynomial of odd or der s:
y = a1 × x + a3 × x
3
+ a5 × x
5
+ . . . .
As a r esult , only odd or der har monics (m × f, wher e m is an odd number ) and odd
or der int er mods (m × f1 + n × f2, wher e m+n is an odd number ) ar e t aken int o
account .
If SOI is speciﬁed, t he ampliﬁer polynomial has an even or der t er m:
y = a1 × x + a2 × x
2
+ a3 × x
3
+ a5 × x
5
+ . . . .
As a r esult , bot h odd and even or der har monics and int er mods ar e t aken int o account
in t he simulat ion.
Warning Messages
When values for TOI, 1 GainCompPower, and Psat ar e pr oper ly r elat ed, t he DC
input out put t r ansfer char act er ist ic has t he for m shown in Figur e 11.
• No Sat ur at ion. A war ning is displayed if a polynomial is gener at ed t hat does
not have a maximum wher e t he t r ansfer char act er ist ics can be clipped (when
t he ampliﬁer cannot r each sat ur at ion). Refer t o Figur e 12.
• NonMonot onic Tr ansfer Cur ve. A war ning is displayed if t he value speciﬁed
for Psat is lower t han GainCompPower. Refer t o Figur e 13.
The r esult of t his speciﬁcat ion is t hat t he sat ur at ed out put is lower t han t he
out put at t he 1 dB compr ession point , and t he input out put char act er ist ics have
a nonmonot onic char act er ist ic t r ansfer cur ve.
AM 2PM
180
π
 
¸ ,
¸ _
10
PAM 2PM T OI – ( ) 10 ⁄ ( )
×
2.34
 <
Ampliﬁer (Obsolete RF System Ampliﬁer) 113
Figur e 11. DC Input Out put Tr ansfer Char act er ist ics
Figur e 12. No Sat ur at ion War ning
Figur e 13. NonMonot onic Tr ansfer Cur ve War ning
114 Ampliﬁer (Obsolete RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
Notes/Equations
14. If NFmin, Sopt , and Rn ar e used t o char act er ize noise, t he following r elat ion
must be sat isﬁed for a r ealist ic model.
A war ning message will be issued if Rn does not meet t his cr it er ion. If t he noise
par amet er s at t empt t o descr ibe a syst em t hat r equir es negat ive noise (due t o
Rn being t oo small), t he negat ive par t of t he noise will be set t o zer o and a
war ning message will be issued.
15. Use t he funct ion polar (mag,ang), or dbpolar (dB, ang), or VSWRpolar (VSWR,
ang) t o conver t t hese speciﬁcat ions int o a complex number.
16. For an Spar amet er or a noise ﬁgur e sinusoidal r ipple, use t he funct ion r ipple
(mag, int er cept , per iod, var iable); for example r ipple(0.1, 0, 10 MHz, fr eq).
example: S21=dbpolar (10+r ipple(),0.)
17. When you deﬁne t he gain using S21, keep in mind t hat t his gain is applied t o
t he for war d incident wave int o t he input of t he ampliﬁer. This is in keeping
wit h t he measur ement st andar ds used t o deﬁne ampliﬁer gain at a syst em
level. This means t hat if you change S11 fr om 0 t o 0.9 for example, you will see
no change in out put power because t he r eﬂect wave is not t aken int o account by
t he ampliﬁer ’s deﬁnit ion of gain, only t he incident wave.
18. Z1 and Z2, t he r efer ence impedance par amet er s for por t s 1 and 2, ar e used in
conjunct ion wit h t he par amet er s S11/S21/S12/S22. This is because Sdat a is
always used wit h r espect t o a par t icular r efer ence impedance.
19. This model blocks dc.
20. For cir cuit envelope simulat ion, baseband signals ar e blocked.
21. OmniSys used GComp1GComp7 dat a it ems for specifying gain compr ession.
Table 11 summar izes t he gain compr ession dat a for OmniSys and ADS. Refer
t o Figur e 14 for OmniSys par amet er infor mat ion.
GComp1GComp6 can be speciﬁed by using t he cor r esponding ADS gain
compr ession par amet er s and set t ing GainCompType=LIST. Or, t hey can also be
cont ained in an S2D for mat set t ing GainCompType=FILE. Also not e t hat an
R n
Z o

T o Fm i n 1 – ( ) 1 S opt +
2
T 4

1 S
11
2
– ( )
1 S opt S
11
–
2
 ≥
Ampliﬁer (Obsolete RF System Ampliﬁer) 115
S2D ﬁle could cont ain ot her dat a such as small signal Spar amet er s and noise;
t hese dat a ar e ignor ed by t he RF Syst em Ampliﬁer.
Figur e 14. OmniSys Par amet er Infor mat ion
22. The AM t o PM opt ion uses par abolic amplit ude dependence t o descr ibe t he
amplit ude t o phase modulat ion conver sion. When a signal of t ype
Table 11. Gain Compr ession Dat a for OmniSys and ADS
OmniSys ADS
GComp1: IP3 TOI
GComp2: 1dBc GainComp=1dB
GainCompPower
GComp3: IP3, 1dBc TOI
GainComp=1dB
GainCompPower
GComp4: IP3, Ps, GCS TOI
Psat
GainCompSat
GComp5: 1dBc, Ps, GCS GainComp=1dB
GainCompPower
Psat
GainCompSat
GComp6: IP3, 1dBc, Ps, GCS TOI
GainComp=1dB
GainCompPower
Psat
GainCompSat
GComp7 GainCompType=FILE
GainCompFile=ﬁlename
linear output
compressed output
third order products
GCS
Ps
1 dB
1dBc
IP3
116 Ampliﬁer (Obsolete RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
V
in
(τ)=ACos(Wφτ), is applied t o t he input of a device wit h par abolic AM t o PM,
t he out put phase exhibit s:
Ther efor e, t his phase depends on t he input signal amplit ude A in a par abolic
manner. Because t he conver sion of amplit ude t o phase is amplit ude dependent ,
t he AM t o PM (AM2PM) is speciﬁed in degr ees per decibel at a given out put
power (PAM2PM). k is calculat ed fr om t hese t wo par amet er s.
When AM t o PM is speciﬁed, t he t hir dor der int er mod and gain compr ession
ar e side effect s. If AM2PM is speciﬁed t o be ver y lar ge compar ed t o t he
t hir dor der int er cept or gain compr ession, a war ning is issued.
Ph ase V
ou t
τ ( ) ( ) k A
2
=
k
AM 2PM
π
180

¸ ,
¸ _
2.34
10
PAM 2PM 30 –
10

¸ ,
¸ _
 =
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer) 117
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
S21 = for war d t r ansmission gain (r eal or complex number )
S11 = for war d r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient (r eal or complex number )
S22 = r ever se r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient (r eal or complex number )
S12 = r ever se t r ansmission gain (r eal or complex number )
NF = input noise ﬁgur e, in dB (NF mode used for NFmin=0)
NFmin = minimum noise ﬁgur e at Sopt , in dB ((NFmin, Sopt , Rn) mode used for
NFmin>0)
Sopt = opt imum sour ce r eﬂect ion for NFmin ((NFmin, Sopt , Rn) mode used for
NFmin>0)
Rn = equivalent noise r esist ance ((NFmin, Sopt , Rn) mode used for NFmin>0)
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1 (must be a r eal number )
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2 (must be a r eal number )
GainCompType = gain compr ession t ype:
LIST: use model gain compr ession speciﬁcat ions (default )
FILE: use ﬁlebased gain compr ession dat a
GainCompFr eq = r efer ence fr equency for gain compr ession if gain compr ession is
descr ibed as a funct ion of fr equency
Refer ToInput = specify gain compr ession wit h r espect t o input or out put power of
device:
OUTPUT: r efer t o out put (default )
INPUT: r efer t o input
SOI = second or der int er cept , in dBm
TOI = t hir d or der int er cept , in dBm
118 Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
Psat = power level at sat ur at ion, in dBm (always r efer r ed t o out put , r egar dless of t he
value of t he Refer ToInput par amet er )
GainCompSat = gain compr ession at Psat , in dB (default in 5 dB)
GainCompPower = power level in dBm at gain compr ession for X dB compr ession
point , speciﬁed by GainComp, in dBm
GainComp = gain compr ession at GainCompPower, in dB (default is 1 dB)
AM2PM = amplit ude modulat ion t o phase modulat ion, in degr ee/dB
PAM2PM = power level at AM2PM, in dBm
GainCompFile = ﬁlename for gain compr ession dat a in S2D ﬁle for mat
ClipDat aFile = clip dat a beyond maximum input power :
YES: enable (default )
NO: disable
ImpNoncausalLengt h = noncausal funct ion impulse r esponse or der
ImpMode =convolut ion mode
ImpMaxFr eq = maximum fr equency t o which device is evaluat ed
ImpDelt aFr eq = sample spacing in fr equency
ImpMaxOr der = maximum allowed impulse r esponse or der
ImpWindow = smoot hing window
ImpRelTol = r elat ive impulse r esponse t r uncat ion fact or
ImpAbsTol = absolut e impulse r esponse t r uncat ion fact or
Frequently Asked Questions
Q1: What ar e t he major differ ences bet ween Ampliﬁer and Ampliﬁer 2?
A1: Refer t o not e 1.
Q2: What ar e t he suppor t ed par amet er combinat ions?
A2: Refer t o “Range of Usage” on page 121.
Q3: What is t he r ange of usage for each par amet er combinat ion?
A3: Refer t o “Range of Usage” on page 121.
Q4: What model is being used?
A4: A polynomial model. Refer t o “Modeling Basics” on page 122.
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer) 119
Q5: What polynomial or der is being used?
A5: It depends on t he par amet er s set on t he component . Refer t o “Modeling Basics”
on page 122.
Q6: Can t hese polynomials blow up?
A6: No, t hese polynomials ar e limit ed. Refer t o “Modeling Basics” on page 122 for
det ails.
Q7: The par amet er s speciﬁed for Ampliﬁer 2 mat ch t hose for my t r ansist or level
ampliﬁer. Why don't t he har monics gener at ed by Ampliﬁer 2 mat ch t hose for my
t r ansist or level ampliﬁer ?
A7: Ampliﬁer 2 only mat ches t he speciﬁed par amet er s. Refer t o “Modeling Basics” on
page 122 for det ails.
Q8: I have a smallsignal and a lar gesignal t one. Why does t he smallsignal t one
have a smaller gain t han t he lar gesignal t one?
A8: It is a consequence of t he polynomial model adopt ed by Ampliﬁer 2. Refer t o
“Modeling Basics” on page 122 for det ails.
Q9: In a swept power har monic halance simulat ion, my higheror der har monics ar e
zer o up t o a cer t ain or der but t hen t hey suddenly exper ience a ver y shar p incr ease.
Isn't t his wr ong?
A9: No, it ’s called gener at ing a squar e wave via har d limit ing. Refer t o “Modeling
Basics” on page 122 for det ails.
Q10: How do I validat e AM t o PM conver sion?
A10: Refer t o “AM t o PM Conver sion” on page 127.
Q11: Why does AM t o PM conver sion only mat ch my t r ansist or level ampliﬁer
ar ound t he power level PAM2PM at which I speciﬁed AM2PM?
A11: Wit h infor mat ion at only one power level, Ampliﬁer 2 has t o r ely on
assumpt ions and gener ic cur ve shapes t o model AM t o PM at all power levels. For
bet t er modeling, use an S2D ﬁle and specify t he exact magnit ude and phase var iat ion
of your ampliﬁer. Refer t o “AM t o PM Conver sion” on page 127 for det ails.
Q12: Wit h AM t o PM conver sion enabled, my out put phase is supposed t o be
const ant at high power levels. Why does my AM t o PM st ar t changing at high power
levels?
A12: This is pr obably due t o har monic balance aliasing er r or s and can be mit igat ed
by over sampling. Refer t o “AM t o PM Conver sion” on page 127 for det ails.
Q13: Wit h AM t o PM conver sion enabled, why don't t he pr edict ed second and
t hir dor der int er cept point s mat ch SOI and TOI as set on Ampliﬁer 2?
120 Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
A13: It is a consequence of ﬁt t ing t he magnit ude and phase separ at ely. Refer t o
Refer t o “AM t o PM Conver sion” on page 127 for det ails.
Q14: Why do Ampliﬁer 2's noise r esult s differ fr om t hose for Ampliﬁer ?
A14: Ampliﬁer 2 models noise differ ent ly fr om Ampliﬁer. Refer t o “Noise” on
page 130 for det ails.
Q15: What noise model is used by Ampliﬁer 2?
A15: Refer t o “Noise” on page 130.
Q16: What is "NFonly mode" and "(NFmin,Sopt ,Rn) mode" for Ampliﬁer 2?
A16: It is t wo differ ent ways of specifying noise. Refer t o “Noise” on page 130 for
det ails.
Q17: How is NFssb/NFdsb calculat ed, bot h at low power s and in compr ession?
A17: Refer t o “Noise” on page 130.
Q18: Can you pr ovide mor e det ails about t he noise volt ages and noise ﬁgur es
pr oduced by Ampliﬁer 2 for t he differ ent modes of oper at ion?
A18: Refer t o “Noise” on page 130 .
Q19: Wit h complex S21, why does Ampliﬁer 2 differ fr om Ampliﬁer ?
A19: Ampliﬁer 2 handles complex S21 values differ ent ly fr om Ampliﬁer, leading t o
mor e physical wavefor ms. Refer t o not e 5 for det ails.
Q20: Why doesn't Ampliﬁer 2 wor k for complex r efer ence impedances?
A20: Ampliﬁer 2 does not suppor t complex r efer ence impedances, per not e 7.
Q21: Why is Ampliﬁer 2 somet imes slower t han Ampliﬁer ?
A21: This is a consequence of t he implement at ional differ ences bet ween Ampliﬁer
and Ampliﬁer 2. Refer t o not e 10 for det ails.
Q22: Why don't t he pr edict ed second and t hir dor der int er cept point s mat ch SOI
and TOI as set on Ampliﬁer 2?
A22: You ar e pr obably not set t ing up your validat ion cor r ect ly. Make sur e t o do a
t wot one simulat ion, not a onet one simulat ion. Refer t o not e 11 for det ails.
Q23: Why does my ACPR level get bet t er as I get deeper int o compr ession?
A23: This is a consequence of t he polynomial model adopt ed by Ampliﬁer 2. Refer t o
not e 12 for det ails.
Q24: Why does Ampliﬁer 2 ignor e t he ACDATA block of my S2D ﬁle?
A24: It uses t he Spar amet er s on t he component inst ead. Refer t o not e 13 for
det ails.
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer) 121
Q25: When t he power r ange in an S2D ﬁle differ s fr om t hat of a simulat ion, which
power r ange is used for polynomial ﬁt t ing?
A25: The power r ange in t he S2D ﬁle. Refer t o not e 15 for det ails.
Q26: Why do I get r inging at high power s when using an S2D ﬁle?
A26: This is a consequence of t he polynomial model adopt ed by Ampliﬁer 2. Refer t o
not e 16 for det ails.
Q27: How do I get r id of t his r inging?
A27: Eliminat e dat a for high input power s, r ely on ext r apolat ion via
ClipDat aFile=yes, or br eak t he S2D ﬁle int o t wo. Wor st case, use AmpSingleCar r ier.
Refer t o not e 16 for det ails.
Q28: Why do I see differ ent r esult s when I use t he Analog/RF Ampliﬁer 2 component
and t he Pt olemy GainRF component wit h t he same par amet er s?
A28: While based on t he same OmniSys legacy, t he implement at ions differ and t hus
t he component s can give differ ent r esult s. Refer t o not e 18 for det ails.
Range of Usage
 Sij > 0 (i=1,2; j=1,2)
NF ≥ 0 dB
NFmin ≥ 0 dB
0 < Sopt  < 1
Rn > 0
GainCompFr eq > 0
0 dB < GainComp < 3 dB
When specifying gain compr ession using model par amet er s, only cer t ain combina
t ions of par amet er s will pr oduce st able polynomial cur ve ﬁt t ing. If unr ealist ic par am
et er values ar e used, t he polynomial will become unst able, r esult ing in oscillat ions.
The r ecommended par amet er combinat ions ar e list ed her e:
• Thir dor der int er cept par amet er :
Par amet er s: TOI
Range of validit y: N/A
• Gain compr ession par amet er s:
Par amet er s: GainCompPower, GainComp
Range of validit y: N/A
• Power sat ur at ion par amet er s:
Par amet er s: Psat , GainCompSat
Range of validit y: N/A
122 Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
• Thir dor der int er cept and 1dB gain compr ession par amet er s:
Par amet er s: TOI, GainCompPower wit h GainComp=1dB
Range of validit y: TOI > GainCompPower + 10.8
• Thir dor der int er cept and power sat ur at ion par amet er s:
Par amet er s: TOI, Psat , GainCompSat
Range of validit y: TOI > Psat + 8.6
• 1dB gain compr ession and power sat ur at ion par amet er s:
Par amet er s: GainCompPower wit h GainComp=1dB, Psat , GainCompSat
Range of validit y: Psat > GainCompPower + 3
• Thir dor der int er cept , 1dB gain compr ession and power sat ur at ion par amet er s:
Par amet er s: TOI, GainCompPower wit h GainComp=1dB, Psat , GainCompSat
Range of validit y: Psat > GainCompPower +3, TOI > GainCompPower + 10.8
• Secondor der int er cept and t hir dor der int er cept par amet er s:
Par amet er s: SOI, TOI
Range of validit y: N/A
Modeling Basics
Ampliﬁer 2 is based on a polynomial model of t he magnit ude of t he out put volt age as
a funct ion of t he input volt age. If SOI is not speciﬁed, t he magnit ude r esponse is mod
eled using a polynomial of odd or der s
y = a1 × x + a3 × x
3
+ a5 × x
5
+ ...
The or der of t he polynomial depends on t he dat a ent er ed by t he user. If SOI is
speciﬁed, t he magnit ude r esponse has an even or der t er m
y = a1 × x + a2 × x
2
+ a3 × x
3
The or der of t he polynomial is har dwir ed at 3. The polynomial or der s for t he var ious
magnit ude modes ar e summar ized in Table 12.
Table 12. Polynomial Or der for Var ious Magnit ude Modes
Magnitude Mode Polynomial Order
TOI 3
SOI, TOI 3 (with secondorder term)
GainCompPower, GainComp 3
Psat, GainCompSat 5
TOI, GainComp=1dB, GainCompPower 5
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer) 123
For GainCompType=LIST, t he phase r esponse is descr ibed in t he sect ion “AM t o PM
Conver sion” on page 127. For GainCompType=FILE and a GCOMP1GCOMP6 block
in t he S2D ﬁle, t he phase r esponse is zer o. For GainCompType=FILE and a GCOMP7
block in t he S2D ﬁle, t he phase r esponse is modeled using an odd or der polynomial,
just like t he magnit ude r esponse.
To pr event t hese polynomial expr essions fr om blowing up and r esult ing in a
nonphysical model, t he polynomial model is only used up t o t he lar gest x fulﬁlling
dy/dx=0, denot ed by x0. Above t his value, t he ampliﬁer is har dlimit ed at y(x0).
The polynomial coefﬁcient s for Ampliﬁer 2 ar e based on t he par amet er s set for
Ampliﬁer 2 r egar dless of t he cont ext in which Ampliﬁer 2 is used and t he act ual
number of t ones at t he input of Ampliﬁer 2. These polynomial coefﬁcient s ar e t hen
applied when Ampliﬁer 2 is analyzed in t he envir onment wher e it lives. For example,
given GainComp and GainCompPower, t he polynomial coefﬁcient s ar e det er mined by
excit ing Ampliﬁer 2 wit h a onet one signal and r equir ing t he compr essed out put
power t o be GainComp below t he linear r esponse at GainCompPower. This can be
conﬁr med by doing a onet one analysis of Ampliﬁer 2. These polynomial coefﬁcient s
ar e t hen used in any analysis using Ampliﬁer 2, whet her it be a onet one or a
mult it one analysis.
Ampliﬁer 2 mat ches t he par amet er s t hat have been set on t he component but is not
guar ant eed t o mat ch any ot her char act er ist ics of a t r ansist or level ampliﬁer. Assume
t hr ee par amet er s have been speciﬁed for Ampliﬁer 2: t he linear gain S21, t he 1 dB
compr ession point GainCompPower (GainComp is set t o 1 dB), and t he t hir dor der
int er cept TOI. This means t hat t he behavior of Ampliﬁer 2 must mat ch t hese
par amet er s and not hing else. This is achieved by modeling y as a funct ion of x via
y=a1 × x+a3 × x
3
+a5 × x
5
. The t hr ee known quant it ies allow t he det er minat ion of t he
t hr ee unknown polynomial coefﬁcient s. If we look at t his equat ion, we see t hat t her e
is a ﬁft hor der t er m. Ther efor e, Ampliﬁer 2 will pr oduce ﬁft hor der har monics.
However, t his ﬁft hor der or der t er m is not supposed t o mat ch t hat fr om t he t r ansist or
level ampliﬁer fr om which t he t hr ee par amet er s S21, GainCompPower and TOI wer e
TOI, Psat, GainCompSat 7
GainComp=1dB, GainCompPower,
Psat, GainCompSat
7
TOI, GainComp=1dB, GainCompPower,
Psat, GainCompSat
9
Table 12. Polynomial Or der for Var ious Magnit ude Modes
Magnitude Mode Polynomial Order
124 Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
ext r act ed. No infor mat ion about t he ﬁft hor der int er cept of t hat ampliﬁer has been
speciﬁed so we cannot mat ch it . The ﬁft hor der t er m for Ampliﬁer 2 is necessar y t o
pr oper ly model S21, GainCompPower and TOI and t hese par amet er s ar e pr oper ly
modeled. In gener al, a t r ansist or level ampliﬁer will pr oduce ﬁnit e higher or der
har monics which Ampliﬁer 2 does not pr oduce.
For GainCompType=FILE and a GCOMP7 block in t he S2D ﬁle, t he magnit ude and
phase dat a in t he GCOMP7 block of t he S2D ﬁle is ﬁt t ed t o t wo separ at e polynomials.
Wit h n power point s in t he GCOMP7 block, t he polynomial or der will be
min(2 × n1,9). In most pr act ical cases, t he GCOMP7 block will have dat a at ﬁve or
mor e power point s and consequent ly nint hor der polynomials wit h oddonly t er ms
will be used.
Consider now an ampliﬁer wit h t he r esponse
This is t he model used when S21, SOI and TOI ar e speciﬁed. If a2 and a3 ar e
nonzer o, t hey will be negat ive. When a2=0, t his is t he model used when S21 and TOI
ar e speciﬁed. When a2=a3=0, t his r epr esent s a linear ampliﬁer. The behavior of t his
ampliﬁer can be analyzed analyt ically when t he excit at ion is simple enough. Doing so
gives a good under st anding of t he behavior of mor e complicat ed ampliﬁer s wit h
differ ent excit at ions.
Assuming t he excit at ion
we get t he r esponse
and can deﬁne t he gain of t he fundament al A1 × cos(ω1 × t ) as
y a1 x a2 x
2
× + × a3 x
3
× + =
x t ( ) A1 ω1 t × ( ) cos × =
y t ( )
1
2
 a2 A1
2
× × =
a1 A1
3
4
 a3 A1
3
× × + ×
¸ ,
¸ _
ω1 t × ( ) cos × +
1
2
 a2 A1
2
× × 2 ω × 1 t × ( ) cos × +
1
4
 a3 A1
3
× × 3 ω × 1 t × ( ) cos × +
G1 a1
3
4
 a3 A1
2
× × + =
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer) 125
Assuming t he excit at ion
we get t he r esponse
and can deﬁne t he gain of t he fundament als A1 × cos(ω1 × t) and A2 × cos(ω2 × t) as
and
x t ( ) A1 ω1 t × ( ) cos × A2 ω2 t × ( ) cos × + =
y t ( )
1
2
 a2 A1
2
A2
2
+ ( ) × × =
a1 A1
3
4
 a3 A1
3 3
2
 a3 A1 A2
2
× × × + × × + ×
¸ ,
¸ _
ω1 t × ( ) cos × +
a1 A2
3
4
 a3 A2
3 3
2
 a3 A2 A1
2
× × × + × × + ×
¸ ,
¸ _
ω2 t × ( ) cos × +
1
2
 a2 A1
2
× × 2 ω × 1 t × ( ) cos × +
1
2
 a2 A2
2
× × 2 ω × 2 t × ( ) cos × +
1
4
 a3 A1
3
× × 3 ω × 1 t × ( ) cos × +
1
4
 a3 A2
3
× × 3 ω2 t × × ( ) cos × +
a2 A1 A × 2 × ω1 ω – 2 ( ) t × ( ) cos × +
a2 A1 A × 2 × ω1 ω + 2 ( ) t × ( ) cos × +
3
4
 a3 A2 A × 1
2
× × 2 ω1 × ω2 + ( ) t × ( ) cos × +
3
4
 a3 A2 A × 1
2
× × 2 ω1 × ω – 2 ( ) t × ( ) cos × +
3
4
 a3 A1 A × 2
2
× × 2 ω2 × ω1 + ( ) t × ( ) cos × +
3
4
 a3 A1 A × 2
2
× × 2 ω2 × ω – 1 ( ) t × ( ) cos × +
G1 a1 a3
3
4
 A1
2 3
2
 A2
2
× + ×
¸ ,
¸ _
× + =
126 Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
r espect ively.
Examining G1 and G2 closer, we see t hat G1>G2 for A1>A2 and a3<0. This means
t hat if we excit e a polynomial ampliﬁer wit h a lar ge and a smallsignal t one, t he
lar gesignal t one will exper ience a lar ger gain t han t he smallsignal t one. For mor e
det ails, please r efer t o “Polynomial Model of Blocker Effect s on LNA/Mixer Devices”
by W. Domino et . al. in t he J une 2001 issue of Applied Micr owave and Wir eless.
This behavior is count erint uit ive for some people. If we excit e an ampliﬁer wit h a
smallsignal t one, it will pr ovide it s maximum/linear gain. If we excit e t he same
ampliﬁer wit h a lar gesignal t one, it will pr ovide a smaller /compr essed gain. If we
excit e an ampliﬁer wit h bot h a lar ge and a smallsignal t one, one could t hen expect
t hat t he smallsignal t one would be subject t o a lar ger gain t han t he lar gesignal
t one. The above shows t hat t his is not how Ampliﬁer 2 behaves.
This behavior, however, is int uit ive for some people. If we consider an ideal har d
limit ing ampliﬁer wit h an input volt age of Vin and an out put volt age of Vmax, it has
a lar gesignal gain of Vmax/Vin but a smallsignal gain of zer o, suggest ing a lar ger
lar gesignal gain t han smallsignal gain. This is in line wit h how Ampliﬁer 2 behaves.
Above, we pr esent ed t he polynomial model used for modeling t he out put volt age as a
funct ion of t he input volt age. This polynomial model, however, does not fully descr ibe
t he r esponse of t he ampliﬁer. It is impor t ant t o r emember t hat t he ampliﬁer has a
power level at which it sat ur at es and above which t he out put is clipped. We also pr e
sent ed t he r esult of pushing A1 × cos(ω1 × t ) and A1 × cos(ω1 × t )+A2 × cos(ω2 × t ) sig
nals t hr ough a y=a1 × x+a2 × x
2
+a3 × x
3
nonlinear it y. The r esult is an out put volt age
consist ing of a ﬁnit e number of Cn × cos(n × ωn × t) t er ms. Mor e gener ally, it can eas
ily be shown t hat pushing a sum of Ai × cos(ωi × t) t er ms t hr ough a polynomial non
linear it y will r esult in a ﬁnit e number of Cn × cos(n × ωn × t) t er ms. It might t hen be
expect ed t hat a har monic balance analysis of such an ampliﬁer can only pr oduce
ﬁnit e har monics up t o a cer t ain or der but will always pr oduce zer o har monics beyond
a cer t ain or der. This is t he case when t he ampliﬁer is not har d limit ing but is not t he
case when t he ampliﬁer st ar t s har d limit ing.
When we analyze an ampliﬁer via a har monic balance simulat ion of a cer t ain or der,
t he har monics we will see on t he input and out put of t he ampliﬁer will be t hose which
lead t o t he most cor r ect input and out put wavefor ms t hat can be achieved wit h t he
given or der.
G2 a1 a3
3
2
 A1
2 3
4
 A2
2
× + ×
¸ ,
¸ _
× + =
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer) 127
Assume t he input wavefor m is a sine wave. This can be r epr esent ed exact ly using
only t he fundament al. Ther efor e, we will see a ﬁnit e fundament al t one and zer o har 
monics on t he input .
The out put wavefor m depends on t he input power level.
At low input power s, t he out put wavefor m is simply a sine wave, namely t he input
sine wave scaled by t he linear ampliﬁer gain. This can be r epr esent ed exact ly using
only t he fundament al. Ther efor e, we will see a ﬁnit e fundament al t one and zer o har 
monics.
At higher input power s wher e t he ampliﬁer ent er s compr ession, t he out put wavefor m
is t he input sine wave pushed t hr ough t he ampliﬁer polynomial. Because a sine wave
pushed t hr ough a polynomial gives r ise t o sine t er ms and no ot her s, t he out put wave
for m will have ﬁnit e har monics up t o a cer t ain or der and zer o har monics above t hat
or der.
At high enough input power s t hat t he ampliﬁer st ar t s har d limit ing, t he out put
wavefor m is a clipped sine wave. For incr easingly high input power s, t his clipped sine
wave appr oaches a squar e wave. Repr esent at ion of such a clipped wave r equir es
ﬁnit e t hir d, ﬁft h, sevent h, et c. har monics so when t he ampliﬁer st ar t s clipping all
har monics will be ﬁnit e. This means t hat we will see a ver y shar p incr ease in t he
level of all such har monics as soon as t he ampliﬁer st ar t s clipping. If we incr ease t he
input power enough, we get appr oximat ely a squar e wave out put . When t his hap
pens, t he levels of t he var ious har monics r each sat ur at ion. The r elat ive values of
t hese sat ur at ed power levels can be pr edict ed fr om t he Four ier r epr esent at ion of a
squar e wave.
AM to PM Conversion
The Ampliﬁer component suppor t s AM t o PM conver sion for a ver y limit ed number of
magnit ude modes; Ampliﬁer 2 suppor t s AM t o PM conver sion for all magnit ude
modes when GainCompType=LIST. Magnit ude and phase is ﬁt t ed separ at ely so AM
t o PM conver sion can be added for each magnit ude mode. This adds a phase r esponse
but does not alt er t he magnit ude r esponse.
AM t o PM conver sion is deﬁned as t he amount of phase change in degr ees per
magnit ude/power change in dB. It is speciﬁed via t he t wo par amet er s AM2PM and
PAM2PM. AM2PM [degr ees/dB] is t he amount of AM t o PM conver sion while
PAM2PM [dBm] is t he power level at which t he ampliﬁer has t his amount of AM t o
PM conver sion. A physically sensible phase r esponse is t hen const r uct ed which has a
phase of phase(S21) at low power s, an amount of AM t o PM conver sion given by
AM2PM at PAM2PM, const ant phase at high power s and for which t he maximum
128 Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
amount of AM t o PM at any power level is also given by AM2PM. St at ed differ ent ly,
t he der ivat ive of t he phase r esponse wit h r espect t o power in dB t akes it s maximum
value AM2PM at PAM2PM.
This phase r esponse is far fr om unique and cer t ainly will not be cor r ect for all
ampliﬁer s. Based only on t he amount of AM t o PM at one power level, t her e is simply
no way t o const r uct a phase r esponse t hat mat ches any cir cuit level ampliﬁer at all
power levels. This AM t o PM capabilit y is only meant as a cr ude way of incor por at ing
a phase r esponse for ampliﬁer s about which ver y lit t le infor mat ion is known  at t he
init ial syst em level design it er at ions, For example, wher e no t r ansist or level
ampliﬁer has been designed. Once mor e infor mat ion about t he ampliﬁer ’s phase
r esponse is known and a mor e accur at e phase modeling is desir ed, use Ampliﬁer 2
wit h GainCompType=FILE and specify t he (compr ession and) phase r esponse as a
funct ion of power in t he GCOMP7 block of an S2D ﬁle. This is much mor e accur at e
t han what t his AM t o PM capabilit y can pr ovide.
To document t he exact phase r esponse in a lit t le mor e det ail, we st ar t out wit h
AM2PM [degr ees/dB] and PAM2PM [dBm]. We ﬁr st deﬁne:
k=AM2PM
P=10
(PAM2PM30)/10
For a sine wave
A0 × cos(ω × t )
t he aver age power is
Ther efor e, we have
The phase r esponse is init ially modeled in t he Adomain. We choose
y(A)=c0+c1 × A+c2 × A
2
+c3 × A
3
We now get
y(0)=0 > c0=0
dy/dA(0)=0 > c1=0
dy/dA(A0)=k > 2 × A0 × c2+3 × A0
2
× c3=0
P A0 ω t × ( ) cos × ( )
2
period
∫
d t
A0
2
2
 = =
A0 2 P × =
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer) 129
d
2
y/dA
2
(A0)=0 > c2+3 × A0 × c3=0
c2=k/A0
c3=k/(3 × A0
2
)
Then, we have
y(A)=k/A0 × A
2
k/(3 × A0
2
) × A
3
This funct ion has t he following pr oper t ies
y(0)=0
dy/dA(0)=0
y(A0)=2/3 × k × A0
dy/dA(A0)=k
d
2
y/dA
2
(A0)=0 (A0 is an ext r emum, max AM t o PM occur s her e)
y(2 × A0)=4/3 × k × A0=2 × y(A0)
dy/dA(2 × A0)=0
This cur ve will be dist or t ed when it is made a funct ion of power in dBm inst ead of
magnit ude A. The differ ence bet ween t wo log values can be quit e signiﬁcant at small
values but will be much smaller at lar ge values. This means t hat t he log funct ion will
dist or t t he cur ve  it will be st r et ched out at low power s and will be compr essed at
high power s. This will change t he point wher e t he maximum slope occur s so t he cur ve
is shift ed/scaled such t hat t he maximum slope AM2PM occur s at PAM2PM. Also, we
account for t he fact t hat t he der ivat ive wit h r espect t o A must be in dB and not linear
number s.
The above phase r esponse applies t o t he fundament al t one. This phase shift is
applied befor e t he applicat ion of t he nonlinear polynomial which means t hat t he
change of t he phase r esponse of t he nt h or der har monic fr om it s low power value will
equal t hat for t he fundament al t one scaled by t he har monic index n.
The easiest way t o validat e t hat t he amount of AM t o PM conver sion t akes it s
maximum value AM2PM at PAM2PM is t o use t he diff funct ion in ADS. If t he
Ampliﬁer 2 out put volt age is denot ed by Vout and det er mined via a swept input power
har monic balance simulat ion, simply plot diff(phase(Vout [::,1])). The peak of t his
cur ve should occur at PAM2PM and should t ake t he value AM2PM.
All har monic balance simulat ions can be subject t o aliasing er r or s. This can
signiﬁcant ly change t he phase r esponse of an ampliﬁer. To mit igat e t he effect s of
har monic balance aliasing er r or s, incr ease t he Fundament al Over sample
(FundOver sample) par amet er on t he Har monicBalance cont r oller fr om t he default 1
t o, say, 16.
130 Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
The magnit ude and phase r esponse for Ampliﬁer 2 ar e ﬁt t ed separ at ely. Given, say,
SOI and TOI, a set of magnit ude polynomial coefﬁcient s ar e det er mined such t hat
Ampliﬁer 2 has a secondor der int er cept point of SOI and a t hir dor der int er cept point
of TOI. Given AM2PM and PAM2PM, a set of phase polynomial coefﬁcient s ar e
det er mined such t hat Ampliﬁer 2 has AM t o PM conver sion given by AM2PM at
PAM2PM. When using an Ampliﬁer 2 wit h bot h a magnit ude and a phase r esponse in
a mult it one har monic balance simulat ion, t her e is no guar ant ee t hat t he above
magnit ude and phase separ at ion will hold. Gener ally, a phase r esponse will gener at e
int er modulat ion dist or t ion wit h a mult it one input . This is par t of why AM t o PM
conver sion is of int er est . This means t hat t he t hir dor der int er cept point may no
longer be t he TOI set on t he component . Ampliﬁer 2 makes no at t empt at mat ching
t he composit e magnit ude/phase t hir dor der int er cept point t o t he TOI set on t he
component but simply uses t he polynomial coefﬁcient s der ived for t he isolat ed
magnit ude mode.
Noise
Given t he minimum noise ﬁgur e NFmin (r eal), t he opt imal r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient Sopt
(complex), t he noise r esist ance Rn (r eal), t he noise r efer ence impedance Rr ef (r eal),
and t he sour ce admit t ance Ys (complex), t he noise ﬁgur e NF of an ampliﬁer is
det er mined by:
Not e t hat t his is independent of t he ampliﬁer Spar amet er s.
The noise behavior of Ampliﬁer 2 is char act er ized by t he four noise par amet er s NF,
NFmin, Sopt and Rn and t he r efer ence impedance Z1 for por t 1. Ampliﬁer 2 is
implement ed as a Noisy2Port cascaded wit h an SDD. The abovement ioned ﬁve
par amet er s cont r ol t he par amet er s for t he Noisy2Por t , t he Noisy2Por t gener at es a
noise volt age on it s out put and t his noise volt age is passed t hr ough t he SDD in t he
same manner as t he signal.
NFonly mode is used for NFmin=0. This is a special case wher e only one noise
par amet er must be speciﬁed. In t his case, t he Noisy2Por t has t he par amet er s
NFmin=NF, Sopt =0, and Rn=Z1/4 × (10
NF/10
1). The r efer ence impedance for t he
Y opt
1
R ref

1 S opt –
1 S opt +
 × =
Fm i n 10
N Fm i n 10 ⁄
=
F Fm i n
R n
R eal Y s [ ]
 Y s Y opt – ×
2
+ =
N F 10 F ( ) log × =
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer) 131
noise calculat ion (not available on t he Noisy2Por t user int er face) is Z1. The
NFmin=0, Sopt and Rn par amet er s ar e ignor ed.
(NFmin, Sopt , Rn) mode is used for NFmin>0. This is a mor e gener al case t han
NFonly mode. In t his case, t he Noisy2Por t has t he par amet er s NFmin=NFmin,
Sopt =Sopt , and Rn=Rn. The r efer ence impedance for t he noise calculat ion (not
available on t he Noisy2Por t user int er face) is Z1. The NF par amet er is ignor ed.
Given an out put noise volt age vn, t he single sideband noise ﬁgur e NFssb and t he
double sideband noise ﬁgur e NFdsb ar e given by:
NFssb=10*log ((vn
2
/R+k × T0 × (G1 + G2 +...)) / (k × T0 × G1))
NFdsb=10*log( (vn
2
/R+k × T0 × (G1+ G2 + ...)) / (k × T0 × (G1 + G2 + ...)))
wher e R is t he out put r esist ance, k=1.380658e23 J /K is Bolt zmann’s const ant ,
T0=290 K is t he st andar d noise t emper at ur e, G1 is t he pr imar y power gain fr om t he
input noise fr equency t o t he out put noise fr equency, and G2+... is t he sum of all
higher or der mixing gains which mix fr om some input fr equency t o t he out put noise
fr equency. For an ampliﬁer, G2+... is zer o under smallsignal oper at ion. vn
2
/R
r epr esent s t he noise added by t he ampliﬁer while k × T0 r epr esent s t he noise power
available fr om t he input t er minat ion. In t he following, we out line how Ampliﬁer 2
calculat es noise volt ages and noise ﬁgur es in var ious cases. This will be compar ed t o
t he behavior of Ampliﬁer.
SmallSignal Operation, NFOnly Mode
Consider an ampliﬁer wit h NF=5 dB, Z1=25 Ohm and S21=1. The cor r esponding
values of NFmin, Sopt and Rn have been descr ibed pr eviously. We will consider t he
t wo S11 values S11=0 and S11=0.2. The ampliﬁer lives in an envir onment wher e
Ys=1/50 Siemens and R=50 Ohm. For t his ampliﬁer, t he noise ﬁgur e on t he out put
should be NF=5.356 dB.
Ampliﬁer calculat es t he noise volt age via:
Doing t he numer ical evaluat ions, we get vn=657.93pV. This value is independent of
S11. Because t he G1 t er m used in t he calculat ion of NFssb and NFdsb var ies wit h
Fm i n 10
N Fm i n 10 ⁄
=
an
2
k T 0 × Fm i n 1 – ( ) × =
bn
2
S 21
2
an
2
× =
v n R bn
2
× =
132 Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
S11, NFssb and NFdsb will var y wit h S11. Speciﬁcally, we get NFssb=NFdsb=5.356
dB for S11=0 (mat ches NF) and NFssb=NFdsb=4.940 dB for S11=0.2 (does not mat ch
NF).
Ampliﬁer 2 calculat es t he noise volt age differ ent ly. Fir st , four noise cor r elat ion
coefﬁcient s ar e calculat ed via:
<vn,vn> = 4 × k × T0 × Rn
<in,in> = 4 × k × T0 × Rn ×  Yopt
2
<vn,in> = 4 × k × T0 × Rn × ((Fmin1)/(2 × Rn)Yopt)
<in,vn> = conj(<vn,in>)
The noise volt age can t hen be calculat ed fr om:
wher e G is t he t r ansvolt agegain of t he ampliﬁer and Z is t he t r ansimpedance of t he
ampliﬁer. These can be found fr om an adjoint cir cuit analysis of t he ampliﬁer and
become G=0.4714 and Z=23.5702 Ohm for S11=0 and G=0.5051 and Z=25.2538
Ohm for S11=0.2. The noise volt age t hen becomes vn=657.93 pV for S11=0 and
vn=704.93 pV for S11=0.2. We see t hat vn var ies wit h S11; t his is not sur pr ising. The
noise volt age at t he out put of t he Noisy2Por t is independent of S11 but t his volt age is
passed t hr ough t he SDD and will see a smallsignal gain. NFssb and NFdsb become
5.356 dB independent of S11 (mat ches NF).
SmallSignal Operation, (NFmin, Sopt, Rn) Mode
Consider an ampliﬁer wit h NFmin=5 dB, Sopt =0.1+j × 0.2, Rn=40, Z1=25 Ohm and
S21=1. We will consider t he t wo S11 values S11=0 and S11=0.2. The ampliﬁer lives in
an envir onment wher e Ys=1/(10j × 20) Siemens and Zl=30. For t his ampliﬁer, t he
noise ﬁgur e on t he out put should be NF=9.520 dB.
In t his case, Ampliﬁer 2 calculat es it s noise volt age fr om t he same equat ions as for
NFonly mode. The only differ ence is t he NFmin, Sopt and Rn values used.
Ampliﬁer 2 pr oduces t he noise volt age vn=766.79 pV for S11=0 and vn=749.68 pV for
S11=0.2. For bot h S11 values, t his leads t o NFssb=NFdsb=9.520 dB. Ampliﬁer
calculat es noise volt ages differ ent fr om NFonly mode but is again wr ong. Ampliﬁer
pr oduces t he noise volt age vn=611.47 pV for S11=0 and vn=597.83 pV for S11=0.2.
For bot h S11 values, t his leads t o NFssb=NFdsb=7.823 dB.
LargeSignal Operation
The above sect ions pr esent t he noise behavior of Ampliﬁer and Ampliﬁer 2 in NFonly
mode and (NFmin, Sopt , Rn) mode. These apply as t he ampliﬁer is oper at ed under
v n G v n v n , 〈 〉 G G v n i n , 〈 〉 Z Z i n v n , 〈 〉 G Z i n i n , 〈 〉 Z × × + × × + × × + × × =
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer) 133
smallsignal condit ions. As t he power is incr eased and t he ampliﬁer is oper at ed
under lar gesignal condit ions, t he expr essions for NFssb and NFdsb st ill apply but
some of t he t er ms change.
Consider t he expr essions for NFssb and NFdsb. These ar e:
NFssb= 10*log( (vn
2
/R + k × T0 × (G1 + G2 +...)) / (k × T0 × G1))
NFdsb=10*log( (vn
2
/R + k × T0 × (G1 + G2 +...)) / (k × T0 × (G1 + G2 + ...)))
At low power s, G1 is t he ampliﬁer ’s smallsignal gain and G2+... is zer o. As t he power
incr eases and t he ampliﬁer compr esses, G1 decr eases (gain expansion could pr ecede
t his t r end) and G2+... incr eases. This is a funct ion of t he signal pr oper t ies of t he
ampliﬁer and is independent of t he ampliﬁer ’s noise model. The var iat ion of G1 and
G2+... as a funct ion of t he power level is t he same for Ampliﬁer and Ampliﬁer 2. This
is not t he case for t he noise volt age vn. For Ampliﬁer, vn is const ant as t he ampliﬁer
compr esses. For Ampliﬁer 2, t he noise volt age at t he out put of t he Noisy2Port will
pass t hr ough t he SDD which means t hat vn decr eases as t he ampliﬁer compr esses.
This lower s vn
2
/R for Ampliﬁer 2 r elat ive t o Ampliﬁer, causing Ampliﬁer 2 t o pr oduce
smaller noise ﬁgur es in compr ession t han Ampliﬁer.
Notes/Equations
1. Ampliﬁer 2 is int r oduced as a r eplacement for Ampliﬁer. To change an exist ing
Ampliﬁer component t o an Ampliﬁer 2 component , simply change t he name
fr om Ampliﬁer t o Ampliﬁer 2 on t he schemat ic. The par amet er s for t he t wo
models ar e t he same and Ampliﬁer 2 will adopt t he values for Ampliﬁer, making
par amet er r eent r y unnecessar y. The only except ion is t hat t he par amet er s
GainCompType, Refer ToInput and ClipDat aFile will t ake t heir default values
LIST, OUTPUT and yes, r espect ively, r egar dless of t he values t hese par amet er s
had for Ampliﬁer. Also, t he Ampliﬁer display set t ings will be ignor ed.
Ampliﬁer 2 will simply adopt it s default set t ings, displaying S21, S11, S22 and
S12.
For examples of how t o use Ampliﬁer 2, see t he example pr oject
examples/ Tutorial/ Ampliﬁer2_Example_prj or sear ch t he ADS examples for
designs wher e Ampliﬁer 2 is cur r ent ly used. To locat e such examples, use t he
ADS document at ion S earch feat ur e, sear ch in: Examples, and ent er Ampliﬁer2.
As each found it em is highlight ed, t he ADS examples pr oject dir ect or y
infor mat ion is displayed; fr om t he ADS Main window select File > Example
Project t o navigat e t o t hese examples.
Table 13 summar izes t he major differ ences bet ween Ampliﬁer and Ampliﬁer 2.
134 Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
2. Use t he funct ions polar (mag,ang), dbpolar (dB, ang), or VSWRpolar (VSWR, ang)
t o conver t t he Sij speciﬁcat ions int o complex number s. Not e t hat Sij ar e volt age
gains and not power gains. For example, an ampliﬁer wit h S21=polar (10,0) and
S11=S22=S12=0 will scale t he volt age by a fact or of 10 fr om input t o out put and
will t her efor e r esult in a 20 dB incr ease in power. S21=dbpolar (10,0), on t he
ot her hand, will r esult in a 10 dB incr ease in power.
3. For an Spar amet er or a noise ﬁgur e sinusoidal r ipple, use t he funct ion r ipple
(mag, int er cept , fr equency, var iable); for example r ipple(0.1, 0, 10 MHz, fr eq).
example: S21=dbpolar (10.0+r ipple(0.1,0,10MHz,fr eq),0.0)
4. When deﬁning gain using S21, r emember t hat t his gain is applied t o t he
for war d incident wave int o t he input of t he ampliﬁer. This is in keeping wit h
t he measur ement st andar ds used t o deﬁne ampliﬁer gain at t he syst em level.
This means t hat if we change S11 fr om 0 t o 0.9 for example, we will see no
change in out put power because t he r eﬂect ed wave is not t aken int o account by
t he ampliﬁer ’s deﬁnit ion of gain, only t he incident wave.
5. Ampliﬁer 2 behaves differ ent ly fr om Ampliﬁer for complex S21 values. The
phase shift is applied befor e t he nonlinear polynomial inst ead of aft er, leading
t o much mor e r ealist ic wavefor ms. To see t his, consider for example an
Ampliﬁer and Ampliﬁer 2 wit h S21=dbpolar (10,50), TOI=20 dBm,
GainCompPower =10 dBm and GainComp=2 dB. Excit e and t er minat e t hese
wit h default P_1Tone and Ter m component s and car r y out a highor der
har monic balance analysis, say Or der =150, at a high input power, say 30 dBm.
Because t he ampliﬁer s ar e excit ed wit h a sine wave and oper at e deep int o
Table 13. Major Differ ences bet ween Ampliﬁer and Ampliﬁer 2
Ampliﬁer Ampliﬁer2
AM to PM only supported for some
magnitude modes
AM to PM supported for all
magnitude modes
AM to PM broken AM to PM working
Nonphysical noise behavior Physical noise behavior
Real/imaginary polynomial ﬁt Magnitude/phase polynomial ﬁt
Complex S21 leads to nonphysical
timedomain waveforms
Complex S21 leads to physical
timedomain waveforms
For large harmonic balance and circuit envelope simulations Ampliﬁer2 may
be slower than Ampliﬁer.
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer) 135
compr ession, we expect t he out put t ime domain wavefor m t o be clipped and
closely r esemble a squar e wave. Except for t he expect ed differ ences at
t r ansit ions wher e t he effect of a ﬁnit e Or der is evident , t his is t he case for
Ampliﬁer 2 but is not at all t he case for Ampliﬁer.
6. Z1 and Z2, t he r efer ence impedance par amet er s for por t s 1 and 2, ar e used in
conjunct ion wit h t he par amet er s S11/S21/S12/S22. This is because Sdat a is
always used wit h r espect t o a par t icular r efer ence impedance.
7. Ampliﬁer 2 does not suppor t complex r efer ence impedances.
8. Ampliﬁer 2 passes dc.
9. For cir cuit envelope simulat ion, baseband signals ar e blocked.
10. Ampliﬁer 2 may be slower t han Ampliﬁer for lar ge har monic balance and cir cuit
envelope simulat ions.
11. “Modeling Basics” on page 122 pr esent ed t he polynomial model used for
modeling t he out put volt age as a funct ion of t he input volt age. It also pr esent ed
t he r esult of pushing an A1 × cos(ω1 × t)+A2 × cos(ω2 × t) signal t hr ough a
y=a1 × x+a2 × x
2
+a3 × x
3
nonlinear it y. Based on t his, we can calculat e t he IP2
(secondor der int er cept ) and IP3 (t hir dor der int er cept ) of t he ampliﬁer. The
gener al equat ion for t he nt hor der int er cept point IPn is IPn=(n × P1Pn)/(n1)
wher e P1 is t he power level of t he ﬁr st or der t one and Pn is t he power level of
t he nt hor der t one.
The Pn power level, however, is not unique. Look at t he ampliﬁer out put .
Ignor ing A1 and A2 which we can nor malize out , t he secondor der har monics
cos(2 × ω1 × t) and cos(2 × ω2 × t) have t he amplit ude 1/2 × a2 while t he
secondor der int er mods cos((ω1ω2) × t) and cos((ω1+ω2) × t) have t he
amplit ude a2. Similar ly, t he t hir dor der har monics cos (3 × ω1 × t) and
cos(3 × ω2 × t) have t he amplit ude 1/4 × a3 while t he t hir dor der int er mods
cos((2 × ω1+ω2) × t), cos((2 × ω1ω2) × t), cos((2 × ω2+ω1) × t) and
cos((2 × ω2ω1) × t) have t he amplit ude 3/4 × a3. If t he for mula IPn=
(n × P1Pn)/(n1) wor ks for one t ype of second and t hir dor der t one, it will not
wor k for t he ot her.
The indust r y st andar d deﬁnit ions of IP2 and IP3 ar e based on int er mods, not
har monics. When polynomial coefﬁcient s ar e det er mined in t he Ampliﬁer 2 code,
t hey ar e t her efor e based on int er mods. When validat ing Ampliﬁer 2 using
int er mods, ever yt hing checks out ; when using har monics, it does not . This
shows t hat we cannot validat e t he pr oper SOI and TOI for Ampliﬁer 2 using a
136 Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
onet one analysis because t his gener at es only har monics but not int er mods. We
use indust r y st andar d deﬁnit ions when der iving t he coefﬁcient s for Amplifer 2
and it is imper at ive t o do t he same when validat ing Ampliﬁer 2.
Not e t hat SOI and TOI ar e deﬁned at a low power level. If SOI and TOI ar e
calculat ed at a power level wher e eit her P1 or Pn deviat e fr om t heir lowpower
values, t he r esult s will be in er r or. To see t his, sweep t he input power and plot
t he IP3 of t he Ampliﬁer 2 as a funct ion of t he input power. At low power s, t he
IP3 of t he ampliﬁer will mat ch t he TOI par amet er set on t he Ampliﬁer 2.
Ampliﬁer 2 was const r uct ed t o have t he TOI par amet er as it s IP3 at low power s
so t his is expect ed. As t he input power incr eases, IP3 will st ar t t o deviat e fr om
t he TOI value for low input power s. This simply r einfor ces t he impor t ance of
calculat ing IP3 at low input power s. Too high, and IP3 changes. Not e t hat it is
not enough t hat t he fundament al t one var ies linear ly. SOI/TOI is calculat ed
based on t he fundament al and t he second/t hir dor der int er mod so one must
ensur e t hat t he second/t hir dor der int er mods ar e also linear or SOI/TOI will
change.
Not e also t hat Ampliﬁer 2 must be out put impedance mat ched in or der for t he
SOI/TOI validat ion t o check out .
12. The common expect at ion for t he behavior of t he adjacent channel power
r eject ion (ACPR) for an ampliﬁer oper at ing in compr ession can be for mulat ed in
many equivalent ways: t he ACPR decr eases/impr oves as TOI incr eases; t he
ACPR decr eases/impr oves as t he ampliﬁer becomes mor e linear ; t he ACPR
decr eases/impr oves as we move away fr om compr ession; t he ACPR
incr eases/wor sens as TOI decr eases; t he ACPR incr eases/wor sens as t he
ampliﬁer becomes mor e nonlinear ; t he ACPR incr eases/wor sens as we move
t owar ds compr ession.
This expect at ion is cor r ect for an ampliﬁer oper at ing linear ly. For an ampliﬁer
oper at ing in compr ession, t he validit y of t his expect at ion depends on t he
ampliﬁer. We will discuss t wo cases, a t r ansist orlevel ampliﬁer and a
polynomial ampliﬁer.
The expect at ion may or may not be cor r ect for a t r ansist orlevel ampliﬁer
oper at ing in compr ession. A t r ansist orlevel simulat ion of a par t icular ampliﬁer
in ADS shows t hat t his expect at ion holds at some input power r anges but not at
ot her s.
The expect at ion is incor r ect for a polynomial ampliﬁer oper at ing in
compr ession. “Modeling Basics” on page 122 pr esent ed how t wo t ones r eact
when pushed t hr ough a polynomial ampliﬁer and offer ed a discussion of t his
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer) 137
analysis. The r esult is t hat t he lar gesignal gain will always exceed t he
smallsignal gain. Applied t o ACPR skir t s, t his means t hat a polynomial
ampliﬁer will act ually pr oduce a decr easing/bet t er ACPR level as we move
fur t her int o compr ession. This may be count erint uit ive but Ampliﬁer 2 r eact s
t he way we can t heor et ically pr edict t hat a polynomial ampliﬁer must act .
Ampliﬁer 2’s behavior is simply a funct ion of t he polynomial modeling on which
it is based.
13. An S2D ﬁle t ypically consist s of an ACDATA block cont aining smallsignal
infor mat ion and a GCOMPi block (i=1, ... , 7) cont aining compr ession
infor mat ion. For Ampliﬁer 2, t he ACDATA block is ignor ed and t he
Spar amet er s speciﬁed on t he Ampliﬁer 2 component ar e used. If t he
Spar amet er s of t he ACDATA block must be used, use t he Ampliﬁer S2D
component inst ead. Similar ly, any NDATA blocks cont aining noise dat a ar e
ignor ed by Ampliﬁer 2.
14. When an S2D ﬁle cont ains gain compr ession dat a at mor e t han one fr equency,
t he GainCompFr eq must be set t o one of t he fr equencies in t he S2D ﬁle t o
ident ify t he dat a t o be used. It is imper at ive t hat GainCompFr eq be set t o one of
t he fr equencies in t he S2D ﬁle as no int er polat ion or ext r apolat ion bet ween
gain compr ession dat a at differ ent fr equencies can be per for med. For fur t her
det ails r egar ding GainCompFr eq select ivit y, r efer t o Table 82 in t he
Ampliﬁer S2D document at ion.
15. When an S2D ﬁle has a power r ange t hat exceeds t hat of a simulat ion, a choice
must be made for t he power r ange used for ﬁt t ing. Assume an S2D ﬁle cover s
30 dBm t o 30 dBm but t hat a simulat ion is car r ied out fr om 10 dBm t o 10
dBm. In t his case, a choice must be made as t o whet her t he polynomial ﬁt t ing of
S2D dat a is done over t he power r ange 30 dBm t o 30 dBm or 10 dBm t o 10
dBm. In t he for mer case, t he ﬁt t ing may be inaccur at e as t he polynomial must
cover a lar ge power r ange t hat could hold a lot of var iat ions. This is
undesir able. However, t he advant age of t his appr oach is t hat t he r esult s we get
when simulat ing fr om 10 dBm t o 10 dBm ar e a subset of what we would have
got t en in t hat int er val had we simulat ed fr om 30 dBm t o 30 dBm. In t he lat t er
case, t he ﬁt t ing is much mor e accur at e as t he ﬁt t ing is done over a much
smaller power r ange which pr esumably holds a lot less var iat ion. This is
desir able. However, t he pr oblem wit h t his appr oach is t hat t he r esult s bet ween
10 dBm and 10 dBm will be differ ent for a simulat ion done fr om 30 dBm and
30 dBm r at her t han fr om 10 dBm and 10 dBm because t he polynomial
coefﬁcient s change as we change t he power r ange of t he simulat ion. ADS does
t he for mer. It ﬁt s a polynomial t o t he whole S2D ﬁle, not just t he subset for
138 Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
which t he simulat ion is car r ied out . To change t he ﬁt t ing in a power r ange, it is
not enough t o change t he power r ange of t he simulat ion. To change t he ﬁt t ing,
one must modify t he S2D ﬁle. The S2D ﬁle power r ange, not t he simulat ion
power r ange, dict at es t he ﬁt t ing power r ange. This is r elevant in t he following
wher e we discuss differ ent ﬁt t ings in differ ent power r anges.
16. A t ypical Pout (out put power ) vs. Pin (input power ) cur ve consist s of a linear ly
incr easing r egion, a t r ansit ion r egion and a sat ur at ion r egion. Anot her way of
t hinking of t his is t hat t ypical Pout Pin vs. Pin cur ve consist s of a ﬂat r egion, a
t r ansit ion r egion and a linear ly decr easing r egion.
When t he sat ur at ion r egion is made lar ger and lar ger, t he ﬁt t ing appr oach
adopt ed by Ampliﬁer 2 (polynomial ﬁt t ing, odd or der t er ms, or der dependent
upon t he number of dat a point s in t he S2D ﬁle, max or der 9) will t end t o
pr oduce ﬁt t ed cur ves which r ing/oscillat e mor e and mor e at higher power s. Mild
r inging is oft en t oler able and might not even be not iced but if t he t r ansit ion
r egion becomes t oo lar ge it can make t he r esult s useless. To alleviat e t he
pr oblem, r educe t he size of t he sat ur at ion r egion t o t he minimum needed and
leave no ext r a point s in t he S2D ﬁle. If t he r esult s ar e st ill not sat isfact or y,
ensur e ClipDataFile is set t o yes and r educe t he sat ur at ion r egion even mor e,
r elying on Ampliﬁer 2 ext r apolat ion. If t he r esult s ar e st ill not sat isfact or y, t r y
br eaking t he S2D ﬁle int o t wo ﬁles and simulat e t he pr oblem in t wo st eps.
Anot her alt er nat ive is t o use t he AmpSingleCar r ier model. This model is based
on linear int er polat ion inst ead of cur ve ﬁt t ing and will not have t his r inging
pr oblem. AmpSingleCar r ier, however, will not pr oduce har monics. Refer t o t he
AmpSingleCar r ier document at ion for det ails.
If ﬁt t ed r esult s do not accur at ely mat ch t he dat a in t he S2D ﬁle and it is
uncer t ain if t his r inging pr oblem is t he cause, t he pr oblem is ver y easy t o
exagger at e. Simply ext end t he GCOMP7 block of t he S2D ﬁle wit h a lar ge ﬂat
r egion (mor e input power s, sat ur at ed out put power, sat ur at ed out put phase)
and r esimulat e. If t he r inging pr oblem is t he cause, t he r esult s should get
wor se.
17. The S2D ﬁle capabilit y is a legacy fr om OmniSys. OmniSys used
GComp1GComp7 dat a it ems for specifying gain compr ession. Table 14
summar izes t he gain compr ession dat a for OmniSys and ADS. Refer t o
Figur e 15 for OmniSys par amet er infor mat ion. GComp1GComp6 can be
speciﬁed by using t he cor r esponding ADS gain compr ession par amet er s and
set t ing GainCompType=LIST or t hey can be cont ained in an S2D for mat set t ing
GainCompType=FILE.
Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer) 139
Figur e 15. OmniSys Par amet er Infor mat ion
Table 14. Gain Compr ession Dat a for OmniSys and ADS
OmniSys ADS
GComp1: IP3 TOI
GComp2: 1dBc GainComp=1dB
GainCompPower
GComp3: IP3, 1dBc TOI
GainComp=1dB
GainCompPower
GComp4: IP3, Ps, GCS TOI
Psat
GainCompSat
GComp5: 1dBc, Ps, GCS GainComp=1dB
GainCompPower
Psat
GainCompSat
GComp6: IP3, 1dBc, Ps, GCS TOI
GainComp=1dB
GainCompPower
Psat
GainCompSat
GComp7 GainCompType=FILE
GainCompFile=ﬁlename
linear output
compressed output
third order products
GCS
Ps
1 dB
1dBc
IP3
140 Ampliﬁer2 (RF System Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
18. The GainRF component is t he Pt olemy equivalent of t he Analog/RF Ampliﬁer 2
component . Bot h of t hese component s ar e based on t he OmniSys legacy (r efer t o
not e 16) and t he OmniSys cases GCOMP1 t hr ough GCOMP7 ar e shar ed by
GainRF and Ampliﬁer 2. For GCOMP1 t hr ough GCOMP6 cor r esponding t o
GainCompType=LIST, t he cur ve ﬁt t ing algor it hms for GainRF and Ampliﬁer 2
ar e ver y similar and close r esult s can be expect ed. However, t he cur ve ﬁt t ing
algor it hms ar e not ident ical and t he shape of t he knees of t he compr ession
cur ves will t her efor e differ slight ly. Also, t he levels at which t he var ious
fundament als sat ur at e can be differ ent . These levels will gener ally differ mor e
when Psat is not set t han when Psat is set . For GCOMP7 cor r esponding t o
GainCompType=FILE, t he cur ve ﬁt t ing algor it hms for GainRF and Ampliﬁer 2
ar e differ ent and differ ent r esult s can be expect ed.
AmpliﬁerVC (Ideal VoltageControlled Ampliﬁer) 141
AmpliﬁerVC (Ideal VoltageControlled Ampliﬁer)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Gain = volt age gain, in dB/V
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Range of Usage
Rout > 0
Notes/Equations
1. Ampliﬁer VC is an ideal volt age cont r olled ampliﬁer. The impedance for it s
input and cont r ol por t is inﬁnit e; it s out put impedance is Rout .
2. An equat ion is used t o descr ibe Gain as a funct ion of t he cont r ol volt age at por t
3: ¸V3. The default equat ion is Gain = 30 − 15 × ¸V3.
142 AmpSingleCarrier (Single Carrier Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
AmpSingleCarrier (Single Carrier Ampliﬁer)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Fr eq = fr equency
S21 = for war d t r ansmission coefﬁcient ; use x+j*y polar (x,y), dbpolar (x, y) for
complex value
S11 = for war d r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient ; use x+j*y polar (x,y), dbpolar (x, y), vswr polar (x,
y) for complex value
S22 = r ever se r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient ; use x+j*y polar (x,y), dbpolar (x, y), vswr polar (x,
y) for complex value
S12 = r ever se r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient ; use x+j*y polar (x,y), dbpolar (x, y) for complex
value
NF = noise ﬁgur e, in dB
NFmin = minimum noise ﬁgur e at Sopt , in dB
Sopt = opt imum sour ce r eﬂect ion for minimum noise ﬁgur e; use x+j*y polar (x,y),
dbpolar (x, y) for complex value
Rn = equivalent noise r esist ance
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2
GainCompFile = ﬁlename for Gain Compr ession (GCOMP7) Dat a
Notes/Equations
1. AmpSingleCar r ier is based on FDD (fr equencydomain deﬁned device). The
incident power level at t he ampliﬁer input is det ect ed and t he cor r esponding
gain is obt ained by int er polat ing t he gain compr ession t able given by
GainCompFile. In har monic balance simulat ion, t he out put signal has only one
fr equency component given by t he Fr eq par amet er. Neit her har monics nor
int er modulat ion pr oduct s ar e gener at ed by AmpSingleCar r ier. In Envelope
AmpSingleCarrier (Single Carrier Ampliﬁer) 143
simulat ion, t he out put signal cont ains only t he complex envelope ar ound one
fr equency given by t he Fr eq par amet er.
2. Z1 and Z2, t he r efer ence impedance par amet er s for por t s 1 and 2, ar e used in
conjunct ion wit h t he par amet er s S11/S21/S12/S22. This is because Sdat a is
always used wit h r espect t o a par t icular r efer ence impedance.
144 FreqMult (Ideal Frequency Multiplier)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
FreqMult (Ideal Frequency Multiplier)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
S11 = complex r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient for por t 1
S22 = complex r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient for por t 2
G1 = power gain of input t one, in dB
G2 = power gain of second har monic r elat ive t o input t one, in dB
G3 = power gain of t hir d har monic r elat ive t o input t one, in dB
G4 = power gain of four t h har monic r elat ive t o input t one, in dB
G5 = power gain of ﬁft h har monic r elat ive t o input t one, in dB
G6 = power gain of sixt h har monic r elat ive t o input t one, in dB
G7 = power gain of sevent h har monic r elat ive t o input t one, in dB
G8 = power gain of eight h har monic r elat ive t o input t one, in dB
G9 = power gain of nint h har monic r elat ive t o input t one, in dB
Pmin = minimum input power for speciﬁed conver sion, in dBm
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2
Range of Usage
0 ≤  S11< 1
0 ≤  S22< 1
Notes/Equations
1. The ideal fr equency mult iplier t akes an input signal and pr oduces an out put
spect r um wit h speciﬁed spect r al har monics. The r ever se isolat ion is assumed t o
be inﬁnit e (S12=0). All of t he har monics gener at ion is speciﬁed r elat ive t o t he
input level. For example if an input power of 20 dBm is incident on a mult iplier
FreqMult (Ideal Frequency Multiplier) 145
wit h G2=−20 dB t he second har monic out put will be 0 dBm. This device is
compat ible wit h t r ansient simulat ion.
2. This model assumes t hat only one signal t one is pr esent at t he input . If
mult iple t ones ar e used at t he input t hen unwant ed mixing pr oduct s can be
gener at ed and spur ious mixing pr oduct s will r esult .
3. The har monic balance par amet er ORDER must be set t o a value equal t o or
higher t han t he har monic index of int er est .
4. Realwor ld nonlinear devices such as mixer s and fr equency mult iplier s oft en
have an input power level below which t hey do not wor k. For Fr eqMult , t his
phenomenon is incor por at ed t hr ough t he PMin par amet er. However, PMin is
not simply a minimum t hr eshold value t o which t he input power is limit ed.
Wit h a r ight pr opagat ing input wave of a1, t he input power det ect ion is done
via  a1
2
=a1 × a1+H(a1) × H(a1), wit h H(a1) being t he Hilber t t r ansfor m of a1.
A nor malized a1 is t hen calculat ed via a1nor m=a1/sqr t ( a1
2
+dBm2lin(PMin)),
wit h dBm2lin(x)=10
(x30)/10
. Not e t he pr esence of PMin. For
dBm2lin(PMin)<< a1
2
, t he effect of PMin is negligible. For  a1
2
appr oaching
dBm2lin(PMin), however, t he r esult s will depend on t he value of PMin. If t his is
undesir ed, simply lower PMin appr opr iat ely.
5. Z1 and Z2, t he r efer ence impedance par amet er s for por t s 1 and 2, ar e used in
conjunct ion wit h t he par amet er s S11/S21/S12/S22. This is because Sdat a is
always used wit h r espect t o a par t icular r efer ence impedance.
146 LogACDemod (Demodulating AC Logarithmic Ampliﬁer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
LogACDemod (Demodulating AC Logarithmic Ampliﬁer)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Cur r ent Slope = gr adient of t r ansfer char act er ist ic, in amper es/decade
Volt Int er cept = Vin for zer o out put , in volt s
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. LogACDemod uses a squar elaw det ect or and an ideal logar it hmic funct ion.
2. The funct ion is in t he for m of volt ageinput /cur r ent out put .
3. LogACDemod is not r ecommended for t r ansient simulat ion.
LogDC (DC Logarithmic Ampliﬁer) 147
LogDC (DC Logarithmic Ampliﬁer)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Volt Slope = gr adient of t r ansfer char act er ist ic, in volt s/decade
Volt Int er cept = Vin for zer o out put , in volt s
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. LogDC pr ovides an out put t hat is a logar it hmic funct ion of t he input . If, for
example, t he scaling is 1 volt /decade, t he out put changes by 1V for any t enfold
incr ease of t he input .
The int er cept point is t he input level at which t he out put volt age is 0.
Vout = Volt Slope × log ((Vin / Volt Int er cept ) + 1)
148 LogSuccDetect (Successive Detection Logarithmic Ampliﬁer
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
LogSuccDetect (Successive Detection Logarithmic Ampliﬁer
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
NumSt ages = number of st ages
St ageGain = gain per st age, in dB
Cur r ent Slope = gr adient of t r ansfer char act er ist ic, in amper es/decade
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This ampliﬁer use a successive det ect ion scheme t o pr ovide an out put cur r ent
pr opor t ional t o t he logar it hm of t he input volt age. The ampliﬁer consist s of
sever al ampliﬁer /limit er st ages (NumSt ages speciﬁes how many), each having a
small signal gain (St ageGain speciﬁes t he gain). Each st age has an associat ed
fullwave det ect or, whose out put cur r ent depends on t he absolut e value of it s
input st age. These out put cur r ent s ar e summed t o pr ovide t he out put scaled at
t he Cur r ent Slope (amp/decade). The out put cont ains amplit ude infor mat ion
only, r egar dless of any phase infor mat ion. A simpliﬁed block diagr am of t his
component is shown in Figur e 16.
Figur e 16. Simpliﬁed Block Diagr am of a 5St age LogSuccDet ect
LogTrue (True Logarithmic Ampliﬁer) 149
LogTrue (True Logarithmic Ampliﬁer)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
NumSt ages = number of st ages
St ageGain = gain per st age, in dB
Volt Limit = limit ing volt age of each st age, in volt s
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. LogTr ue accept s input s of eit her polar it y and gener at es an out put whose sign
follows t hat of t he input . A pr ogr essive compr ession t echnique is used, in which
t he logar it hmic r esponse can be appr oximat ed t hr ough t he use of cascaded
ampliﬁer st ages t hat have signaldependent gain.
150 Mixer (First RF System Mixer, Polynomial Model for Nonlinearity)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
Mixer (First RF System Mixer, Polynomial Model for Nonlinearity)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
SideBand = pr oduce UPPER, LOWER, or BOTH sidebands
ImageRej = image r eject ion at out put wit h r espect t o fundament al, in dB
LO_Rej1 = LO t o input r eject ion for LO leakage, in dB
LO_Rej2 = LO t o out put r eject ion for LO leakage, in dB
RF_Rej = input t o out put r eject ion for dir ect RF feedt hr ough, in dB
ConvGain = conver sion gain (r eal or complex number ; see not e 2)
S11 = por t 1 r eﬂect ion (r eal or complex number ; see not e 2)
S22 = por t 2 r eﬂect ion (r eal or complex number ; see not e 2)
S33 = por t 3 r eﬂect ion (r eal or complex number ; see not e 2)
PminLO = minimum LO power t hr eshold, in dBm
NF = input double sideband noise ﬁgur e, in dB
NFmin = minimum double sideband noise ﬁgur e at Sopt , in dB
Sopt = opt imum sour ce r eﬂect ion for NFmin
Rn = equivalent noise r esist ance, in ohms
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1 (r eal or complex number )
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2 (r eal or complex number )
Z3 = r efer ence impedance for por t 3 (r eal or complex number )
ImpNoncausal Lengt h = noncausal funct ion impulse r esponse or der
ImpMode = convolut ion mode
ImpMaxFr eq = maximum fr equency at which device is evaluat ed
Mixer (First RF System Mixer, Polynomial Model for Nonlinearity) 151
ImpDelt aFr eq = sample spacing in fr equency
ImpMaxOr der = maximum allowed impulse r esponse or der
ImpWindow = smoot hing window
ImpRelTol = r elat ive impulse r esponse t r uncat ion fact or
ImpAbsTol = absolut e impulse r esponse t r uncat ion fact or
Range of Usage
NF ≥ 0 dB
NFmin > 0
0 < Sopt  < 1
0 < Rn
GainCompFr eq > 0
 ConvGain > 0
Gain Compression Parameters
GainCompType = gain compr ession t ype: LIST, use model gain compr ession
speciﬁcat ions; FILE, use ﬁlebased gain compr ession dat a
GainCompFr eq = r efer ence fr equency for gain compr ession (if gain compr ession is
descr ibed as a funct ion of fr equency)
Refer ToInput = specify gain compr ession wit h r espect t o input or out put power of
device
SOI = second or der int er cept , in dBm
TOI = t hir d or der int er cept , in dBm
Psat = power level at sat ur at ion, in dBm
GainCompSat = gain compr ession at Psat , in dB
GainCompPower = power level in dBm at gain compr ession speciﬁed by GainComp,
in dBm
GainComp = gain compr ession at GainCompPower, in dB (default is 1dB)
GainCompFile = ﬁlename for gain compr ession dat a in S2D ﬁle for mat
Range of Usage for Gain Compression Parameters
152 Mixer (First RF System Mixer, Polynomial Model for Nonlinearity)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
When specifying gain compr ession using model par amet er s, only cer t ain combinat ion
of par amet er s will pr oduce st able polynomial cur ve ﬁt t ing. Recommended par amet er
combinat ions ar e list ed her e.
Note If unr ealist ic par amet er values ar e used, t he polynomial will become unst able,
r esult ing in oscillat ions.
• Thir dor der int er cept and 1dB gain compr ession par amet er s:
TOI, GainCompPower, wit h GainComp=1dB.
Range of validit y: TOI > GainCompPower + 10.8.
• Thir dor der int er cept and power sat ur at ion par amet er s:
TOI, Psat , GainCompSat .
Range of validit y: TOI > Psat + 8.6.
• 1dB gain compr ession and power sat ur at ion par amet er s: GainCompPower, wit h
GainComp=1dB, and Psat , GainCompSat .
Range of validit y: Psat > GainCompPower + 3.
• Thir dor der int er cept , 1dB gain compr ession and power sat ur at ion par amet er s:
TOI, GainCompPower wit h GainComp=1dB, and Psat , GainCompSat .
Range of validit y: Psat > GainCompPower +3, TOI > GainCompPower + 10.8
• Secondor der int er cept and t hir dor der int er cept par amet er s: SOI, TOI.
Notes/Equations
1. The Mixer component is similar t o Mixer 2. The key differ ence is t hat Mixer
suppor t s fr equency conver sion AC analysis or FCAC analysis for smallsignal
AC or Spar amet er analysis, while Mixer 2 does not . This capabilit y allows
smallsignal fr equency t r adit ionally done at only one fr equency t o be somewhat
ext ended t o deal wit h mor e t han one fr equency. In t er ms of conver gence, Mixer 2
is t ypically mor e r obust t han Mixer, as t he power det ect ion is implement ed
differ ent ly.
2. If NFmin, Sopt , and Rn ar e used t o char act er ize noise, t he following r elat ion
must be sat isﬁed for a r ealist ic model.
R n
Z o

T o Fm i n 1 – ( ) 1 S opt +
2
T 4

1 S
11
2
– ( )
1 S opt S
11
–
2
 ≥
Mixer (First RF System Mixer, Polynomial Model for Nonlinearity) 153
A war ning message will be issued if Rn does not meet t his cr it er ion. If t he noise
par amet er s at t empt t o descr ibe a syst em t hat r equir es negat ive noise (due t o
Rn being t oo small), t he negat ive par t of t he noise will be set t o zer o and a
war ning message will be issued.
3. Use t he funct ion polar (mag,ang) or dbpolar (dB, ang), or VSWR polar (VSWR,
ang) t o conver t t hese speciﬁcat ions int o a complex number.
4. For an Spar amet er or a noise ﬁgur e sinusoidal r ipple, use t he funct ion r ipple
(mag, int er cept , per iod, var iable); for example r ipple(0.1, 0, 10 MHz, fr eq).
Example: S21=dbpolar (10+r ipple(),0.)
5. Z1, Z2 and Z3 t he r efer ence impedance par amet er s for por t s 1, 2 and 3 ar e used
in conjunct ion wit h t he par amet er s S11/S21/S12/S22. This is because Sdat a is
always used wit h r espect t o a par t icular r efer ence impedance.
6. This model passes DC in t he sense t hat a DC sour ce at t he RF input passes
t hr ough t he mixer t o give a signal at t he IF out put .
7. In har monic balance simulat ions, t he PminLO par amet er set s a t hr eshold for
t he effect of t he LO power on t he mixer ’s conver sion gain. The default value of
PminLO is 100 dBm. The mixer will pr ovide t he expect ed conver sion gain if t he
LO power is signiﬁcant ly gr eat er (~20 dB) t han t he value of PminLO. If t he LO
power is less t han t his amount , t he mixer 's conver sion gain will det er ior at e in a
nonlinear fashion.
8. Gain compr ession can be speciﬁed by using t he gain compr ession model
par amet er s, or t his infor mat ion can be cont ained in an S2D for mat ﬁle. All S2D
gain compr ession t ypes ar e suppor t ed by t his model. Gain compr ession t ypes 1
t hr ough 6 can also be descr ibed using t he gain compr ession model par amet er s.
Gain Compr ession 7 infor mat ion must be cont ained in an S2D ﬁle. The
GainCompType par amet er inst r uct s t he model wher e t o look for t his dat a—in
an S2D ﬁle or use model par amet er s.
For S2D dat a ﬁle for mat infor mat ion r efer t o “Wor king wit h Dat a Files” in t he
Circuit S imulation manual.
9. Mixer oper at ion wit h t he SOI and TOI par amet er s is descr ibed in t his not e.
Fir st consider an ampliﬁer. Consider t wo input t ones at f1 and f2 (assume f1<f2)
and at t he same power level. Do a 2t one HB simulat ion. The out put will have
ﬁr st or der t ones at f1 and f2. It also have secondor der int er mod pr oduct s at
f2f1 and at f1+f2. It will also have t hir dor der int er mod pr oduct s at 2 × f1f2
(will be smaller t han f1 by f2 f1) and 2 × f2f1 (will be gr eat er t han f2 by f2f1).
154 Mixer (First RF System Mixer, Polynomial Model for Nonlinearity)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
Dr awing a pict ur e of t his fr equency plan can be helpful. Based on t hese t ones
we can calculat e t he SOI and TOI of t he ampliﬁer. The gener al equat ion is IPn=
(n × P1Pn)/(n1) wher e P1 is t he power level of t he ﬁr st or der t one and Pn is
t he power level of t he nt hor der t one. For SOI, we can use t he power levels at f1
and f2f1 or we can use t he power levels at f2 and f1+f2. For TOI, we can use t he
power levels at f1 and 2 × f1f2 or we can use t he power levels at f2 and 2 × f2f1.
For a mixer, ever yt hing is t he same, except t hat ever yt hing is being shift ed
down (down conver t ing mixer ) or up (upconver t ing mixer ) by t he LO fr equency
fLO due t o mixing. Ther efor e, all t hese fr equencies will eit her have fLO
subt r act ed or added. Not e t hat t his means t hat fr om an HB point of view, we'r e
calculat ing SOI off of second and t hir dor der int er mod pr oduct s and
calculat ing TOI off of second and four t hor der int er mod pr oduct s. For example,
TOI can be calculat ed fr om a P1 at f1fLO (second or der as far as t he HB
simulat ion is concer ned) and a Pn at 2 × f1f2fLO (four t hor der as far as t he
HB simulat ion is concer ned).
Also, not e t hat t he mixer must be out put mat ched in or der t o validat e SOI and
TOI.
For mor e infor mat ion about SOI and TOI, r efer t o t he Ampliﬁer 2 component
document at ion.
10. Fr equency Conver sion AC (FCAC) analysis r equir es a single fr equency at ever y
node of a cir cuit . If Sideband=BOTH is speciﬁed for Mixer, t he simulat or will
use SideBand=LOWER for FCAC analysis.
11. When Mixer is used in Tr ansient analysis for single sideband applicat ions, it is
r ecommended t hat t he user set Sideband=BOTH and inser t a highor der ﬁlt er
t o suppr ess t he undesir ed sideband.
Mixer2 (RF System Mixer) 155
Mixer2 (RF System Mixer)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
SideBand = sideband suppr ession and image r eject ion behavior
BOTH: Bot h out put sidebands (default )
LOWER: Lower out put sideband only
UPPER: Upper out put sideband only
LOWER IMAGE REJ ECTION: Lower input image r eject ion
UPPER IMAGE REJ ECTION: Upper input image r eject ion
Out put SidebandSuppr ession = out put sideband suppr ession, in dB (only r elevant for
SideBand= LOWER, UPPER)
Input ImageReject ion = input image r eject ion, in dB (only r elevant for SideBand=
LOWER IMAGE REJ ECTION, UPPER IMAGE REJ ECTION)
ConvGain = conver sion gain (r eal or complex number )
RevConvGain = r ever se conver sion gain (r eal or complex number )
SP11 = RF por t r eﬂect ion (r eal or complex number )
SP12 = IF por t t o RF por t leakage (r eal or complex number )
SP13 = LO por t t o RF por t leakage (r eal or complex number )
SP21 = RF por t t o IF por t leakage (r eal or complex number )
SP22 = IF por t r eﬂect ion (r eal or complex number )
SP23 = LO por t t o IF por t leakage (r eal or complex number )
SP31 = RF por t t o LO por t leakage (r eal or complex number )
SP32 = IF por t t o LO por t leakage (r eal or complex number )
SP33 = LO por t r eﬂect ion (r eal or complex number )
156 Mixer2 (RF System Mixer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
PminLO = minimum LO power t hr eshold, in dBm
Det BW= LO det ect or bandwidt h, in Hz
NF = input noise ﬁgur e, in dB (NF mode used for NFmin=0)
NFmin = minimum noise ﬁgur e at Sopt , in dB ((NFmin,Sopt ,Rn) mode used for
NFmin>0)
Sopt = opt imum sour ce r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient for NFmin ((NFmin,Sopt ,Rn) mode used
for NFmin>0)
Rn = equivalent noise r esist ance ((NFmin,Sopt ,Rn) mode used for NFmin>0)
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1 (r eal number )
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2 (r eal number )
Z3 = r efer ence impedance for por t 3 (r eal number )
GainCompType = gain compr ession t ype:
LIST: use model gain compr ession speciﬁcat ions (default )
FILE: use ﬁlebased gain compr ession dat a
GainCompFr eq = r efer ence fr equency for gain compr ession if gain compr ession is
descr ibed as a funct ion of fr equency
Refer ToInput = specify gain compr ession wit h r espect t o input or out put power of
device:
OUTPUT: r efer t o out put (default )
INPUT: r efer t o input
SOI = second or der int er cept , in dBm
TOI = t hir d or der int er cept , in dBm
Psat = power level at sat ur at ion, in dBm (always r efer r ed t o out put , r egar dless of t he
value of t he Refer ToInput par amet er )
GainCompSat = gain compr ession at Psat , in dB (default is 5 dB)
GainCompPower = power level in dBm at gain compr ession for X dB compr ession
point , speciﬁed by GainComp, in dBm
GainComp = gain compr ession at GainCompPower, in dB (default is 1 dB)
AM2PM = amplit ude modulat ion t o phase modulat ion, in degr ee/dB
PAM2PM = power level at AM2PM, in dBm
Mixer2 (RF System Mixer) 157
GainCompFile = ﬁlename for gain compr ession dat a in S2D ﬁle for mat
ClipDat aFile = clip dat a beyond maximum input power :
YES: enable (default )
NO: disable
ImpNoncausal Lengt h = noncausal funct ion impulse r esponse or der
ImpMode = convolut ion mode
ImpMaxFr eq = maximum fr equency at which device is evaluat ed (default 10 GHz)
ImpDelt aFr eq = sample spacing in fr equency
ImpMaxOr der = maximum allowed impulse r esponse or der (default 32)
ImpWindow = smoot hing window
ImpRelTol = r elat ive impulse r esponse t r uncat ion fact or
ImpAbsTol = absolut e impulse r esponse t r uncat ion fact or
Frequently Asked Questions
Q1: What ar e t he major differ ences bet ween Mixer and Mixer 2?
A1: Refer t o not e 1.
Q2: What ar e t he suppor t ed par amet er combinat ions?
A2: Refer t o “Range of Usage” on page 160 .
Q3: What is t he r ange of usage for each par amet er combinat ion?
A3: Refer t o “Range of Usage” on page 160.
Q4: What ar e t he por t number s and t he t er minology used for t he signals at each
por t ?
A4: Refer t o “Ter minology” on page 161.
Q5: What is t he basic implement at ion of Mixer 2?
A5: A Noisy2Port cascaded wit h an S DD. Refer t o “Basic Implement at ion” on
page 162 for det ails.
Q6: How does Mixer 2 oper at e for t he var ious SideBand modes?
A6: Refer t o “Sideband Suppr ession and Image Reject ion” on page 162.
Q7: What is ConvGain?
A7: It is t he conver sion gain. Refer t o “Linear Behavior ” on page 166 for det ails.
158 Mixer2 (RF System Mixer)
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
Q8: How does Mixer 2 apply a complex ConvGain?
A8: Befor e t he mixing, not aft er. Refer t o “Linear Behavior ” on page 166 for det ails.
Q9: What is RevConvGain?
A9: It is t he r ever se conver sion gain. Refer t o “Linear Behavior ” on page 166 for
det ails.
Q10: What ar e SPij (i,j=1,2,3)?
A10: They ar e t he r eﬂect ion/leakage/isolat ion par amet er s or Spar amet er s. Refer t o
“Linear Behavior ” on page 166 for det ails.
Q11: Ar e ConvGain, RevConvGain and SPij (i,j=1,2,3) wavebased or volt agebased?
A11: ConvGain is volt agebased, RevConvGain and SPij ar e wavebased. Refer t o
“Linear Behavior ” on page 166 for det ails.
Q12: How is RF t o IF compr ession modeled?
A12: A polynomial compr ession model is used. Refer t o “Nonlinear Behavior ” on
page 169 and “Modeling Basics” on page 122 of t he Ampliﬁer 2 document at ion for
det ails.
Q13: How is AM t o PM conver sion modeled?
A13: A polynomial AM t o PM conver sion model is used. Refer t o “AM t o PM
Conver sion” on page 127 of t he Ampliﬁer 2 document at ion for det ails.
Q14: How is LO limit ing done for differ ent Det BW values?
A14: Via a ﬁlt er wit h a var iable bandwidt h speciﬁed by Det BW or via a Hilber t
t r ansfor m. Refer t o “LO Limit ing” on page 170 for det ails.
Q15: What ’s best , small or lar ge Det BW values?
A15: Small for LO signals wit h signiﬁcant har monic cont ent , lar ge for bandpass LO
signals. Refer t o “LO Limit ing” on page 170 for det ails.
Q16: How does PminLO inﬂuence t he LO limit ing?
A16: It deﬁnes a lower limit for t he effect of t he LO power on t he mixer ’s conver sion
gain. Refer t o “LO Limit ing” on page 170 for det ails.
Q17: Why does t he mixer ’s conver sion gain var y depending on t he fr equency cont ent
of t he LO signal?
A17: LO limit ing is dynamic. Refer t o “LO Limit ing” on page 170 for det ails.
Q18: What noise model is used by Mixer 2?
A18: A Noisy2port, similar t o Ampliﬁer 2. Refer t o “Noise” on page 171 for det ails.
CurveFitting Algorithm 159
Q19: What ar e “NFonly mode” and “(NFmin,Sopt ,Rn) mode” for in Mixer 2?
A19: They ar e t wo differ ent ways of specifying noise. Refer t o “Noise” on page 171
for det ails.
Q20: How is NFssb/NFdsb calculat ed, bot h at low power s and in compr ession?
A20: Refer t o “Noise” on page 171.
Q21: Can you pr ovide mor e det ails about t he noise volt ages and noise ﬁgur es
pr oduced by Mixer 2 for t he differ ent SideBand modes of oper at ion?
A21: Refer t o “Noise” on page 171.
Q22: How can I lower t he noise at t he out put of Mixer 2?
A22: Refer t o “Noise” on page 171.
Q23: Is t her e a t ut or ial example for Mixer 2?
A23: examples/ Tutorial/ Mixer2_Example_prj. Refer t o not e 2 for det ails.
Q24: Does Mixer 2 suppor t fr equency conver sion AC (FCAC) analysis?
A24: No. Refer t o not e 3 for det ails.
Q25: Why doesn't Mixer 2 wor k for complex r efer ence impedances?
A25: Mixer 2 does not suppor t complex r efer ence impedances. Refer t o not e 4 for
det ails.
Q26: Can I use Mixer 2 for baseband envelope simulat ions?
A26: No. Refer t o not e 6 for det ails.
Q27: Why is Mixer 2 somet imes slower t han Mixer ?
A27: This is a consequence of t he implement at ional differ ences bet ween Mixer and
Mixer 2. Refer t o not e 7 for det ails.
Q28: Why don't t he pr edict ed second and t hir dor der int er cept point s mat ch SOI
and TOI as set on Mixer 2?
A28: You ar e pr obably not set t ing up your validat ion cor r ect ly. Make sur e t o do a
t wot one simulat ion, not a onet one simulat ion. Refer t o not e 10 for det ails.
Q29: Do sums/differ ences of t wo RF fr equencies appear at t he out put of Mixer 2?
A29: It depends on SP21 and SOI. Refer t o not e 11 for det ails.
Q30: Why does Mixer 2 ignor e t he ACDATA block of my S2D ﬁle?
A30: It uses t he Spar amet er s on t he component inst ead. Refer t o not e 12 for det ails.
Q31: When t he power r ange in an S2D ﬁle differ s fr om t hat of a simulat ion, which
power r ange is used for polynomial ﬁt t ing?
A31: The power r ange in t he S2D ﬁle. Refer t o not e 14 for det ails.
160 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
Q32: Why do I get r inging at high power s when using an S2D ﬁle?
A32: This is a consequence of t he polynomial model adopt ed by Mixer 2. Refer t o
not e 15 for det ails.
Q33: How do I get r id of t his r inging?
A33: Eliminat e dat a for high input power s, r ely on ext r apolat ion via
ClipDat aFile=yes, or br eak t he S2D ﬁle int o t wo. Refer t o not e 15 for det ails.
Range of Usage
NF ≥ 0 dB
NFmin ≥ 0 dB
0 < Sopt  < 1
Rn > 0
GainCompFr eq > 0
0 dB < GainComp < 3 dB
When specifying gain compr ession using model par amet er s, only cer t ain combinat ion
of par amet er s will pr oduce st able polynomial cur ve ﬁt t ing. If unr ealist ic par amet er
values ar e used, t he polynomial will become unst able, r esult ing in oscillat ions. The
r ecommended par amet er combinat ions ar e list ed her e:
• Thir dor der int er cept par amet er :
Par amet er s: TOI
Range of validit y: N/A
• Gain compr ession par amet er s:
Par amet er s: GainCompPower, GainComp
Range of validit y: N/A
• Power sat ur at ion par amet er s:
Par amet er s: Psat , GainCompSat
Range of validit y: N/A
• Thir dor der int er cept and 1dB gain compr ession par amet er s:
Par amet er s: TOI, GainCompPower wit h GainComp=1dB
Range of validit y: TOI > GainCompPower + 10.8
• Thir dor der int er cept and power sat ur at ion par amet er s:
Par amet er s: TOI, Psat , GainCompSat
Range of validit y: TOI > Psat + 8.6
• 1dB gain compr ession and power sat ur at ion par amet er s:
Par amet er s: GainCompPower wit h GainComp=1dB, Psat , GainCompSat
Range of validit y: Psat > GainCompPower + 3
CurveFitting Algorithm 161
• Thir dor der int er cept , 1dB gain compr ession and power sat ur at ion par amet er s:
Par amet er s: TOI, GainCompPower wit h GainComp=1dB, Psat , GainCompSat
Range of validit y: Psat > GainCompPower +3, TOI > GainCompPower + 10.8
• Secondor der int er cept and t hir dor der int er cept par amet er s:
Par amet er s: SOI, TOI
Range of validit y: N/A
Terminology
This sect ion out lines t he t er minology t hat will be used in t he r emainder of t he Mixer 2
document at ion.
Mixer 2 is a 3por t device. It s input por t is number ed por t 1, it s out put por t is
number ed por t 2, and it s local oscillat or por t is number ed por t 3. The signals at t he
t hr ee por t s will be denot ed by RF, IF, and LO, r espect ively, as illust r at ed in
Figur e 17. This follows t he r eceiver /downconver sion convent ion. This convent ion
has RF and IF ﬂipped r elat ive t o t he t r ansmit t er /upconver sion convent ion. When
Mixer 2 is used for t r ansmit t er /upconver sion applicat ions, RF t her efor e r efer s t o t he
input signal and IF r efer s t o t he out put signal.
Figur e 17. Mixer Ter minology.
The pr imar y signal of int er est at t he input of t he mixer is t he RF signal. A secondar y
signal of int er est at t he input of t he mixer is t he RF image, denot ed RFimg, deﬁned
as t he ot her input signal which r esult s in IF as a secondor der mixing pr oduct . The
input image is t ypically only of int er est for r eceiver /downconver sion applicat ions, in
which case it is given by RFimg=2*LORF. RF and RFimg=2*LORF bot h mix down
wit h LO t o gener at e IF= LORF at t he out put . The signals RF and RFimg ar e
called images of each ot her wit h r espect t o LO. If RFimg is at t enuat ed r elat ive t o RF,
we t alk about image rejection.
The pr imar y signals of int er est at t he output of t he mixer ar e  LORF and LO+RF.
Typically, one of t hese is desir ed and t he ot her is undesir ed. We r efer t o t hese t wo
signals as lower and upper sidebands. If one sideband is at t enuat ed r elat ive t o t he
ot her, we t alk about sideband suppression.
162 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
Thr oughout t he Mixer 2 document at ion, we will use t he t er ms image and r eject ion
when descr ibing input signals t o Mixer 2 and use t he t er ms sideband and suppr ession
when descr ibing out put signals fr om Mixer 2. Ot her choices ar e possible but t he
t er minology adopt ed her e is in line wit h accept ed indust r y lit er at ur e, see for example
t he exhaust ive mixer applicat ions not es fr om WJ Communicat ions. The only
except ion is t hat t he Mixer 2 SideBand par amet er cont r ols bot h t he image and t he
sideband oper at ion of t he mixer, not just t he sideband oper at ion. The r eason for t his
is compat ibilit y wit h pr evious ver sions of Mixer 2.
Basic Implementation
The basic implement at ion of Mixer 2 is a Noisy2Por t cascaded wit h an SDD. The
par amet er s NF, NFmin, Sopt , Rn and Z1 ar e passed t o t he Noisy2Por t and noise is
gener at ed. The signal is not affect ed by t he gener at ion of noise but goes unalt er ed
t hr ough t he Noisy2Por t . All par amet er s except NF, NFmin, Sopt and Rn ar e t hen
passed t o t he SDD and t he signal and noise goes t hr ough t he SDD. The SDD
implement s a linear mixer which allows compr ession fr om RF t o IF and fr om RF t o
LO. Differ ent cir cuit t opologies ar e used for r ealizing sideband suppr ession and
image r eject ion mixer s, but t he over all implement at ion is t he same – a Noisy2Por t
cascaded wit h an SDD. This basic knowledge of t he implement at ion may help
under st and some of t he following sect ions.
Sideband Suppression and Image Rejection
A mixer can pass bot h t he lower and t he upper input image, r eject t he lower input
image, or r eject t he upper input image. Similar ly, a mixer can gener at e bot h t he lower
and t he upper out put sideband, gener at e t he lower sideband only, or gener at e t he
upper sideband only. Var ious combinat ions of t hese ar e possible. To explain t he image
r eject ion and sideband suppr ession feat ur es for Mixer 2, we will look at a
r eceiver /downconver sion example.
Given RF and LO for a downconver t ing mixer, we have IF= LORF . Also of int er est
is t he RF image given by RFimg=2*LORF. If RF is below LO, RFimg is above LO.
Similar ly, if RF is above LO, RFimg is below LO. We will use RF1 t o denot e t he signal
below LO and RF2 t o denot e t he signal above LO. If RF=RF1, t hen RFimg=RF2.
Similar ly, if RF=RF2, t hen RFimg=RF1. RF1 and RF2 bot h mix down t o
LORF1=RF2LO. RF1 and RF2 mix up t o RF1+LO and RF2+LO. This is illust r at ed
in Figur e 18.
CurveFitting Algorithm 163
Figur e 18. Fr equency Plan for Image Reject ion and Sideband Suppr ession.
We will use t his t o explain t he ﬁve suppor t ed SideBand par amet er s and t he use of
Out put SidebandSuppr ession and Input ImageReject ion. Not e t hat t his illust r at ion
has a r eceiver /downconver sion bias as LO~RF. For a t r ansmit t er /upconver sion
applicat ion, RF would gener ally be much closer t o zer o and LO would gener ally be
much closer t o  LORF and LO+RF. However, all pr inciples r emain t he same and
we can use t he above example t o explain all SideBand opt ions.
For SideBand=BOTH, bot h input images ar e passed t hr ough t he mixer wit hout
r eject ion and bot h out put sidebands ar e gener at ed wit hout suppr ession. This mode is
t he default for Mixer 2. A nor mal cir cuit level mixer wit hout ext er nal ﬁlt er ing
oper at es in t his manner. Out put SidebandSuppr ession and Input ImageReject ion ar e
ignor ed for t his mode. This is illust r at ed in Figur e 19.
Figur e 19. Mixer 2 image/sideband oper at ion for SideBand=BOTH.
For SideBand=LOWER, bot h input images ar e passed t hr ough t he mixer wit hout
r eject ion and t he undesir ed upper out put sideband is suppr essed by t he amount
given by Out put SidebandSuppr ession r elat ive t o t he desir ed lower out put sideband.
This mode is a downconver sion mode used for r eceiver applicat ions. The default
value for Out put SidebandSuppr ession is 200 dB. Input ImageReject ion is ignor ed for
t his mode. This is illust r at ed in Figur e 110.
164 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
Figur e 110. Mixer 2 image/sideband oper at ion for SideBand=LOWER.
For SideBand=UPPER, bot h input images ar e passed t hr ough t he mixer wit hout
r eject ion and t he undesir ed lower out put sideband is suppr essed by t he amount given
by Out put SidebandSuppr ession r elat ive t o t he desir ed upper out put sideband. This
mode is an upconver sion mode used for t r ansmit t er applicat ions. The default value
for Out put SidebandSuppr ession is 200 dB. Input ImageReject ion is ignor ed for t his
mode. This is illust r at ed in Figur e 111.
Figur e 111. Mixer 2 image/sideband oper at ion for SideBand=UPPER.
For SideBand=LOWER IMAGE REJ ECTION, t he lower input image is r eject ed by
t he amount given by Input ImageReject ion r elat ive t o t he upper input image and bot h
out put sidebands ar e suppr essed by t he amount given by Input ImageReject ion. This
upper sideband behavior is not int uit ive but since t his mode is almost exclusively
used for r eceiver /downconver sion applicat ions, t he upper out put sideband is
gener ally not of much int er est . The default value for Input ImageReject ion is 200 dB.
Out put SidebandSuppr ession is ignor ed for t his mode. This is illust r at ed in
Figur e 112.
CurveFitting Algorithm 165
Figur e 112. Mixer 2 image/sideband oper at ion for
SideBand=LOWER IMAGE REJ ECTION.
For SideBand=UPPER IMAGE REJ ECTION, t he upper input image is r eject ed by
t he amount given by Input ImageReject ion r elat ive t o t he lower input image and bot h
out put sidebands ar e gener at ed wit hout suppr ession. Since t his mode is almost
exclusively used for r eceiver /downconver sion applicat ions, t he upper out put
sideband is gener ally not of much int er est . The default value for
Input ImageReject ion is 200 dB. Out put SidebandSuppr ession is ignor ed for t his
mode. This is illust r at ed in Figur e 113.
Figur e 113. Mixer 2 image/sideband oper at ion for
SideBand=UPPER IMAGE REJ ECTION.
Ot her combinat ions of input image r eject ion and out put sideband suppr ession exist
which ar e not suppor t ed by Mixer 2. None of t hese modes ar e of much pr act ical
r elevance.
The Input ImageReject ion and Out put SidebandSuppr ession par amet er s do not
suppor t image or sideband enhancement . The input image r eject ion and out put
sideband suppr ession is abs (Input ImageReject ion) and abs
(Out put SidebandSuppr ession). The signs of Input ImageReject ion and
Out put SidebandSuppr ession do not mat t er.
The oper at ion of Mixer 2 for SideBand=BOTH emulat es t he behavior of a single
mixer. The oper at ion of Mixer 2 for SideBand=LOWER and SideBand=UPPER
emulat es t he behavior of a single mixer wit h a ﬁlt er at t he out put . The oper at ion of
166 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
Mixer 2 for SideBand=LOWER IMAGE REJ ECTION and SideBand=UPPER IMAGE
REJ ECTION emulat es t he behavior of a mixing subsyst em const r uct ed fr om t wo
single mixer s, a phase shift er, and possibly ot her component s.
Since cir cuit level mixer s pass bot h input images and gener at e bot h out put
sidebands, a pr act ical design pr ocess will t ypically end up using Mixer 2 wit h
SideBand=BOTH when t he design is ﬁnalized. This, however, does not r ender t he
ot her four modes any less valuable. If a design uses a mixer suppr essing t he
lower /upper out put sideband, SideBand=UPPER or SideBand=LOWER will t ypically
be used in t he beginning st ages of t he design pr ocess. As t he design is ﬁnalized and
mor e physical r ealism is desir ed, a swit ch t o SideBand=BOTH can be made and
out put ﬁlt er s can be added. Similar ly, if a design uses a mixing subsyst em r eject ing
t he lower /upper input image, SideBand=LOWER IMAGE REJ ECTION or
SideBand=UPPER IMAGE REJ ECTION will t ypically be used in t he beginning
st ages of t he design pr ocess. As t he design is ﬁnalized and mor e physical r ealism is
desir ed, a swit ch t o SideBand=BOTH can be made and an act ual image r eject ion
mixing subsyst em can be built fr om mixer s wit h SideBand=BOTH. Such design
pr ocesses t ake advant age of many feat ur es offer ed by Mixer 2.
Linear Behavior
The linear behavior of Mixer 2 is descr ibed by t he conver sion gain ConvGain, t he
r ever se conver sion gain RevConvGain, and t he nine r eﬂect ion/leakage/isolat ion
par amet er s (Spar amet er s) SPij (i,j=1,2,3).
The ConvGain par amet er is t he conver sion gain fr om RF t o IF. It is applied t o t he
lower sideband  RFLO and t he upper sideband RF+LO. Eit her of t hese sidebands
can t hen be suppr essed by Out put SidebandSuppr ession, as descr ibed in t he
“Sideband Suppr ession and Image Reject ion” sect ion.
If ConvGain is r eal, it will simply scale t he out put sidebands. To under st and t he
behavior of Mixer 2 when ConvGain is complex, consider a Mixer 2 wit h
SideBand=BOTH. Given an LO, we consider RF1 below LO and RF2 above LO. In a
Har monic Balance simulat ion, Mixer 2 will downconver t t o  RF1LO =LORF1 and
 RF2LO =RF2LO and upconver t t o RF1+LO and RF2+LO. If signals wit h
nonzer o phases ar e applied at RF1 and RF2, t he phases will t r ansfer dir ect ly t o t he
out put t ones at RF2LO, RF1+LO and RF2+LO. However, t he phase at LORF1 will
be inver t ed. The r eason is t hat RF1LO is a negat ive fr equency and t hat t he
simulat or t her efor e solves for t he r esult at t he cor r esponding posit ive fr equency
(RF1LO)=LORF1 and t hen conjugat es t he r esult . This conjugat ion is what
manifest s it self in t he phase r ever sal for t he LORF1 out put t one. It has not hing t o do
wit h Mixer 2. It is a Har monic Balance concept which can also be seen wit h Mixer and
CurveFitting Algorithm 167
VMult . For Mixer 2, t he phase of ConvGain is applied in an analogous manner. It is
applied befor e t he mixing of RF wit h LO t akes place and befor e any compr ession fr om
RF t o LO is applied, not aft er. The phase of ConvGain is t her efor e subject ed t o t he
mixing pr ocess which means, per above, t hat t he phase of ConvGain will be added t o
t he out put t ones at RF2LO, RF1+LO and RF2+LO but subt r act ed fr om t he out put
t one at LORF1. Mixer, on t he ot her hand, simply applies t he phase of ConvGain t o
all out put t ones r egar dless of any mixing t aking place. The appr oach for Mixer 2 is
consist ent wit h t he under lying mixing pr ocess and appear s much mor e appealing
t han t hat for Mixer.
The RevConvGain par amet er, t he r ever se conver sion gain fr om IF t o RF, is similar t o
ConvGain, except no compr ession is associat ed wit h RevConvGain. Also, t he phase of
RevConvGain is applied aft er t he mixing, not befor e. For most applicat ions,
RevConvGain will be zer o.
The SPij (i,j=1,2,3) par amet er s descr ibe t he por t r eﬂect ion and por t t opor t
leakage/isolat ion for t he mixer. Mixer 2 is a t hr eepor t device and in line wit h
est ablished t heor y for gener alized Spar amet er s we denot e t he volt ages and cur r ent s
at por t n by vn and in and deﬁne t he input and out put waves at each por t as:
wit h Zn being t he r efer ence impedance for por t n. This is illust r at ed in Figur e 114.
Figur e 114. Deﬁnit ion of Volt ages, Cur r ent s and Waves.
The nine Spar amet er s SPij (i,j=1,2,3) ar e t hen deﬁned t hr ough
b1 = SP11*a1 + SP12*a2 + SP13*a3
b2 = SP21*a1_poly + SP22*a2 + SP23*a3
an v n Z n
∗
i n + ( ) 2
∗
Z n ( ) ⁄ =
bn v n Z n
∗
i n + ( ) 2
∗
Z n ( ) ⁄ =
168 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
b3 = SP31*a1_poly + SP32*a2 + SP33*a3
wher e, r elat ive t o nor mal gener alized Spar amet er s, t wo inst ances of a1 have been
r eplaced by a1_poly which is t he a1 wave wit h polynomial compr ession t aken int o
account .
SP11, SP21 and SP31 oper at e on a1 or a1_poly and ar e t her efor e deﬁned at t he
fr equencies pr esent at t he RF por t . SP11*a1, SP21*a1_poly and SP31*a1_poly ar e
t her efor e cont r ibut ions at t he RF/IF/LO por t at t he fr equencies pr esent at t he RF
por t . Similar ly, SP12, SP22 and SP32 oper at e on a2 and ar e t her efor e deﬁned at t he
fr equencies pr esent at t he IF por t . SP12*a2, SP22*a2 and SP32*a2 ar e t her efor e
cont r ibut ions at t he RF/IF/LO por t at t he fr equencies pr esent at t he IF por t .
Similar ly, SP13, SP23 and SP33 oper at e on a3 and ar e t her efor e deﬁned at t he
fr equencies pr esent at t he LO por t . SP13*a3, SP23*a3 and SP33*a3 ar e t her efor e
cont r ibut ions at t he RF/IF/LO por t at t he fr equencies pr esent at t he LO por t . All
t hr ee por t s have cont r ibut ions at all fr equencies. If SPij wer e nor mal gener alized
Spar amet er s for a t hr eepor t , bi, aj and SPij would all be deﬁned at t he same
fr equency. The ext ension t o t he case of mult iple fr equencies appear s nat ur al so
Spar amet er t er minology was chosen for Mixer 2.
SP11 is t he RF r eﬂect ion, SP12 is t he IF t o RF leakage/isolat ion, SP13 is t he LO t o
RF leakage/isolat ion, SP21 is t he RF t o IF leakage/isolat ion, SP22 is t he IF r eﬂect ion,
SP23 is t he LO t o IF leakage/isolat ion, SP31 is t he RF t o LO leakage/isolat ion, SP32
is t he IF t o LO leakage/isolat ion, and SP33 is t he LO r eﬂect ion.
ConvGain, RevConvGain and SPij (i,j=1,2,3) ar e speciﬁed as complex number s. Use
t he funct ions polar (magnit ude,angle), dbpolar (dB, angle), or VSWRpolar (VSWR,
angle) t o conver t t he ConvGain, RevConvGain and SPij speciﬁcat ions int o complex
number s. For example, if a r eﬂect ion/leakage is X dB, use dbpolar (X,0).
ConvGain, RevConvGain and SPij (i,j=1,2,3) ar e volt age gains and not power gains.
For inst ance, a mixer wit h ConvGain=polar (10,0) will scale t he volt age by a fact or of
10 fr om input t o out put and will t her efor e r esult in a 20 dB incr ease in power.
ConvGain=dbpolar (10,0), on t he ot her hand, will r esult in a 10 dB incr ease in power.
As out lined above, SPij (i,j=1,2,3) ar e wavebased. The same is t r ue for RevConvGain.
ConvGain, on t he ot her hand, is volt agebased, not wavebased. ConvGain applies t o
t he input volt age, not t he input wave. However, ConvGain is not blindly applied t o
t he input volt age v1 at t he RF por t . Doing so would make t he RF t o IF conver sion
dependent on SP11 as a modiﬁed SP11 r esult s in a differ ent b1 and t her efor e changes
v1. In keeping wit h t he measur ement st andar ds used t o deﬁne mixer conver sion gain
at t he syst em level, t he r eﬂect ed wave due t o SP11 is not included. This means t hat if
we change SP11 fr om 0 t o somet hing ﬁnit e, we will see no change in IF out put power
CurveFitting Algorithm 169
because t he r eﬂect ed wave is not t aken int o account when mixing fr om RF t o IF. The
same holds t r ue for Spar amet er s. Wit h a ﬁxed SP21, t he RF t o IF leakage does not
depend on SP11. This applies t o ot her Spar amet er s in an analogous manner.
To illust r at e t he differ ence bet ween waveand volt agebased par amet er s, consider a
mixer wit h an RF sour ce, LO sour ce and IF t er minat ion. The RF input wave a1 is
ﬁnit e but t he RF out put wave b1 is zer o. Similar ly, t he LO input wave a3 is ﬁnit e but
t he LO out put wave b3 is zer o. The mixing r esult s in a ﬁnit e IF out put wave b2 but
t he IF input wave a2 is zer o. Now add LO t o RF leakage t hr ough a ﬁnit e LO_Rej1
(Mixer ) or SP13 (Mixer 2) par amet er. This will r esult in a signal at t he LO fr equency
at t he RF por t and gener at e a ﬁnit e b1 wave. Assuming no r eﬂect ion at t he RF
sour ce, t his will not change t he a1 wave. The a1 wave will not have any cont ent at t he
LO fr equency.
Mixer has a wavebased ConvGain par amet er. The RF t o IF conver sion is based on
t he a1 wave. Since t he a1 wave does not change when a ﬁnit e LO_Rej1 is added,
neit her will t he RF t o IF conver sion. Speciﬁcally, no RF signal at t he LO fr equency
will mix wit h LO t o pr oduce IF out put at DC and t wice t he LO fr equency. Thus, Mixer
will pr oduce zer o DC out put . Mixer 2, on t he ot her hand, has a volt agebased
ConvGain par amet er. The RF t o IF conver sion is based on t he RF input volt age, not
t he a1 wave. Since t he RF input volt age changes when a ﬁnit e SP13 is added, so will
t he conver sion. Speciﬁcally, t he RF signal at t he LO fr equency will mix wit h LO t o
pr oduce, absent of sideband suppr ession, IF out put at DC and t wice t he LO
fr equency. Thus, Mixer 2 will pr oduce a ﬁnit e DC out put . However, not e t hat t hat
Mixer 2 will not pr oduce a dir ect feedt hr ough IF out put at t he LO fr equency if SP21
is ﬁnit e. The Spar amet er s, as st at ed above, ar e wavebased, not volt agebased. They
oper at e on a1, not v1.
Nonlinear Behavior
The nonlinear behavior of Mixer 2 is descr ibed by a number of differ ent list  and
ﬁlebased opt ions for specifying compr ession. A polynomial compr ession model is
used. For det ailed infor mat ion about t he polynomial modeling of compr ession, please
see “Modeling Basics” on page 122 and “AM t o PM Conver sion” on page 127 in t he
document at ion for Ampliﬁer 2. The compr ession opt ions for Mixer 2 and Ampliﬁer 2
ar e ident ical, as is t he under lying modeling.
Ampliﬁer 2 applies compr ession fr om it s input t o it s out put . In an analogous manner,
Mixer 2 applies compr ession fr om RF t o IF. In addit ion, Mixer 2 also applies t he same
compr ession fr om RF t o LO. Ther e is no guar ant ee t hat t he compr ession fr om RF t o
LO is t he same as t hat fr om RF t o IF for an act ual mixer, but applying t his
170 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
compr ession fr om RF t o LO seems mor e r easonable t han t o not apply compr ession
fr om RF t o LO.
LO Limiting
Under t ypical oper at ing condit ions, a cir cuit level mixer ’s LO is sat ur at ed. This
means t hat t he RF t o IF mixing pr ocess is insensit ive t o t he act ual value of t he LO
signal. A small ﬂuct uat ion in LO power will not change t he RF t o IF mixing. A mixer
is not a volt age mult iplier. To mimic t his behavior for Mixer 2, t he LO is limit ed.
Mixer limit s t he LO based on a ﬁlt er ed det ect or signal. Pr ior t o Release 2004A,
Mixer 2 limit ed t he LO based on t he magnit ude of t he Hilber t t r ansfor m of t he LO
signal. St ar t ing in Release 2004A, Mixer 2 allows limit ing based on bot h a ﬁlt er ed
det ect or signal and t he magnit ude of t he Hilber t t r ansfor m of t he LO signal, wit h t he
lat t er being t he default . Inst ead of t he br ick wall DConly ﬁlt er used for Mixer, it is
now a single pole r olloff wit h a var iable bandwidt h speciﬁed by Det BW. For
ext r emely lar ge bandwidt hs (1e12 Hz and above), t his swit ches t o Hilber t t r ansfor m
limit ing. Hilber t t r ansfor m limit ing (lar ge Det BW values) is best for bandpass LO
wavefor ms wit h mult iple signals but does r at her poor ly when an LO wit h signiﬁcant
har monics is used, as analyt ic signal calculat ions such as inst ant aneous magnit ude
do not apply t o br oadband signals. For an LO wit h signiﬁcant har monics, ﬁlt er ed
det ect or signal limit ing (small Det BW values) should be used.
A cir cuit level mixer has an LO power level below which it s behavior changes
dr amat ically. To mimic t his behavior for Mixer 2, Mixer 2 has a PminLO par amet er
which set s a limit for t he effect of t he LO power on t he mixer ’s conver sion gain.
Mixer 2 adds t his power level t o t he limit ed LO power level (limit ed via a ﬁlt er ed
det ect or signal for Det BW<=1e12 Hz and via t he magnit ude of t he Hilber t t r ansfor m
for Det BW>1e12 Hz) in or der t o ar r ive at t he t ot al LO power level. Not e t hat t he
model does not simply swit ch t o using PminLO when t he limit ed LO power level falls
below PminLO. It is a gr adual t r ansit ion and not a t hr eshold. When t he limit ed LO
power level is much lar ger t han PminLO, t he effect of PminLO on t he conver sion gain
is negligible. As t he limit ed LO power level appr oaches PminLO, t he conver sion gain
will depend on t he value of PminLO in a nonlinear manner. If t his is undesir able,
lower PminLO.
The LO power is not a ﬁxed quant it y but is comput ed dynamically fr om t he signal at
t he LO por t . This means t hat Mixer 2’s conver sion gain will var y depending on t he
fr equency cont ent of t he LO signal. Fr equency cont ent ot her t han t he pr imar y LO
signal could come fr om har monics of t he pr imar y LO signal or fr om spur ious LO
signals. If t he dependence of t he LO power on t he LO fr equency cont ent is undesir ed,
a bandpass ﬁlt er can be added t o t he LO pat h.
CurveFitting Algorithm 171
Filt er ed det ect or signal limit ing and Hilber t t r ansfor m limit ing behave differ ent ly
when an LO sideband ent er s Mixer 2. Consider t he case of RF=0.1 GHz, LO=1.0 GHz,
 LORF =0.1 GHz, and LO+RF=1.9 GHz. Assuming an RF power of 20 dBm, an LO
power of 0 dBm and a conver sion gain of 0 dB, we get 20 dBm IF power at bot h
sidebands. Now add a 1.01 GHz t one at 30 dBm at LO. Filt er ed det ect or signal
limit ing gives zer o power at 0.09 GHz and 1.89 GHz and 50 dBm power at 0.11 GHz
and 1.91 GHz. Hilber t t r ansfor m limit ing, on t he ot her hand, gener at es
int er modulat ion pr oduct s and gives 56 dBm power at 0.09 GHz, 0.11 GHz, 1.89 GHz,
and 1.91 GHz. This suppor t s t he r ecommendat ion t o use Hilber t t r ansfor m limit ing
(high Det BWvalues, t he default for Mixer 2) unless signiﬁcant har monics ar e pr esent
at LO.
Mixer 2 does not have an LO common mode leakage par amet er which would allow t he
speciﬁcat ion of t he amount of LO common mode leakage t o be pr esent at t he out put .
For a t wot one LO, t he LO common mode leakage is t he level of t he sum and
differ ence int er modulat ion pr oduct s of t he t wo LO t ones. A wor kar ound t o r ealize
t his is t o add an Ampliﬁer 2 component in t he LO pat h, set it s SOI/TOI par amet er s t o
gener at e t he appr opr iat e sum/differ ence t ones, and set SP23 on Mixer 2 t o leak t hese
t ones fr om LO t o IF.
Noise
Given t he minimum noise ﬁgur e NFmin (r eal), t he opt imal r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient Sopt
(complex), t he noise r esist ance Rn (r eal), t he noise r efer ence impedance Rr ef (r eal),
and t he sour ce admit t ance Ys (complex), t he noise ﬁgur e NF of an ampliﬁer is
det er mined by
Not e t hat t his is independent of t he ampliﬁer Spar amet er s.
The noise behavior of Ampliﬁer 2 is char act er ized by t he four noise par amet er s NF,
NFmin, Sopt and Rn and t he r efer ence impedance Z1 for por t 1. Ampliﬁer 2 is
implement ed as a Noisy2Por t cascaded wit h an SDD. The abovement ioned ﬁve
par amet er s cont r ol t he par amet er s for t he Noisy2Por t , t he Noisy2Por t gener at es a
Y opt
1
R ref

1 S opt –
1 S opt +
 × =
Fm i n 10
N Fm i n 10 ⁄
=
F Fm i n
R n
R eal Y s [ ]
 Y s Y opt – ×
2
+ =
N F 10 F ( ) log × =
172 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
noise volt age on it s out put and t his noise volt age is passed t hr ough t he SDD in t he
same manner as t he signal.
The noise behavior of Mixer 2 mimics t hat of Ampliﬁer 2. Similar t o Ampliﬁer 2,
Mixer 2 is implement ed as a Noisy2Por t cascaded wit h an SDD. The par amet er s NF,
NFmin, Sopt , Rn and Z1 ar e passed t o t he Noisy2Por t and noise is gener at ed. The
signal is not affect ed by t he gener at ion of noise but goes unalt er ed t hr ough t he
Noisy2Por t . All par amet er s except NF, NFmin, Sopt and Rn ar e t hen passed t o t he
SDD and t he signal and noise goes t hr ough t he SDD. The Noisy2Por t par t of Mixer 2
is ident ical t o t hat of Ampliﬁer 2 and t he noise at t he out put of t he Noisy2Por t for
Ampliﬁer 2 and Mixer 2 will consequent ly be t he same if t he noise par amet er s and
r efer ence impedances ar e t he same. The differ ence bet ween Ampliﬁer 2 and Mixer 2 is
t he SDD t hat follows t he Noisy2Por t .
NFonly mode is used for NFmin=0. This is a special case wher e only one noise
par amet er must be speciﬁed. In t his case, t he Noisy2Por t has t he par amet er s
NFmin=NF, Sopt =0, and Rn=Z1/4 × (10
NF/10
1). The r efer ence impedance for t he
noise calculat ion (not available on t he Noisy2Por t user int er face) is Z1. The
NFmin=0, Sopt and Rn par amet er s ar e ignor ed.
(NFmin, Sopt , Rn) mode is used for NFmin>0. This is a mor e gener al case t han
NFonly mode. In t his case, t he Noisy2Por t has t he par amet er s NFmin=NFmin,
Sopt =Sopt , and Rn=Rn. The r efer ence impedance for t he noise calculat ion (not
available on t he Noisy2Por t user int er face) is Z1. The NF par amet er is ignor ed.
Given an out put noise volt age vn, t he single sideband noise ﬁgur e NFssb and t he
double sideband noise ﬁgur e NFdsb ar e given by
NFssb=10*log((vn
2
/R+k × T0 × (G1 + G2 +...)) / (k × T0 × G1))
NFdsb=10*log((vn
2
/R+k × T0 × (G1+ G2 + ...)) / (k × T0 × (G1 + G2 + ...)))
wher e R is t he out put r esist ance, k=1.380658e23 J /K is Bolt zmann’s const ant ,
T0=290 K is t he st andar d noise t emper at ur e, G1 is t he pr imar y power gain fr om t he
input noise fr equency t o t he out put noise fr equency, and G2+... is t he sum of all
higher or der mixing gains which mix fr om some input fr equency t o t he out put noise
fr equency. For an ampliﬁer, G2+... is zer o under smallsignal oper at ion. The same
holds t r ue for a mixer wit h input image r eject ion. For a mixer wit hout input image
r eject ion, G2 is signiﬁcant and oft en equal t o G1 under smallsignal oper at ion while
G3+... is zer o under smallsignal condit ions. vn
2
/R r epr esent s t he noise added by t he
component (s) while k × T0 r epr esent s t he noise power available fr om t he input
t er minat ion.
CurveFitting Algorithm 173
The document at ion for Ampliﬁer 2 out lines how Ampliﬁer 2 calculat es noise volt ages
and noise ﬁgur es in var ious cases and compar es t his t o t he behavior of Ampliﬁer. Due
t o t he similar it ies bet ween Ampliﬁer 2 and Mixer 2, much of t his mat er ial is also
r elevant for Mixer 2. As ment ioned above, t he differ ence bet ween Ampliﬁer 2 and
Mixer 2 is not t he gener at ion of noise by t he Noisy2Por t but how t his noise is
t r anslat ed t hr ough t he SDD t hat follows. For mor e infor mat ion about noise volt ages,
please see t he document at ion for Ampliﬁer 2.
The NFonly and (NFmin,Sopt ,Rn) noise modes ar e cover ed above and many det ails
about t he comput at ion of noise volt ages for Noisy2Por t ar e given in t he Ampliﬁer 2
document at ion. The last r emaining aspect t o be under st ood is t he inﬂuence of
SideBand, Out put SidebandSuppr ession and Input ImageReject ion on t he noise
volt ages and noise ﬁgur es.
To t his end, consider a Mixer 2 wit h a given LO. We choose RF<LO. The lower out put
sideband is LSB=LORF and t he upper out put sideband is USB=RF+LO. The input
image for downconver sion is LSB_Img=2*LORF (LSB_Img mixes down wit h LO t o
give LSB) and t he input image for upconver sion is USB_Img=2*LO+RF (USB_Img
mixes up wit h LO t o give USB). This is illust r at ed in Figur e 115.
Figur e 115. Fr equency plan for noise comput at ion.
We will use Mixer 2 in NFonly mode. The r esult s car r y over dir ect ly t o
(NFmin,Sopt ,Rn) mode. We oper at e t he mixer at low RF power s. We let NF=5.00 dB.
Since NF is t he double sideband noise ﬁgur e, we expect Mixer 2 t o give NFdsb=NF in
all cases. This is exact ly what Mixer 2 gives, see Table 15. NFssb, on t he ot her hand,
depends on SideBand, Out put SidebandSuppr ession and Input ImageReject ion. Fr om
t he expr essions for NFssb and NFdsb, we see t hat
NFssb=NFdsb+10*log((G1 + G2 +...) / G1)
Let t ing all gain t er ms above G2 t o zer o and subst it ut ing NF for NFdsb, we expect
NFssb=NF+10*log(1 + G2 / G1)
In t he following, we will explain t he inﬂuence of SideBand,
Out put SidebandSuppr ession and Input ImageReject ion on NFssb.
174 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
For SideBand=BOTH, we get NFssb=8.01 dB=NF+3.01 dB for bot h t he lower and t he
upper sideband. Out put SidebandSuppr ession and Input ImageReject ion ar e bot h
ignor ed in t his case. Since t his case offer s no image r eject ion, we have G2=G1 and t he
expr ession for NFssb conﬁr ms t he r esult by Mixer 2.
For SideBand=LOWER IMAGE REJ ECTION and SideBand=UPPER IMAGE
REJ ECTION, we get an NFssb value t hat var ies fr om NF+3.01 dB t o NF as
Input ImageReject ion is changed fr om 0 dB (no r eject ion, same as SideBand=BOTH)
t o 200 dB. Since t hese SideBand modes ar e int ended for downconver sion
Table 15. Noise Results
LSB USB
SideBand
Rejection/
dB
Suppression/
dB
NF/
dB
v.noise/
pV
NFdsb/
dB
NFssb/
dB
NFdsb/
dB
NFssb/
dB
BOTH
N/A N/A 5.00 930.5 5.00 8.01 5.00 N/A
LOWER
IM REJ
0 N/A 5.00 930.5 5.00 8.01 N/A N/A
LOWER
IM REJ
10 N/A 5.00 690.0 5.00 5.41 N/A N/A
LOWER
IM REJ
200 N/A 5.00 657.9 5.00 5.00 N/A N/A
UPPER
IM REJ
0 N/A 5.00 930.5 5.00 8.01 N/A N/A
UPPER
IM REJ
10 N/A 5.00 690.0 5.00 5.41 N/A N/A
UPPER
IM REJ
200 N/A 5.00 657.9 5.00 5.00 N/A N/A
LOWER
N/A 0 5.00 930.5 5.00 8.01 N/A N/A
LOWER
N/A 10 5.00 930.5 5.00 8.01 N/A N/A
LOWER
N/A 200 5.00 930.5 5.00 8.01 N/A N/A
UPPER
N/A 0 5.00 930.5 N/A N/A 5.00 8.01
UPPER
N/A 10 5.00 690.0 N/A N/A 5.00 5.41
UPPER
N/A 200 5.00 657.9 N/A N/A 5.00 5.00
CurveFitting Algorithm 175
applicat ions only, t he noise ﬁgur e for t he upper sideband does not mat t er.
Out put SidebandSuppr ession is ignor ed in t his case. Wit h no r eject ion, we have
G2=G1 and t he expr ession for NFssb conﬁr ms t he r esult by Mixer 2. Wit h full
r eject ion, we have G2=0 and t he expr ession for NFssb conﬁr ms t he r esult by Mixer 2.
In bet ween, we have G2=10^(Input ImageReject ion/10)*G1 and expect t o get
NFssb=NF+10*log(1+10^(Input ImageReject ion/10)). For Input ImageReject ion=10,
t his evaluat es t o NFssb=NF+0.41 dB and conﬁr ms t he r esult by Mixer 2.
For SideBand=LOWER, we get NFssb=NF+3.01 dB as Out put SidebandSuppr ession
is changed fr om 0 dB (no suppr ession, same as SideBand=BOTH) t o 200 dB. Since
t his SideBand mode is int ended for downconver sion applicat ions only, t he noise
ﬁgur e for t he upper sideband does not mat t er. Input ImageReject ion is ignor ed in t his
case. Wit h no suppr ession, we have G2=G1 and t he expr ession for NFssb conﬁr ms t he
r esult by Mixer 2. As we change Out put SidebandSuppr ession, all we do is change t he
conver sion gain t o t he upper sideband. This should have no effect on t he noise in t he
lower sideband, our sideband of int er est . Indeed, we keep having G2=G1 and t he
expr ession for NFssb conﬁr ms t he r esult by Mixer 2.
For SideBand=UPPER, we get an NFssb value t hat var ies fr om NF+3.01 dB t o NF as
Out put SidebandSuppr ession is changed fr om 0 dB (no suppr ession, same as
SideBand=BOTH) t o 200 dB. Since t his SideBand mode is int ended for
upconver sion applicat ions only, t he noise ﬁgur e for t he lower sideband does not
mat t er. Input ImageReject ion is ignor ed in t his case. Wit h no suppr ession, we have
G2=G1 and t he expr ession for NFssb conﬁr ms t he r esult by Mixer 2. As we change
Out put SidebandSuppr ession, we change t he conver sion gain t o t he lower sideband.
As for SideBand=LOWER, we might expect t his t o have no effect on t he noise in t he
upper sideband, our sideband of int er est . However, t he input image USB_Img is
above USB in t his case and t her efor e is subject ed t o t he conver sion gain t o t he lower
sideband which is being changed by Out put SidebandSuppr ession. An upper sideband
mixer is, in effect , an image r eject ion mixer. Wit h full suppr ession, we have G2=0 and
t he expr ession for NFssb conﬁr ms t he r esult by Mixer 2. In bet ween, we have
G2=10^(Out put SidebandSuppr ession/10)*G1 and expect t o get
NFssb=NF+10*log(1+10^(Out put SidebandSuppr ession/10)). For
Out put SidebandSuppr ession=10, t his evaluat es t o NFssb=NF+0.41 dB and conﬁr ms
t he r esult by Mixer 2.
Noise can be cont r ibut ed and lower ed in sever al ways. To see t his, consider a
downconver t ing mixer wit h a cer t ain RF and LO. IF is  RFLO and RFimg is
2*LORF. Out put noise at IF can be a r esult of noise at RF and RFimg mixing wit h
LO t o cont r ibut e noise at IF but can also be a r esult of noise at IF leaking dir ect ly
t hr ough t he mixer fr om RF or LO if it has a ﬁnit e RF/LO t o IF leakage. This out put
176 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
noise at IF can be lower ed if t he mixer is an image r eject ion mixer t hat r eject s t he
signal/noise cont r ibut ion at RFimg or if t he mixer has no RF/LO t o IF leakage. In t he
absence of a mixer wit h such pr oper t ies, out put noise at IF can be lower ed ext er nal t o
t he mixer by adding ﬁlt er s at t he RF and LO por t s which eliminat e t he input noise at
RFimg and IF (RF por t ) and IF (LO por t ). Eliminat ing t he noise at RF is much har der
since adding a ﬁlt er at RF will also eliminat e t he desir ed signal at RF.
Notes/Equations
1. Mixer 2 is int r oduced as a r eplacement for Mixer for anyt hing but fr equency
conver sion AC analysis (see not e 3). To change an exist ing Mixer component t o
a Mixer 2 component , change t he name fr om Mixer t o Mixer 2 on t he schemat ic.
Many par amet er s for t he t wo models ar e t he same and Mixer 2 will adopt t he
values for Mixer, making par amet er r eent r y unnecessar y. The only except ion is
t hat t he par amet er s SideBand, GainCompType and Refer ToInput will t ake
t heir default values BOTH, LIST and OUTPUT, r espect ively, r egar dless of t he
values t hese par amet er s had for Mixer. The Mixer par amet er s ImageRej,
LO_Rej1, LO_Rej2, RF_Rej, S11, S22 and S33 cor r espond t o t he Mixer 2
par amet er s Out put SidebandSuppr ession, SP13, SP23, SP21, SP11, SP22 and
SP33 and will have t o be r eent er ed. In addit ion, Mixer 2 has t he new
par amet er s Input ImageReject ion, SP12, SP31, SP32, Det BW, AM2PM,
PAM2PM and ClipDat aFile whose values cannot be deduced fr om Mixer and
will t her efor e t ake t heir default values. Also, t he Mixer display set t ings will be
ignor ed. Mixer 2 will adopt it s default set t ings, displaying SideBand and
ConvGain. Table 16 summar izes t he major differ ences bet ween Mixer and
Mixer 2
CurveFitting Algorithm 177
Table 16. Major Differ ences bet ween Mixer and Mixer 2.
2. For a t ut or ial example of how t o use Mixer 2 in var ious cases, see
examples/Tut or ial/Mixer 2_Example_pr j. For ot her examples of how t o use
Mixer 2, sear ch t he ADS examples for t he Mixer 2 component .
3. Mixer suppor t s fr equency conver sion AC (FCAC) analysis for smallsignal AC
or Spar amet er analysis, while Mixer 2 does not . This capabilit y allows
smallsignal fr equency analysis t r adit ionally done at only one fr equency t o be
somewhat ext ended t o deal wit h mor e t han one fr equency. It is not as accur at e
as har monic balance analysis. If FCAC analysis is needed, use Mixer. If not , use
Mixer 2.
4. Mixer 2 does not suppor t complex r efer ence impedances.
5. Mixer 2 passes dc.
6. Mixer 2 is not r ecommended for baseband envelope applicat ions.
7. Mixer 2 may be slower t han Mixer for lar ge har monic balance and cir cuit
envelope simulat ions.
8. When using Mixer 2 in t r ansient simulat ions, Mixer 2 gives a war ning about
noncausalit y of t he H(2), H(15) and H(18) weight ing funct ions. Please ignor e
t his war ning.
Mixer Mixer2
Image rejection not supported Image rejection supported
Reverse conversion gain not
supported
Reverse conversion gain supported
Some leakage terms supported All leakage terms supported
Real/imaginary polynomial ﬁt Magnitude/phase polynomial ﬁt
AM to PM not supported AM to PM supported for all
magnitude modes
One type of LO limiting More ﬂexible LO limiting
Complex ConvGain leads to
nonphysical behaviors
Complex ConvGain leads to physical
behaviors
FCAC analysis supported FCAC analysis not supported
For large harmonic balance and circuit envelope simulations Mixer2 may
be slower than Mixer.
178 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
9. When set t ing up simulat ions wit h Mixer 2, make sur e t o avoid colliding t one
issues wher e mult iple mixing pr oduct s map t o t he same fr equency. Set ups wit h
colliding t ones should be changed so colliding t ones ar e eliminat ed.
10. This not e descr ibes Mixer 2 oper at ion wit h t he SOI and TOI par amet er s set .
SOI and TOI ar e used for specifying t he secondor der and t hir dor der int er cept
point s IP2 and IP3.
The gener al equat ion for t he nt h or der int er cept point IPn is
IPn=(n*P1Pn)/(n1) wher e P1 is t he power level of t he ﬁr st or der t one and Pn
is t he power level of t he nt hor der t one. The lat t er power level, however, is not
unique. It can be based on eit her har monics or int er mods, and t he t wo will
gener ally not be t he same. If t he for mula IPn= (n*P1Pn)/(n1) wor ks for one
t ype of second and t hir dor der t one, it will not wor k for t he ot her. The indust r y
st andar d for IPn is based on int er mods, and t he same goes for t he SOI and TOI
par amet er s for Mixer 2. IPn must t her efor e be validat ed using a t wot one set up,
not a onet one set up. Not e t hat IPn is deﬁned at a low power level. If IPn is
comput ed at a power level wher e eit her P1 or Pn deviat e fr om t heir lowpower
values, t he r esult s will be in er r or. Not e t hat it is not enough t hat t he
fundament al t one var ies linear ly. IPn is comput ed based on t he fundament al
t one and a higheror der int er mod so one must ensur e t hat t he higheror der
int er mod is also linear or IPn will change. Also, not e t hat IPn is deﬁned under
out put mat ched condit ions.
While t he basic deﬁnit ion of t he power levels used for comput ing IPn ar e t he
same for an ampliﬁer and a mixer, t his is not t he case for t he fr equencies at
which t hese power levels ar e evaluat ed.
For an ampliﬁer wit h t wo input t ones at f1 and f2 (assume f1<f2) at t he same
power level, a t wot one har monic balance simulat ion will r esult in ﬁr st or der
t ones at f1 and f2, secondor der int er mod pr oduct s at f2f1 and at f1+f2, and
t hir dor der int er mod pr oduct s at 2 × f1f2 (will be smaller t han f1 by f2 f1) and
2 × f2f1 (will be gr eat er t han f2 by f2f1). For comput ing IP2=SOI, we can use
t he power levels at f1 and f2f1 or we can use t he power levels at f2 and f1+f2.
For comput ing IP3=TOI, we can use t he power levels at f1 and 2 × f1f2 or we
can use t he power levels at f2 and 2 × f2f1.
For a mixer, ever yt hing is t he same except t hat all fr equencies ar e being shift ed
down (downconver t ing mixer ) or up (upconver t ing mixer ) by t he LO fr equency
LO due t o mixing. Ther efor e, all t hese fr equencies will eit her have LO
subt r act ed or added. Not e t hat t his means t hat fr om a har monic balance point
of view, IP2=SOI is calculat ed off of second and t hir dor der int er mod pr oduct s
CurveFitting Algorithm 179
and IP3=TOI is calculat ed off of second and four t hor der int er mod pr oduct s.
For comput ing IP2=SOI, we can use t he power levels at f1+/LO (secondor der
as far as t he har monic balance simulat ion is concer ned) and at f2f1+/LO
(t hir dor der as far as t he har monic balance simulat ion is concer ned) or we can
use t he power levels at f2+/LO (secondor der as far as t he har monic balance
simulat ion is concer ned) and at f1+f2+/LO (t hir dor der as far as t he har monic
balance simulat ion is concer ned). For comput ing IP3=TOI, we can use t he
power levels at f1+/LO (secondor der as far as t he har monic balance simulat ion
is concer ned) and at 2 × f1f2+/LO (four t hor der as far as t he har monic balance
simulat ion is concer ned) or we can use t he power levels at f2+/LO
(secondor der as far as t he har monic balance simulat ion is concer ned) and at
2 × f2f1+/LO (four t hor der as far as t he har monic balance simulat ion is
concer ned).
11. When t he RF por t is excit ed wit h t wo t ones, t he down/upconver t ed
sum/differ ence fr equencies ar e pr esent at t he IF por t . What about t he
sum/differ ence fr equencies t hemselves? The differ ence fr equency can be ver y
impor t ant for a zer oIF downconver t ing mixer. The answer is t hat t he
sum/differ ence fr equency level at t he IF por t depends on SP21 and SOI. For
SP21=0, t he sum/differ ence fr equency level is zer o. For ﬁnit e SP21 values, t he
sum/differ ence fr equency level depends on SOI. The sum/differ ence fr equency
level will be zer o at zer o input power and will r ise linear ly wit h t he expect ed 2:1
slope as t he input power level is incr eased. Consequent ly, t he sum/differ ence
fr equency level get s mor e and mor e signiﬁcant as t he input power get s closer
and closer t o SOI. At a high enough input power level, t he sum/differ ence
fr equency level compr esses. If SOI is excessively high, t he sum/differ ence
fr equency level r emains low for all r ealist ic input power s. The shape of t he
cur ve is det er mined by SOI and can be scaled by var ying SP21. The
sum/differ ence fr equency level will exper ience a shar p incr ease when t he mixer
st ar t s har d limit ing, r egar dless of t he SP21 and SOI values. For an explanat ion
of why t his happens, see t he “Modeling Basics” sect ion of t he Ampliﬁer 2
document at ion. All t his is also t r ue at t he LO por t , except t hat SP31 cont r ols
t his level.
12. An S2D ﬁle t ypically consist s of an ACDATA block cont aining smallsignal
infor mat ion and a GCOMPi block (i=1,...,7) cont aining compr ession
infor mat ion. For Mixer 2, t he ACDATA block is ignor ed and t he Spar amet er s
speciﬁed on t he Mixer 2 component ar e used. Similar ly, any NDATA blocks
cont aining noise dat a ar e ignor ed by Mixer 2.
180 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
13. When an S2D ﬁle cont ains gain compr ession dat a at mor e t han one fr equency,
t he GainGompFr eq must be set t o one of t he fr equencies in t he S2D ﬁle t o
ident ify t he dat a t o be used. It is imper at ive t hat GainCompFr eq be set t o one of
t he fr equencies in t he S2D ﬁle as no int er polat ion or ext r apolat ion bet ween
gain compr ession dat a at differ ent fr equencies can be per for med.
14. When an S2D ﬁle has a power r ange t hat exceeds t hat of a simulat ion, a choice
must be made for t he power r ange used for ﬁt t ing. Assume an S2D ﬁle cover s
30 dBm t o 30 dBm but t hat a simulat ion is car r ied out fr om 10 dBm t o 10
dBm. In t his case, a choice must be made as t o whet her t he polynomial ﬁt t ing of
S2D dat a is done over t he power r ange 30 dBm t o 30 dBm or 10 dBm t o 10
dBm. In t he for mer case, t he ﬁt t ing may be inaccur at e as t he polynomial must
cover a lar ge power r ange t hat could hold a lot of var iat ions. This is
undesir able. However, t he advant age of t his appr oach is t hat t he r esult s we get
when simulat ing fr om 10 dBm t o 10 dBm ar e a subset of what we would have
got t en in t hat int er val had we simulat ed fr om 30 dBm t o 30 dBm. In t he lat t er
case, t he ﬁt t ing is much mor e accur at e as t he ﬁt t ing is done over a much
smaller power r ange which pr esumably holds a lot less var iat ion. This is
desir able. However, t he pr oblem wit h t his appr oach is t hat t he r esult s bet ween
10 dBm and 10 dBm will be differ ent for a simulat ion done fr om 30 dBm and
30 dBm r at her t han fr om 10 dBm and 10 dBm since t he polynomial coefﬁcient s
change as we change t he power r ange of t he simulat ion. ADS does t he for mer. It
ﬁt s a polynomial t o t he whole S2D ﬁle, not just t he subset for which t he
simulat ion is car r ied out . To change t he ﬁt t ing in a power r ange, it is not
enough t o change t he power r ange of t he simulat ion. To change t he ﬁt t ing, one
must modify t he S2D ﬁle. The S2D ﬁle power r ange, not t he simulat ion power
r ange, dict at es t he ﬁt t ing power r ange. This is r elevant in t he following wher e
we shall discuss differ ent ﬁt t ings in differ ent power r anges.
15. A t ypical Pout (out put power ) vs. Pin (input power ) cur ve consist s of a linear ly
incr easing r egion, a t r ansit ion r egion and a sat ur at ion r egion. Anot her way of
t hinking of t his is t hat t ypical Pout Pin vs. Pin cur ve consist s of a ﬂat r egion, a
t r ansit ion r egion and a linear ly decr easing r egion.
When t he sat ur at ion r egion is made lar ger and lar ger, t he ﬁt t ing appr oach
adopt ed by Mixer 2 (polynomial ﬁt t ing, odd or der t er ms, or der dependent upon
t he number of dat a point s in t he S2D ﬁle, max or der 9) will t end t o pr oduce
ﬁt t ed cur ves which r ing/oscillat e mor e and mor e at higher power s. Mild r inging
is oft en t oler able and might not even be not iced but if t he t r ansit ion r egion
becomes t oo lar ge it can make t he r esult s useless. To alleviat e t he pr oblem,
r educe t he size of t he sat ur at ion r egion t o t he minimum needed and leave no
CurveFitting Algorithm 181
ext r a point s in t he S2D ﬁle. If t he r esult s ar e st ill not sat isfact or y, make sur e
ClipDat aFile is set t o yes and r educe t he sat ur at ion r egion even mor e, r elying
on Mixer 2 ext r apolat ion. If t he r esult s ar e st ill not sat isfact or y, t r y br eaking t he
S2D ﬁle int o t wo ﬁles and simulat e t he pr oblem in t wo st eps.
If ﬁt t ed r esult s do not accur at ely mat ch t he dat a in t he S2D ﬁle and it is
uncer t ain if t his r inging pr oblem is t he cause, t he pr oblem is ver y easy t o
exagger at e. Simply ext end t he GCOMP7 block of t he S2D ﬁle wit h a lar ge ﬂat
r egion (mor e input power s, sat ur at ed out put power, sat ur at ed out put phase)
and r esimulat e. If t he r inging pr oblem is t he cause, t he r esult s should get
wor se.
16. The S2D ﬁle capabilit y is a legacy fr om OmniSys. OmniSys used
GComp1GComp7 dat a it ems for specifying gain compr ession. Table 17
summar izes t he gain compr ession dat a for OmniSys and ADS. Refer t o
Figur e 116 for OmniSys par amet er infor mat ion. GComp1GComp6 can be
speciﬁed by using t he cor r esponding ADS gain compr ession par amet er s and
set t ing GainCompType=LIST or t hey can be cont ained in an S2D for mat set t ing
GainCompType=FILE.
182 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
Figur e 116. OmniSys Par amet er Infor mat ion
Table 17. Gain Compr ession Dat a for OmniSys and ADS
OmniSys ADS
GComp1: IP3 TOI
GComp2: 1dBc GainComp=1dB
GainCompPower
GComp3: IP3, 1dBc TOI
GainComp=1dB
GainCompPower
GComp4: IP3, Ps, GCS TOI
Psat
GainCompSat
GComp5: 1dBc, Ps, GCS GainComp=1dB
GainCompPower
Psat
GainCompSat
GComp6: IP3, 1dBc, Ps, GCS TOI
GainComp=1dB
GainCompPower
Psat
GainCompSat
GComp7 GainCompType=FILE
GainCompFile=ﬁlename
linear output
compressed output
third order products
GCS
Ps
1 dB
1dBc
IP3
CurveFitting Algorithm 183
MixerWithLO (Mixer with Internal Local Oscillator)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
ZRef = r efer ence impedance for all por t s
Desir edRF = Desir ed mixer IF out put signal (par amet er used for Budget analysis
only)
ConvGain = Conver sion Gain, use x+j*y, polar (x,y), dbpolar (x,y) for complex value
SP11 = Por t 1 r eﬂect ion, use x+j*y, polar (x,y), dbpolar (x,y), vswr polar (x,y) for complex
value
SP22 = Por t 2 r eﬂect ion, use x+j*y, polar (x,y), dbpolar (x,y), vswr polar (x,y) for complex
value
NF = Double Sideband Noise Figur e in dB
LO_Fr eq = Mixer local oscillat or fr equency
Range of Usage
ZRef > 0
Desir edRF = 0 (RF plus LO), 1 (RF minus LO)
 SPij > 0 (ij=11; 22)
NF ≥ 0 dB
LO_Fr eq > 0
Notes/Equations
1. Mixer Wit hLO is a t wo por t mixer model wit h int er nal oscillat or.
184 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
2. This component is a schemat ic design t hat uses int er nal models for Mixer 2 and
I_1Tone. The schemat ic design is shown her e:
3. See document at ion for t he int er nal component s Mixer 2 and I_1Tone for t heir
usage det ail.
4. The int er nal Mixer 2 model has par amet er SideBand=BOTH. This
Mixer Wit hLO out put s bot h t he RF+LO and RFLO sidebands. However, t her e
is no RF or LO leakage.
5. Int er nal t o t he Mixer 2 model, t he NF par amet er is used t o set t he Mixer 2
par amet er s for NFmin=NF, Sopt =0, and Rn=max( ZRef/4 × (10
NF/10
1),
t inyr eal), wher e tinyreal is an int er nal simulat or value for t he smallest r eal
value allowed.
6. For use wit h Budget Analysis, t he Desir edRF par amet er ident iﬁes which of t he
out put sidebands is t o be t r acked for Budget measur ement s.
7. Examples demonst r at ing t his model use in a Budget analysis ar e locat ed in t he
ADS Examples ar ea at :
$HPEESOF_DIR/examples/Tut or ial/RF_Budget _Examples_pr j. See
Budget _Mixer.dsn.
CurveFitting Algorithm 185
OpAmp (Operational Ampliﬁer)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Gain = open loop dc gain of ampliﬁer, in dB
CMR = common mode r eject ion r at io, in dB
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
RDiff = differ ent ial input r esist ance, in ohms
CDiff = differ ent ial input capacit ance, in far ads
RCom = common mode input r esist ance, in ohms
CCom = common mode input capacit ance, in far ads
SlewRat e = signal slew r at e, in volt s/sec
IOS = input offset cur r ent , in amper es
VOS = input offset volt age, in volt s
BW = gain bandwidt h pr oduct (unit y gain bandwidt h), in her t z
Pole1 = dominant pole fr equency, in her t z (over r ides BW par amet er )
Pole2 = addit ional higher or der pole fr equency, in her t z
Pole3 = addit ional higher or der pole fr equency, in her t z
Pole4 = addit ional higher or der pole fr equency, in her t z
Pole5 = addit ional higher or der pole fr equency, in her t z
Zer o1 = feed for war d zer o fr equency, in her t z
Inoise = input spect r al noise cur r ent , in amper es/sqr t (her t z)
Vnoise = input spect r al noise volt age, in volt s/sqr t (her t z)
VEE = negat ive supply volt age, in volt s
186 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
VCC = posit ive supply volt age, in volt s
Delt aVEE = differ ence bet ween out put sat ur at ion and VEE (see not e 4)
Delt aVCC = differ ence bet ween out put sat ur at ion and VCC (see not e 4)
Range of Usage
RDiff > 0
CDiff > 0
RCom > 0
CCom > 0
by default :
CMR = ∞
Pole2 = ∞
Pole3 = ∞
Pole4 = ∞
Pole5 = ∞
Zer o1 = ∞
Notes/Equations
1. The BW par amet er is t he GainBandwidt h pr oduct , i.e. it is t he fr equency at
which t he gain is unit y or 0 dB. Pole1 is t he basic ampliﬁer pole and
cor r esponds t o t he fr equency wher e t he gain st ar t s sloping downwar d.
BW and Pole1 can be speciﬁed simult aneously; however, if bot h ar e ent er ed,
Pole1 will over r ide BW, and Pole1 must t hen be ent er ed as BW/Gain. The Gain
par amet er is t he open loop gain of t he opamp and it must be conver t ed out of dB
only for use in set t ing Pole1, i.e., Gain=10
Gain_dB/20
.
2. To mat ch t he phase shift fr om t he dat a sheet , adjust t he values of Pole2 t hr ough
Pole5.
3. Zer o1 is used for oper at ional ampliﬁer s wit h feedfor war d or leadlag
compensat ion net wor ks.
4. Out put volt age is gener ally less t han t he r ail volt age (VCC and VEE). Use
Delt aVCC and Delt aVEE t o specify t he differ ence bet ween t he r ail volt age and
act ual out put volt age. For example, if VCC is +5V and t he posit ive out put is
+4.5V, set Delt aVCC t o 0.5V.
5. This opamp is a nonlinear model. If your cir cuit cannot achieve conver gence
using t his model, use t he OpAmpIdeal linear model.
6. The r elat ionship bet ween input and out put volt ages is given in t he equat ion:
CurveFitting Algorithm 187
Im × t anh(Vin/Im)=Vout /A0  10 × (VclipVout ) + d/dt (Vout × Tau1/A0)
wher e
A0 is open loop DC gain
Vclip = Vout as long as it is not limit ing
Im = SlewRat e × Tau1/A0
Tau1=A0/2/π/BW when Pole1=0, ot her wise Tau1=1/2/π/BW
188 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
OpAmpIdeal (Ideal Operational Ampliﬁer)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Gain = magnit ude of open loop dc volt age gain; use t he polar () funct ion t o specify
magnit ude and phase
Z1 = input impedance, inver t ing t er minal, in ohms
Z2 = input impedance, noninver t ing t er minal, in ohms
Z3 = out put impedance, in ohms
Z4 = leakage impedance, inver t ing t o noninver t ing t er minal, in ohms
Fr eq3db = fr equency at which gain magnit ude is down by 3dB, in her t z
Delay = t ime delay associat ed wit h gain, in seconds
Range of Usage
by default :
Z1 = ∞
Z2 = ∞
Z3 = 0
Z4 = ∞
Fr eq3db = ∞
Notes/Equations
1.
wher e F is t he simulat ion fr equency
Vs V
+
V
–
– ( )Gai n
e
j 2πFDel ay –
1 j
F
Freq 3dB
 +
 × =
Vs V
+
V
–
– ( )Gai n f or f=0 ( ) =
CurveFitting Algorithm 189
2. OpAmpIdeal is a noiseless component .
3. The r ecommendat ion is t o use a Gain value no gr eat er t han 1e10, or 200 dB for
pr act ical pur poses.
Equivalent Circuit
s
190 CurveFitting Algorithm
Ampliﬁers and Mixers
VMult (Voltage Multiplier)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
R1 = r efer ence r esist ance for por t 1, in ohms
R2 = r efer ence r esist ance for por t 2, in ohms
R3 = r efer ence r esist ance for por t 3, in ohms
L31 = loss in dB, pin 1 t o pin 3; for linear analysis only
L32 = loss in dB, pin 2 t o pin 3; for linear analysis only
Linear = yes enables linear analysis mode, for use wit h linear simulat ions
Notes/Equations
1. VMult uses r efer ence input and out put impedances. It s out put volt age is equal
t o t he pr oduct of it s t wo input volt ages.
2. If Linear is set t o yes,
A31 and A32 ar e t he L31 and L32 losses conver t ed fr om dB t o r egular values.
If Linear is set t o no, V3 is for med fr om V1 and V2 t hr ough an ideal mixing
pr ocess; for infor mat ion on t his pr ocess r efer t o t he Ideal Mixer in t he SDD
Examples sect ion in Chapt er 5 in t he UserDeﬁned Models manual.
V
3
A
31
V
1
A
32
V
2
+
R
3
 =
Introduction 21
Chapter 2: Filters
Introduction
The Filters  <ﬁlter type> and S ystem  <device type> palet t es cont ain t wo
fundament ally differ ent t ypes of behavior al syst em models.
Filters, S ystem  Amps & Mixers, and S ystem  Mod/ Demod can be classiﬁed as
topsdown system models t hat suppor t a t opsdown syst em design ﬂow wher e model
behavior s ar e char act er ized by a small number of independent par amet er s such as
fr equency, power and load. They ar e oft en r efer r ed t o as parameterbased behavioral
models.
S ystem  Data Models can be classiﬁed as bottomsup system models t hat suppor t a
bot t omsup ver iﬁcat ion ﬂow wher e model behavior s ar e ext r act ed fr om a simulat ion
(or measur ement ) of a t r ansist orlevel cir cuit . They ar e oft en r efer r ed t o as
databased behavioral models.
The parameterbased behavioral models t ypically pr ovide super ior speed r elat ive t o
t he dat abased behavior al models wit h bot h of t hese being vast ly super ior t o a
br ut efor ce t r ansist orlevel simulat ion.
The databased behavioral models t ypically pr ovide super ior accur acy r elat ive t o t he
parameterbased behavioral models as t hey capt ur e act ual behavior s of implement ed
cir cuit component s and not just design speciﬁcat ions.
The differ ences bet ween parameter and databased behavioral models just ify a
palet t e emphasis on ﬂow (all dat abased behavior al models gr ouped t oget her ) r at her
t han funct ionalit y (all ampliﬁer s, mixer s, modulat or s, demodulat or s et c. gr ouped
t oget her ).
The use model for parameterbased behavioral models is t o simply set a ser ies of
par amet er s pr ior t o using t he model. The use model for databased behavioral models
is descr ibed in Chapt er 8, Syst em Dat a Models.
Filter Categories
The ﬁlt er component libr ar ies cont ains ﬁlt er s in eight r esponse cat egor ies:
But t er wor t h, Chebyshev, Ellipt ic, Gaussian, BesselThompson, RaisedCosine,
PoleZer o, and Polynomial. Lowpass, highpass, bandpass, and bandst op ﬁlt er s ar e
available in each cat egor y.
22 Filter Categories
Filters
But t er wor t h, Chebyshev, and Ellipt ic ﬁlt er s have good select ivit y but poor gr oup
delay ﬂat ness; BesselThompson and Gaussian ﬁlt er s have good delay ﬂat ness but
poor select ivit y. RaisedCosine ﬁlt er s ar e unidir ect ional ideal Nyquist ﬁlt er s for
bandlimit ing digit al signals. PoleZer o and Polynomial ﬁlt er s allow user s t o deﬁne
ar bit r ar y r esponse shapes.
Except for t he RaisedCosine cat egor y, t he ﬁlt er Spar amet er s ar e calculat ed based
on st andar d ﬁlt er synt hesis t heor y [1]. S
21
and S
12
include losses speciﬁed by
unloaded qualit y fact or (Q
u
) and inser t ion loss IL, wher e applicable. The assumpt ion
is made t hat ﬁlt er pole pr edist or t ion is used t o pr eser ve t he speciﬁed fr equency
r esponse in t he pr esence of losses [2]. However, S
11
and S
22
neglect losses, an
appr oximat ion t hat causes lit t le er r or for r ealizable ﬁlt er s.
The basic nat ur e of t he r esponse of a lowpass, highpass, bandpass, and bandst op
ﬁlt er is illust r at ed below. The illust r at ions include cer t ain ﬁlt er par amet er
deﬁnit ions: f
pass
, f
st op
, A
pass
, and A
st op
for lowpass/highpass ﬁlt er s, and f
cent er
,
BW
pass
, BW
st op
, A
pass
, and A
st op
for bandpass/bandst op ﬁlt er s. (Not e t hat all ﬁlt er s
do not have all of t hese par amet er s.)
In addit ion t o t hese ﬁlt er par amet er s, Gaussian and Bessel ﬁlt er s (XXX_Gaussian
and XXX_Bessel (XXX = LPF, HPF, BPF, or BSF) have a gr oup delay par amet er
GD
pass
. This par amet er is mot ivat ed by t he fact t hat a signal exper iences a delay
when passing t hr ough a ﬁlt er. Calculat ed as t he negat ive of t he der ivat ive of t he
phase r esponse wit h r espect t o fr equency, t his delay (t he gr oup delay) will be
fr equency dependent for ﬁlt er s wit h a nonlinear phase r esponse. In ot her wor ds, t he
gr oup delay at a given fr equency speciﬁes t he delay exper ienced by a gr oup of
sinusoidal component s all having fr equencies wit hin a nar r ow int er val ar ound t hat
fr equency. A ﬁlt er whose t imedomain impulse r esponse is symmet r ic ar ound t =0
must be subject ed t o a cer t ain ﬁnit e shift (t he gr oup delay) in or der t o maint ain (at
least some r esemblance of) causalit y when a t r ansient simulat or t r uncat es it s
impulse r esponse below zer o. Differ ent t imefr equency char act er ist ics for differ ent
ﬁlt er s can lead t o differ ent r equir ement s for t his gr oup delay.
For LPF_Bessel and LPF_Gaussian, t he gr oup delay par amet er GD
pass
is deﬁned as
t he gr oup delay at t he passband edge fr equency r elat ive t o t hat at zer o fr equency
(t his is illust r at ed below). For highpass, bandpass, or bandst op ﬁlt er s, t he deﬁnit ion
is t he same except t hat t he gr oup delay at inﬁnit y (highpass) or at t he cent er
fr equency (bandpass, bandst op) is used as t he r efer ence. GD
pass
cannot dr op below
zer o and cannot exceed one; it s default value is 0.9. The gr oup delay value has a
signiﬁcant effect on ﬁlt er or der and t her efor e ﬁlt er r eject ion. Lar ger GD
pass
values
Filter Categories 23
will r esult in longer delays and lar ger ﬁlt er or der s; smaller GD
pass
values will r esult
in smaller delays and smaller ﬁlt er or der s. If your Gaussian or Bessel ﬁlt er pr ovides
less out ofband r eject ion t han you expect , t r y incr easing t he GD
pass
par amet er.
Ther e ar e t wo ways of dealing wit h ﬁlt er or der, N:
• Leave t he ﬁlt er or der at zer o and specify t he par amet er s char act er izing t he
behavior of t he ﬁlt er, per t he illust r at ions below. Given t hese speciﬁcat ions, t he
pr ogr am will calculat e and r epor t ﬁlt er or der N which meet s t hese
speciﬁcat ions. Because N must be an int eger, t he calculat ed or der N exceeds t he
speciﬁcat ions in most cases. N is capped at t he upper value of 15. For
Chebyshev ﬁlt er s, t he calculat ed ﬁlt er or der N must be an odd number t o
ensur e ﬁlt er symmet r y.
• Alt er nat ively, specify ﬁlt er or der N explicit ly. If a nonzer o N is speciﬁed, it will
over wr it e t he ﬁlt er speciﬁcat ions. The ﬁlt er r esponse is simply calculat ed based
on t he speciﬁed or der N. As above, N must be an int eger and will be capped at
15. And, N must be odd for Chebyshev ﬁlt er s.
GD(f)
GD
pass
f
pass
freq
T
0
T
pass
where
GD
pass
= T
pass
/T
0
24
Filters
Lowpass Filter Behavior at DC
At DC, a lowpass ﬁlt er appear s t o r educe t o a wir e. Dur ing DC analysis, one would
t her efor e int uit ively expect t he Smat r ix of a lowpass ﬁlt er t o r educe t o S11=S22=1
and S12=S21=0. Also, one would int uit ively expect t he input and out put volt ages and
cur r ent s t o fulﬁll v2=v1 and i2=i1. For Z1=Z2, bot h t hese expect at ions ar e met .
However, if Z1 and Z2 ar e unequal, t her e is simply no way t o mat hemat ically r ealize
a meaningful ﬁlt er t hat meet s bot h expect at ions. If it meet s t he expect at ions in t he
Sdomain, it won't for volt ages and cur r ent s and vice ver sa.
The ADS lowpass ﬁlt er s ar e implement ed in t he Sdomain, not t he
volt age/cur r ent domain. At DC, t he lowpass ﬁlt er s t her efor e r educe t o a per fect
[1 0;0 1] Smat r ix r egar dless of t he choice of r efer ence impedance. The out put volt age
and cur r ent , however, ar e given by v2=sqr t (Z2/Z1) × v1 and i2=sqr t (Z1/Z2) × i1. This,
as point ed out pr eviously, r educes t o v2=v1 and i2=i1 only for Z1=Z2. These r elat ions
can easily be der ived fr om power conser vat ion and can also be found fr om mor e
r igor ous Spar amet er analysis.
H(f)
A
stop
f
center
A
pass
BW
pass
BW
stop
H(f)
A
stop
f
stop
f
pass
A
pass
H(f)
A
stop
A
pass
BW
pass
BW
stop
H(f)
A
stop
f
stop
f
pass
A
pass
f
center
25
References
[1] A. I. Zver ev, Handbook of Filter S ynthesis, J ohn Wiley and Sons, New Yor k,
1967.
[2] H. J. Blinchikoff and A. I. Zver ev, Filtering in the Time and Frequency Domains,
J ohn Wiley and Sons, New Yor k, 1976.
[3] Kamilo Feher, Digital Communications: Microwave Applications, Pr ent iceHall,
Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1981.
[4] J ohn G. Pr oakis, Digital Communications, McGr awHill, 1989.
26 BPF_Bessel (Bandpass Filter, BesselThompson)
Filters
BPF_Bessel (Bandpass Filter, BesselThompson)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, in her t z
BWpass = widt h measur ed fr om lower t o upper passband edges, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edges, in dB
GDpass = gr oup delay at passband edges r elat ive t o t hat at cent er fr equency
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, it is calculat ed based on BWpass, Apass, and GDpass
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohms
Temp = t emper at ur e in °C
Range of Usage
BWpass < Fcent er
0.01 ≤ Apass ≤ 3.0
0 < GDpass < 1
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Qu ≥ 1
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21 at t he beginning of t his chapt er.
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
BPF_Butterworth (Bandpass Filter, Butterworth) 27
BPF_Butterworth (Bandpass Filter, Butterworth)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, in her t z
BWpass = widt h of passband, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edges, in dB
BWst op = widt h measur ed fr om lower t o upper st opband edges, in her t z
Ast op = at t enuat ion at st opband edges, in dB
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, it is calculat ed based on BWpass, Apass, BWst op, and
Ast op
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohms
Temp = t emper at ur e in °C
Range of Usage
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
BWpass < Fcent er
0.01 ≤ Apass ≤ 3.0
Qu ≥ 1
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
28 BPF_Butterworth (Bandpass Filter, Butterworth)
Filters
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
BPF_Chebyshev (Bandpass Filter, Chebyshev) 29
BPF_Chebyshev (Bandpass Filter, Chebyshev)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, in her t z
BWpass = widt h of passband, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edges, in dB; t ypically Apass=Ripple
Ripple = passband r ipple, i DB
BWst op = widt h measur ed fr om lower t o upper st opband edges, in her t z
Ast op = at t enuat ion at st opband edges, in dB
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, is calculat ed based on BWpass, Ripple, BWst op, and
Ast op
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohms
Temp = t emper at ur e in °C
Range of Usage
BWpass < Fcent er
0.01 ≤ Ripple ≤ 3.0
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Qu ≥ 1
210 BPF_Chebyshev (Bandpass Filter, Chebyshev)
Filters
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
BPF_Elliptic (Bandpass Filter, Elliptic) 211
BPF_Elliptic (Bandpass Filter, Elliptic)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, in her t z
BWpass = widt h of passband, in her t z
Ripple = passband r ipple, i DB
BWst op = widt h measur ed fr om lower t o upper st opband edges, in her t z
Ast op = at t enuat ion at st opband edges, in dB
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, is calculat ed based on BWpass, Ripple, BWst op, and
Ast op
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohms
Temp = t emper at ur e in °C
Range of Usage
BWpass < Fcent er
0.01 ≤ Ripple ≤ 3.0
Ast op > 0
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
212 BPF_Elliptic (Bandpass Filter, Elliptic)
Filters
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
BPF_Gaussian (Bandpass Filter, Gaussian) 213
BPF_Gaussian (Bandpass Filter, Gaussian)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, in her t z
BWpass = widt h measur ed fr om lower t o upper passband edges, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edges, in dB
GDpass = gr oup delay at passband edges r elat ive t o t hat at cent er fr equency
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, it is calculat ed based on BWpass, Apass and GDpass
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohms
Temp = t emper at ur e in °C
Range of Usage
BWpass < Fcent er
0.01 ≤ Apass ≤ 3.0
0 < GDpass < 1
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Qu ≥ 1
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
214 BPF_PoleZero (Bandpass Filter, Pole Zero)
Filters
BPF_PoleZero (Bandpass Filter, Pole Zero)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Poles = list of poles
Zer os = list of zer os
Gain = gain fact or
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, fr equency unit
BWpass = 3dB bandwidt h, fr equency unit
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is an Sdomain ﬁlt er.
2. Poles and Zer os ar e a list of complex pole/zer o locat ions.
The t r ansfer funct ion for t he ﬁlt er is:
wher e
and
Fr eq is t he analysis fr equency
At least one pole must be supplied.
S
21
Gain
S  Zero1 ( ) S  Zero2 ( )...
S  Pole1 ( ) S  Pole2 ( )...

¸ ,
¸ _
=
S j
Fcen t er
BWpass
 ×
Freq
Fcen t er

Fcen t er
Freq
 –
¸ ,
¸ _
=
BPF_PoleZero (Bandpass Filter, Pole Zero) 215
3. The following example demonst r at es int er pr et at ion of simulat ion r esult s wit h
t his component . Fr om t he userspeciﬁed poles/zer os, we der ive:
S 21_Lowpass_Prototype= Gain*[(sZ1)*...*(sZn)]/ [(sP1)*...(sPm)]
We t hen check t o see if S 21_Lowpass_Protope is > 1. If yes, we scale S21 by a
anot her fact or t o make sur e S 21_Max ≤ 1. We t hen der ive S11 (S22) fr om t he
following for mula:
S 11
2
+ S 21
2
= 1
In t his example, when Gain is set > 0.471151, t hen S11 is der ived as what you
will expect . If Gain in your example is < 0.471151, t hen S11 der ived fr om t he
pr eceding equat ion, will be much higher t hat what you will expect . In t his
sit uat ion, set Gain t o be 0.1 so t hat S21 has a lot of inser t ion loss. But we
assumed t her e is no inser t ion loss in der iving S11.
Ther e ar e ot her alt er nat ives:
• Use S2P_Eqn so t hat you can deﬁne t he S21 and S11 polynomials however
you want . You can deﬁne t his as follows:
s=jω, S 21=Gain*(sZ1)*...*(sZn)/ (sP1)*...*(sPn), S 11=<your choice>
• Use BPF_Pole_Zer o t o model a lossless BPF, t hen use an at t enuat or t o add
inser t ion loss.
216 BPF_Polynomial (Bandpass Filter, Polynomial)
Filters
BPF_Polynomial (Bandpass Filter, Polynomial)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Denominat or = denominat or coefﬁcient s
Numer at or = numer at or coefﬁcient s
Gain = gain fact or
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, in her t z
BWpass = 3dB bandwidt h, in her t z
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is an Sdomain ﬁlt er.
2. Denominat or and Numer at or ar e a list of polynomial coefﬁcient s.
The t r ansfer funct ion for t he ﬁlt er is:
wher e
S = j × (Fr eq/F
o
− F
o
/Fr eq)/(F
high
/F
o
= F
o
/F
high
)
and
Fr eq is t he analysis fr equency
Fhigh = Fcent er + 0.5 × BWpass
Fo = sqr t ((Fcent er − 0.5 × BWpass) × (Fcent er + 0.5 × BWpass))
S
21
Gain
N
0
N
1
S × ( ) N
2
S
2
× ( )... + +
D
0
D
1
S × ( ) D
2
S
2
× ( )... + +

¸ ,
¸ _
=
BPF_RaisedCos (Bandpass Filter, RaisedCosine) 217
BPF_RaisedCos (Bandpass Filter, RaisedCosine)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Alpha = Rolloff fact or deﬁning ﬁlt er excess bandwidt h. Default = 0.35
Fcent er = Cent er fr equency, in Hz. Default = 1.5 GHz.
SymbolRat e = Digit al symbol r at e deﬁning ﬁlt er bandwidt h, in Hz. Default = 24.3
kHz
DelaySymbols = Number of symbols delayed by ﬁlt er. Default = 5
Exponent = Exponent fact or, t o pr ovide for Root RaisedCosine ﬁlt er. Default = 0.5
Dut yCycle = Pulse dut y cycle in per cent , used for sinc(x) cor r ect ion. Default = 0
SincE = Flag t o include t he Exponent fact or on t he sinc(x) cor r ect ion (yes/no). Default
= no
Gain = Gain nor malizat ion fact or. Default = 1.0
Zout = Out put impedance, in Ohms. Default = 50 Ohms
WindowType = Window t ype applied t o impulse r esponse. 0=None (default ). 1=Hann,
2=Hamming
ImpMaxFr eq = Maximum fr equency t o consider when calculat ing impulse r esponse,
in Hz.
ImpDelt aFr eq = Fr equency sample spacing when calculat ing impulse r esponse, in
Hz.
ImpMaxPt s = Maximum number of point s in impulse r esponse. Default = 4096
Ot her = out put st r ing t o net list
Range of Usage
0 ≤ Alpha ≤ 1
DelaySymbols ≥ 1
218 BPF_RaisedCos (Bandpass Filter, RaisedCosine)
Filters
0 ≤ Exponent ≤ 1
0 ≤ Dut yCycle ≤ 100
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. This ﬁlt er is unidir ect ional; input impedance is inﬁnit e; out put impedance is
speciﬁed by Zout .
3. The volt age gain is descr ibed by t he following funct ion.
wher e
4. While t he Exponent can be any value, t he t wo st andar d values ar e 1.0 for t he
ideal RaisedCosine ﬁlt er r esponse or 0.5 t o simulat e t he Root RaisedCosine
ﬁlt er r esponse when pr esent at bot h t he r eceiving and t r ansmit t ing channels.
5. In t he st eadyst at e, fr equencydomain analyses, t he ideal fr equencydomain
r esponse descr ibed pr eviously is used. However, t his ideal r esponse has an
inﬁnit e dur at ion impulse r esponse which must be appr oximat ed for t ime
domain simulat ions in eit her Tr ansient or Cir cuit Envelope. If DelaySymbols
par amet er is set t oo small, t hen t he impulse r esponse will be sever ely t r uncat ed
and will not accur aely r eﬂect t he ideal fr equency r esponse.
G
ﬁlt
= 1 for Fr eq<0.5 × (1Alpha) × SymbolRat e
0 for Fr eq>0.5 × (1Alpha) × SymbolRat e
[0.5(1sin(π ×(Fr eq0.5 × SymbolRat e)/(Alpha × SymbolRat e))]
Exponent
G
comp
= 1.0 if Dut yCycle =0, else
[0.01 × Dut yCycle × sinc(x)]
Exponent
if SincE = YES, else
[0.01 × Dut yCycle × sinc(x)] if SincE = NO
Fr eq = abs (Fcent er  fr equency)
sinc(x) = sin(x)/x
x = 0.01 × Dut yCycle×π× fr equency/SymbolRat e
V
ou t
V
i n

Gai n G
f i l t
×
G
com p
e
j 2πf requ en cy
Del ayS ym bol s
S ym bol R at e

¸ ,
¸ _
–
=
BPF_RaisedCos (Bandpass Filter, RaisedCosine) 219
Using a Hanning window (WindowType=1) a DelaySymbols par amet er of 15
should r esult in equivalent fr equency domain sidelobes of −90dBc or smaller.
6. Accur acy of t his model in Tr ansient or Cir cuit Envelope can be fur t her
cont r olled t hr ough t he ImpMaxFr eq, ImpDelt aFr eq, and ImpMaxPt s
par amet er s.
7. The ﬁlt er can include gain equalizat ion t o compensat e for dut y cycle r olloff. If
Dut yCycle = 0.0, t hen no compensat ion will be applied. If SincE=YES, Exponent
will be applied t o t he gain compensat ion t er m, G
comp
. (Not e t hat t he Exponent
t er m is always pr esent in t he G
ﬁlt
t er m.)
8. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
220 BSF_Bessel (Bandstop Filter, BesselThompson)
Filters
BSF_Bessel (Bandstop Filter, BesselThompson)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, in her t z
BWpass = widt h measur ed fr om lower t o upper passband edges, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edges, in dB
GDpass = gr oup delay at passband edges r elat ive t o t hat at cent er fr equency
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
Maxr ej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, it is calculat ed based on BWpass, Apass and GDpass
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
BWpass < Fcent er
0.01 ≤ Apass ≤ 3.0
0 < GDpass < 1
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
BSF_Butterworth (Bandstop Filter, Butterworth) 221
BSF_Butterworth (Bandstop Filter, Butterworth)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, in her t z
BWst op = widt h of st op band, in her t z
Ast op = at t enuat ion at st opband edges, in dB
BWpass = widt h measur ed fr om lower t o upper passband edges, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edges, in dB
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, it is calculat ed based on BWpass, Apass, BWst op, Ast op
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
BWpass < Fcent er
0.01 ≤ Apass ≤ 3.0
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
222 BSF_Chebyshev (Bandstop Filter, Chebyshev)
Filters
BSF_Chebyshev (Bandstop Filter, Chebyshev)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, in her t z
BWst op = widt h of st op band, in her t z
Ast op = at t enuat ion at st opband edges, in dB
Ripple = st opband r ipple, in dB
BWpass = widt h measur ed fr om lower t o upper passband edges, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edges, in dB
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, it is calculat ed based on BWpass, Apass, BWst op, Ast op
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
BWpass < Fcent er
0.01 ≤ Ripple ≤ 3.0
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
BSF_Chebyshev (Bandstop Filter, Chebyshev) 223
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
224 BSF_Elliptic (Bandstop Filter, Elliptic)
Filters
BSF_Elliptic (Bandstop Filter, Elliptic)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, in her t z
BWst op = widt h of st op band, in her t z
Ast op = at t enuat ion at st opband edges, in dB
Ripple = st opband r ipple, in dB
BWpass = widt h measur ed fr om lower t o upper passband edges, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edges, in dB
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, is calculat ed based on BWpass, Apass, BWst op, Ast op
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
BWpass < Fcent er
0.01 ≤ Ripple ≤ 3.0
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
BSF_Elliptic (Bandstop Filter, Elliptic) 225
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
226 BSF_Gaussian (Bandstop Filter, Gaussian)
Filters
BSF_Gaussian (Bandstop Filter, Gaussian)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, in her t z
BWpass = widt h measur ed fr om lower t o upper passband edges, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edges, in dB
GDpass = gr oup delay at passband edges r elat ive t o t hat at cent er fr equency
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, it is calculat ed based on BWpass, Apass and GDpass
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
BWpass < Fcent er
0.01 ≤ Apass ≤ 3.0
0 < GDpass < 1
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
BSF_PoleZero (Bandstop Filter, Pole Zero) 227
BSF_PoleZero (Bandstop Filter, Pole Zero)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Poles = list of poles
Zer os = list of zer os
Gain = gain fact or
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, in her t z
BWpass = 3dB bandwidt h of lower t o upper passband edges, in her t z
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is an Sdomain ﬁlt er.
2. Poles and Zer os ar e a list of complex pole/zer o locat ions.
The t r ansfer funct ion for t he ﬁlt er is:
wher e
and
Fr eq is t he analysis fr equency
At least one pole must be supplied.
S
21
Gai n
S  Zero1 ( ) S  Zero2 ( )...
S  Pole1 ( ) S  Pole2 ( )...

¸ ,
¸ _
=
S j
Fcen t er
BWpass

¸ ,
¸ _
Freq
Fcen t er

Fcen t er
Freq
 –
¸ ,
¸ _
× =
228 BSF_Polynomial (Bandstop Filter, Polynomial)
Filters
BSF_Polynomial (Bandstop Filter, Polynomial)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Denominat or = list of denominat or coefﬁcient s
Numer at or = list of numer at or coefﬁcient s
Gain = gain fact or
Fcent er = cent er fr equency, in her t z
BWpass = widt h of bandpass, in her t z
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is an Sdomain ﬁlt er.
2. Denominat or and Numer at or ar e list s of polynomial coefﬁcient s.
The t r ansfer funct ion for t he ﬁlt er is:
wher e
S = −j × (F
o
/F
low
− F
low
/F
o
)/(Fr eq/F
o
− F
o
/Fr eq)
and
Fr eq is t he analysis fr equency
F
low
= Fcent er − 0.5 × BWpass
F
o
= sqr t ((Fcent er  0.5 × BWpass) × Fcent er + 0.5 × BWpass))
S
21
Gain
N
0
N
1
S × ( ) N
2
S
2
× ( )... + +
D
0
D
1
× S ( ) D
2
S
2
× ( )... + +

¸ ,
¸ _
=
BSF_Polynomial (Bandstop Filter, Polynomial) 229
At least one Denominat or coefﬁcient must be supplied.
230 BSF_RaisedCos (Bandstop Filter, RaisedCosine)
Filters
BSF_RaisedCos (Bandstop Filter, RaisedCosine)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Alpha = Rolloff fact or deﬁning ﬁlt er excess bandwidt h. Default = 0.35
Fcent er = Cent er fr equency, in Hz. Default = 1.5 GHz.
SymbolRat e = Digit al symbol r at e deﬁning ﬁlt er bandwidt h, in Hz. Default = 24.3
kHz
DelaySymbols = Number of symbols delayed by ﬁlt er. Default = 5
Exponent = Exponent fact or, t o pr ovide for Root RaisedCosine ﬁlt er. Default = 0.5
Dut yCycle = Pulse dut y cycle in per cent , used for sinc(x) cor r ect ion. Default = 0
SincE = Flag t o include t he Exponent fact or on t he sinc(x) cor r ect ion (yes/no). Default
= no
Gain = Gain nor malizat ion fact or. Default = 1.0
Zout = Out put impedance, in Ohms. Default = 50 Ohms
WindowType = Window t ype applied t o impulse r esponse. 0=None (default ). 1=Hann,
2=Hamming
ImpMaxFr eq = Maximum fr equency t o consider when calculat ing impulse r esponse,
in Hz.
ImpDelt aFr eq = Fr equency sample spacing when calculat ing impulse r esponse, in
Hz.
ImpMaxPt s = Maximum number of point s in impulse r esponse. Default = 4096
Ot her = out put st r ing t o net list
Range of Usage
0 ≤ Alpha ≤ 1
DelaySymbols ≥ 1
BSF_RaisedCos (Bandstop Filter, RaisedCosine) 231
0 ≤ Exponent ≤ 1
0 ≤ Dut yCycle ≤ 100
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. This ﬁlt er is unidir ect ional; input impedance is inﬁnit e; out put impedance is
speciﬁed by Zout .
3. The volt age gain is descr ibed by t he following funct ion.
wher e
4. While t he Exponent can be any value, t he t wo st andar d values ar e 1.0 for t he
ideal RaisedCosine ﬁlt er r esponse or 0.5 t o simulat e t he Root RaisedCosine
ﬁlt er r esponse when pr esent at bot h t he r eceiving and t r ansmit t ing channels.
5. In t he st eadyst at e, fr equencydomain analyses, t he ideal fr equencydomain
r esponse descr ibed pr eviously is used. However, t his ideal r esponse has an
inﬁnit e dur at ion impulse r esponse which must be appr oximat ed for t ime
domain simulat ions in eit her Tr ansient or Cir cuit Envelope. If DelaySymbols
par amet er is set t oo small, t hen t he impulse r esponse will be sever ely t r uncat ed
and will not accur aely r eﬂect t he ideal fr equency r esponse.
G
ﬁlt
= 0 for Fr eq<0.5 × (1Alpha) × SymbolRat e
1 for Fr eq>0.5 × (1Alpha) × SymbolRat e
[0.5(1+sin(π ×(Fr eq0.5 × SymbolRat e)/(Alpha × SymbolRat e))]
Exponent
G
comp
= 1.0 if Dut yCycle =0, else
[0.01 × Dut yCycle × sinc(x)]
Exponent
if SincE = YES, else
[0.01 × Dut yCycle × sinc(x)] if SincE = NO
Fr eq = abs (Fcent er  fr equency)
sinc(x) = sin(x)/x
x = 0.01 × Dut yCycle×π× fr equency/SymbolRat e
V
ou t
V
i n

Gai n G
f i l t
×
G
com p
e
j 2πf requ en cy
Del ayS ym bol s
S ym bol R at e

¸ ,
¸ _
–
=
232 BSF_RaisedCos (Bandstop Filter, RaisedCosine)
Filters
Using a Hanning window (WindowType=1) a DelaySymbols par amet er of 15
should r esult in equivalent fr equency domain sidelobes of −90dBc or smaller.
6. Accur acy of t his model in Tr ansient or Cir cuit Envelope can be fur t her
cont r olled t hr ough t he ImpMaxFr eq, ImpDelt aFr eq, and ImpMaxPt s
par amet er s.
7. The ﬁlt er can include gain equalizat ion t o compensat e for dut y cycle r olloff. If
Dut yCycle = 0.0, t hen no compensat ion will be applied. If SincE=YES, Exponent
will be applied t o t he gain compensat ion t er m, G
comp
. (Not e t hat t he Exponent
t er m is always pr esent in t he G
ﬁlt
t er m.)
8. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
HPF_Bessel (Highpass Filter, BesselThompson) 233
HPF_Bessel (Highpass Filter, BesselThompson)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fpass = passband edge fr equency, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edge fr equency, in dB
GDpass = gr oup delay at passband edge fr equency r elat ive t o t hat at inﬁnit e
fr equency
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, it is calculat ed based on Fpass, Apass and GDpass
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
Fpass > 0
0.01 ≤ Apass ≤ 3.0
0 ≤ GDpass < 1
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
234 HPF_Butterworth (Highpass Filter, Butterworth)
Filters
HPF_Butterworth (Highpass Filter, Butterworth)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fpass = passband edge fr equency, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edge fr equency, in dB
Fst op = st opband edge fr equency, in her t z
Ast op = at t enuat ion at st opband edge fr equency, in dB
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, it is calculat ed based on Fpass, Apass, Fst op, and Ast op
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
Fpass > 0
0.01 ≤ Apass ≤ 3.0
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
HPF_Chebyshev (Highpass Filter, Chebyshev) 235
HPF_Chebyshev (Highpass Filter, Chebyshev)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fpass = passband edge fr equency, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edge fr equency, in dB. Typically, Apass=Ripple
Ripple = passband r ipple, in dB
Fst op = st opband edge fr equency, in her t z
Ast op = at t enuat ion at st opband edge fr equency, in dB
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, is calculat ed based on Fpass, Ripple, Fst op, and Ast op
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
Fpass > 0
0.01 ≤ Ripple ≤ 3.0
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
236 HPF_Elliptic (Highpass Filter, Elliptic)
Filters
HPF_Elliptic (Highpass Filter, Elliptic)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fpass = passband edge fr equency, in her t z
Ripple = passband r ipple, in dB
Fst op = st opband edge fr equency, in her t z
Ast op = at t enuat ion at st opband edge fr equency, in dB
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, is calculat ed based on Fpass, Ripple, Fst op, and Ast op
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
Fpass > 0
0.01 ≤ Ripple ≤ 3.0
Ast op > 0
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
HPF_Gaussian (Highpass Filter, Gaussian) 237
HPF_Gaussian (Highpass Filter, Gaussian)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fpass = passband edge fr equency, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edge fr equency, in dB
GDpass = gr oup delay at passband edge fr equency r elat ive t o t hat at inﬁnit e
fr equency
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, it is calculat ed based on Fpass, Apass and GDpass
IL = inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
Fpass > 0
0.01 ≤ Apass ≤ 3.0
0 < GDpass < 1
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
238 HPF_PoleZero (Highpass Filter, Pole Zero)
Filters
HPF_PoleZero (Highpass Filter, Pole Zero)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Poles = list of poles
Zer os = list of zer os
Gain = gain fact or
Fpass = 3dB passband edge fr equency, in her t z
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is an Sdomain ﬁlt er.
2. Poles and Zer os ar e a list of complex pole/zer o locat ions.
The t r ansfer funct ion for t he ﬁlt er is:
wher e
S = j(Fpass / Fr eq)
and
Fr eq is t he analysis fr equency
At least one pole must be supplied.
S
21
Gain
S  Zero1 ( ) S  Zero2 ( )...
S  Pole1 ( ) S  Pole2 ( )...

¸ ,
¸ _
=
HPF_Polynomial (Highpass Filter, Polynomial) 239
HPF_Polynomial (Highpass Filter, Polynomial)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Numer at or = list of numer at or coefﬁcient s
Denominat or = list of denominat or coefﬁcient s
Gain = gain fact or
Fpass = 3dB passband edge fr equency, in her t z
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is an Sdomain ﬁlt er.
2. Denominat or and Numer at or ar e a list of polynomial coefﬁcient s.
The t r ansfer funct ion for t he ﬁlt er is:
wher e
S = −j(Fpass/Fr eq)
and
Fr eq is t he analysis fr equency
S
21
Gain
N
0
N
1
S × ( ) N
2
S
2
× ( )... + +
D
0
D
1
S × ( ) D
2
S
2
× ( )... + +

¸ ,
¸ _
=
240 HPF_RaisedCos (Highpass Filter, RaisedCosine)
Filters
HPF_RaisedCos (Highpass Filter, RaisedCosine)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Alpha = Rolloff fact or deﬁning ﬁlt er excess bandwidt h. Default = 0.35
SymbolRat e = Digit al symbol r at e deﬁning ﬁlt er bandwidt h, in Hz. Default = 24.3
KHz
DelaySymbols = Number of symbols delayed by ﬁlt er. Default = 5
Exponent = Exponent fact or, t o pr ovide for Root RaisedCosine ﬁlt er. Default = 0.5
Dut yCycle = Pulse dut y cycle in per cent , used for sinc(x) cor r ect ion. Default = 0
SincE = Flag t o include t he Exponent fact or on t he sinc(x) cor r ect ion (yes/no). Default
= no
Gain = Gain nor malizat ion fact or. Default = 1.0
Zout = Out put impedance, in Ohms. Default = 50 Ohms
WindowType = Window t ype applied t o impulse r esponse. 0=None (default ). 1=Hann,
2=Hamming
ImpMaxFr eq = Maximum fr equency t o consider when calculat ing impulse r esponse,
in Hz.
ImpDelt aFr eq = Fr equency sample spacing when calculat ing impulse r esponse, in
Hz.
ImpMaxPt s = Maximum number of point s in impulse r esponse. Default = 4096
Ot her = out put st r ing t o net list
Range of Usage
0 ≤ Alpha ≤ 1
DelaySymbols ≥ 1
0 ≤ Exponent ≤ 1
0 ≤ Dut yCycle ≤ 100
HPF_RaisedCos (Highpass Filter, RaisedCosine) 241
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. This ﬁlt er is unidir ect ional; input impedance is inﬁnit e; out put impedance is
speciﬁed by Zout .
3. This ﬁlt er is unidir ect ional; input impedance is inﬁnit e; out put impedance is
speciﬁed by Zout .
4. The volt age gain is descr ibed by t he following funct ion.
wher e
5. While t he Exponent can be any value, t he t wo st andar d values ar e 1.0 for t he
ideal RaisedCosine ﬁlt er r esponse or 0.5 t o simulat e t he Root RaisedCosine
ﬁlt er r esponse when pr esent at bot h t he r eceiving and t r ansmit t ing channels.
6. In t he st eadyst at e, fr equencydomain analyses, t he ideal fr equencydomain
r esponse descr ibed pr eviously is used. However, t his ideal r esponse has an
inﬁnit e dur at ion impulse r esponse which must be appr oximat ed for t ime
domain simulat ions in eit her Tr ansient or Cir cuit Envelope. If DelaySymbols
par amet er is set t oo small, t hen t he impulse r esponse will be sever ely t r uncat ed
and will not accur aely r eﬂect t he ideal fr equency r esponse.
G
ﬁlt
= 0 for fr equency <0.5 × (1Alpha) × SymbolRat e
1 for fr equency>0.5 × (1Alpha) × SymbolRat e
[0.5(1+sin(π×(fr equency0.5×SymbolRat e)/
(Alpha×SymbolRat e))]
Exponent
G
comp
= 1.0 if Dut yCycle = 0, else
[0.01 × Dut yCycle × sinc(x)]
Exponent
if SincE = YES, else
[0.01 × Dut yCycle × sinc(x)] if SincE = NO
Fr eq = abs (Fcent er  fr equency)
sinc(x) = sin(x)/x
x = 0.01 × Dut yCycle×π× fr equency/SymbolRat e
V
ou t
V
i n

Gai n G
f i l t
×
G
com p
e
j 2πf requ en cy
Del ayS ym bol s
S ym bol R at e

¸ ,
¸ _
–
=
242 HPF_RaisedCos (Highpass Filter, RaisedCosine)
Filters
Using a Hanning window (WindowType=1) a DelaySymbols par amet er of 15
should r esult in equivalent fr equency domain sidelobes of −90dBc or smaller.
7. Accur acy of t his model in Tr ansient or Cir cuit Envelope can be fur t her
cont r olled t hr ough t he ImpMaxFr eq, ImpDelt aFr eq, and ImpMaxPt s
par amet er s.
8. The ﬁlt er can include gain equalizat ion t o compensat e for dut y cycle r olloff. If
Dut yCycle = 0.0, t hen no compensat ion will be applied. If SincE=YES, Exponent
will be applied t o t he gain compensat ion t er m, G
comp
. (Not e t hat t he Exponent
t er m is always pr esent in t he G
ﬁlt
t er m.)
9. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
LPF_Bessel (Lowpass Filter, BesselThompson) 243
LPF_Bessel (Lowpass Filter, BesselThompson)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fpass = passband edge fr equency, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edge fr equency, in dB
GDpass = gr oup delay at passband edge fr equency r elat ive t o t hat at zer o fr equency
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, it is calculat ed based on Fpass, Apass, and GDpass
IL = passband inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
Fpass > 0
0.01 ≤ Apass ≤ 3.0
0 < GDpass < 1
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Qu ≥ 1
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. For infor mat ion on LPF behavior at DC, r efer t o “Lowpass Filt er Behavior at
DC” on page 24.
244 LPF_Bessel (Lowpass Filter, BesselThompson)
Filters
3. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
LPF_Butterworth (Lowpass Filter, Butterworth 245
LPF_Butterworth (Lowpass Filter, Butterworth
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fpass = passband edge fr equency, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edge, in dB
Fst op = st opband edge fr equency, in her t z
Ast op = at t enuat ion at st opband edge, in dB
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der (if N > 0, it over wr it es Fst op and Ast op)
IL = passband inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
Fpass > 0
0.01 ≤ Apass ≤ 3.0
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Qu ≥ 1
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. For infor mat ion on LPF behavior at DC, r efer t o “Lowpass Filt er Behavior at
DC” on page 24.
246 LPF_Butterworth (Lowpass Filter, Butterworth
Filters
3. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
LPF_Chebyshev (Lowpass Filter, Chebyshev) 247
LPF_Chebyshev (Lowpass Filter, Chebyshev)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fpass = passband edge fr equency, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edge, in dB. By default , Apass=Ripple
Ripple = passband r ipple, in dB
Fst op = st opband edge fr equency, in her t z
Ast op = at t enuat ion at st opband edge, in dB
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der (if N > 0, it over wr it es Fst op, and Ast op)
IL = passband inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
Fpass > 0
0.01 ≤ Ripple ≤ 3.0
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Qu ≥ 1
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
248 LPF_Chebyshev (Lowpass Filter, Chebyshev)
Filters
2. For infor mat ion on LPF behavior at DC, r efer t o “Lowpass Filt er Behavior at
DC” on page 24.
3. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
LPF_Elliptic (Lowpass Filter, Elliptic) 249
LPF_Elliptic (Lowpass Filter, Elliptic)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fpass = passband edge fr equency, in her t z
Ripple = passband r ipple, in dB
Fst op = st opband edge fr equency, in her t z
Ast op = at t enuat ion at st opband edge, in dB
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der (if N > 0, it over wr it es Fst op, and Ast op)
IL = passband inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
Fpass > 0
0.01 ≤ Ripple ≤ 3.0
Ast op > 0
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. For infor mat ion on LPF behavior at DC, r efer t o “Lowpass Filt er Behavior at
DC” on page 24.
250 LPF_Elliptic (Lowpass Filter, Elliptic)
Filters
3. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
LPF_Gaussian (Lowpass Filter, Gaussian) 251
LPF_Gaussian (Lowpass Filter, Gaussian)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fpass = passband edge fr equency, in her t z
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edge fr equency, in dB
GDpass = gr oup delay at passband edge fr equency r elat ive t o t hat at zer o fr equency
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
N = ﬁlt er or der ; if not given, it is calculat ed based on Fpass, Apass, and GDpass
IL = passband inser t ion loss, in dB
Qu = unloaded qualit y fact or for r esonat or s, default set t ing is an inﬁnit e Qu and
expr esses a dissipat ionless r esonant cir cuit .
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohm
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Range of Usage
Fpass > 0
0.01 ≤ Apass ≤ 3.0
0 < GDpass < 1
1 ≤ N ≤ 15
Qu ≥ 1
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. For infor mat ion on LPF behavior at DC, r efer t o “Lowpass Filt er Behavior at
DC” on page 24.
252 LPF_Gaussian (Lowpass Filter, Gaussian)
Filters
3. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
References 253
LPF_GMSK (Lowpass Filter, GMSK)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
BT = Pr oduct of 3dB bandwidt h and bit dur at ion
Bit Rat e = Digit al bit r at e deﬁning ﬁlt er bandwidt h, in Hz. Default = 270.833 KHz
DelayBit s = Number of bit s delayed by ﬁlt er. Default = 5
Gain = Gain nor malizat ion fact or. Default = 1.0
Zout = Out put impedance, in Ohms. Default = 50 Ohms
WindowType = Window t ype applied t o impulse r esponse. 0=None (default ), 1=Hann,
2=Hamming
ImpMaxFr eq = Maximum fr equency t o consider when calculat ing impulse r esponse,
in Hz.
ImpDelt aFr eq = Fr equency sample spacing when calculat ing impulse r esponse, in
Hz.
ImpMaxPt s = Maximum number of point s in impulse r esponse. Default = 4096
Range of Usage
0 ≤ Alpha ≤ 1
DelayBit s ≥ 1
Notes/Equations/Reference
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. For infor mat ion on lowpass ﬁlt er behavior at DC, r efer t o “Lowpass Filt er
Behavior at DC” on page 24.
3. This ﬁlt er is unidir ect ional. It s input impedance is inﬁnit e and it s out put
impedance is speciﬁed by Zout .
4. This Gaussian ﬁlt er is used in t he GMSK modulat ion syst em.
254 References
Filters
5. In t he st eadyst at e fr equency domain analysis, an ideal fr equencydomain
r esponse is used. However, t his ideal r esponse has an inﬁnit e dur at ion impulse
r esponse t hat must be appr oximat ed for t ime domain simulat ions in eit her
Tr ansient or Cir cuit Envelope. If DelayBit s is set t oo small, t hen t he impulse
r esponse will be sever ely t r uncat ed and will not accur at ely r eﬂect t he ideal
fr equency r esponse.
6. A value of 1.0 will be used int er nally when DelayBit s is set t o a value t hat is
less t han 1.0.
7. Accur acy of t his model in Tr ansient or Cir cuit Envelope can be fur t her
cont r olled t hr ough t he ImpMaxFr eq, ImpDelt aFr eq, and ImpMaxPt s
par amet er s.
8. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
References 255
LPF_PoleZero (Lowpass Filter, Pole Zero)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Poles = list of poles
Zer os = list of zer os
Gain = gain fact or
Fpass = 3dB bandwidt h
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2
Notes/Equations
1. This is an Sdomain ﬁlt er.
2. Poles and Zer os ar e a list of complex pole/zer o locat ions.
The t r ansfer funct ion for t he ﬁlt er is:
wher e
S = j(Fr eq / Fpass)
and
Fr eq is t he analysis fr equency
At least one pole must be supplied.
3. For infor mat ion on lowpass ﬁlt er behavior at DC, r efer t o “Lowpass Filt er
Behavior at DC” on page 24.
S
21
Gai n
S  Zero1 ( ) S  Zero2 ( )...
S  Pole1 ( ) S  Pole2 ( )...

¸ ,
¸ _
=
256 References
Filters
LPF_Polynomial (Lowpass Filter, Polynomial)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Numer at or = list of numer at or coefﬁcient s
Denominat or = list of denominat or coefﬁcient s
Gain = gain fact or
Fpass = 3dB bandwidt h
St opType = st opband input impedance t ype: OPEN or SHORT
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1, in ohms
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is an Sdomain ﬁlt er.
2. Denominat or and Numer at or ar e a list of polynomial coefﬁcient s.
The t r ansfer funct ion for t he ﬁlt er is:
wher e
S = j(Fr eq / Fpass)
and
Fr eq is t he analysis fr equency
At least one denominat or coefﬁcient must be supplied.
3. For infor mat ion on lowpass ﬁlt er behavior at DC, r efer t o “Lowpass Filt er
Behavior at DC” on page 24.
S
21
Gai n
N
0
N
1
S × ( ) N
2
S
2
× ( )... + +
D
0
D
1
S × ( ) D
2
S
2
× ( )... + +

¸ ,
¸ _
=
References 257
LPF_RaisedCos (Lowpass Filter, RaisedCosine)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Alpha = Rolloff fact or deﬁning ﬁlt er excess bandwidt h. Default = 0.35
SymbolRat e = Digit al symbol r at e deﬁning ﬁlt er bandwidt h, in Hz. Default = 24.3
KHz
DelaySymbols = Number of symbols delayed by ﬁlt er. Default = 5
Exponent = Exponent fact or, t o pr ovide for Root RaisedCosine ﬁlt er. Default = 0.5
Dut yCycle = Pulse dut y cycle in per cent , used for sinc(x) cor r ect ion. Default = 0
SincE = Flag t o include t he Exponent fact or on t he sinc(x) cor r ect ion (yes/no). Default
= no
Gain = Gain nor malizat ion fact or. Default = 1.0
Zout = Out put impedance, in Ohms. Default = 50 Ohms
WindowType = Window t ype applied t o impulse r esponse. 0=None (default ). 1=Hann,
2=Hamming
ImpMaxFr eq = Maximum fr equency t o consider when calculat ing impulse r esponse,
in Hz.
ImpDelt aFr eq = Fr equency sample spacing when calculat ing impulse r esponse, in
Hz.
ImpMaxPt s = Maximum number of point s in impulse r esponse. Default = 4096
Ot her = out put st r ing t o net list
Range of Usage
0 ≤ Alpha ≤ 1
DelaySymbols ≥ 1
0 ≤ Exponent ≤ 1
0 ≤ Dut yCycle ≤ 100
258 References
Filters
Notes/Equations
1. Refer t o “Filt er Cat egor ies” on page 21.
2. For infor mat ion on lowpass ﬁlt er behavior at DC, r efer t o “Lowpass Filt er
Behavior at DC” on page 24.
3. This ﬁlt er is unidir ect ional; input impedance is inﬁnit e; out put impedance is
speciﬁed by Zout .
4. The volt age gain is descr ibed by t he following funct ion.
wher e
G
ﬁlt
= 1 for fr equency <0.5 × (1Alpha)×SymbolRat e
0 for fr equency>0.5 × (1+Alpha)×SymbolRat e
ot her wise
[0.5(1sin(π ×(fr equency0.5×SymbolRat e)/
(Alpha × SymbolRat e))]
Exponent
G
comp
= 1.0 if Dut yCycle =0, else
[0.01 × Dut yCycle × sinc(x)]
Exponent
if SincE = YES, else
[0.01 × Dut yCycle × sinc(x)] if SincE = NO
Fr eq = abs (Fcent er  fr equency)
sinc(x) = sin(x)/x
x = 0.01 × Dut yCycle×π× fr equency/SymbolRat e
5. While t he Exponent can be any value, t he t wo st andar d values ar e 1.0 for t he
ideal r aisedcosine ﬁlt er r esponse or 0.5 t o simulat e t he r oot r aisedcosine ﬁlt er
r esponse when pr esent at bot h t he r eceiving and t r ansmit t ing channels.
6. In t he st eadyst at e, fr equencydomain analyses, t he ideal fr equencydomain
r esponse descr ibed pr eviously is used. However, t his ideal r esponse has an
inﬁnit e dur at ion impulse r esponse which must be appr oximat ed for t ime
domain simulat ions in eit her t r ansient or cir cuit envelope. If DelaySymbols
par amet er is set t oo small, t hen t he impulse r esponse will be sever ely t r uncat ed
and will not accur aely r eﬂect t he ideal fr equency r esponse.
V
ou t
V
i n

Gai n G
f i l t
×
G
com p
e
j 2πf requ en cy
Del ayS ym bol s
S ym bol R at e

¸ ,
¸ _
–
=
References 259
A DelaySymbols par amet er of 15 should r esult in sat ur at ed fr equency domain
sidelobes of 75dBc or smaller. This number is appr oximat e and r epr esent s t he
sat ur at ed sidelobe level at fr equencies far gr eat er t han t he ﬁlt er ’s cut off
fr equency. The sidelobes at , say, t wice t he ﬁlt er ’s cut off fr equency have
gener ally not sat ur at ed and will t ypically be higher t han 75 dBc. The sat ur at ed
sidelobe level may depend on whet her a t r ansient or cir cuit envelope simulat ion
is per for med and on t he window t ype used. It is signiﬁcant ly lower t han 75dBc
in many cases. The accur acy of t his model in t r ansient or cir cuit envelope
simulat ions can be fur t her cont r olled t hr ough t he ImpMaxFr eq, ImpDelt aFr eq
and ImpMaxPt s par amet er s.
7. The ﬁlt er can include gain equalizat ion t o compensat e for dut y cycle r olloff. If
Dut yCycle = 0.0, t hen no compensat ion will be applied. If SincE=YES, Exponent
will be applied t o t he gain compensat ion t er m, G
comp
. (Not e t hat t he Exponent
t er m is always pr esent in t he G
ﬁlt
t er m.)
8. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
260 References
Filters
SAW_Filter (Saw Filter)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fcent er = passband cent er fr equency
IL = passband inser t ion loss, in dB
BWpass = passband edget oedge widt h
Apass = at t enuat ion at passband edges, in dB
BWst op = st opband edget oedge widt h
Ast op = at t enuat ion at st opband edges, in dB
GDelay = gr oup delay
Ar ipple = passband amplit ude r ipple, in dB
PhaRipple = passband phase r ipple fr om linear phase, in degr ees
MaxRej = maximum r eject ion level, in dB
Zin = input impedance
Zout = out put impedance
WindowType = Window Type, 0 = None, 1 = Hann, 2 = Hamming
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
Ot her = out put st r ing t o net list
Range of Usage
BWst op ≥ BWpass
GDelay ≥ π/BWst op
Notes/Equations
1. SAW_Filt er models t he t ypical behavior of SAW bandpass ﬁlt er s. If t he
PhaRipple par amet er is not speciﬁed, t he ﬁlt er will have per fect linear phase.
References 261
2. To maint ain causalit y, Gdelay must be set t o at least Π/BWst op.
262 References
Filters
Introduction 31
Chapter 3: Modulators and Demodulators
Introduction
The Filters  <ﬁlter type> and S ystem  <device type> palet t es cont ain t wo
fundament ally differ ent t ypes of behavior al syst em models.
Filters, S ystem  Amps & Mixers, and S ystem  Mod/ Demod can be classiﬁed as
topsdown system models t hat suppor t a t opsdown syst em design ﬂow wher e model
behavior s ar e char act er ized by a small number of independent par amet er s such as
fr equency, power and load. They ar e oft en r efer r ed t o as parameterbased behavioral
models.
S ystem  Data Models can be classiﬁed as bottomsup system models t hat suppor t a
bot t omsup ver iﬁcat ion ﬂow wher e model behavior s ar e ext r act ed fr om a simulat ion
(or measur ement ) of a t r ansist orlevel cir cuit . They ar e oft en r efer r ed t o as
databased behavioral models.
The parameterbased behavioral models t ypically pr ovide super ior speed r elat ive t o
t he dat abased behavior al models wit h bot h of t hese being vast ly super ior t o a
br ut efor ce t r ansist orlevel simulat ion.
The databased behavioral models t ypically pr ovide super ior accur acy r elat ive t o t he
parameterbased behavioral models as t hey capt ur e act ual behavior s of implement ed
cir cuit component s and not just design speciﬁcat ions.
The differ ences bet ween parameter and databased behavioral models just ify a
palet t e emphasis on ﬂow (all dat abased behavior al models gr ouped t oget her ) r at her
t han funct ionalit y (all ampliﬁer s, mixer s, modulat or s, and demodulat or s gr ouped
t oget her ) and r esult ed in t he addit ion of a S ystem  Data Models palet t e.
The use model for par amet erbased behavior al models is t o simply set a ser ies of
par amet er s pr ior t o using t he model. The use model for dat abased behavior al models
is slight ly mor e involved. For a discussion, r efer t o Chapt er 8, Syst em Dat a Models.
The modulat or s and demodulat or s syst em model libr ar y cont ains t ime domain t uned
modulat or s and t uned demodulat or s. Each component in t his libr ar y is descr ibed
following t his int r oduct ion.
When using t he Syst emMod/Demod component s in t he Analog/RF schemat ic, it is
impor t ant t o not e t hat t er minat ing t he component wit h a load r esist ance equivalent
t o t he component out put r esist ance will pr ovide an out put volt age t hat is half of t he
32 Introduction
Modulators and Demodulators
applied input volt age. Consider t he Thevenin equivalent of t he out put of a
Mod/Demod component .
In an Analog/RF schemat ic, t he value for Vout will be 1/2 Vo when Out put
Resist ance=Load Resist ance. In gener al, Vout =Vo × Load Resist ance/(Load
Resist ance + Out put Resist ance). Thus, t his is t he pot ent ial divider act ion. All of t he
component s in t he Syst emMod/Demod libr ar y have t his pr oper t y except for
N_St at eDemod and PM_Unwr apDemodTuned. (These t wo component s do not have
an Rout par amet er ).
For a similar cir cuit in a DSP schemat ic, t he effect of t he pot ent ial divider on t he
out put volt age will not be not iceable when t he out put r esist ance equals t he load
r esist ance. In t his case, Vout equals Vo. For t he DSP component s, t her e is an
addit ional fact or of 2 at t he out put volt age t o cancel t he fact or of 1/2 fr om t he
pot ent ial divider. For a descr ipt ion of t he digit al implement at ion of t he modulat or s
and demodulat or s, and t he pot ent ial divider act ion, r efer t o Introduction: Timed,
Modem Components in t he Signal Pr ocessing component document at ion.
AM_DemodTuned (AM Demodulator, Tuned) 33
AM_DemodTuned (AM Demodulator, Tuned)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is a t uned demodulat or t hat select s t he input har monic closest t o t he
speciﬁed Fnom fr equency and gener at es a baseband out put signal equal t o t he
inst ant aneous amplit ude of t he select ed car r ier fr equency.
If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency,
a war ning is issued and t he out put is 0. Input impedance is inﬁnit e; out put
impedance is set by Rout , and is limit ed t o a minimum value of 0.1 ohm. The
open cir cuit out put volt age is deﬁned by
wher e
and
k r epr esent s t he value at t he analysis har monic fr equency closest t o t he
Fnom value
0 r epr esent s t he baseband component of t he out put volt age. All
nonbaseband out put fr equency component s ar e 0.
2. This model gener at es only t he absolut e value of t he input because t he
imaginar y par t of baseband signals is 0 for t r ansient and baseband envelope
simulat ions.
Vou t
0
m ag Vi n
k
( ) =
m ag V ( ) R e V ( )
2
I m V ( )
2
+ =
34 AM_ModTuned (AM Modulator, Tuned)
Modulators and Demodulators
AM_ModTuned (AM Modulator, Tuned)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
ModIndex = modulat ion index
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is a t uned modulat or t hat select s t he input har monic deﬁned by t he
speciﬁed Fnom fr equency and amplit ude modulat es it by t he baseband
modulat ion input .
If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency,
a war ning is issued and t he out put is 0. The t wo input impedances ar e inﬁnit e.
The out put impedance is set by Rout , and is limit ed t o a minimum value of 0.1
ohm. The open cir cuit out put volt age is deﬁned by
wher e
k r epr esent s t he value at t he analysis har monic fr equency closest t o t he
Fnom value
0 r epr esent s t he baseband component of t he modulat ion input volt age.
2. The RF car r ier is inject ed at pin 1; t he modulat ing signal is inject ed at pin 3.
The r esult ing AM signal is pr esent at pin 2. The RF car r ier should be a
fr equencydomain sour ce; t he modulat ing signal should be a t imedomain
sour ce.
3. This model wor ks in t r ansient and baseband envelope simulat ions. Because t he
descr ibing equat ion is valid for baseband signals, Fnom has no effect .
Vou t
k
1 Mod I n d ex Vm od
0
× + ( ) Vi n
k
× =
FM_DemodTuned (FM Demodulator, Tuned) 35
FM_DemodTuned (FM Demodulator, Tuned)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Sensit ivit y = demodulat ion sensit ivit y, in her t z/volt
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is a t uned demodulat or t hat select s t he input har monic closest t o t he
speciﬁed Fnom fr equency and gener at es a baseband out put signal equal t o t he
inst ant aneous fr equency of t he select ed car r ier fr equency.
If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency,
a war ning is issued and t he out put is 0. Input impedance is inﬁnit e; out put
impedance is set by Rout , and is limit ed t o a minimum value of 0.1 ohm.
The inst ant aneous fr equency differ ence is equal t o t he t ime der ivat ive of t he
inst ant aneous phase. This is appr oximat ed using a simple ﬁnit e differ ence. As
long as t he phase does not change by gr eat er t han 180° in one t ime st ep, t he
fr equency calculat ion is nonambiguous. The open cir cuit out put volt age can be
descr ibed as:
wher e
k r epr esent s t he value at t he analysis har monic fr equency closest t o t he
Fnom value
0 r epr esent s t he baseband component of t he out put volt age.
All nonbaseband out put fr equency component s ar e 0.
Vou t
0
Φ Vi n
k
t ( ) ( ) Φ Vi n
k
t t i m est ep – ( ) ( ) –
2π S en si t i v i t y × t i m est ep ×
 =
Φ V ( )
I m V ( )
R e V ( )
 atan =
36 FM_DemodTuned (FM Demodulator, Tuned)
Modulators and Demodulators
2. For t r ansient and baseband envelope simulat ions, t his model does not gener at e
t he expect ed r esult s because t he imaginar y par t of baseband signals is 0.
FM_ModTuned (FM Modulator, Tuned) 37
FM_ModTuned (FM Modulator, Tuned)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Sensit ivit y = modulat ion sensit ivit y, in her t z/volt
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is a t uned modulat or t hat select s t he input har monic deﬁned by t he
speciﬁed Fnom fr equency and fr equency modulat es it by t he baseband
modulat ion input .
If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency,
a war ning is issued and t he out put is 0. The t wo input impedances ar e inﬁnit e.
The out put impedance is set by Rout , and is limit ed t o a minimum value of 0.1
ohm. The open cir cuit out put volt age is deﬁned by
wher e
k r epr esent s t he value at t he analysis har monic fr equency closest t o t he
Fnom value
0 r epr esent s t he baseband component of t he modulat ion input volt age.
For t ime t =0, t he int egr at or of t he modulat ion input signal is r eset t o 0. In all
st eadyst at e analyses such as har monic balance, dc, and ac, t ime is kept at 0, so
no modulat ion occur s.
Vou t
k
e
j 2πS en si t i v i t y V m
0
t d
0
t
∫
Vi n
k
× =
38 FM_ModTuned (FM Modulator, Tuned)
Modulators and Demodulators
2. The RF car r ier is inject ed at pin 1; t he modulat ing signal is inject ed at pin 3.
The r esult ing FM signal is pr esent at pin 2. The RF car r ier should be a
fr equencydomain sour ce; t he modulat ing signal should be a t imedomain
sour ce.
3. This model will not funct ion as a fr equency modulat or in t r ansient and
baseband envelope simulat ions because of t he use of t he complex exponent ial
oper at or.
IQ_DemodTuned (I/Q Demodulator, Tuned) 39
IQ_DemodTuned (I/Q Demodulator, Tuned)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is a t uned demodulat or t hat select s t he input har monic closest t o t he
speciﬁed Fnom fr equency and gener at es t wo baseband out put signals equal t o
t he inst ant aneous inphase and quadr at ur ephase component s of t he select ed
car r ier fr equency.
If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency,
a war ning is issued and t he out put is 0. Input impedance is inﬁnit e; out put
impedance is set by Rout , and is limit ed t o a minimum value of 0.1 ohm. The
open cir cuit out put volt ages ar e deﬁned simply by
wher e
k r epr esent s t he value at t he analysis har monic fr equency closest t o t he
Fnom value
0 r epr esent s t he baseband component of t he out put volt ages.
All nonbaseband out put fr equency component s ar e 0.
2. In t r ansient and baseband envelope simulat ions, because t he imaginar y par t of
baseband signals is 0, t his model r eplicat es t he input on t he I out put only.
V i
0
R e Vi n
k
( ) =
V q
0
I m Vi n
k
( ) =
310 IQ_ModTuned (I/Q Modulator, Tuned)
Modulators and Demodulators
IQ_ModTuned (I/Q Modulator, Tuned)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is a t uned modulat or t hat select s t he input har monic deﬁned by t he
speciﬁed Fnom fr equency and modulat es it accor ding t o t he I (inphase) and Q
(quadr at ur e) modulat ion input s.
If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency,
a war ning is issued and t he out put is 0. All t hr ee input impedances ar e inﬁnit e;
out put impedance is set by Rout , and is limit ed t o a minimum value of 0.1 ohm.
The open cir cuit out put volt age is deﬁned by
wher e
k r epr esent s t he value at t he analysis har monic fr equency closest t o t he
Fnom value
0 r epr esent s t he baseband component of t he t wo modulat ion input volt ages.
2. The RF car r ier is inject ed at pin 1; I dat a is inject ed at pin 3; Q dat a is inject ed
at pin 4. The r esult ing modulat ed signal is pr esent at pin 2. The RF car r ier
should be a fr equencydomain sour ce; t he modulat ing signals should be a
t imedomain sour ce.
3. This model will not funct ion as a phase modulat or in t r ansient and baseband
envelope simulat ion because of t he use of t he complex j oper at or.
4. Bot h AM and PM modulat ion can be gener at ed.
Vou t
k
V
I 0
j V
Q0
× + ( ) Vi n
k
× =
N_StateDemod (NState Demodulator) 311
N_StateDemod (NState Demodulator)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
St at eAr r ay = complex ar r ay of st at e values
Notes/Equations
1. This is a t uned demodulat or t hat select s t he input har monic closest t o t he
speciﬁed Fnom fr equency and gener at es a baseband out put st at e signal
r epr esent ing t he near est complex nominal st at e of t he select ed car r ier at t he
t ime of last r ising clock edge.
If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency,
a war ning is issued and t he out put is 0. On each r ising clock edge, t he I/Q
infor mat ion of t he car r ier is sampled. Using a Euclidean dist ance measur e, t he
closest nominal st at e in t he St at eAr r ay var iable is det er mined and t hat st at e
number, minus 1, is out put as t he baseband st at e volt age. This can be
consider ed a 2dimensional quant izer.
2. The nominal st at e locat ions ar e ar bit r ar y and user deﬁnable in t he St at eAr r ay
var iable, which can be cr eat ed fr om a list of complex values using t he list ()
funct ion.
3. In t r ansient and baseband envelope simulat ions, t his st at e demodulat ion model
funct ions cor r ect ly and could be used as a 1dimensional ar bit r ar y st at e
quant izer.
312 N_StateMod (NState Modulator)
Modulators and Demodulators
N_StateMod (NState Modulator)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
MaxSt at es = maximum number of input st at es
St at eAr r ay = complex ar r ay of st at e values
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This Nst at e modulat or can be used t o cr eat e an ar bit r ar y, userdeﬁned
const ellat ion of complex modulat ion st at es. The input har monic closest t o t he
speciﬁed Fnom fr equency is select ed and modulat ed by a sequence of complex
st at es.
If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency,
a war ning is issued and t he out put is 0. The st at es ar e deﬁned by t he complex
ar r ay var iable St at eAr r ay. The sequence of st at es is det er mined by t he
baseband component of t he st at e modulat ion input . The t wo input impedances
ar e inﬁnit e; out put impedance is set by Rout , and is limit ed t o a minimum value
of 0.1 ohm. The open cir cuit out put volt age is deﬁned by
wher e
k r epr esent s t he value at t he analysis har monic fr equency closest t o t he
Fnom value
0 r epr esent s t he baseband component of t he modulat ion st at e input volt age;
t his input volt age is int er nally limit ed t o be bet ween 0 and MaxSt at es −1.
Vou t
k
S t at e i n t V s
0
( ) 1 + [ ] Vi n
k
× =
N_StateMod (NState Modulator) 313
The St at eAr r ay var iable can be cr eat ed fr om list of complex values using t he
list () funct ion.
2. This model will not funct ion as a complex modulat or in t r ansient and baseband
envelope simulat ions if complex st at e values ar e speciﬁed.
3. Figur e 31 and Figur e 32 show a schemat ic example and simulat ion r esult s for
a 16st at e modulat or being swept linear ly t hr ough all 16 of it s st at es.
Figur e 31. 16St at e Modulat ion Example
314 N_StateMod (NState Modulator)
Modulators and Demodulators
Figur e 32. Simulat ion Result s
PI4DQPSK_ModTuned (PI/4 DQPSK Modulator, Tuned) 315
PI4DQPSK_ModTuned (PI/4 DQPSK Modulator, Tuned)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
SymbolRat e = out put symbol r at e (onehalf input bit r at e)
Delay = sampling delay, in seconds
Notes/Equations
1. This t uned PI/4 DQPSK modulat or select s t he input har monic closest t o t he
speciﬁed Fnom fr equency and modulat es it accor ding t o t he phase st at e
det er mined by differ ent ially encoding t he input bit st r eam and applying t he
PI/4 phase offset .
If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency,
a war ning is issued and t he out put is 0. The input bit st r eam is sampled at a
r at e det er mined by t he SymbolRat e wit h an init ial synchr onizing delay
det er mined by t he Delay par amet er. The act ual sampling r at e is r ounded t o an
int eger mult iple of t he syst em t imest ep—use a cor r esponding discr et e t ime
sour ce t o gener at e t his ser ial bit st r eam or ensur e t hat t he analysis sampling
r at e is an int eger mult iple of t he bit r at e. Two consecut ive bit s ar e monit or ed,
along wit h t he pr evious phase st at e, t o det er mine t he next phase st at e. An
input bit is assumed t o be 1 if it is gr eat er t han 0.5V and 0 ot her wise.
2. The RF car r ier is inject ed at pin 1; t he input bit st r eam is inject ed at pin 3. The
r esult ing PI4DQPSK signal is pr esent at pin 2. The RF car r ier should be a
fr equencydomain sour ce; t he modulat ing signal should be a t imedomain
sour ce.
316 PI4DQPSK_ModTuned (PI/4 DQPSK Modulator, Tuned)
Modulators and Demodulators
3. The input impedances of bot h t he ser ial bit st r eam input and t he RF car r ier ar e
inﬁnit e; out put impedance is set by Rout , and is limit ed t o a minimum value of
0.1 ohm. The open cir cuit out put volt age is deﬁned by:
wher e
k r epr esent s t he value at t he analysis har monic fr equency closest t o t he
Fnom value
0 r epr esent s t he baseband component of t he bit st r eam input volt age.
4. This model will not funct ion as a modulat or in t r ansient and baseband envelope
simulat ions because of t he use of complex exponent ial funct ions.
Phase Transition =
Next Phase − Current Phase
0 0
45°
0 1
135°
1 0
−45°
1 1
−135°
Vou t
k
e
j N ext Ph V m
0
t ( ) V m
0
t Bi t T i m e – ( ) Cu rren t Ph , , ( )
V × i n
k
=
Vm
0
t ( ) Vm
0
t Bi t T i m e – ( )
PM_DemodTuned (PM Demodulator, Tuned) 317
PM_DemodTuned (PM Demodulator, Tuned)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Sensit ivit y = demodulat ion sensit ivit y, in degr ee/volt
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is a t uned demodulat or t hat select s t he input har monic closest t o t he
speciﬁed Fnom fr equency and gener at es a baseband out put signal equal t o t he
inst ant aneous phase of t he select ed car r ier fr equency.
If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency,
a war ning is issued and t he out put is 0. The input impedance is inﬁnit e. The
out put impedance is set by Rout , and is limit ed t o a minimum value of 0.1 ohm.
The open cir cuit out put volt age is deﬁned by
wher e
k r epr esent s t he value at t he analysis har monic fr equency closest t o t he
Fnom value
0 r epr esent s t he baseband component of t he out put volt age.
All nonbaseband out put fr equency component s ar e 0.
The maximum phase r ange of t his demodulat or is t180°.
2. In t r ansient and baseband envelope simulat ions, t his model does not gener at e
t he expect ed r esult s because t he imaginar y par t of baseband signals is 0.
Vou t
0
Φ Vi n
k
t ( ) ( ) 180 ×
π S en si t i v i t y ×
 =
Φ V ( )
I m V ( )
R e V ( )
 atan =
318 PM_ModTuned (PM Modulator, Tuned)
Modulators and Demodulators
PM_ModTuned (PM Modulator, Tuned)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Sensit ivit y = demodulat ion sensit ivit y, in degr ee/volt
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This is a t uned modulat or t hat select s t he input har monic deﬁned by t he
speciﬁed Fnom fr equency and phase modulat es it by t he baseband modulat ion
input . If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom
fr equency, a war ning is issued and t he out put is 0. The t wo input impedances
ar e inﬁnit e. The out put impedance is set by Rout , and is limit ed t o a minimum
value of 0.1 ohm. The open cir cuit out put volt age is deﬁned by
wher e
k r epr esent s t he value at t he analysis har monic fr equency closest t o t he
Fnom value
0 r epr esent s t he baseband component of t he modulat ion input volt age.
2. The RF car r ier is inject ed at pin 1; t he modulat ing signal is inject ed at pin 3.
The r esult ing PM signal is pr esent at pin 2. The RF car r ier should be a
fr equencydomain sour ce; t he modulat ing signal should be a t imedomain
sour ce.
3. This model will not funct ion as a phase modulat or in t r ansient and baseband
envelope simulat ions because of t he use of t he complex exponent ial oper at or.
Vou t
k
e
j πS en si t i v i t y Vm od
0
( ) 180 ⁄ ×
Vi n
k
× =
PM_UnwrapDemodTuned (PM Unwrapped Demodulator, Tuned) 319
PM_UnwrapDemodTuned (PM Unwrapped Demodulator, Tuned)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Sensit ivit y = modulat ion sensit ivit y, in degr ee/volt
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
MaxAngle = unwr apped phase angle r ange, in degr ees
Notes/Equations
1. This is a t uned demodulat or t hat select s t he input har monic closest t o t he
speciﬁed Fnom fr equency and gener at es a baseband out put signal equal t o t he
inst ant aneous unwr apped phase of t he select ed car r ier fr equency.
If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency,
a war ning is issued and t he out put is 0. The input impedance is inﬁnit e. The
out put impedance is 0.
2. The phase r ange of t his demodulat or is equal t o t MaxAngle. The phase at t ime
0 is set equal t o t he nor mal 180° phase of t he select ed car r ier fr equency. By
t r acking modulo 360° phase t r ansit ions, t he unwr apped phase, r elat ive t o t he
init ial t ime 0 value, is calculat ed. The user can t hen set t he desir ed modulo
r ange wit h t he MaxAngle par amet er. A lar ge number will gener at e t ot ally
unwr apped phase.
This unwr apping of phase wor ks for t ime sweeps in envelope analyses; it cannot
be used t o unwr ap t he phase of fr equency or ot her par amet er sweeps.
3. In t r ansient and baseband envelope simulat ions, t his model does not gener at e
t he expect ed r esult s because t he imaginar y par t of baseband signals is 0.
320 QPSK_ModTuned (QPSK Modulator, Tuned)
Modulators and Demodulators
QPSK_ModTuned (QPSK Modulator, Tuned)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
St at e1 = complex modulat ion coor dinat es of St at e 1
St at e2 = complex modulat ion coor dinat es of St at e 2
St at e3 = complex modulat ion coor dinat es of St at e 3
St at e4 = complex modulat ion coor dinat es of St at e 4
Notes/Equations
1. This t uned quadr at ur e phase shift keying (QPSK) modulat or is act ually an
ar bit r ar y 4st at e modulat or. The input har monic closest t o t he speciﬁed Fnom
fr equency is select ed and modulat ed by one of four userdeﬁned complex values.
If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency,
a war ning is issued and t he out put is 0.
The complex values ar e det er mined by t he baseband component of t he st at e
modulat ion input . An input less t han 0.5V select s St at e 1; less t han 1.5V select s
St at e 2; less t han 2.5V select s St at e 3; and, any input gr eat er t han 2.5V select s
St at e 4. The t wo input impedances ar e inﬁnit e. The out put impedance is set by
Rout and is limit ed t o a minimum value of 0.1 ohm. The open cir cuit out put
volt age is deﬁned by:
wher e
Vou t
k
S t at e i n t V s
0
1.5 + ( ) [ ] Vi n
k
× =
Introduction 321
k r epr esent s t he value at t he analysis har monic fr equency closest t o t he
Fnom value
0 r epr esent s t he baseband component of t he modulat ion st at e input volt age.
2. The RF car r ier is inject ed at pin 1; t he input bit st r eam is inject ed at pin 3. The
r esult ing QPSK signal is pr esent at pin 2. The RF car r ier should be a
fr equencydomain sour ce; t he modulat ing signal should be a t imedomain
sour ce.
3. This model will not funct ion as a complex modulat or in t r ansient and baseband
envelope simulat ions if t he speciﬁed st at e values ar e complex.
322 Introduction
Modulators and Demodulators
41
Chapter 4: Passive System Components
42 AntLoad (Antenna Load)
Passive System Components
AntLoad (Antenna Load)
Symbol
Illustration
Available in ADS
Parameters
Ant Type = ant enna t ype: MONOPOLE or DIPOLE
Lengt h = physical ant enna lengt h, in speciﬁed unit s
Rat ioLR = lengt ht or adius r at io
Range of Usage
Notes/Equations
1. This component models t he input impedance of a monopole or dipole ant enna.
Tr ansmission is not modeled.
2. For t imedomain analysis, t he fr equencydomain analyt ical model is used.
Dipole Mode Monopole Mode
monopole simulation frequency (MHZ)
287
L m et ers ( )

R at i oL R
R at i oL R 1 +
 × ≤
dipole simulation frequency (MHZ)
575
L m et ers ( )

R at i oL R
R at i oL R 2 +
 × ≤
AntLoad (Antenna Load) 43
3. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
References
[1] Const ant ine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, Har per and Row,
1982, pp. 112, 295, 334335.
[2] R. I. Hansen, “Fundament al Limit at ions in Ant ennas,” Proceedings of the IEEE,
Vol. 68, No. 2, Febr uar y, 1981, pp. 170182.
[3] J ohn D. Kr aus, Antennas, McGr awHill Book Company, Inc., 1950, pp. 276278.
44 Attenuator (Attenuator)
Passive System Components
Attenuator (Attenuator)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Loss = at t enuat ion, in dB
VSWR = volt age st anding wave r at io for bot h por t s
Rr ef = r efer ence r esist ance for bot h por t s
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
CheckPassivit y = check passivit y ﬂag: if set t o yes (default ), a passivit y check is
per for med and a war ning is out put if t he device is not passive; if set t o no, a passivit y
check is not per for med.
Ret ur nPhase = phase scaling of S
11
, S
22
; default is 0
Range of Usage
VSWR>1.0
Notes/Equations
1. The Spar amet er s for At t enuat or ar e:
 S 12 =  S 21 = 10
( Loss /20)
Phase(S 12) = Phase(S 21)=0
 S 11 =  S 22 = (VS WR 1) / (VS WR +1) (r egar ding limit ing, r efer t o Not e 2)
Phase(S 11) = Phase(S 22) = 90 if ReturnPhase < 0
Phase(S 11) = Phase(S 22) = 0 if ReturnPhase = 0
Phase(S 11) = Phase(S 22) = 90 if ReturnPhase > 0
2. When ReturnPhase=0,  S 11 and  S 22 will be limit ed t o
min( S 11 , 1   S 21 )
in or der t o maint ain passivit y const r aint s.
3. This component will always pr ovide at t enuat ion; for example, eit her Loss=20 or
Loss=20 will r esult in 20 dB at t enuat ion.
Attenuator (Attenuator) 45
4. When used in t ime domain simulat ions, set ReturnPhase=0; any ot her
ReturnPhase value will not pr oduce pr oper r esult s because (+/)j in t he
fr equency domain cor r esponds t o a noncausal impulse r esponse in t ime
domain.
5. When checking passivit y, r emember t hat inﬁnit esimal numer ical differ ences
can make a differ ence. For example, an At t enuat or wit h
is t heor et ically passive. However, it may give a nonpassivit y war ning in ADS
due t o inﬁnit esimal numer ical differ ences. Subt r act ing a small number, say
1e12, fr om all Spar amet er s should addr ess t he pr oblem wit hout causing
not iceable changes in t he r esult s.
6. CheckPassivity cont r ols whet her a separ at e passivit y check is enabled. This is
what out put s t he Linear S _Port ... is nonpassive war ning. ReturnPhase
cont r ols whet her limit ing is enabled. This is what out put s t he VS WR limited ...
war ning. When limit ing is enabled, it implies a passivit y check t o ﬁnd out what
limit ing, if any, should be done (r efer t o not e 7). This passivit y check is silent
and never pr oduces a nonpassivit y war ning. When ReturnPhase=0, VS WR
limit ing is done befor e t he passivit y check if CheckPassivity=yes. This means
t hat for ReturnPhase=0, a nonpassivit y war ning will never be issued
r egar dless of whet her CheckPassivity is set t o yes or no. For CheckPassivity=no,
a passivit y check will not be done; t her efor e a nonpassivit y war ning will not be
out put . For CheckPassivity=yes, a passivit y check will be done but t he
par amet er s have alr eady been limit ed t o ensur e passivit y so t he component will
be found t o be passive and a nonpassivit y war ning will not be out put .
7. This not e answer s t wo quest ions r egar ding At t enuat or :
Q How does At t enuat or do it s passivit y check and how/why does it per for m
limit ing t o ensur e passivit y?
A The Smat r ix for t his at t enuat or is
We have
S 21 S 12 0.8 = =
S 11 S 22 1 S 11 – 0.6 = = =
R et u rn Ph ase < > 0
S
S 11 S 12
S 21 S 22
=
46 Attenuator (Attenuator)
Passive System Components
and we see t hat T is r eal and fulﬁls 0 ≤ T ≤ 1 for Loss values fr om minus inﬁnit y
t o inﬁnit y. We also have
wher e
scale = if (ReturnPhase=0) t hen 1 elseif (ReturnPhase<0) t hen j else
j endif
VS WR2 = if (ReturnPhase=0) t hen min(VS WR, MaxVS WR) else VS WR endif
MaxVS WR = (1+MaxR)/(1MaxR)
MaxR = maximum value of R which guar ant ees passivit y, TBD
and we see t hat R is r eal for ReturnPhase=0 and fulﬁls 0 ≤ R ≤ 1 for VS WR
values fr om 1 t o inﬁnit y. The Smat r ix for ReturnPhase=0 is t her efor e
The condit ion for passivit y is t hat eigenvalues(t r anspose(conjugat e(S )) × S ) ≤ 1.
For t he r eal and symmet r ic mat r ix above, t his r educes t o eigenvalues(S × S ) ≤ 1.
We have
and ﬁnd t he eigenvalues R
2
2 × R × T+T
2
and R
2
+2 × R × T+T
2
. Let t ing t hese
eigenvalues equal t o 1 (t he max value for passivit y), we get
R
2
2 × R × T+T
2
=1 > R=1+T and R=1+T
R
2
+2 × R × T+T
2
=1 > R=1T and R=1T
and see t hat eigenvalues (S × S ) ≤ 1 implies R ≥ 1+T, R ≤ 1+T, R ≥ 1T and
R ≤ 1T. For 0 ≤ R,T ≤ 1, t he ﬁr st t hr ee inequalit ies ar e always sat isﬁed and t he
last one gives MaxR=1T.
S S 12 10
abs L oss ( ) –
20

T = = =
S 11 S 22 scal e
VS WR 2 1 –
VS WR 2 1 +
 × R = = =
S
R T
T R
=
S S
R
2
T
2
+ 2 R T × ×
2 R T × × R
2
T
2
+
= ×
Attenuator (Attenuator) 47
Q I have a dissipat ionless at t enuat or. It has a given S 21 and because it is
dissipat ionless I know t hat
.
For inst ance, I might have S 21=0.8 and I know t hat  S 11 =0.6 cor r esponding
t o a VS WR of 4. I ent er S 21=0.8 and S 11=0.6 for t he at t enuat or but when I
simulat e I’m t old t hat VS WR is limit ed t o 1.5 cor r esponding t o an S 11 value of
0.2. I know t hat my at t enuat or is passive wit h  S 11 =0.6. Isn’t t he limit ing by
At t enuat or t oo r est r ict ive and wr ong?
A Let ’s examine t he above Smat r ix. It is
and it does fulﬁll
However, for a dissipat ionless net wor k it must also fulﬁll
and it clear ly does not . What is wr ong is t hat S 11=S 22 have zer o phase.
To r emedy t his, we could consider
which fulﬁlls bot h of t he above equat ions. A similar mat r ix could be const r uct ed
by scaling wit h j. These mat r ices must be ent er ed int o ADS wit h
ReturnPhase>0 and ReturnPhase<0, r espect ively, not t he default
ReturnPhase=0. For ReturnPhase<>0, no limit ing is done on VS WR and t he
above concer n is void. An At t enuat or wit h t he or iginal Smat r ix is not
dissipat ionless and must be limit ed in or der t o be passive.
S 11 1 S 21 –
2
=
0.6 0.8
0.8 0.6
S i j
2
( ) 1 j 1 2 , = [ ] =
i 1 =
2
∑
S i j con j u gat e S i q ( ) × ( ) 0 =
i 1 =
2
∑
j 1 2; , = q 1 2; , = q j > <
j 0.6 × 0.8
0.8 j 0.6 ×
48 Attenuator (Attenuator)
Passive System Components
All t his gener alizes t o N × N mat r ices. Look, for example, at a st andar d
fourpor t dir ect ional coupler. The element s ar e not all r eal. Ther e ar e j's ﬂoat ing
ar ound. Why? This is why.
A quick check shows t hat t he eigenvalues of
ar e 0.36 and 1.0 and t hat t he eigenvalues of
ar e 0.04 and 1.96 showing again t hat t he cir cuit cor r esponding t o t he
for mer /limit ed mat r ix is passive (lar gest eigenvalue of S × S equals one) while
t he cir cuit cor r esponding t o t he lat t er /unlimit ed mat r ix is not passive (lar gest
eigenvalue of S × S > 1).
0.2 0.8
0.8 0.2
0.2 0.8
0.8 0.2
×
0.6 0.8
0.8 0.6
0.6 0.8
0.8 0.6
×
Balun3Port (Balun, 3port) 49
Balun3Port (Balun, 3port)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
None
Notes/Equations
1. Balun3Por t r ealizes t he ideal t r ansfor mat ion bet ween a balanced
differ ent ialmode signal and unbalanced, singleended signals. It can be useful
t o connect a sour ce t o a differ ent ially fed cir cuit , alt hough it does ignor e
commonmode effect s.
2. Balun3Por t r ealizes t he volt age and cur r ent t r ansfor mat ions given by:
v
d
= v
+
 v

i
+
= i

= i
d
wher e
v
d
/i
d
= t he differ ent ial mode volt age/cur r ent at pin d
v
+
/i
+
= t he single line volt age/cur r ent at pin +
v

/i

= t he single line volt age/cur r ent at pin 
See P.R. Gray and R.G. Meyer, “Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated
Circuits”, Third Edition, John Wiley & S ons, NY, 1993, equat ions 3.91 & 3.92.
The minus signs in t he cur r ent deﬁnit ions ar e due t o t he st andar d deﬁnit ion of
cur r ent s dir ect ed into t he Balun3Por t component .
3. An equivalent funct ionalit y can be r ealized wit h a Balun4Por t t hat has t he
commonmode pin gr ounded. However, t he Balun3Por t pr ovides bet t er
conver gence pr oper t ies.
4. Balun3Por t is bidir ect ional. When fed at t he differ ent ialmode pin, it r ealizes
t he t r ansfor mat ions:
410 Balun3Port (Balun, 3port)
Passive System Components
v
+
= v

= (v
d
)/2
i
+
=  i

= i
d
5. Examples of using Balun3Por t t o conver t bet ween (unbalanced) ADS sour ces
and balanced cir cuit s can be found in t he ADS examples dir ect or y; access t hese
examples fr om t he ADS Main window > File > Example Project.
• RFIC > MixerDiffMode_prj demonst r at es t he use of Balun4Por t t o pr esent
differ ent ialmode sour ces (as well as common mode biases) t o t he RF and LO
input s. It also shows t he use of Balun3Por t t o singleended
(differ ent ialmode) IF out put , which is needed t o pr oper ly calculat e t he noise
ﬁgur e.
• BehavioralModels > DifferentialModels_prj demonst r at es t he use of
Balun3Por t and Balun4Por t in conjunct ion wit h singleended Syst emDat a
Models in or der t o cr eat e a dat abased behavior al model of a differ ent ially fed
mixer.
Balun4Port (Balun, 4port) 411
Balun4Port (Balun, 4port)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
None
Notes/Equations
1. Balun4Por t r ealizes t he ideal t r ansfor mat ion bet ween balanced (differ ent ial
and commonmode) signals and unbalanced (singleended) signals. It can be
used t o connect sour ces t o a differ ent ially fed cir cuit , par t icular ly when
modeling commonmode effect s ar e impor t ant .
2. Balun4Por t r ealizes volt age and cur r ent t r ansfor mat ions given by:
v
d
= v
+
 v

v
c
= (v
+
+ v

)/2
i
d
= (i
+
 i

)/2
i
c
= (i
+
+ i

)
wher e
v
d
/i
d
= differ ent ial mode volt age/cur r ent at pin d
v
c
/i
c
= common mode volt age/cur r ent at pin c
v
+
/i
+
= single line volt age/cur r ent at pin +
v

/i

= single line volt age/cur r ent at pin 
See P.R. Gray and R.G. Meyer, “Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated
Circuits”, Third Edition, John Wiley & S ons, NY, 1993, equat ions 3.91 and 3.92.
The minus signs in t he cur r ent deﬁnit ions ar e due t o t he st andar d deﬁnit ion of
cur r ent s dir ect ed into t he Balun4Por t component .
3. Balun4Por t is bidir ect ional. It conver t s common/differ ent ialmode signals int o
t wo singleended signals, as well as conver t ing t wo singleended signals int o
common/differ ent ial mode signals.
412 Balun4Port (Balun, 4port)
Passive System Components
4. If commonmode effect s ar e not desir ed, Balun3Por t pr ovides an equivalent , but
numer ically mor e r obust , r esult as gr ounding t he commonmode pin of
Balun4Por t .
5. Examples of using Balun4Por t t o conver t bet ween (unbalanced) ADS sour ces
and balanced cir cuit s can be found in t he ADS examples dir ect or y; access t hese
examples fr om t he ADS Main window > File > Example Project.
• RFIC > MixerDiffMode_prj demonst r at es t he use of Balun4Por t t o pr esent
differ ent ialmode sour ces (as well as common mode biases) t o t he RF and LO
input s. It also shows t he use of Balun3Por t t o singleended
(differ ent ialmode) IF out put , which is needed t o pr oper ly calculat e t he noise
ﬁgur e.
• BehavioralModels > DifferentialModels_prj demonst r at es t he use of
Balun3Por t and Balun4Por t in conjunct ion wit h singleended Syst emDat a
Models in or der t o cr eat e a dat abased behavior al model of a differ ent ially fed
mixer.
Balun6Port (Balun, 6port) 413
Balun6Port (Balun, 6port)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
None
Notes/Equations
1. Balun6Por t is based on ideal t r ansfor mer s; it can be used t o t r ansfor m a
singleended signal t o a differ ent ial signal wit h t wo gr ound planes such as a
st r ipline.
2. This component passes DC.
414 Circulator (Ideal 3Port Circulator)
Passive System Components
Circulator (Ideal 3Port Circulator)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
F1 = ﬁr st fr equency br eakpoint
F2 = second fr equency br eakpoint
F3 = t hir d fr equency br eakpoint
Loss1 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies ≤F1, in dB
Loss2 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies >F1 ≤F2, in dB
Loss3 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies >F2 ≤F3, in dB
Loss4 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies >F3, in dB
VSWR1 = volt age st anding wave r at io at bot h por t s for fr equencies ≤F1
VSWR2 = volt age st anding wave r at io at bot h por t s for fr equencies >F1, ≤F2
VSWR3 = volt age st anding wave r at io at bot h por t s for fr equencies >F2, ≤F3
VSWR4 = volt age st anding wave r at io at bot h por t s for fr equencies >F3
Isolat = isolat ion, in dB
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2
Z3 = r efer ence impedance for por t 3
Temp = t emper at ur e, in degr ees C
CheckPassivit y = check passivit y ﬂag: if set t o yes (default ), a passivit y check is
per for med and a war ning is out put if t he device is not passive; if set t o no, a passivit y
check is not per for med.
Circulator (Ideal 3Port Circulator) 415
Notes/Equations
1. Up t o t hr ee fr equency br eakpoint s can be used t o deﬁne four bands. Each band
will have a differ ent Loss# and VSWR#. If no fr equencies ar e speciﬁed, t hen
t his model is fr equency independent and only uses Loss1 and VSWR1.
2. A loss is modeled r egar dless of t he sign of t he Loss par amet er value.
3. All por t s have t he same VSWR.
4. Isolat ion is const ant acr oss all fr equency bands.
5. The 3 × 3 Smat r ix for Cir culat or is descr ibed by
S
11
S
22
S
33
VS WR 1 –
VS WR 1 +
 = = =
S
12
S
23
S
31
10
abs I sol at ( ) 20 ⁄ – ( )
= = =
S
13
S
21
S
32
10
abs L oss ( ) 20 ⁄ – ( )
= = =
416 CouplerDual (Dual Coupler)
Passive System Components
CouplerDual (Dual Coupler)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Coupling = coupling fact or, in dB
F1 = ﬁr st fr equency br eakpoint
F2 = second fr equency br eakpoint
F3 = t hir d fr equency br eakpoint
MVSWR1 = main ar m VSWR for fr equency ≤ F1
MVSWR2 = main ar m VSWR for F1 < fr equency ≤ F2
MVSWR3 = main ar m VSWR for F2 < fr equency ≤ F3
MVSWR4 = main ar m VSWR for fr equency > F3
CVSWR1 = coupled ar m VSWR for fr equency ≤ F1
CVSWR2 = coupled ar m VSWR for F1 < fr equency ≤ F2
CVSWR3 = coupled ar m VSWR for F2 < fr equency ≤ F3
CVSWR4 = coupled ar m VSWR for fr equency > F3
Loss1 = at t enuat ion for fr equency ≤ F1, in dB
Loss2 = at t enuat ion for F1 < fr equency ≤ F2, in dB
Loss3 = at t enuat ion for F2 < fr equency ≤ F3, in dB
Loss4 = at t enuat ion for fr equency > F3, in dB
Dir ect 1 = dir ect ivit y for fr equency ≤ F1, in dB
Dir ect 2 = dir ect ivit y for F1 < fr equency ≤ F2, in dB
Dir ect 3 = dir ect ivit y for F2 < fr equency ≤ F3, in dB
Dir ect 4 = dir ect ivit y for fr equency > F3, in dB
CouplerDual (Dual Coupler) 417
ZRef = r efer ence impedance for all por t s
Temp = t emper at ur e, in degr ees C
CheckPassivit y = check passivit y ﬂag: if set t o yes (default ), a passivit y check is
per for med and a war ning is out put if t he device is not passive; if set t o no, a passivit y
check is not per for med.
Notes/Equations
1. Por t 1 is t he input por t ; por t 2 is t he t hr ough por t ; por t 3 is t he coupled por t ;
por t 4 is t he isolat ed por t .
2. Bot h por t s of t he main ar m (por t s 1 and 2) ar e assumed t o have t he same
VSWR. Bot h por t s of t he coupled ar m (por t s 3 and 4) ar e also assumed t o have
t he same VSWR.
3. Coupling is assumed t o be const ant acr oss all fr equency bands.
4. Loss is t he dissipat ion of t he coupler ; it affect s S21 and S12 only. These
Spar amet er s ar e calculat ed as if t he coupler was dissipat ionless and ar e t hen
scaled by
5. Int er nally, coupler isolat ion is calculat ed as Coupling + Direct in dB.
6. Up t o t hr ee fr equency br eakpoint s can be used t o deﬁne four bands, wit h
differ ent dir ect ivit y losses and VSWR values for each fr equency band. If no
fr equencies ar e speciﬁed, t hen t his model is fr equency independent and uses
Dir ect 1, Loss1, and VSWR1 only.
7. Ther e is a 90degr ee phase shift bet ween t he input and t he coupled por t s.
8. In t he coupled ar m, t he t wo por t s ar e uncoupled.
10
abs L oss ( ) 20 ⁄ – ( )
418 CouplerSingle (Single Coupler)
Passive System Components
CouplerSingle (Single Coupler)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Coupling = coupling fact or, in dB
F1 = ﬁr st fr equency br eakpoint
F2 = second fr equency br eakpoint
F3 = t hir d fr equency br eakpoint
MVSWR1 = main ar m VSWR for fr equency ≤ F1
MVSWR2 = main ar m VSWR for F1 < fr equency ≤ F2
MVSWR3 = main ar m VSWR for F2 < fr equency ≤ F3
MVSWR4 = main ar m VSWR for fr equency > F3
CVSWR1 = coupled ar m VSWR for fr equency ≤ F1
CVSWR2 = coupled ar m VSWR for F1 < fr equency ≤ F2
CVSWR3 = coupled ar m VSWR for F2 < fr equency ≤ F3
CVSWR4 = coupled ar m VSWR for fr equency > F3
Loss1 = at t enuat ion for fr equency ≤ F1, in dB
Loss2 = at t enuat ion for F1 < fr equency ≤ F2, in dB
Loss3 = at t enuat ion for F2 < fr equency ≤ F3, in dB
Loss4 = at t enuat ion for fr equency > F3, in dB
Dir ect 1 = dir ect ivit y for fr equency ≤ F1, in dB
Dir ect 2 = dir ect ivit y for F1 < fr equency ≤ F2, in dB
Dir ect 3 = dir ect ivit y for F2 < fr equency ≤ F3, in dB
Dir ect 4 = dir ect ivit y for fr equency > F3, in dB
CouplerSingle (Single Coupler) 419
ZRef = r efer ence impedance for all por t s
Temp = t emper at ur e, in degr ees C
CheckPassivit y = check passivit y ﬂag: if set t o yes (default ), a passivit y check is
per for med and a war ning is out put if t he device is not passive; if set t o no, a passivit y
check is not per for med.
Notes/Equations
1. Por t 1 is t he input por t ; por t 2 is t he t hr ough por t ; por t 3 is t he coupled por t .
2. Bot h por t s of t he main ar m (por t s 1 and 2) ar e assumed t o have t he same
VSWR.
3. Coupling is assumed t o be const ant acr oss all fr equency bands.
4. Loss is t he dissipat ion of t he coupler ; it affect s S21 and S12 only. These
Spar amet er s ar e calculat ed as if t he coupler was dissipat ionless and ar e t hen
scaled by
5. Int er nally, coupler isolat ion is calculat ed as Coupling + Direct in dB.
6. Up t o t hr ee fr equency br eakpoint s can be used t o deﬁne four bands, wit h
differ ent dir ect ivit y losses and VSWR values for each fr equency band. If no
fr equencies ar e speciﬁed, t hen t his model is fr equency independent and uses
Dir ect 1, Loss1, and VSWR1 only.
7. Ther e is a 90degr ee phase shift bet ween t he input and t he coupled por t s.
8. In t he coupled ar m, t he t wo por t s ar e uncoupled.
10
abs L oss ( ) 20 ⁄ – ( )
420 Gyrator (Gyrator)
Passive System Components
Gyrator (Gyrator)
Symbol
Illustration
Available in ADS
Parameters
None
Notes/Equations
1. V1 = Rat io × I2
V2 = −Rat io × I1
S
11
S
22
r
2
1 –
r
2
1 +
 = =
S
21
S
12
–
2r –
r
2
1 +
 = =
r
R at i o
Z
0
 =
Hybrid90 (Ideal 90degree Hybrid Coupler) 421
Hybrid90 (Ideal 90degree Hybrid Coupler)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Loss = inser t ion loss, in dB
GainBal = gain balance bet ween out put por t s, in dB
PhaseBal = phase balance bet ween out put por t s, in degr ees
Rr ef = por t r efer ence impedance, in speciﬁed unit s
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
CheckPassivit y = check passivit y ﬂag: if set t o yes (default ), a passivit y check is
per for med and a war ning is out put if t he device is not passive; if set t o no, a passivit y
check is not per for med.
Delay = t ime delay for out put por t s
Range of Usage
Loss ≥ 0 dB
Delay ≥ 1.0e16 sec
Notes/Equations
1. Alt hough hybr id coupler s ar e t ypically designed t o give an equal power split
bet ween t he coupled and t he dir ect por t s, t he choice of coupling coefﬁcient s has
been pr ovided her e for gr eat er ﬂexibilit y wher e a coupling of ot her t han 3 dB is
r equir ed.
2. The loss t er m is applied t o bot h t he coupling and t he dir ect t r ansmission
coefﬁcient s.
422 Hybrid90 (Ideal 90degree Hybrid Coupler)
Passive System Components
3. Pin designat ions (dir ect ional coupler not at ion/090 not at ion):
(IN) = input por t #1
(IS0) = isolat ed out put /input por t #2
(0) = coupled out put / inphase out put
(−90) = dir ect out put /90degr ee phase out put
4. In gener al, Hybr id90 is not r ecommended for t imedomain simulat ion. For t he
t ypical case of PhaseBal=0, t ime domain simulat ion will not pr oduce pr oper
r esult s for S
90,IN
, or S
0,ISO
because ()j in t he fr equency domain cor r esponds t o a
noncausal impulse r esponse in t ime domain.
5. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
S
0 I N ,
d B ( ) 10 1 10
Gai n Bal 10 ⁄ – ( )
+ ( ) log × L oss – – =
S
90 – I N ,
d B ( ) 10 1 10
Gai n Bal 10 ⁄ – ( )
+ ( ) log × L oss Gai n Bal – – – =
S
0 I S O ,
d B ( ) 10 1 10
Gai n Bal 10 ⁄ – ( )
+ ( ) log × L oss Gai n Bal – – – =
S
90 – I S O ,
d B ( ) 10 1 10
Gai n Bal 10 ⁄ – ( )
+ ( ) log × L oss – – =
ph ase S
0 I N ,
( ) 360 Del a y f requ en cy d egrees ( ) × × – =
ph ase S
90 – I N ,
( ) 360 Del a y f requ en cy 90 Ph aseBal d egrees ( ) – – × × – =
ph ase S
0 I S O ,
( ) 360 Del a y f requ en cy 90 Ph aseBal d egrees ( ) – – × × – =
ph ase S
90 – I S O ,
( ) 360 Del a y f requ en cy d egrees ( ) × × – =
Hybrid180 (Ideal 180degree Hybrid Coupler) 423
Hybrid180 (Ideal 180degree Hybrid Coupler)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Loss = inser t ion loss, in dB
GainBal = gain balance bet ween out put por t s, in dB
PhaseBal = phase balance bet ween out put por t s, in degr ees
Rr ef = por t r efer ence impedance, in speciﬁed unit s
Temp = t emper at ur e, in °C
CheckPassivit y = check passivit y ﬂag: if set t o yes (default ), a passivit y check is
per for med and a war ning is out put if t he device is not passive; if set t o no, a passivit y
check is not per for med.
Delay = t ime delay for out put por t s
Range of Usage
Loss ≥ 0 dB
Delay ≥ 1.0e16 sec
Notes/Equations
1. Alt hough hybr id coupler s ar e t ypically designed t o give an equal power split
bet ween t he coupled and t he dir ect por t s, t he choice of coupling coefﬁcient has
been pr ovided her e for gr eat er ﬂexibilit y wher e a coupling of ot her t han 3 dB is
r equir ed.
2. The loss t er m is applied t o bot h t he coupling and t he dir ect t r ansmission
coefﬁcient s.
3. Pin designat ions (dir ect ional coupler not at ion/sumdiffer ence not at ion):
(IN) = input por t /input por t #1
(IS0) = isolat ed out put /input por t #2
424 Hybrid180 (Ideal 180degree Hybrid Coupler)
Passive System Components
( Σ) = coupled out put /summat ion out put
(∆) = dir ect out put /differ ence out put
4. When used in t ime domain simulat ion, set PhaseBal=0; for any PhaseBal value
ot her t han n × 180, t ime domain simulat ion will not pr oduce pr oper r esult s
because t he fr equency domain speciﬁcat ion cor r esponds t o a noncausal impulse
r esponse in t ime domain.
5. This component has no default ar t wor k associat ed wit h it .
S
Σ I N ,
d B ( ) 10 1 10
Gai n Bal 10 ⁄ – ( )
+ ( ) log × L oss Gai n Bal – – – =
S
∆ I N ,
d B ( ) 10 1 10
Gai n Bal 10 ⁄ – ( )
+ ( ) log × L oss – – =
S
Σ I S O ,
d B ( ) 10 1 10
Gai n Bal 10 ⁄ – ( )
+ ( ) log × L oss – – =
S
∆ I S O ,
d B ( ) 10 1 10
Gai n Bal 10 ⁄ – ( )
+ ( ) log × L oss Gai n Bal – – – =
ph ase S
Σ I N ,
( ) 360 Del a y f requ en cy Ph aseBal d egrees ( ) – × × – =
ph ase S
∆ I N ,
( ) 360 Del a y f requ en cy d egrees ( ) × × – =
ph ase S
Σ I S O ,
( ) 360 Del a y f requ en cy d egrees ( ) × × – =
ph ase S
∆ I S O ,
( ) 360 Del a y f requ en cy Ph aseBal 180 d egrees ( ) + – × × – =
IsolatorSML (SMLIsolator) 425
IsolatorSML (SMLIsolator)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
F1 = ﬁr st fr equency br eakpoint
F2 = second fr equency br eakpoint
F3 = t hir d fr equency br eakpoint
Loss1 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies ≤ F1, in dB
Loss2 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies > F1 ≤ F2, in dB
Loss3 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies > F2 ≤ F3, in dB
Loss4 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies > F3, in dB
VSWR1 = VSWR at bot h por t s for fr equencies ≤ F1
VSWR2 = VSWR at bot h por t s for fr equencies > F1, ≤ F2
VSWR3 = VSWR at bot h por t s for fr equencies > F2, ≤ F3
VSWR4 = VSWR at bot h por t s for fr equencies > F3
Isolat = isolat ion, in dB
Z1 = r efer ence impedance for por t 1
Z2 = r efer ence impedance for por t 2
Temp = t emper at ur e, in degr ees C
CheckPassivit y = check passivit y ﬂag: if set t o yes (default ), a passivit y check is
per for med and a war ning is out put if t he device is not passive; if set t o no, a passivit y
check is not per for med.
Notes/Equations
1. All por t s ar e assumed t o have t he same VSWR.
2. Isolat ion is assumed t o be const ant acr oss all fr equency bands.
426 IsolatorSML (SMLIsolator)
Passive System Components
3. Up t o t hr ee fr equency br eakpoint s can be used t o deﬁne four bands, wit h
differ ent losses and VSWR for each fr equency band. If fr equencies ar e not
speciﬁed, t his model is fr equency independent and uses Loss1 and VSWR1 only.
LOS_Link (LineOfSight Antenna Link) 427
LOS_Link (LineOfSight Antenna Link)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Cent er Fr eq = link cent er fr equency, in her t z
BW = link bandwidt h, in her t z
TxGain = t r ansmit t ing ant enna gain, in dB
TxVSWR = t r ansmit t ing ant enna VSWR
TxPar abolaD = t r ansmit t ing par abolic ant enna diamet er, in speciﬁed unit s
TxEfﬁciency = t r ansmit t ing par abolic ant enna efﬁciency
RxGain = r eceiving ant enna gain, in dB
RxVSWR = r eceiving ant enna VSWR
RxPar abolaD = r eceiving par abolic ant enna diamet er, in speciﬁed unit s
RxEfﬁciency = r eceiving par abolic ant enna efﬁciency
RxNoiseTemp = r eceiving ant enna noise t emper at ur e, in Kelvin
Pat hLengt h = lineofsight pat h lengt h, in dist ance unit s
Not chFr eq = not ch fr equency due t o gr ound r eﬂect ion pat h int er fer ence, in her t z
Not chDept h = power of r eﬂect ed r ay r elat ive t o dir ect r ay, in dB
Delt aDelay = t ime delay of gr ound r eﬂect ion pat h w.r.t . LOS pat h, in seconds
Z1 = t r ansmit t ing ant enna r efer ence impedance, in ohms
Z2 = t r ansmit t ing ant enna r efer ence impedance, in ohms
Range of Usage
Pat hLengt h > 10 wavelengt hs
Notes/Equations
1. Pat hloss is inﬁnit e out side a window deﬁned by BW.
428 LOS_Link (LineOfSight Antenna Link)
Passive System Components
2. Tr ansmit t ing ant enna gain can be deﬁned by TxGain or by TxPar abolaD and
TxEfﬁciency. If all t hr ee par amet er s ar e speciﬁed, TxPar abolaD and
TxEfﬁciency will over wr it e TxGain. The same applies t o r eceiving ant enna as
well.
3. The SPar amet er and noise implement at ion of t his model is as follows. S11,
S22, S12, S21, and I_Noise ar e der ived fr om t he userspeciﬁed LOS_link
par amet er s.
Pad (Pi or Tee Format) 429
Pad (Pi or Tee Format)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Net Type = net wor k t ype: Pi or Tee
Loss = at t enuat ion, in dB
R1 = r efer ence r esist ance for por t 1
R2 = r efer ence r esist ance for por t 2
Temp = t emper at ur e, in degr ees C
CheckPassivit y = check passivit y ﬂag: if set t o yes (default ), a passivit y check is
per for med and a war ning is out put if t he device is not passive; if set t o no, a passivit y
check is not per for med.
Range of Usage
R1 > 0
R2 > 0
Notes/Equations
1. This 2por t component pr ovides a:
• Mat ch t o r esist ance R
1
at por t 1 when por t 2 is t er minat ed in R
2
• Mat ch t o R
2
at por t 2 when por t 1 is t er minat ed in R
1
• Desir ed at t enuat ion, DB
2. Resist ive net wor ks can achieve simult aneous mat ch at input and out put if t he
inser t ion loss fact or A exceeds a minimum value given by
430 Pad (Pi or Tee Format)
Passive System Components
wher e
DB
MIN
= 10 × log
10
(A
MIN
)
3. The values shown in t he Pi net wor k equivalent cir cuit ar e given by:
The values shown in t he Tee net wor k cir cuit s ar e given by
Equivalent Circuit
A
m i n
2
R
1
R
2
 1 1
R
2
R
1
 – +
¸ ,
¸ _
× × = 1.0 R
1
R
2
> –
2
R
2
R
1
 1 1
R
1
R
2
 – +
¸ ,
¸ _
× × 1.0 R
2
R
1
> –
G
c
2
A
A 1 – ( ) R
1
R
2
× ×
 × =
G
a
A 1 +
A 1 – ( ) Z
1
×
 G
c
– =
G
b
A 1 +
A 1 – ( ) R
2
×
 G
c
– =
R
c
2 A × R
1
R
2
× ×
A 1 – ( )
 =
R
a
R
1
A 1 + ( ) ×
A 1 –
 R
c
– =
R
b
R
2
A 1 + ( ) ×
A 1 –
 R
c
– =
1 2
G
a
G
b
G
c
Pi Network
Pad (Pi or Tee Format) 431
1 2
R
a
R
c
R
b
Tee Network
432 PhaseShiftSML (Phase Shifter)
Passive System Components
PhaseShiftSML (Phase Shifter)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Phase = const ant phase shift , in speciﬁed unit s
PhaseSlope = phase slope per fr equency oct ave
Fr eqSt ar t = fr equency wher e slope begins
RTConj = r ever se t r ansmission conjugat e: NO, YES
ZRef = r efer ence impedance for all por t s
Range of Usage
Fr eqSt ar t ≥ 0
Notes/Equations
1. The out put fr equency spect r um is equal t o t he input spect r um shift ed by t he
speciﬁed phase.
2. θ (f) = Phase (for fr eq < Fr eqSt ar t )
θ (f) = Phase + PhaseSlope × LOG
2
(fr eq / Fr eqSt ar t ) (for fr eq ≥ Fr eqSt ar t )
if Fr eqSt ar t = 0, t hen phase slope is 0 r egar dless of t he PhaseSlope set t ing
wher e fr eq = simulat ion fr equency
3.
if RTConj = NO, S
12
= S
21
if RTConj = YES, S
12
= S
21
*
4. The Spar amet er implement at ion for t he phase shift er is shown her e:
V 2
V 1

I 2
I 1
 e
j θ f ( )
= =
S
11
S
22
0 = =
S
21
e
j θ f ( )
=
PhaseShiftSML (Phase Shifter) 433
5. In gener al, PhaseShift SML is not r ecommended for t ime domain simulat ion.
For t he special case of n × 180° phase shift , t ime domain simulat ion pr oduces
pr oper r esult s; for t he ext r eme case of n × 90° phase shift , t ime domain
simulat ion will not pr oduce pr oper r esult s because (t)j in t he fr equency domain
cor r esponds t o a noncausal impulse r esponse in t ime domain.
434 PwrSplit2 (2Way Power Splitter)
Passive System Components
PwrSplit2 (2Way Power Splitter)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
S21 = por t 1 t o por t 2 complex t r ansmission coefﬁcient
S31 = por t 1 t o por t 3 complex t r ansmission coefﬁcient
S11 = por t 1 complex r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient
S22 = por t 2 complex r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient
Isolat ion = isolat ion bet ween por t 2 and por t 3, in dB
ZRef = r efer ence impedance for all por t s
Temp = t emper at ur e, in degr ees C
CheckPassivit y = check passivit y ﬂag: if set t o yes (default ), a passivit y check is
per for med and a war ning is out put if t he device is not passive; if set t o no, a passivit y
check is not per for med.
Delay = t ime delay, in seconds
Notes/Equations
1. S
12
= S
21
, S
13
= S
31,
S
33
= S
22
2. Pwr Split 2 can also be used as a power combiner.
3. Use t he funct ions polar (), dbpolar () t o r epr esent t he Spar amet er s in t er ms of
magnit ude, phase or dB, phase.
PwrSplit3 (3Way Power Splitter) 435
PwrSplit3 (3Way Power Splitter)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
S21 = por t 1 t o por t 2 complex t r ansmission coefﬁcient
S31 = por t 1 t o por t 3 complex t r ansmission coefﬁcient
S41 = por t 1 t o por t 4 complex t r ansmission coefﬁcient
ZRef = r efer ence impedance for all por t s
Temp = t emper at ur e, in degr ees C
CheckPassivit y = check passivit y ﬂag: if set t o yes (default ), a passivit y check is
per for med and a war ning is out put if t he device is not passive; if set t o no, a passivit y
check is not per for med.
Delay = t ime delay, in seconds
Notes/Equations
1. Ideal isolat ion exist s for S
23
, S
24
, S
32
, S
34
, S
42
, and S
43
, t hat is,
S
23
= S
32
= S
24
= S
42
= S
34
= S
43
= 0.
2. Ideal mat ch exist s for S
11
, S
22
, S
33
, and S
44
, t hat is,
S
11
= S
22
= S
33
= S
44
= 0.
3. S
12
= S
21
, S
13
= S
31
and S
14
= S
41
.
4. Pwr Split 3 can also be used as a power combiner.
5. Use t he funct ions polar (), dBpolar () t o r epr esent t he Spar amet er s in t er ms of
magnit ude, phase or dB, phase.
436 TimeDelay (Time Delay)
Passive System Components
TimeDelay (Time Delay)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Delay = t ime delay, in seconds (default = 1 µsec)
RTConj = r ever se t r ansmission conjugat e: NO (default ), YES
ZRef = r efer ence impedance for all por t s, in ohms (default =50. Ohm)
Range of Usage
Delay ≥ 0
Notes/Equations
1. The input fr equency spect r um has a linear phase shift applied r esult ing in t he
out put t ime wavefor m being a t ime shift ed r eplicat ion of t he input wavefor m.
2. S
21
= e
jωDelay
S
11
= S
22
= 0
ω = 2πf
if RTConj = NO, S
12
= S
21
if RTConj = YES, S
12
= S
21
*
3. Excessive values for t he Delay par amet er r equir e lar ge memor y for Cir cuit
Envelope and Tr ansient simulat ions. For Cir cuit Envelope simulat ions, a
safeguar d limit s any excessive delay t o onehalf of t he st op t ime.
Transformer (Ideal 4Port Transformer) 437
Transformer (Ideal 4Port Transformer)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
None
Range of Usage
N ≠ 0
Notes/Equations
Note This component is obsolet e for new designs. (It is available only for
compat ibilit y wit h designs cr eat ed wit h 2002C or ear lier r eleases.)
Please use t he TF t r ansfor mer (LumpedComponent s libr ar y) for new design wor k.
1. Input pins ar e 1 and 3; out put pins ar e 2 and 4.
2. The Spar amet er s of t he component ar e det er mined as follows:
S
11
= S
24
= S
33
= S
42
= N
2
/ (1 + N
2
)
S
14
= S
23
= S
32
= S
41
= −N / (1 + N
2
)
S
12
= S
21
= S
34
= S
43
= N / (1 + N
2
)
S
13
= S
22
= S
31
= S
44
= 1 / (1 + N
2
)
3. The input r esist ance R
IN
out put r esist ance R
OUT
ar e r elat ed t o N by:
= N
4. This is a noiseless component .
5. Because it is an ideal t r ansfor mer, t he impedance t r ansfor mat ion is t he same at
DC as it is at nonzer o fr equencies.
R
I N
R
OUT

438 Transformer (Ideal 4Port Transformer)
Passive System Components
6. This component passes DC.
439
TransformerG (Transformer with Ground Reference)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
None
Range of Usage
N ≠ 0
Notes/Equations
Note This component is obsolet e for new designs. (It is available only for
compat ibilit y wit h designs cr eat ed wit h 2002C or ear lier r eleases.)
Please use t he TF t r ansfor mer (LumpedComponent s libr ar y) for new design wor k.
1. The input r esist ance R
IN
and R
OUT
ar e r elat ed t o N by:
R
I N
R
OUT
 N =
440
Passive System Components
TwoPort (2Port Model)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
S21 = complex for war d t r ansmission coefﬁcient
S12 = complex r ever se t r ansmission coefﬁcient
S11 = por t 1 complex r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient
S22 = por t 2 complex r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient
ZRef = r efer ence impedance for all por t s
Temp = t emper at ur e, in degr ees C
CheckPassivit y = check passivit y ﬂag: if set t o yes (default ), a passivit y check is
per for med and a war ning is out put if t he device is not passive; if set t o no, a passivit y
check is not per for med.
Delay = t ime delay, in seconds
Notes/Equations
1. Use t he funct ions polar (), dBpolar () t o r epr esent t he Spar amet er s in t er ms of
magnit ude, phase or dB, phase.
2. The block par amet er s must be passive for t he noise per for mance t o be as
expect ed.
51
Chapter 5: Phase Lock Loop Components
52 DivideByN (Divide by N)
Phase Lock Loop Components
DivideByN (Divide by N)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
FnomIn = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
N = divide number
Notes/Equations
1. This model per for ms a dividebyN funct ion on eit her a basebandinput or a
select edcar r ier input fr equency. The model oper at es in t r ansient , har monic
balance, or cir cuit envelope simulat ion.
In t r ansient , all signals ar e consider ed baseband.
In cir cuit envelope, t he FnomIn par amet er deﬁnes which analysis fr equency t o
use. If t he analysis fr equency is not wit hin 0.5/t imest ep, a war ning is issued
and 0 Hz will be used for t he analysis fr equency.
2. The input impedance is inﬁnit e. The out put impedance ﬁxed at 1 ohm. If t he
out put is in baseband mode, t hen it s open cir cuit volt age is equal t o t he phase of
t he divided signal in r adians. This r esult s in a sawt oot h wavefor m for a CW
input . A sawt oot h is out put (inst ead of a squar e wave) t o allow for t he
calculat ion of t he act ual fr equency fr om t he slope and for t he accur at e det ect ion
of zer o cr ossings wit hout t he sampling jit t er t hat would be int r oduced by t he
ﬁxed r at e sampling of a squar e wave. If t he out put is not in baseband mode,
t hen t he open cir cuit volt age is a 1V complex sinusoid at t he divided fr equency.
Whet her or not t he out put is in baseband is det er mined, in Cir cuit Envelope
mode, by det er mining t he car r ier fr equency, possibly dc, t hat is closest t o
FnomIn; if none ar e close enough, a war ning is issued.
3. In nonbaseband mode of oper at ion, t he divider wor ks by dir ect ly ext r act ing t he
phase of t he complex input . The delay of DivideByN = max(t imest ep,
N/(2 × Fin), wher e Fin is t he act ual analysis fr equency cor r esponding t o
FnomIn.
In baseband mode of oper at ion, t he per iod of t he input is det er mined by
det ect ing when t he baseband signal r ises t hr ough t he 0.5V t hr eshold. Fr om t his
DivideByN (Divide by N) 53
per iod infor mat ion, t he phase of t he divided signal is calculat ed. For a mor e
st andar d count er model, see t he count er model under pr obes.
4. Figur e 51 show examples of t he divider oper at ing wit h an RF car r ier input : one
divider out put s a baseband out put ; one divider out put s t he divided fr equency at
t he ot her car r ier fr equency. Not e t hat N can be t ime var ying in or der t o
simulat e t he effect of a fr act ionalN divider. Figur e 52 shows t he simulat ion
r esult s.
Figur e 51. Divider wit h an RF Car r ier Input
54 DivideByN (Divide by N)
Phase Lock Loop Components
Figur e 52. Out put Wavefor ms
PhaseFreqDet (Frequency Detector, Baseband) 55
PhaseFreqDet (Frequency Detector, Baseband)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Vhigh = Highst at e out put volt age
Vlow = Lowst at e out put volt age
Notes/Equations
1. PhaseFr eqDet is not select able fr om t he component palet t e or component
libr ar y br owser ; t o place t his component , t ype it s exact name int o t he
Component Hist or y box above t he dr awing ar ea, t hen move your cur sor t o t he
dr awing ar ea.
2. This baseband phasefr equency demodulat or is used in t r ansient or cir cuit
envelope simulat ion. It models t he digit al behavior of common D ﬂipﬂop t ype
phasefr equency det ect or s oft en used in phaselocked loops. The t wo out put s
ar e ideal, zer o impedance volt age sour ces; t o model a pulsed cur r ent sour ce
out put , t wo VDCSdependent sour ces must be added t o t he out put of t his
model. The t wo input s have inﬁnit e impedance, and only t he baseband por t ion
of t he t wo input volt ages ar e used t o det er mine t hr esholdcr ossing t iming.
3. As opposed t o t he t uned phasefr equency det ect or model, t his model’s out put
includes t he effect of r efer ence clock feedt hr ough.
Note The out put of t his model is a pulse t r ain whose aver age value is
pr opor t ional t o t he input phase differ ence, and may cont ain signiﬁcant signal
ener gy at t he r efer ence clock r at e and at clock har monics. These must be
ﬁlt er ed out , t ypically befor e dr iving a VCO in a PLL applicat ion. The t uned
phasefr equency det ect or out put signal includes t he inst ant aneous phase
differ ence infor mat ion only; it does not cont ain r efer ence fr equency or har monic
cont ent .
56 PhaseFreqDet (Frequency Detector, Baseband)
Phase Lock Loop Components
However, t he penalt y for t his is t hat t he t imest ep must be less t han onehalf t he
r efer ence per iod, and t ypically less t han onet ent h t he per iod. To avoid t he lar ge
amount of t ime jit t er and phase noise t hat would nor mally be int r oduced by
sampling at even t hese r at es, t he t wo digit al out put s ar e also amplit ude
modulat ed t o r eﬂect t he por t ion of a simulat ion t imest ep wher e t he act ual
out put s would be high or low. For example, if based on t he t hr esholdcr ossing
t iming (t he pulse widt h should be 10 nsec, but t he simulat ion t imest ep is
1µsec), t hen t he out put amplit ude for t hat t imest ep would only be 1% of t he
Vhigh level. While t his will not pr oper ly model all t he higher har monics of t he
r efer ence feedt hr ough, it does accur at ely model bot h t he dc t er m and t he ﬁr st
few har monics, and t he cor r esponding r efer ence sidebands of t he VCO. As t he
analysis t imest ep is fur t her r educed, t he behavior becomes mor e t r uly digit al in
nat ur e and mor e har monics ar e effect ively being simulat ed at t he cost of slower
simulat ions.
4. The t r igger t imes for bot h input s is det er mined by det ect ing when t he baseband
volt age r ises t hr ough t he 0.5V t hr eshold. Linear int er polat ion is used t o get
much ﬁner t ime r esolut ion t han t he analysis t imest ep. To fur t her r educe
excessive sampling jit t er, t he input s t o t his det ect or can be sawt oot h
wavefor ms. While t he det ect or will wor k r easonably well wit h sinusoidal input s,
given a small enough t imest ep, t iming jit t er can be eliminat ed if t he
int er polat ion is done on t he posit ive slope of a sawt oot h wavefor m. This is t he
r eason why t he dividebyN models out put a sawt oot h wavefor m when t hey
oper at e in t he baseband mode. Squar ewave input s should gener ally be avoided,
because t his will usually int r oduce signiﬁcant t iming jit t er and phase noise int o
t he simulat ion.
5. This model does not include any effect s due t o t he ﬁnit e dur at ion of t he ﬂipﬂop
r eset pulse and r esult ant zer ophase dead zone. Ot her effect s, such as
asymmet r y bet ween t he t wo differ ent out put s, can be incor por at ed by changing
t he ext er nal component s. Figur e 53 shows an example using t his det ect or ;
Figur e 54 shows t he out put wavefor ms.
PhaseFreqDet (Frequency Detector, Baseband) 57
Figur e 53. PhaseFr eqDet Example
58 PhaseFreqDet (Frequency Detector, Baseband)
Phase Lock Loop Components
Figur e 54. Out put Wavefor ms
PhaseFreqDet2 (Frequency Detector, Baseband) 59
PhaseFreqDet2 (Frequency Detector, Baseband)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Vhigh = highst at e out put volt age
Vlow = lowst at e out put volt age
DeadTime = dead zone pulse widt h
J it t er = input t ime jit t er
Notes/Equations
1. This baseband phasefr equency demodulat or is used in t r ansient or cir cuit
envelope simulat ion. It models t he digit al behavior of common D ﬂipﬂop t ype
phasefr equency det ect or s oft en used in phaselocked loops. The four out put s
ar e ideal, zer o impedance volt age sour ces. The t wo input s have inﬁnit e
impedance, and only t he baseband por t ion of t he t wo input volt ages ar e used t o
det er mine t hr esholdcr ossing t iming.
2. The following FDD modeling equat ions illust r at e how t he shape of t he four
out put s r elat e t o t he input phase differ ence.
The phase differ ence bet ween t he input on por t 1 and por t 2 is calculat ed as
ns=_phase_fr eq(1,2), and t he quant it ies n1= (VhighVlow) x r eal(ns) and
n2= (VhighVlow) x imag(ns) ar e int r oduced.
Out put s on por t s 36 ar e t hen
por t 3: Q1=Vlow + n1
por t 4: Q2_bar = Vhigh  n2
por t 5: Q1_bar = Vhigh  n1 (only PhaseFr eqDet 2, not PhaseFr eqDet )
por t 6: Q2 = Vlow + n2 (only PhaseFr eqDet 2, not PhaseFr eqDet )
wit h t he following t r igger event s:
Tr ig[1] = _xcr oss (1,0.5,1)
Tr ig[2] = _xcr oss (3,0.5,1)
510 PhaseFreqDet2 (Frequency Detector, Baseband)
Phase Lock Loop Components
For det ails about t hese funct ions, r efer t o t he FDD device document at ion in t he
Circuit Components Nonlinear Devices manual.
Not e t hat you can push int o t he component t o see t he implement at ion of t he
component .
3. As opposed t o t he t uned phasefr equency det ect or model, t his model’s out put
includes r efer ence clock feedt hr ough effect s.
Note The out put of t his model is a pulse t r ain whose aver age value is
pr opor t ional t o t he input phase differ ence, and may cont ain signiﬁcant signal
ener gy at t he r efer ence clock r at e, and at clock har monics. Typically, t hese must
be ﬁlt er ed out befor e dr iving a VCO in a PLL applicat ion. The t uned
phasefr equency det ect or out put signal includes inst ant aneous phase differ ence
infor mat ion only (it does not cont ain r efer ence fr equency or har monic cont ent ).
However, t he penalt y for t his is t hat t he t imest ep must be less t han onehalf t he
r efer ence per iod, and t ypically less t han onet ent h t he per iod. To avoid t he lar ge
amount of t ime jit t er and phase noise t hat would nor mally be int r oduced by
sampling at even t hese r at es, t he four digit al out put s ar e also amplit ude
modulat ed t o r eﬂect t he por t ion of a simulat ion t imest ep wher e t he act ual
out put s would be high or low. For example, if based on t he t hr esholdcr ossing
t iming (t he pulse widt h should be 10 nsec, but t he simulat ion t imest ep is
1µsec), t hen t he out put amplit ude for t hat t imest ep would only be 1% of t he
Vhigh level. While t his will not pr oper ly model all t he higher har monics of t he
r efer ence feedt hr ough, it does accur at ely model bot h t he dc t er m and t he ﬁr st
few har monics, and t he cor r esponding r efer ence sidebands of t he VCO. As t he
analysis t imest ep is fur t her r educed, t he behavior becomes mor e t r uly digit al in
nat ur e and mor e har monics ar e effect ively being simulat ed at t he cost of slower
simulat ions.
4. The t r igger t imes for bot h input s is det er mined by det ect ing when t he baseband
volt age r ises t hr ough t he 0.5V t hr eshold. Linear int er polat ion is used t o get
much ﬁner t ime r esolut ion t han t he analysis t imest ep. To fur t her r educe
excessive sampling jit t er, input s t o t his det ect or can be sawt oot h wavefor ms.
While t he det ect or will wor k r easonably well wit h sinusoidal input s, given a
small enough t imest ep, t he t iming jit t er can be eliminat ed if t he int er polat ion is
done on t he posit ive slope of a sawt oot h wavefor m. This is t he r eason why t he
dividebyN models out put a sawt oot h wavefor m when t hey oper at e in t he
baseband mode. Squar e waveinput s should gener ally be avoided, because t his
PhaseFreqDet2 (Frequency Detector, Baseband) 511
will usually int r oduce signiﬁcant t iming jit t er and phase noise int o t he
simulat ion.
5. DeadTime speciﬁes t he per iod of t ime cent er ed ar ound t he 0 phase out put
dur ing which no out put is gener at ed fr om eit her t he high or t he low char ge
pump. Out side of t his per iod, t he out put r et ur ns t o t he ideal pulse widt hs and
amplit udes det er mined by t he t r igger cr ossings of t he input s and t he char ge
pump cur r ent s.
6. The J it t er value deﬁnes t he RMS t ime jit t er associat ed wit h a t r igger cr ossing
on eit her input . The dist r ibut ion is Gaussian and t he noise spect r um is
assumed ﬂat out t o t he r efer ence sampling fr equency.
7. Ot her effect s, such as asymmet r y bet ween t he four differ ent out put s, can be
incor por at ed by changing t he ext er nal component s. Figur e 55 shows one
applicat ion of t his det ect or and Figur e 56 t he r esult ant out put wavefor ms.
Figur e 55. One applicat ion of det ect or
512 PhaseFreqDet2 (Frequency Detector, Baseband)
Phase Lock Loop Components
Figur e 56. Result ant out put wavefor ms of det ect or
PhaseFreqDetCP (Frequency Detector, Baseband with Charge Pump) 513
PhaseFreqDetCP (Frequency Detector, Baseband with Charge Pump)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Ihigh = highlevel char ge pump cur r ent
Ilow = lowlevel char ge pump cur r ent
DeadTime = deadzone pulse widt h
J it t er = input t ime jit t er
Notes/Equations
1. This baseband phasefr equency demodulat or wit h char ge pump is used in
t r ansient or cir cuit envelope simulat ion.
2. Char ge pump cur r ent s can be const ant s (in which case t hey ar e ideal cur r ent
sour ces) or funct ions of t he st at e var iable _v2 t o allow for a nonideal cur r ent
whose peak value var ies as a funct ion of t he out put volt ages. In eit her case, t he
offst at e cur r ent is always 0.0. Nor mally posit ive values would be used for bot h
cur r ent s, as Ihigh speciﬁes a sour ce cur r ent and Ilow speciﬁes t he sink cur r ent .
3. DeadTime speciﬁes t he per iod of t ime cent er ed ar ound t he 0 phase out put
dur ing which no out put is gener at ed fr om eit her t he high or t he low char ge
pump. Out side of t his per iod, t he out put r et ur ns t o t he ideal pulse widt hs and
amplit udes det er mined by t he t r igger cr ossings of t he input s and t he char ge
pump cur r ent s.
4. The J it t er value deﬁnes t he RMS t ime jit t er associat ed wit h t he t r igger cr ossing
at each of t he t wo input s. The effect ive out put t ime jit t er will be sqr t (2) t imes
t his value. The dist r ibut ion is Gaussian and t he noise spect r um is assumed ﬂat
out t o t he r efer ence sampling fr equency.
514 PhaseFreqDetTuned (Phase Frequency Detector, Tuned)
Phase Lock Loop Components
PhaseFreqDetTuned (Phase Frequency Detector, Tuned)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Sensit ivit y = det ect or sensit ivit y, in mA/degr ee
MaxAngle = maximum unwr apped phase angle, in degr ees
Vlimit = maximum out put volt age compliance, in volt s
Fnom = nominal input fr equency for VCO and REF input s, in her t z
Notes/Equations
1. This t uned phasefr equency demodulat or is used wit h cir cuit envelope
simulat ion t hat models t he ideal behavior of t he phase fr equency det ect or s used
in phaselocked loops. (This model does not wor k wit h t r ansient simulat ion.)
On t he REF and t he VCO input s, it select s t he input car r ier closest t o t he
speciﬁed Fnom fr equency. For pr oper oper at ion, t his cannot be t he baseband
(dc) envelope. It t hen gener at es a baseband out put signal equal t o t he phase
differ ence bet ween t he VCO and REF input s, wit h an offset of 2 × π × ∆f × time
being gener at ed if t her e is a fr equency differ ence ∆f bet ween t he t wo input s.
As an example consider t he sour ces V1(t)=exp(j × P1(t)) at f0 and
V2(t)=exp(j × P2(t)) also at f0, as input t o a PhaseFr eqDet Tuned component
wit h t he out put t er minat ed in a high impedance. Envelope simulat ion at f0
yields a DC out put wit h a P1(t)  P2 (t) t ime dependence. Changing t he
fr equency of t he second sour ce fr om f0 t o f0+∆f for t he same V2(t) is equivalent
wit h keeping t he fr equency at f0 but mult iplying V2(t) by exp(j × 2 × π × ∆f × t)
and r esult s in t he out put signal P1(t )  P2 (t )  (2 × π × ∆f × t).
If t her e is no analysis har monic fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency,
t hen a war ning is gener at ed. The t wo input impedances ar e inﬁnit e. The out put
is a basebandonly inﬁnit e impedance cur r ent sour ce wit h scaling deﬁned by
t he Sensit ivit y par amet er. If t he out put volt age exceeds Vlimit or is lower t han
−Vlimit , t hen a volt age limit er wit h an impedance of 10 ohms is swit ched in.
PhaseFreqDetTuned (Phase Frequency Detector, Tuned) 515
The MaxAngle par amet er can be used t o model special phasefr equency
det ect or s t hat have gr eat er t han t he t r adit ional t2π of input phase r ange.
2. This model does not model any of t he r efer ence or VCO fr equency component s
on t he out put . The out put is a basebandonly signal, and t he volt age limit ing
applies t o t he baseband component only. (See t he baseband phasefr equency
det ect or for a model t hat can over come t his limit at ion.) Wit h t his t uned model,
t hough, t he t imest eps can act ually be lar ger t han t he r efer ence per iod, and it is
only dependent on t he PLL bandwidt h and not t he r efer ence fr equency; t his
enables fast er per for mance for many t ypes of simulat ion measur ement s.
Anot her limit at ion is t hat only t he phase of t he select ed input envelope is
included. The effect of addit ional input spur s and har monics ar e not included if
t hey ar e in differ ent car r ier fr equency envelopes.
3. Figur e 57 and Figur e 58 show a simple schemat ic and example of t his
phasefr equency det ect or ’s out put . The r efer ence input is a ﬁxed fr equency. The
VCO input has sinusoidal fr equency modulat ion.
Figur e 57. PhaseFr equency Det ect or Example
516 PhaseFreqDetTuned (Phase Frequency Detector, Tuned)
Phase Lock Loop Components
Figur e 58.
PhaseNoiseMod (Phase Noise Modulator) 517
PhaseNoiseMod (Phase Noise Modulator)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Fcor ner = cor ner fr equency for 1/f noise per for mance, in her t z
NF = br oadband noise ﬁgur e, in dB
QL = loaded Q of r esonat or
Notes/Equations
1. This device uses Leeson’s equat ion t o model oscillat or phase noise, t hen
modulat es t he input car r ier wit h t his phase noise.
The input can be fr om any signal sour ce, including t he VCO models. This model
behaves as a t uned modulat or by select ing and modulat ing just t he car r ier
deﬁned by t he Fnom par amet er. If t her e ar e no analysis fr equencies close
enough t o t his value, a war ning is gener at ed and no signal is out put . The
Leeson’s equat ion models t he oscillat or phase using t he equat ion
wher e
Fnom is used as an appr oximat ion t o car r ier fr equency
F is t he noise fact or
is t he input signal power
T is t he absolut e t emper at ur e
B is t he analysis bandwidt h
k is t he Bolt zmann const ant
S
∆φ
F ( )k T B
P
si g
AV
 1
F
n om
2Q
L
Freq

¸ ,
¸ _
2
+
¸ ,
¸ _
× 1
F
corn er
Freq
 +
¸ ,
¸ _
× =
P
si g
AV
518 PhaseNoiseMod (Phase Noise Modulator)
Phase Lock Loop Components
Q
L
is t he loaded Q value of t he oscillat or ’s r esonat or
Fcor ner is t he fr equency at which t he low fr equency 1/f noise is equal t o t he
br oadband noise.
This model is usable in fr equency domain and cir cuit envelope t ime domain
noise analyses. To avoid t he dividebyzer o pr oblems as t he analysis offset
fr equency appr oaches 0, bot h t he 1/f
2
and 1/f t er ms ar e r olled off at fr equencies
below 1 Hz. In t he t imedomain mode, t he 1/f fr equency r esponse is
implement ed by doing a convolut ion simulat ion. The dur at ion of t his impulse
r esponse is set t o 2000 t imest eps. This effect ively r olls off t his 1/f r esponse at a
fr equency det er mined by t he analysis t st ep par amet er.
2. This cir cuit phase modulat es one lar ge signal fr equency wit h noise t o pr oduce
pur e phase noise wit hout amplit ude noise. Because of t he nat ur e of har monic
balance, t he noise exist s at sidebands above and below t his one lar ge signal
t one, but ar ound no ot her lar ge signal fr equencies. Thus, if phase noise is
speciﬁed at an offset fr equency lar ge enough t hat it could appear ar ound
anot her lar ge signal fr equency, t he noise will not appear if viewed ar ound t hat
ot her lar ge signal fr equency. This can be a limit at ion when at t empt ing t o
combine t wo sour ces t hat ar e close t oget her in fr equency. In t hat case, t he
P_1Tone wit h phase noise should be used inst ead for har monic balance
analysis.
VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) 519
VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
Kv = fr equency t uning sensit ivit y, in her t z per volt
Fr eq = fundament al fr equency, in her t z
P = power int o Rout load at fundament al fr equency
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Delay = t r ansit t ime delay added t o input t uning volt age, in seconds
Har monics = r at io of har monic volt age t o fundament al volt age, complex value
Notes/Equations
1. This is a simple VCO model t hat out put s a signal whose fr equency is cont r olled
in a linear manner by t he input t uning volt age. The cent er fr equency is deﬁned
by t he Fr eq par amet er, which r efer ences one of t he analysis fr equencies. A Fr eq
value of 0 r efer ences dc and so deﬁnes t he VCO as a baseband sour ce; t he
out put fr equency is t he baseband input volt age t imes t he Kv par amet er value.
Only t he baseband por t ion of t he input t uning volt age is used t o det er mine t he
VCO fr equency offset .
2. The phase of t he VCO out put is clamped when t ime equals 0, so t his model only
funct ions as a VCO in t he t imedomain analysis modes, including cir cuit
envelope and t r ansient simulat ion. Because t r ansient simulat ion is a
basebandonly analysis mode, Fr eq should be 0 in t his mode.
3. The out put r esist ance at all fr equencies is set by Rout , which is int er nally
limit ed t o a minimum value of 0.1 ohm. The VCO’s fundament al out put power
int o an Rout load is deﬁned by t he P par amet er. The r elat ive level, in linear
unit s, of t he second and t hir d har monics ar e deﬁned by t he Har monics
par amet er ; t his par amet er can be complex t o allow deﬁnit ion of t he r elat ive
phase of t hese har monics. The init ial phase for t he fundament al fr equency
out put is set t o −90 degr ees so t hat a sine wavefor m is cr eat ed in baseband
mode.
520 VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator)
Phase Lock Loop Components
4. A Delay par amet er value can also be speciﬁed for t his VCO model. This put s an
addit ional t r ansit delay bet ween t he input t uning volt age and t he act ual change
in t he out put fr equency. A delay of at least one t imest ep does somet imes r esult
in fast er simulat ion speeds, and can be used t o model t he t ime delay inher ent in
any r eal VCO.
Car e should be t aken when using t he VCO in baseband mode (Fr eq = 0). If t he
input volt age is allowed t o go negat ive, t he model will gener at e a negat ive
fr equency, and t he wavefor m shape due t o t he har monic cont ent will be
r ever sed.
The VCO_DivideByN model also allows t he deﬁnit ion of a nonlinear fr equency
t uning char act er ist ic.
5. Figur e 59 shows t he use of t he VCO in a t r ansient simulat ion. The VCO is
deﬁned wit h signiﬁcant second and t hir d har monic levels. Simulat ion r esult s
ar e shown in Figur e 510.
Figur e 59. VCO in a t r ansient simulat ion
VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) 521
Figur e 510. Simulat ion Result s
522 VCO_DivideByN (VCO Divide By N)
Phase Lock Loop Components
VCO_DivideByN (VCO Divide By N)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
VCO_Fr eq = fr equency deviat ion fr om F0 (funct ion of _v1), in her t z per volt
F0 = VCO cent er fr equency, in her t z
N = nominal divide number (wit h dN=0)
Rout = out put r esist ance of VCO, in ohms
Power = out put power int o Rout load, in wat t s
Delay = t r ansit t ime delay added t o input t uning volt age, in seconds
Pin Connections
t une connect s t o a t uning volt age.
dN connect s t o gr ound (dN=0) or a volt age sour ce such as V_DC.
dN t akes t he value of nodal volt age and N+dN becomes t he divide r at io.
vcon is t he dividedby(N+dN) out put .
fr eq out put s t he undivided fr equency values fr om pin VCO. This pin can be left open.
VCO is t he undivided VCO out put . This pin can be left open if an undivided VCO is
not used.
Notes/Equations
1. This VCO model allows for t he deﬁnit ion of an ar bit r ar y, nonlinear fr equency
t uning char act er ist ic. In addit ion, it incor por at es a behavior al, divide by N
model. Incor por at ing t he divider int o t he same model per mit s it s use in
phaselock loop simulat ions wher e t he envelope bandwidt h, as det er mined by
t he analysis t imest ep, does not have t o include t he ent ir e t uning r ange of t he
VCO, but only t he fr equency r ange of t he divided out put . In t hese cases, t he
phase and fr equency infor mat ion of t he VCO’s main out put may be aliased
because of t he lar ge t imest ep. But , if just t he divided out put is being used, t he
VCO_DivideByN (VCO Divide By N) 523
loop simulat ions will st ill be valid and can simulat e fast er due t o t he lar ge
t imest ep.
As t he t imest ep is decr eased, or t he r ange of t he VCO is r educed, such t hat it
r emains wit hin t he envelope bandwidt h, t hen bot h t he main VCO and t he
divided VCO out put ar e valid. As wit h t he st andar d VCO model, t he phase of
t his model’s out put s ar e also clamped when t ime=0 so t his model only funct ions
as a VCO in t he t imedomain analysis modes, including cir cuit envelope and
t r ansient simulat ions.
2. The fr equency of t he VCO is det er mined by t he F0 value plus t he VCO_Fr eq
value. The VCO_Fr eq value may be an ar bit r ar y expr ession using _v1, which is
a pr edeﬁned var iable r epr esent ing t he input t uning volt age. The fr equency is
det er mined inside t he model by det er mining t he pr esent value of _v1 (t he input
volt age), evaluat ing t he VCO_Fr eq expr ession and adding t his t o t he F0 value.
This fr equency is out put , as an ideal volt age sour ce scaled t o 1V per GHz, on
t he fr eq out put pin.
3. In cir cuit envelope simulat ion, t he car r ier fr equency envelope associat ed wit h
t he main VCO fr equency is det er mined by t he F0 value. If t her e is no analysis
har monic fr equency close enough t o F0, t hen a war ning is gener at ed and t he
main out put is zer o. The car r ier fr equency envelope associat ed wit h t he divided
VCO fr equency is det er mined by F0/N. Again, if no analysis har monic
fr equency is close enough, t hen a war ning is gener at ed and t his out put is also
set t o zer o.
4. The divide number is det er mined by adding t he N par amet er and t he dN
baseband input volt age. The divide number can change dur ing t he simulat ion.
By pr oper ly dr iving t he dN input , fr act ional fr equency division can be
simulat ed. To simulat e all t he dynamics of a fr act ional divider, t he simulat ion
t imest ep must be small enough t o pr oper ly digit ize t he var ying divide or
pulseswallowing r at e. Alt er nat ively, eit her t he N value or t he dN input can be
set t o fr act ional values t o obt ain a st eadyst at e, fr act ional division t hat would
not include t he swit ching dynamics and spur s. In cir cuit envelope simulat ion,
t he divided VCO fr equency must r emain wit hin it s init ial envelope bandwidt h
for all combinat ions of VCO fr equencies and divide number s. It will not
aut omat ically jump fr om one envelope car r ier fr equency t o anot her. In
t r ansient simulat ion, because ever yt hing is t r eat ed as baseband signals, t he
only const r aint is t hat t he t imest ep must be small enough t o cover t he
maximum fr equency.
524 VCO_DivideByN (VCO Divide By N)
Phase Lock Loop Components
5. Bot h t he main VCO out put and t he divided out put have an out put r esist ance
set by t he Rout par amet er. The main VCO out put will deliver t he speciﬁed
Power int o a Rout load. The divided out put will also deliver t his amount of
power if it is not a baseband out put . If it is a baseband out put , t hen t he divided
out put is a sawt oot h wavefor m, whose open cir cuit volt age r epr esent s t he
inst ant aneous phase, in r adians, of t he divided signal. In t r ansient simulat ion,
t hen, t his divided out put is always a sawt oot h. In cir cuit envelope, it is a
sawt oot h if F0/N is wit hin t he baseband envelope (it is less t han 0.5/t imest ep).
If F0/N is closer t o one of t he analysis car r ier fr equencies, t hen t he out put is a
complex sinusoid wit h t he same amplit ude as t he main VCO out put .
6. A Delay par amet er value can also be speciﬁed for t his VCO model. This put s an
addit ional t r ansit delay bet ween t he input t uning volt age and t he act ual change
in t he out put fr equency. A delay of at least one t imest ep does somet imes r esult
in slight ly fast er simulat ion speeds, and can be used t o model t he t ime delay
inher ent in any r eal VCO.
7. Car e should be t aken when using t he VCO in baseband mode. If F0+VCO_Fr eq
value goes negat ive, t he model will gener at e a negative fr equency, which may
give unexpect ed r esult s. If t his is a pr oblem, t he VCO_Fr eq expr ession could
include a limit ing oper at or t o pr event t his.
8. Figur e 511 shows an example applicat ion; simulat ion r esult s ar e shown in
Figur e 512. The t uning char act er ist ic is linear in t his case and is simply 1 MHz
per volt . The nominally divided out put fr equency is 100MHz/55=1.81818 MHz,
so t his out put can be a baseband out put , given t he 0.1 µsec t imest ep. The divide
number changes fr om 95 t o 55 halfway t hr ough t he simulat ion. (Not e t hat while
t he divided VCO out put may not appear t o be a r egular, unifor m, amplit ude
sawt oot h wavefor m, it does accur at ely r epr esent t he divided signal’s phase.)
9. The fr equency can be det er mined by calculat ing t he phase slope; by using linear
int er polat ion, t he baseband phase fr equency det ect or s can accur at ely
det er mine t hr eshold cr ossings.
VCO_DivideByN (VCO Divide By N) 525
Figur e 511. Example wit h Linear Tuning Char act er ist ics
Figur e 512. Simulat ion Result s
526
Phase Lock Loop Components
61
Chapter 6: Switch and Algorithmic
Components
62 Comparator (Comparator)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
Comparator (Comparator)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Vlow = lower t hr eshold volt age
Vhigh = upper t hr eshold volt age
Notes/Equations
1. Compar at or out put s a 1V signal whenever t he baseband por t ion of t he input
signal is bet ween t he t wo t hr eshold volt ages. Input impedance is inﬁnit e;
out put impedance is ﬁxed at 0.1 ohm; and, t her e is a ﬁxed delay of one t imest ep.
2. If t he baseband por t ion of Vin is gr eat er t han Vlow and less t han Vhigh, t hen
t he out put volt age at t he next t ime sample is 1.0V; ot her wise, t he out put is
0.0V.
3. This model wor ks in t r ansient and cir cuit envelope simulat ion.
ClockLFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register) 63
ClockLFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Vlow = lower t hr eshold volt age, in volt s
Vhigh = upper t hr eshold volt age, in volt s
Taps = bit s used t o gener at e feedback
Seed = init ial value loaded int o shift r egist er
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. ClockLFSR can be used t o gener at e PN sequences wit h userdeﬁned r ecur r ence
r elat ions. The input is a clock signal; wit h each posit ive clock edge, t he next
out put bit is calculat ed. A clock edge occur s any t ime t he baseband input signal
r ises t hr ough 0.5V.
2. This model wor ks in t r ansient and cir cuit envelope simulat ion.
3. Wit h each posit ive clock edge, dat a is shift ed t o t he r ight in t he shift r egist er.
The lengt h of t he shift r egist er is det er mined by t he most signiﬁcant onebit in
t he Taps value.
Figur e 61. LFSR Model
Dn1 Dn2 Dnr
a(1)
a(2). . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . a(r)
CLOCK
MODULO 2 ADDER
OUTPUT
Dn
X X X
+
64 ClockLFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
The number s a(1), a(2), ... , a(r ) ar e t he binar y feedback coefﬁcient s and ar e
speciﬁed by t he Taps par amet er. This value may be speciﬁed as a decimal
number, or as a binar y pat t er n if t he bin() funct ion is used. The init ial cont ent s
of t he shift ar e speciﬁed by t he value of t he Seed par amet er. The following
equat ions descr ibe t he oper at ion of t his component :
At each posit ive clock edge n (n ≥ 1),
for n ≥ 1:
wher e
D(0) = Seed
2
(0)
D(−1) = Seed
2
(1)
.
.
.
D(1−r ) = Seed
2
(r −1)
and Seed =
wher e Seed
2
(k) ∈{0,1} for 0 ≤ k < r.
Example: Let Seed = 2, and Taps = 7
t hen
Seed
2
(0) = 0
Seed
2
(1) = 1
.
.
.
Seed
2
(6) = 0
t hus,
(0) = Seed2 (0) = 0
D(1) = Seed2 (1) = 1
D(2) = Seed2 (2) = 0
D n ( ) a k ( )D n k – ( )
k 1 =
r
∑
m od 2 =
Seed
2
k ( )2
k
k o ≥
∑
ClockLFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register) 65
.
.
.
D(6) = Seed
22
(6) = 0
Seed
2
(2) = 0
Linear Feedback Shift Regist er ClockLFSR
The binar y feedback coefﬁcient s ar e speciﬁed by Taps. For example, t he
r ecur r ence r elat ion
D(n) = (D(n7) + D(n3) + D(n2) + D(n1))mod 2
is speciﬁed by:
Taps = bin(“1000111”)
or
Taps = 71
Table 61 pr ovides a list of feedback coefﬁcient s for linear feedback shift
r egist er s showing one or mor e alt er nat e feedback connect ions for a given
number of st ages.
Table 61. Feedback Connect ions for Linear mSequences*
No. of
Stages Code Length Maximal Taps
2 3 [2, 1]
3 7 [3, 1]
4 15 [4, 1]
5 31 [5, 2] [5, 4, 3, 2] [5, 4, 2, 1]
6 63 [6, 1] [6, 5, 2, 1,] [6, 5, 3, 2,]
7 127 [7, 1] [7, 3] [7, 3, 2, 1,] [7, 4, 3, 2,] [7, 6, 4, 2] [7, 6, 3, 1] [7, 6, 5, 2]
[7, 6, 5, 4, 2, 1] [7, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1]
8 255 [8, 4, 3, 2] [8, 6, 5, 3] [8, 6, 5, 2] [8, 5, 3, 1] [8, 6, 5, 1] [8, 7, 6, 1]
[8, 7, 6, 5, 2, 1] [8, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1]
9 511 [9, 4] [9, 6, 4, 3] [9, 8, 5, 4] [9, 8, 4, 1] [9, 5, 3, 2] [9, 8, 6, 5] [9, 8, 7, 2]
[9, 6, 5, 4, 2] [9, 7, 6, 4, 3, 1] [9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 3]
10 1023 [10, 3] [10, 8, 3, 2] [10, 4, 3, 1] [10, 8, 5, 1][10, 8, 5, 4] [10, 9, 4, 1]
[10, 8, 4, 3] [10, 5, 3, 2] [10, 5, 2, 1] [10, 9, 4, 2]
11 2047 [11, 1] [11, 8, 5, 2] [11, 7, 3, 2] [11, 5, 3, 5] [11, 10, 3, 2] [11, 6, 5, 1]
[11, 5, 3, 1] [11, 9, 4, 1] [11, 8, 6, 2] [11, 9, 8, 3]
12 4095 [12, 6, 4, 1] [12, 9, 3, 2] [12, 11, 10, 5, 2, 1] [12, 11, 6, 4, 2, 1]
[12, 11, 9, 7, 6, 5] [12, 11, 9, 5, 3, 1] [12, 11, 9, 8, 7, 4] [12, 11, 9, 7, 6, 5]
[12, 9, 8, 3, 2, 1] [12, 10, 9, 8, 6, 2]
13 8191 [13, 4, 3, 1] [13, 10, 9, 7, 5, 4] [13, 11, 8, 7, 4, 1] [13, 12, 8, 7, 6, 5]
[13, 9, 8, 7, 5, 1] [13, 12, 6, 5, 4, 3] [13, 12, 11, 9, 5, 3] [13, 12, 11, 5, 2, 1] [13, 12, 9, 8, 4, 2]
[13, 8, 7, 4, 3, 2]
*
Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons. From Spread Spectrum Systems, 2nd edition, p. 87, Robert C. Dixon. Copyright ©1984
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
66 ClockLFSR (Linear Feedback Shift Register)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
14 16,383 [14, 12, 2, 1] [14, 13, 4, 2] [14, 13, 11, 9] [14, 10, 6, 1] [14, 11, 6, 1]
[14, 12, 11, 1] [14, 6, 4, 2] [14, 11, 9, 6, 5, 2] [14, 13, 6, 5, 3, 1]
[14, 13, 12, 8, 4, 1] [14, 8, 7, 6, 4, 2] [14, 10, 6, 5, 4, 1] [14, 13, 12, 7, 6, 3]
[14, 13, 11, 10, 8, 3]
15 32,767 [15, 13, 10, 9] [15, 13, 10, 1] [15, 14, 9, 2] [15, 1] [15, 9, 4, 1] [15, 12, 3, 1] [15, 10, 5, 4] [15,
10, 5, 4, 3, 2] [15, 11, 7, 6, 2, 1] [15, 7, 6, 3, 2, 1]
[15, 10, 9, 8, 5, 3] [15, 12, 5, 4, 3, 2] [15, 10, 9, 7, 5, 3] [15, 13, 12, 10]
[15, 13, 10, 2] [15, 12, 9, 1] [15, 14, 12, 2] [15, 13, 9, 6] [15, 7, 4, 1] [15, 4] [15, 13, 7, 4]
16 65,535 [16, 12, 3, 1] [16, 12, 9, 6] [16, 9, 4, 3] [16, 12, 7, 2] [16, 10, 7, 6]
[16, 15, 7, 2] [16, 9, 5, 2] [16, 13, 9, 6] [16, 15, 4, 2] [16, 15, 9, 4]
17 131,071 [17, 3] [17, 3, 2] [17, 7, 4, 3] [17, 16, 3, 1] [17, 12, 6, 3, 2, 1]
[17, 8, 7, 6, 4, 3] [17, 11, 8, 6, 4, 2] [17, 9, 8, 6, 4, 1] [17, 16, 14, 10, 3, 2] [17, 12, 11, 8, 5, 2]
18 262, 143 [18, 7] [18, 10, 7, 5] [18, 13, 11, 9, 8, 7, 6, 3] [18, 17, 16, 15, 10, 9, 8, 7] [18, 15, 12, 11, 9, 8,
7, 6]
19 524,287 [19, 5, 2, 1] [19, 13, 8, 5, 4, 3] [19, 12, 10, 9, 7, 3] [19, 17, 15, 14, 13, 12, 6, 1] [19, 17, 15, 14,
13, 9, 8, 4, 2, 1] [19, 16, 13, 11, 19, 9, 4, 1] [19, 9, 8, 7, 6, 3] [19, 16, 15, 13, 12, 9, 5, 4, 2, 1]
[19, 18, 15, 14, 11, 10, 8, 5, 3, 2] [19, 18, 17, 16, 12, 7, 6, 5, 3, 1]
20 1, 048,575 [20, 3] [20, 9, 5, 3] [20, 19, 4, 3] [20, 11, 8, 6, 3, 2] [20, 17, 14, 10, 7, 4, 3, 2]
21 2,097,151 [21, 2] [21, 14, 7, 2] [21, 13, 5, 2] [21, 14, 7, 6, 3, 2] [21, 8, 7, 4, 3, 2]
[21, 10, 6, 4, 3, 2] [21, 15, 10, 9, 5, 4, 3, 2] [21, 14, 12, 7, 6, 4, 3, 2]
[21, 20, 19, 18, 5, 4, 3, 2]
22 4,194,303 [22,1] [22, 9, 5, 1] [22, 20, 18, 16,6, 4, 2, 1] [22, 19, 16, 13, 10, 7, 4, 1]
[22, 17, 9, 7, 2, 1] [22, 17, 13, 12, 8, 7, 2, 1] [22, 14, 13, 12, 7, 3, 2, 1]
23 8,388,607 [23, 5] [23, 17, 11, 5] [23, 5, 4, 1] [23, 12, 5, 4] [23, 21, 7, 5]
[23, 16, 13, 6, 5, 3] [23, 11, 10, 7, 6, 5] [23, 15, 10, 9, 7, 5, 4, 3]
[23, 17, 11, 9, 8, 5, 4, 1] [23, 18, 16, 13, 11, 8, 5, 2]
24 16,777,215 [24, 7, 2] [24, 4, 3, 1] [24, 22, 20, 18, 16, 14, 11, 9, 8, 7, 5, 4]
[24, 21, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 10, 9, 5, 4, 1]
25 33,554, 431 [25, 3] [25, 3, 2, 1] [25, 20, 5, 3] [25, 12, 5, 4] [25, 17, 10, 3, 2, 1]
[25, 23, 21, 19, 9, 7, 5, 3] [25, 18, 12, 11, 6, 5, 4] [25, 20, 16, 11, 5, 3, 2, 1] [25, 12, 11, 8, 7,
6, 4, 3]
26 67,108,863 [26, 6, 2, 1] [26, 22, 21, 16, 12, 11, 10, 8, 5, 4, 3, 1]
27 134,217,727 [27, 5, 2, 1] [27, 18, 11, 10, 9, 5, 4, 3]
28 268,435,455 [28, 3] [28, 13, 11, 9, 5, 3] [28, 22, 11, 10, 4, 3] [28, 24, 20, 16, 12, 8, 4, 3, 2, 1]
29 536,870,911 [29, 2] [29, 20, 11, 2] [29, 13, 7, 2] [29, 21, 5, 2] [29, 26, 5, 2] [29, 19, 16, 6, 3, 2] [29, 18, 14,
6, 3, 2]
30 1,073,741,823 [30, 23, 2, 1] [30, 6, 4, 1] [30, 24, 20, 16, 14, 13, 11, 7, 2, 1]
31 2,147,483,647 [31, 29, 21, 17] [31, 28, 19, 15] [31, 3] [31, 3, 2, 1] [31, 13, 8, 3]
[31, 21, 12, 3, 2, 1] [31, 20, 18, 7, 5, 3] [31, 30, 29, 25] [31, 28, 24, 10]
[31, 20, 15, 5, 4, 3] [31, 16, 8, 4, 3, 2]
32 4,294,967,295 [32, 22, 2, 1] [32, 7, 5, 3, 2, 1] [32, 28, 19, 18, 16, 14, 11, 10, 9, 6, 5, 1]
33 8,589,934,591 [33, 13] [33, 22, 13, 11] [33, 26, 14, 10] [33, 6, 4, 1] [33, 22, 16, 13, 11, 8]
61 2,305,843,009,213, 693, 951 [61, 5, 2, 1]
89 618,970,019,642,690,
137,449,562,112
[89, 6, 5, 3]
Table 61. Feedback Connect ions for Linear mSequences* (cont inued)
No. of
Stages Code Length Maximal Taps
*
Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons. From Spread Spectrum Systems, 2nd edition, p. 87, Robert C. Dixon. Copyright ©1984
by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Differentiator (Differentiator) 67
Differentiator (Differentiator)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Gain = differ ent iat or slope
Rr ef = r efer ence r esist ance for bot h por t s, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. The out put volt age is equal t o t he der ivat ive (wit h r espect t o t ime) of t he input
volt age.
2. The Gain par amet er is ent er ed as a linear quant it y, not in dB.
3. Differ ent iat or wor ks in bot h t r ansient and envelope simulat ions.
4. The input r esist ance of t he int egr at or is Rr ef. The out put is a volt age sour ce
Vout in ser ies wit h out put r esist ance Rr ef.
68 DPDT_Static (Double Pole Double Throw Switch, Static)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
DPDT_Static (Double Pole Double Throw Switch, Static)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
St at e = st at e of swit ch: 0 (nodes 1 and 2, 4 and 5 connect ed); 1 (nodes 1 and 3, 4 and 6
connect ed)
F1 = ﬁr st fr equency br eakpoint
F2 = second fr equency br eakpoint
F3 = t hir d fr equency br eakpoint
Loss1 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies ≤F1, in dB
Loss2 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies >F1 ≤F2, in dB
Loss3 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies >F2 ≤F3, in dB
Loss4 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies >F3, in dB
VSWR1 = VSWR at bot h por t s for fr equencies ≤F1
VSWR2 = VSWR at bot h por t s for fr equencies >F1 ≤F2
VSWR3 = VSWR at bot h por t s for fr equencies >F2 ≤F3
VSWR4 = VSWR at bot h por t s for fr equencies >F3
Isolat = isolat ion, in dB
ZRef = r efer ence impedance for all por t s, in ohms
Temp = t emper at ur e, in degr ee C
DPDT_Static (Double Pole Double Throw Switch, Static) 69
Notes/Equations
1. This model wor ks in t r ansient and cir cuit envelope simulat ion.
2. Up t o t hr ee fr equency br eak point s can be used t o deﬁne four bands, wit h
differ ent losses and VSWR for each fr equency band. Losses ar e ent er ed as a
posit ive at t enuat ion. In ot her wor ds, a 0.5 dB loss is ent er ed as L1=0.5, not
L1=−0.5.
Isolat ion is assumed t o be const ant acr oss all fr equency bands.
When using t his device in a t r ansient simulat ion, t he swit ch set t ing must be
const ant .
If loss values ar e speciﬁed ver sus fr equency via a dat aset and using t he
component DATASETVARIABLE, t hen a t ime delay t hr ough t he device will be
int r oduced when using t r ansient analysis.
Tr ansient Analysis Time Delay = (1/(2 × MAX_FREQUENCY)) × POINTS
wher e
POINTS = (FILTER_ORDER/2) − 1 for FILTER_ORDER even
= (FILTER_ORDER + 1)/2 − 1 for FILTER_ORDER odd
610 IntegratorSML (Integrator)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
IntegratorSML (Integrator)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
GainAC = int egr at or gain
GainDC = gain of dc const ant
Rr ef = r efer ence r esist ance for bot h por t s, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. The out put volt age is equal t o t he int egr al (wit h r espect t o t ime) of t he input
volt age. This device has been modeled aft er a physically r ealizable int egr at or.
The dc gain is not inﬁnit e and is speciﬁed by GainDC.
2. GainAC is t he ac gain of t he int egr at or (t ypically set t o 1.0); GainDC is t he dc
gain of t he int egr at or. Bot h of t hese ar e a linear quant it y, not in dB.
3. An ideal int egr at or has inﬁnit e gain at dc, which is not physically r ealizable.
These par amet er s descr ibe t he oper at ion of t he int egr at or t hat has been
modeled aft er a t r adit ional high gain differ ent ial ampliﬁer wit h capacit ive
feedback and a ser ies input r esist or. GainDC is t he open loop dc gain of t he
ampliﬁer in t his model. Gain is equal t o 1/RC wher e R is t he input ser ies
r esist or value in ohms and C is t he feedback capacit or value in far ads.
4. The int egr at or t r ansfer funct ion follows:
wher e w is t he fr equency in r adians/sec.
5. Int egr at or SML wor ks in bot h t r ansient and envelope simulat ions.
6. The input r esist ance of t he int egr at or is Rr ef. The out put is a volt age sour ce
Vout in ser ies wit h out put r esist ance Rr ef.
Vou t
Vi n

Gai n DC
1 j w Gai n AC Gai n DC × × × ( ) +
 =
LimiterSML (Limiter) 611
LimiterSML (Limiter)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Gain = linear gain
Vmax = maximum out put volt age, in volt s
Vmin = minimum out put volt age, in volt s
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Fnom = nominal input fr equency, in her t z
Range of Usage
Fnom ≥ 0
Notes/Equations
1. The Gain par amet er is a r eal value only (not in dB or complex).
2. This model can be used in t r ansient , har monic balance and cir cuit envelope
simulat ions.
3. When used in t r ansient simulat ions, Fnom must be set t o zer o. Gain, Vmin and
Vmax det er mines t he out put volt age t ime ser ies. The out put volt age t ime ser ies
is calculat ed as Gain t imes t he input volt age t ime ser ies but is har d limit ed t o
Vmin and Vmax in case t he value dr ops below Vmin or r ises above Vmax. Har d
limit ing is not allowed t o dr op t he magnit ude of t he out put volt age by mor e
t han a fact or of 10
4
at any point in t ime. If t his happens, t he input signal is
simply scaled by Gain and 10
4
. Thus, a sine wave wit h 10
6
V amplit ude as input
t o a Limit er SML component wit h Gain=10, Vmax=1V and Vmin=1V will scale
t o an out put signal wit h a 10
3
V amplit ude, not a 1V amplit ude. This signal will
be added t o a pulse funct ion t hat is Vmin for negat ive input signals and Vmax
for posit ive input signals so t he out put will not be a per fect sine wave.
4. When used in har monic balance simulat ions, Fnom must be set t o a nonzer o
fundament al or int er modulat ion fr equency. Fnom, Gain and abs(Vmax)
det er mines t he out put volt age spect r um (Vmin is not used). The out put volt age
612 LimiterSML (Limiter)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
spect r um is calculat ed as Gain t imes t he input volt age spect r um but is scaled
by min(abs(Vmax)/abs(V(Fnom)),1) at all fr equencies, wher e
V(Fnom)=Gain x Vin(Fnom). This gain limit s t he ent ir e fr equency spect r um by
abs(Vmax)/abs(V(Fnom)) in t he case wher e abs(V(Fnom)) exceeds abs(Vmax). If
t her e is no spect r al component at Fnom, no gain limit ing is per for med. No
minimum gain of 10
4
applies in t his case.
5. When used in cir cuit envelope simulat ions, Fnom can be a zer o or nonzer o
fundament al or int er modulat ion fr equency.
• If Fnom is zer o, t he mode of oper at ion is similar t o t hat for t r ansient
analysis. If t her e is a baseband signal, it is har d limit ed as dict at ed by Vmin
and Vmax. Har d limit ing is not allowed t o dr op t he magnit ude of t he out put
volt age by mor e t han a fact or of 10
4
at any t ime (r efer t o not e 3). All ot her
spect r al component s ar e scaled accor dingly. If t her e is not a baseband signal,
not hing happens.
• If Fnom is a nonzer o fundament al or int er modulat ion fr equency, t he mode of
oper at ion is similar t o t hat for har monic balance analysis. All spect r al
component s, including t he baseband signal if applicable, ar e gain limit ed as
dict at ed by min(abs(Vmax)/abs(V(Fnom)),1). For har monic balance analysis,
t he value of Vmin does not mat t er in t his case.
6. Limit er SML has mor e t han one mode of oper at ion. It per for ms clipping or
limit ing in a Tr ansient or Cir cuit Envelope analysis, and it per for ms gain
scaling on t he spect r al component s in a Har monic Balance analysis. It s mode of
oper at ion depends on t he value of Fnom and t he t ype of simulat ion being
per for med.
ParallelSerial (Parallel to Serial Shift Register) 613
ParallelSerial (Parallel to Serial Shift Register)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Out put Rat e = ser ial out put dat a clock r at e, in her t z
LSB_Fir st = out put ser ial dat a wit h least signiﬁcant bit ﬁr st = YES; NO = out put
ser ial dat a wit h most signiﬁcant bit ﬁr st
Delay = init ial synchr onizat ion delay
Input Bit s = number of bit s in input wor d
Int eger In = scale input dat a as int eger s: YES, NO
Notes/Equations
1. This Par allel To Ser ial Shift Regist er model is used t o conver t a sequence of
input wor ds int o a ser ial out put bit st r eam. The ﬁxed ser ial out put bit r at e is
speciﬁed by t he Out put Rat e par amet er. The ser ial dat a can be out put wit h
eit her t he LSB or MSB ﬁr st , depending on t he st at e of t he LSB_Fir st
par amet er. The out put impedance is ﬁxed at 0.1 ohm. A logic one gener at es an
open cir cuit volt age of 1.0V. A logic zer o is 0.0V.
2. The number of bit s in each input wor d is speciﬁed by Input Bit s. The input is
sampled at a r at e equal t o Out put Rat e/Input Bit s, wit h an init ial
synchr onizat ion delay speciﬁed by Delay.
3. The input impedance is inﬁnit e. If t he Int eger In par amet er is set t r ue, t hen t he
input is assumed t o be scaled as an int eger fr om 0.0V t o 2
Out put Rat e
−1V.
Ot her wise, t he input is assumed t o be scaled fr om −1.0 t o +1.0V, wit h −1.0V
int er pr et ed at wor d 0.
4. This model wor ks in t r ansient and cir cuit envelope simulat ion. Only t he
baseband por t ion of cir cuit envelope volt age is used.
614 PathSelect2 (Coordinated set of Single Pole Double Throw Static Switches)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
PathSelect2 (Coordinated set of Single Pole Double Throw Static
Switches)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
St at e = st at e of swit ch: 0 (nodes 1, 2, 3 and 6 ar e connect ed); 1 (nodes 1, 4, 5 and 6 ar e
connect ed)
Notes/Equations
1. This model deﬁnes a pair of coor dinat ed st at ic single pole double t hr ow swit ches
t hat enables connect ivit y for one of t wo pat hs wit h ideal isolat ion bet ween t he
pat hs.
PathSelect2 (Coordinated set of Single Pole Double Throw Static Switches) 615
2. This component is a schemat ic design t hat uses int er nal models for
SPDT_St at ic. The schemat ic design is shown her e:
3. When St at e=0, connect ivit y occur s fr om por t 1 t o por t 2 t o por t 3 t o por t 6.
4. When St at e=1, connect ivit y occur s fr om por t 1 t o por t 4 t o por t 5 t o por t 6.
5. When using t his device in a t r ansient simulat ion, t he swit ch set t ing must be
const ant .
6. Examples demonst r at ing t his model ar e locat ed in t he ADS Examples ar ea at :
$HPEESOF_DIR/examples/Tut or ial/RF_Budget _Examples_pr j. See
Budget _Mixer.dsn.
616 QuantizerSML (Quantizer)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
QuantizerSML (Quantizer)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Vmin = minimum baseband input volt age, in volt age unit s
Vmax = maximum baseband input volt age, in volt age unit s
N = number of quant ized out put levels
Out St at e = out put is an int eger r epr esent ing quant izat ion level = nonzer o; out put is
scaled same as input but is quant ized = zer o
Rout = out put r esist ance, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. This quant izer model out put s a delayed, unifor mly quant ized r epr esent at ion of
t he baseband por t ion of t he input volt age. The input impedance is inﬁnit e. The
delay is ﬁxed at one t imest ep. The quant izat ion st at e out put mode is in offset
binar y for mat .
The input quant izat ion level is equal t o ∆ = (Vmax  Vmin) / (N  1). Any input
less t han (Vmin + ∆ /2) is assigned t o st at e 0. Any input gr eat er t han (Vmax 
∆ /2) has a st at e equal t o (N  1). If t he Out St at e par amet er is t r ue, t his
quant izat ion st at e is dir ect ly out put . If t he Out St at e par amet er is equal t o zer o,
t he quant izat ion st at e is scaled and offset , Vout = Q/∆ + Vmin, t o mat ch t he
input volt age.
2. This model wor ks in t r ansient and cir cuit envelope simulat ion.
3. An example of using t his component along wit h SampleHoldSML follows.
QuantizerSML (Quantizer) 617
618 ResetSwitch (Reset Switch)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
ResetSwitch (Reset Switch)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
None
Notes/Equations
1. This r eset swit ch is an ideal swit ch t hat is closed at t ime=0 and open for
t ime>0. It s main use is in t ime domain simulat ion modes (t r ansient and cir cuit
envelope) t o allow t he r eset t ing of component s such as ideal int egr at or s. Oft en
t hese blocks t hat have inﬁnit e gain at dc do not allow t he cir cuit simulat or t o
conver ge, but by keeping t hem r eset at t ime=0, a valid init ial solut ion can be
obt ained pr ior t o t he act ual t ime domain simulat ion and t hen t he swit ch can be
opened t o obser ve t he t ime domain r esponse. In st eadyst at e analysis, such as
dc or har monic balance, t ime is always 0 so t his swit ch r emains closed.
SampleHoldSML (Sample Hold) 619
SampleHoldSML (Sample Hold)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Fnom = nominal input and out put fr equency, in her t z
Notes/Equations
1. This model samples t he input signal and holds it unt il t he next sample event . It
is a t uned model; it select s and holds just t he signal at t he input har monic
closest t o t he fr equency speciﬁed by Fnom. If t her e is no analysis har monic
fr equency close enough t o t he Fnom fr equency, a war ning is issued and t he
out put is 0. The input impedance of bot h t he sample clock input and t he signal
input is inﬁnit e. The out put is a volt age sour ce wit h a ﬁxed impedance of 0.1
ohm.
2. The sampling inst ant is deﬁned t o be when t he sample clock input r ises t hr ough
t he 0.5V ﬁxed t hr eshold. If t he baseband mode of oper at ion is speciﬁed (Fnom ~
0 Hz), t his behaves as a nor mal sample and hold; t he baseband input volt age at
t he sampling inst ant is out put and t hen held indeﬁnit ely at t his const ant value
unt il t he next sample. If an envelope car r ier fr equency is speciﬁed by Fnom, t he
signal component at t his envelope har monic fr equency is select ed and it s
complex value at t he sampling inst ant is held at t he out put . This held out put
appear s at t he same envelope har monic fr equency. For example, if an envelope
analysis wit h a fundament al of 1 GHz is per for med wit h a t imest ep of 0.1nsec
and an offset fr equency sour ce at 1.001 GHz is sampled, t he complex value of
t he envelope is sampled and held const ant . The out put will appear t o be at t he 1
GHz fundament al fr equency since t he complex envelope is no longer changing,
unt il t he next sample event .
3. The Sampler model samples t he ent ir e spect r um and out put s just a r eal
baseband volt age.
4. SampleHoldSML wor ks in t r ansient and cir cuit envelope simulat ion. In
t r ansient simulat ion, Fnom has no effect because all signals ar e baseband only.
620 Sampler (Sampler)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
Sampler (Sampler)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Ton = ONst at e pulse widt h, swit ch in low impedance st at e, in seconds
Ron = ONst at e r esist ance, swit ch in low impedance st at e, in ohms
S11 = input r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient
Z0 = input r efer ence impedance, in ohms
Notes/Equations
1. Sampler is a linear behavior al model of a highfr equency sampler. It can also be
used t o model t he sampling efﬁciency and dr oop of lower fr equency
sampleholds.
2. This model wor ks in t r ansient and cir cuit envelope simulat ion. In envelope
simulat ion, t he input signal is det er mined by t r ansfor ming all t he spect r al
input volt ages at t he sampling inst ant t o det er mine t he t ot al, r eal
inst ant aneous volt age. Pr ior t o being sampled, t he input signal is ﬁr st ﬁlt er ed
wit h an ideal sinc() ﬁlt er det er mined by t he Ton pulse widt h. The input mat ch
can be complex, but since it needs t o r epr esent a causal r esponse it cannot be
complex at dc.
3. The input impedance looking int o t he sampler is det er mined by Z0 and S11
wit h t he st andar d for mula:
Usually, S11=0 and Z0=50 r esult s in t he input impedance of t he sampler being
50 ohms.
Z i n
Z 0 S 11 1 + ( )
S 11 1 –
 =
Sampler (Sampler) 621
4. The Clock/LO input impedance is inﬁnit e, and t he sampling inst ant is deﬁned
only by t he baseband por t ion of t he input signal and occur s whenever t he
baseband signal passes t hr ough 0.5V wit h a posit ive slope.
5. Sampler has t wo basic modes of oper at ion. If Ron is equal t o 0, t hen t he out put
is a ideal volt age sour ce wit h a value equal t o t he last sampled value of t he
ﬁlt er ed input volt age; if Ron is not equal t o 0, t hen t he out put impedance is
t imevar ying. In t he quiescent st at e, it is 1Tohm. However when a sample
occur s, t he impedance for t hat t ime point is r educed t o a sampler r esist ance
equal t o Ron×t imest ep/Ton. The act ual sampler efﬁciency is t hen det er mined by
sampler Ron and Ton values, and t he load capacit ance on t he sampler out put .
If Ton >> Ron×CLoad, t he sampler will behave wit h 100% efﬁciency. In a
micr owave sampler, t his efﬁciency is t ypically much less t han 100%. The hold
t ime const ant in t his sampler mode is det er mined st r ict ly by t he capacit ive and
r esist ive load placed on t he sampler out put by t he user.
The Ron sampler par amet er should include all char ging impedances, including
t he sampler swit ch impedance as well as t he effect of any sour ce impedance.
The out put signal in Envelope mode is a basebandonly signal. No RF leakage is
included in t his model.
Not e t hat due t o t he impulse nat ur e of t his sampler model out put , t he analysis
int egr at ion or der should be set t o 1 (Backwar d Euler ) when using t his model.
This is especially t r ue when sampling r apidly changing input signals and when
t he sampler par amet er s ar e set for high sampling efﬁciency.
6. In t he cir cuit envelope example in Figur e 62, t he input signal is a
highfr equency sawt oot h wavefor m wit h 15 har monics. It s fr equency is set
10 kHz above 1 GHz. The sampler is being dr iven at a 500 kHz r at e so t he
out put signal should be a r eplicat ed sawt oot h at 10 kHz. Simulat ion r esult s for
t wo differ ent combinat ions of Ron and Ton ar e shown in Figur e 63. The
highefﬁciency mode t r acks t he input . The lowefﬁciency mode (50 ohm,
50 psec) shows it s lowpass ﬁlt er ing impact . Not e t he t wo differ ent t ime scales:
2 nsec for t he input t r ace and 200 µsec for t he out put t r aces.
The example in Figur e 64 shows a lowfr equency applicat ion t hat has a
signiﬁcant dr oop due t o t he ﬁnit e out put r esist ance. Simulat ion r esult s ar e
shown in Figur e 65.
622 Sampler (Sampler)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
Figur e 62. Cir cuit Envelope Example,
HighFr equency Applicat ion
Figur e 63. Simulat ion Result s
Sampler (Sampler) 623
Figur e 64. Cir cuit Envelope Example,
LowFr equency Applicat ion
Figur e 65. Simulat ion Result s
624 SerialParallel (Serial to Parallel Shift Register)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
SerialParallel (Serial to Parallel Shift Register)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Input Rat e = ser ial input dat a clock r at e, in her t z
LSB_Fir st = ser ial dat a ar r ives wit h least signiﬁcant bit ﬁr st = YES; NO = most
signiﬁcant bit ar r ives ﬁr st
Delay = init ial synchr onizat ion delay, in seconds
Out put Bit s = number of bit s in out put wor d
Int eger Out = scale out put dat a as int eger s (inst ead of fr om −1 t o 1): YES, NO
Notes/Equations
1. This Ser ialPar allel shift r egist er model is used t o conver t a ser ial dat a st r eam
int o a mult iple bit wor d. The ﬁxed ser ial input bit r at e is speciﬁed by t he
Input Rat e par amet er, wit h an init ial synchr onizat ion delay speciﬁed by t he
Delay par amet er. The ser ial dat a can be int er pr et ed as eit her LSB or MSB ﬁr st ,
depending on t he st at e of t he LSB_Fir st par amet er. The input impedance is
inﬁnit e. A volt age less t han 0.5V is a logical zer o.
2. The number of bit s in each out put wor d is speciﬁed by Out put Bit s. The out put
is updat ed at a r at e equal t o Input Rat e/Out put Bit s. The open cir cuit out put
volt age is an int eger value fr om 0 t o 2
Out put Bit s
1, if t he Int eger Out par amet er
is t r ue. Ot her wise, t he out put is scaled fr om a −1 t o +1V, wit h all 0s
cor r esponding t o −1V and all 1s t o + 1Vs. The out put impedance is ﬁxed at 0.1
ohm.
3. This model wor ks in t r ansient and cir cuit envelope simulat ion. Only t he
baseband por t ion of cir cuit envelope volt age is used.
SPDT_Dynamic (Single Pole Double Throw Switch, Dynamic) 625
SPDT_Dynamic (Single Pole Double Throw Switch, Dynamic)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Ron = onst at e r esist ance of swit ch, in ohms
Roff = offst at e r esist ance of swit ch, in ohms
Range of Usage
Pin 1 is t he input , pins 2 and 3 ar e out put , pin 4 is t he cont r ol volt age, Vc.
If Vc > 2V, R1 = Ron, R2 = Roff
If Vc < 1v, R1 = Roff, R2 = Ron
When Vc incr eases fr om 1V t o 1.5V, R2 changes fr om Ron t o Roff
When Vc incr eases fr om 1.5V t o 2V, R2 = Roff and R1 changes fr om Roff t o Ron
At Vc = 1.5V, R1 = R2 = Roff
Notes/Equations
1. This SPDT_Dynamic swit ch model, as opposed t o t he SPDT_St at ic model, can
be used t o dynamically swit ch st at es in r esponse t o t he input cont r ol volt age.
The input impedance of t he cont r ol volt age por t is inﬁnit e. Whenever t he
cont r ol volt age is gr eat er t han 2.0V, t he input is connect ed t o t he (c>2) out put
wit h a r esist ance equal t o Ron; ot her wise, t her e is a r esist ance of Roff ohms
bet ween t he t wo pins. Similar ly, whenever t he cont r ol volt age is less t han 1.0V,
t he input is connect ed t o t he (c<1) out put wit h a r esist ance of Ron; ot her wise,
R1
R2
1
2
3
626 SPDT_Dynamic (Single Pole Double Throw Switch, Dynamic)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
t her e is a r esist ance of Roff bet ween t he t wo pins. Not e t hat when t he cont r ol
volt age is bet ween 1.0V and 2.0V, t he swit ch is open wit h r espect t o bot h
out put s, simulat ing t he br eak oper at ion befor e making connect ion.
2. Capacit ances, leakage cur r ent s, or ot her nonidealit ies ar e not included in t his
model.
3. This model is pr imar ily meant for usage in t he t ime domain (t r ansient and
cir cuit envelope) simulat ion wit h baseband cont r ol volt ages. Due t o t he
inst ant aneous, abr upt nat ur e of t he swit ching act ion, dr iving t he cont r ol input
wit h a car r ier fr equency input , in eit her har monic balance or cir cuit envelope,
should be avoided or done wit h car eful consider at ion of t he number of
har monics r equir ed and pot ent ial conver gence pr oblems.
SPDT_Static (Single Pole Double Throw Switch, Static) 627
SPDT_Static (Single Pole Double Throw Switch, Static)
Symbol
Available in ADS and RFDE
Parameters
St at e = st at e of swit ch: for 0, nodes 1 and 2 ar e connect ed; for 1, nodes 1 and 3 ar e
connect ed
F1 = ﬁr st fr equency br eakpoint
F2 = second fr equency br eakpoint
F3 = t hir d fr equency br eakpoint
Loss1 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies ≤F1, in dB
Loss2 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies >F1 ≤F2, in dB
Loss3 = at t enuat ion for fr equencies >F2 ≤F3, in dB
VSWR1 = VSWR at bot h por t s for fr equencies ≤F1
VSWR2 = VSWR at bot h por t s for fr equencies >F1 ≤F2
VSWR3 = VSWR at bot h por t s for fr equencies >F2 ≤F3
Isolat = isolat ion, in dB
ZRef = r efer ence impedance for all por t s, in ohms
Temp = t emper at ur e, in degr ee C
CheckPassivit y = check passivit y ﬂag: if set t o yes (default ), a passivit y check is
per for med and a war ning is out put if t he device is not passive; if set t o no, a passivit y
check is not per for med.
Notes/Equations
1. This model is based on Spar amet er s (S12 = S21, S13 = S31).
2. Up t o t hr ee fr equency br eak point s can be used t o deﬁne four bands, wit h
differ ent losses and VSWR for each fr equency band.
628 SPDT_Static (Single Pole Double Throw Switch, Static)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
Ent er loss as a posit ive at t enuat ion. In ot her wor ds, a 0.5 dB loss is ent er ed as
Loss = 0.5, not Loss = −0.5.
3. Isolat ion is assumed t o be const ant acr oss all fr equency bands.
When using t his device in a t r ansient simulat ion, t he swit ch set t ing must be
const ant .
SwitchV (Voltage Controlled Switch) 629
SwitchV (Voltage Controlled Switch)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Model = name of a Swit chV_Model
R1 = r esist ance at volt age 1, in ohms
V1 = volt age 1, in volt s
R2 = r esist ance at volt age 2, in ohms
V2 = volt age 2, in volt s
Range of Usage
R1, R2 > 0
V1 ≠ V2
Notes/Equations
1. This component implement s a volt age cont r olled swit ch. The swit ch r esist ance
bet ween nodes 1 and 2 var ies as a funct ion of t he applied cont r ol volt age (V
CON
is t he volt age bet ween nodes 3 and 4):
wher e
R
S W
R 1 if V
CON
V 1 ≤
f V
CON
( ) if V 1 V
CON
V 2 ≤ ≤
R 2 if V
CON
V 2 ≥
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
=
630 SwitchV (Voltage Controlled Switch)
Switch and Algorithmic Components
For t hese equat ions, it is assumed t hat V1 < V2. If V2 < V1, swap R1 and V1
wit h R2 and V2 in t he equat ion above.
V
CON
is deﬁned so t hat f(V1) = R1 and f(V2) = R2 and pr ovides a smoot h
t r ansit ion bet ween st at es. This is a plot of t he swit ch r esist ance as a funct ion of
t he cont r ol volt age for V1=1, R1=10, V2=3, R2=10000.
2. The Model name is opt ional. If t he model name is not speciﬁed, t hen R1, V1, R2
and V2 must all be speciﬁed on t he Swit chV inst ance; if t he model name is
speciﬁed, t hen R1, V1, R2 and V2 on t he Swit chV inst ance ar e opt ional and
over r ide t he values speciﬁed in t he Swit chV_Model.
3. R1 and R2 ar e model par amet er s, not t he r esist ance at nodes. Conver gence
pr oblems may occur if t he differ ence bet ween R1 and R2 is t oo lar ge.
4. V1 and V2 ar e model par amet er s, not node volt ages. Conver gence pr oblems
may occur if t he differ ence bet ween V1 and V2 is t oo small.
5. This component wor ks in all analyses, including t r ansient and cir cuit envelope
simulat ion. If a Swit chV_Model it em is not pr esent , t he Swit chV Model
par amet er should be blank.
6. Table 62 list s t he DC oper at ing point par amet er s t hat can be sent t o t he
dat aset .
Table 62. DC Oper at ing Point Infor mat ion
Name Description Units
Is Current A
Power DC power dissipated W
Vs Voltage V
f V
CON
( )
x
V
CON
V 1 –
V 2 V 1 –
 =
i f x 1 2 ⁄ <
y 2x
2
=
el se
y 1 2 x 1 – ( )
2
– =
l n R
S W
( ) R 1 ( ) ln y R 2 R 1 ⁄ ( ) ln × + =
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
=
631
SwitchV_Model (Voltage Controlled Switch Model)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
R1 = r esist ance at volt age 1, in ohms
V1 = volt age 1, in volt s
R2 = r esist ance at volt age 2, in ohms
V2 = volt age 2, in volt s
AllPar ams = Dat aAccessComponent based par amet er s
Range of Usage
R1, R2 > 0
V1 ≠ V2
Notes/Equations
1. This model supplies values for a Swit chV component .
2. The r ange bet ween R1 and R2 should not be t oo lar ge, or conver gence pr oblems
may occur.
3. The differ ence bet ween V1 and V2 should not be t oo small, or conver gence
pr oblems may occur.
4. R1, V1, R2 and V2 can be opt ionally speciﬁed on t he Swit chV inst ance t hat uses
t his model; t hose values over r ide t he model values.
5. This model wor ks in t r ansient and cir cuit envelope simulat ion.
6. Use AllPar ams wit h a Dat aAccessComponent t o specify ﬁlebased par amet er s
(r efer t o t he DataAccessComponent). Not e t hat model par amet er s t hat ar e
explicit ly speciﬁed t ake pr ecedence over t hose speciﬁed via AllPar ams.
632
Switch and Algorithmic Components
VSum (Voltage Summer)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
None
Notes/Equations
1. This component has inﬁnit e input impedance and zer o out put impedance.
Out put volt age is equal t o volt age summed fr om t he t wo input por t s.
71
Chapter 7: Tx/Rx Subsystems
72 RF_PA_CKT (RF Power Ampliﬁer Circuit)
Tx/Rx Subsystems
RF_PA_CKT (RF Power Ampliﬁer Circuit)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
None
Notes/Equations
1. This is a 2st age BJ T ampliﬁer wit h t he cent er fr equency of 2GHz, small signal
gain of ~30dB, and maximum power out put of ~15dBm. This cir cuit is pr ovided
for t he convenience of easy inclusion of a cir cuit level ampliﬁer in an ADS
Pt olemy Envelope cosimulat ion.
RF_RX_SML (RF Receiver) 73
RF_RX_SML (RF Receiver)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
RX_Ant Temp =Receiving ant enna noise t emper at ur e, in Kelvin (default : 150)
RX_Gain = Receiver gain, in dB (default : 80 dB)
RX_NF = Receiver noise ﬁgur e in dB (default : 5 dB)
RF_Fr eq = RF fr equency, in MHz, GHz, or THz (default : 900 MHz)
RF_BW = RF bandwidt h, in Hz, kHz, MHz, or GHz (default : 25 MHz)
IF_Fr eq1 = Fir st IF fr equency in Hz, kHz, MHz, or GHz (default : 100 MHz)
IF_Fr eq2 = Second IF fr equency in Hz, kHz, MHz, or GHz (default : 400 KHz)
IF_BW = IF bandwidt h in Hz, kHz, MHz, or GHz (default : 30 KHz)
IP3in = Receiver input IP3, in pW, nW, uW, mW, W, kW, dBm (default : 25 dBm)
RIn = Input r esist ance in Ohm, mOhm, kOhm, MOhm, GOhm (default : 50 Ohm)
ROut = Out put r esist ance in Ohm, mOhm, kOhm, MOhm, GOhm (default : 50 Ohm)
Notes/Equations
1. This is a superhet er odyne RF r eceiver subsyst em. Input is an RF signal;
out put is an IF signal. Thr ee CW spur s ar e combined wit h t he input RF signal
t o simulat e t he r eceiver int er fer ence per for mance.
This subnet wor k is pr ovided for easy inclusion of an RF r eceiver in an ADS
Pt olemy Envelope cosimulat ion.
74 RF_TX_SML (RF Transmitter)
Tx/Rx Subsystems
RF_TX_SML (RF Transmitter)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
IF_Fr eq = IF fr equency in Hz, kHz, MHz, or GHz (default : 400 kHz)
RF_Fr eq = RF fr equency, in Hz, kHz, MHz, or GHz (default : 900 MHz)
RF_BW = RF bandwidt h, in Hz, kHz, MHz, or GHz (default : 30 KHz)
TX_Gain = Tr ansmit t er gain, in dB (default : 80 dB)
PSat = Sat ur at ed power at out put , in dBm, dBW, nW, uW, mW, W, or kW (default : 35
dBm)
RIn = Input r esist ance in Ohm, mOhm, kOhm, MOhm, GOhm (default : 50 Ohm)
ROut = Out put r esist ance in Ohm, mOhm, kOhm, MOhm, GOhm (default : 50 Ohm)
Notes/Equations
1. This is an RF t r ansmit t er subsyst em. Input is an IF signal; out put is an RF
signal.
This subnet wor k is pr ovided for easy inclusion of an RF t r ansmit t er in an ADS
Pt olemy Envelope cosimulat ion.
Introduction 81
Chapter 8: System Data Models
Introduction
The S ystem  Data Models palet t e cont ains t wo t ypes of component s: t hose which
enable t he simulat ionbased ext r act ion of behavior al pr oﬁles fr om cir cuit models and
t hose which per for m behavior al modeling using t hese pr oﬁles. Ther e is an inher ent
pair ing of t hese t wo t ypes of component s because par amet er s used t o deﬁne
behavior al pr oﬁles in dat abased r epr esent at ion ar e speciﬁc t o modeling t heor ies and
t her efor e dat a model r equir ement s. Dat abased behavior al modeling is an impor t ant
t ool for t he bottomup ver iﬁcat ion pr ocess; t hus, each ext r act ordat a model pair of
t his palet t e is also known as a ver iﬁcat ion model ext r act ion (VME) pair. The most
common usage of a VME pair dur ing RFIC and MMIC design ﬂows is as follows:
• Cr eat ion of a cir cuit level design wit h cir cuit level component s and/or
par amet r ic behavior al component s dur ing t he t opdown design phase.
Par amet erbased behavior al models ar e locat ed in t he Filters, S ystem  Amps &
Mixers, and S ystem  Mod/ Demod palet t es. These models ar e char act er ized by a
few independent par amet er s such as fr equency, power and load.
• Cr eat ion of a Har monic Balancebased dat aset or dat a ﬁle pr oﬁles of t hese
cir cuit level models using t he VME ext r act or component s fr om t he S ystem 
Data Models palet t e. Use t he VME dat a model count er par t s t o r ecr eat e t he
behavior of t he cir cuit level models. Compar e cir cuit  and dat abased behavior al
models; calibr at e t he dat abased behavior al models pr ior t o har dwar e
pr ot ot yping t he cir cuit .
• Using measur ement inst r ument s t o ext r act behavior al dat aset s or dat a ﬁles
fr om har dwar e pr ot ot ypes fr om t he foundr y. Using t he calibr at ed VME dat a
model t o gener at e a har dwar e behavior al pr oﬁle. Compar e t he har dwar e
behavior al pr oﬁle wit h t he simulat ionbased behavior al pr oﬁle t o est imat e t he
success of pr ot ot yping.
The parameterbased behavioral models t ypically pr ovide super ior speed wher eas
databased behavioral models t ypically pr ovide super ior accur acy. The differ ences
bet ween parameter and databased behavioral models just ify t he palet t e emphasis
on ADS ﬂow (separ at e palet t es for par amet r ic and dat abased models) r at her t han
funct ionalit y (separ at e palet t es for ampliﬁer s, mixer s, modulat or s each cont aining
bot h par amet r ic and dat abased models).
82 Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models
System Data Models
The BehavioralModels example suit e was developed t o pr omot e t he usabilit y of t he
S ystemData Models component s. This family of example pr oject s demonst r at es t he
use and char act er ist ics of most VME models. To access t he example pr oject fr om t he
ADS Main window click on t he following sequence of menu opt ions: File > Example
Project > BehavioralModels. Not es for each example pr oject ar e available in t he
accompanying not es in ADS Documentation > Examples > Behavioral Models
manual.
In addit ion t o t he dat abased behavior al model component s, t he S ystemData Models
palet t e includes Balun3Por t and Balun4Por t ; t hese component s ar e also accessible
fr om t he S ystemPassive palet t e.
Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models
ADS pr ovides dat abased modeling for syst emlevel VME component s of t he following
cat egor ies:
• Ampliﬁer s: Ampliﬁer H1H2, Ampliﬁer P2D, Ampliﬁer S2D, AmpLoadPull,
VCA_Dat a
• Mixer s: Mixer HBdat a, Mixer IMT2
• Modulat or s / Demodulat or s: IQ_Mod, IQ_Demod
Most dat a models accept cust omized dat aset (*.ds) or dat a ﬁle (*.p2d, *.s2d) input s.
These input s ar e t ypically pr ovided by dat a model ext r act or s. Ident iﬁed by t he sufﬁx
S etup or setup, t hese ext r act or s ar e pr efabr icat ed subcir cuit s t hat r un a
pr edet er mined simulat ion wit h userset t able sweep values on t he cir cuit level model
of int er est and r epor t t he input and out put st imuli in t he dat aset or dat a ﬁle for m.
The user is encour aged t o push int o t he ext r act ion subcir cuit s and be familiar wit h
t he measur ement met r ics t hat ar e being r epor t ed t o t he dat aset or dat a ﬁle.
Most syst em dat a models have t heir own dat a ext r act or s; however, t her e ar e
except ions (e.g., t he Mixer IMT2 dat a model) for which dat a ﬁles must be manually
gener at ed or r et r ieved fr om a measur ement inst r ument .
Table 81 summar izes t he availabilit y and scope of each VME model cur r ent ly
available in ADS. This chapt er descr ibes component par amet er s and usage in fur t her
det ail. For a discussion of t he use of t he ADS dat a model component s fr om an
applicat ion point of view please r efer t o t he ser ies of Applicat ion Not es being r eleased
under t he t it le Behavioral Modeling in ADS.
Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models 83
Table 81. Dat aBased Behavior al Modeling Component s and
Example Pr oject s in ADS.
Extractor Model Data Model Data Type Comments on Scope of Modeling
AmpH1H2_Setup AmpH1H2 *.ds Models nonlinearity at odd and even harmonics using circuitbased data at
fundamental and second harmonics.
Refer to Examples > BehavioralModels > AmplH1H2_prj
AmpliﬁerP2D_Setup AmpliﬁerP2D *.p2d Models nonlinearity and noise at fundamental frequency using circuitbased
data at fundamental frequency. For circuit envelope simulations, modeling
nonlinear distortion at fundamental frequency due to interference from spectral
components within the envelope band.
Refer to Examples > BehavioralModels > AmpliﬁerS2DandP2D_prj
AmpliﬁerS2D_Setup AmpliﬁerS2D *.s2d Models nonlinearity and noise at fundamental and oddorder harmonic
frequencies using circuitbased data at fundamental frequency. Assumes
oddorder polynomial ﬁtting for harmonic calculations.
Refer to Examples > BehavioralModels > AmpliﬁerS2DandP2D_prj
LoadPullSetup AmpLoadPull *.ds Models nonlinearity at fundamental frequency for various input and output
impedance conditions using circuitbased data at single frequency for a range
of source and load conditions.
Refer to Examples > BehavioralModels > AmpLoadPull_prj
VCA_Setup VCA_Data *.ds Models nonlinearity at fundamental frequency for various settings of control
voltage using circuitbased data at single frequency for a range of bias
conditions.
Refer to Examples > BehavioralModels > VCA_prj
MixerHBsetup MixerHBdata *.ds Models nonlinearity at fundamental, mixing product frequencies at the mixer
output (IF) due to 1tone input signals (RF and LO) based on 1tone harmonic
balance characterization of circuit level mixer.
Refer to Examples > BehavioralModels > MixerHBdata_prj
(Manual extraction)
MixerIMT
††
*.imt Models nonlinearity at fundamentals and mixing product frequencies at the
mixer output (IF) based on 1tone input signals and a table of mixing
coefﬁcients.
(Manual extraction) MixerIMT2 *.imt Models nonlinearity at fundamentals and mixing product frequencies at the
mixer output (IF) based on 1tone input signals and a table of mixing
coefﬁcients.
IQ_Mod_Setup IQ_Mod_Data *.ds Models largesignal inphase and quadrature components during modulation
Refer to Examples > BehavioralModels > IQ_Mod_prj
IQ_Demod_Setup IQ_Demod_Data *.ds Models largesignal inphase and quadrature components during demodulation
Refer to Examples > BehavioralModels > IQ_Demod_prj
††
This is an obsolete component.
84 AmpH1H2 (Ampliﬁer/Fundamental and 2nd Harmonic vs. Input Power)
System Data Models
AmpH1H2 (Ampliﬁer/Fundamental and 2nd Harmonic vs. Input Power)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Notes/Equations
1. AmpH1H2 is a dat abased syst em model of a cir cuit level ampliﬁer. The
cir cuit level ampliﬁer is char act er ized by a dat aset gener at ed by t he ext r act or
component AmpH1H2_Set up. Var ious examples of t he use of AmpH1H2 ar e
pr ovided in t he example pr oject AmpH1H2_prj.
2. This ampliﬁer model does not r equir e t he explicit speciﬁcat ion of nominal
fr equency at which nonlinear modeling is t o be per for med. Alt hough
t echnically it can be used at any fr equency dur ing simulat ion, t he dat aset ﬁle
Name Description Unit Default
Dataset Name of dataset containing data for this ampliﬁer model. “dataset.ds“
G1expr
†
Gain expression for fundamental frequency. “Vout[1]/Vin[1]”
G2expr
†
Gain expression for second harmonic frequency. “Vout[2]/Vin[2]“
SP11
††
Forward reﬂection coefﬁcient. polar(0,0)
SP22
††
Reverse reﬂection coefﬁcient. polar(0,180)
SP12
††
Reverse transmission coefﬁcient. 0
NF Noise ﬁgure. dB
NFmin Minimum noise ﬁgure at Sopt. dB
Sopt
††
Optimum source reﬂection for minimum noise ﬁgure.
Rn Equivalent noise resistance.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Ohm
Z1 Reference impedance for Port1. Ohm
Z2 Reference impedance for Port2. Ohm
†
The gain parameters must be updated to appropriate gain expressions based on the MeasEqn expressions of AmpH1H2_Setup
component which was used to create the dataset. Refer to example project AmpH1H2_prj.
††
These parameters can be reported in any of the following complex number formats: x + j*y, polar(x,y), dbpolar(x,y), vswrpolar(x,y)
AmpH1H2 (Ampliﬁer/Fundamental and 2nd Harmonic vs. Input Power) 85
cont ains t he nonlinear pr oﬁle at t he single fr equency point deﬁned on t he
AmpH1H2_Set up component dur ing ext r act ion. Hence, effect ively t he
AmpH1H2 model is conﬁned t o r epr oducing behavior accur at ely at t hat
fr equency only. Since t he AmpH1H2 model does not have a built in war ning
mechanism t o det ect discr epancies bet ween simulat ion and ext r act ion
fr equencies, t he user of t his model needs explicit apr ior i knowledge of t he
ext r act ion fr equency dur ing behavior al simulat ion.
3. AmpH1H2 models bot h odd and evenor der har monics at t he ampliﬁer out put .
However, it s r eliance on t he fundament al and secondor der har monic
expr essions G1expr and G2expr. r espect ively, guar ant ee high accur acy only for
t hese t wo spect r al component s. For det ails of t he modeling accur acy of var ious
har monics in a 1t one swept power Har monic Balance simulat ion, r efer t o t he
dat a display plot behavioral_level_amp_S OITOI.dds in t he example pr oject
AmpH1H2_prj.
4. The dat aset cont ains infor mat ion about t he for war d t r ansmission char act er ist ic
S21. The ot her Spar amet er s S11, S12 and S22, can be set explicit ly on t he dat a
model inst ance. Likewise, noise par amet er s NF, NFmin, Sopt and Rn, can be set
explicit ly using r elevant par amet er s on t he model inst ance.
5. It is impor t ant t o not e t hat alt hough por t impedances Z1 and Z2 can be set t o
ar bit r ar y values dur ing behavior al simulat ion, t he dat aset is t ypically ext r act ed
at por t impedance values of 50 Ohms. Ideally, t he set t ings for Z1 and Z2 inside
t he subcir cuit of t he ext r act or model AmpH1H2_Set up should be set up as
complex conjugat es of t he input and out put impedances, r espect ively, of t he
cir cuit ampliﬁer. The r esult ing dat aset would t hen cont ain t he behavior under
mat ched sour ce and load condit ions. In or der t o t r anslat e t he dat aset int o t he
behavior of AmpH1H2, t he AmpH1H2 Z1 and Z2 par amet er s must t hen be set
t o t he complex conjugat es of AmpH1H2_Set up component ’s Z1 and Z2 values,
i.e. t o t he or iginal values of t he cir cuit ampliﬁer s por t impedances.
86 AmpH1H2_Setup (Ampliﬁer/Fundamental and 2nd Harmonic vs. Input Power Setup)
System Data Models
AmpH1H2_Setup (Ampliﬁer/Fundamental and 2nd Harmonic vs. Input
Power Setup)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Notes/Equations
1. AmpH1H2_Set up per for ms a swept input power Har monic Balance simulat ion
of a cir cuit level ampliﬁer and gener at es a dat aset for subsequent use by t he
dat abased syst em model AmpH1H2. The AmpH1H2_Set up ext r act or model is
demonst r at ed in t he example pr oject AmpH1H2_prj.
2. AmpH1H2_Set up can be pushed int o for a view of t he implement at ion. If
necessar y, t he component can be copied and modiﬁed t o suit individual needs.
3. This component is capable of ext r act ing cir cuit behavior at only one nominal
fr equency Fr eq. In or der t o char act er ize an ampliﬁer over a r ange of
fr equencies, separ at e ext r act ions must be per for med and separ at e dat aset s
gener at ed at each fr equency of int er est .
4. In or der for AmpH1H2 t o pr oduce an accur at e model of t he cir cuit level
ampliﬁer char act er ized via AmpH1H2_Set up, t he Or der par amet er for
AmpH1H2_Set up must be lar ge enough t o pr event aliasing of higheror der
fr equency component s. The r ecommended value is 5 for mildly nonlinear
cir cuit s and 1115 for highly nonlinear cir cuit s.
Name Description Unit Default
Freq Fundamental frequency.
Must be a positive real number.
Hz 1.0 GHz
Order Order for Harmonic Balance analysis.
Must be an integer greater than 0.
10
Pin_Start Start value of input power sweep for harmonic balance analysis. dBm 50 dBm
Pin_Stop Stop value for input power sweep for harmonic balance analysis. dBm 20 dBm
Pin_Step Interval for input power sweep during harmonic balance analysis. dB 10 dB
AmpH1H2_Setup (Ampliﬁer/Fundamental and 2nd Harmonic vs. Input Power Setup) 87
5. The linear input power sweep is deﬁned by t he par amet er s Pin_St ar t , Pin_St op
and Pin_St ep ar e used dir ect ly by t he under lying Har monic Balance cont r oller.
6. The ext r act ed ADS dat aset is assigned t he name of t he ext r act ion design by
default .
88 AmpliﬁerP2D (P2D File Ampliﬁer; FDDBased, for Single Carrier Signal)
System Data Models
AmpliﬁerP2D (P2D File Ampliﬁer; FDDBased, for Single Carrier Signal)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Notes/Equations
Name Description Unit Default
Freq Fundamental or nominal frequency.
Must be a positive real number.
Hz 1.0 GHz
P2DFile Filename for P2D data “p2dﬁle.p2d”
FilteringOption
†
CE simulation option of pre / post ﬁltering envelope frequencies relative to nonlinearity.
Enumerated options are {NoFilter, PreFilter, PostFilter}.
NoFilter
CEFreqSpacing
†
Sampling frequency used for envelope simulation. Hz 1.0 MHz
iVarN
#
Name of Nth multidimensional variables N={1,...,N}. Use if present in P2D ﬁle.
iValN
#
Value of Nth multidimensional variables N={1,...,N}. Use real or integer values only.
ImpNoncausalLen
gth
Noncausal function impulse response order.
ImpMode Convolution mode.
ImpMaxFreq Maximum frequency to which device is evaluated.
Must be a positive real number if speciﬁed.
Hz
ImpMaxOrder Maximum allowed impulse response order.
Must be a positive integer if speciﬁed.
ImpWindow Smoothing window.
Must be a positive integer if speciﬁed.
ImpRelTol Relative impulse response truncation factor.
Must be a positive real number if speciﬁed.
ImpAbsTol Absolute impulse response truncation factor.
Must be a positive real number if speciﬁed.
†
The FilteringOption and CEFreqSpacing parameters are provided (beginning with 2003C) to enhance circuit envelope simulation
capabilities; refer to note 8 and note 10 for details. The default values suppress effects of FilteringOption and CEFreqSpacing
parameters to ensure backwards compatibility. CEFreqSpacing is the equivalent of ImpDeltaFreq in AmpliﬁerS2D with the restriction
that it must always have an assigned value in AmpliﬁerP2D.
#
If multidimensional VAR statements are present in the P2DFile, then these variables are required to be listed in iVarN as
indicated in note 12 and corresponding values assigned to them using the iValN parameter.
AmpliﬁerP2D (P2D File Ampliﬁer; FDDBased, for Single Carrier Signal) 89
1. Ampliﬁer P2D is a dat abased syst em model of a cir cuit level ampliﬁer. The
cir cuit level ampliﬁer is char act er ized by a P2D ﬁle gener at ed eit her by t he
ext r act or component Ampliﬁer P2D_Set up in a simulat ion envir onment or by a
measur ement inst r ument such as a net wor k analyzer. Var ious examples of t he
use of t he Ampliﬁer P2D dat a model ar e pr ovided in t he example pr oject
AmpP2D_prj.
2. A P2D ﬁle, named *.p2d, cont ains small and lar gesignal 2por t Spar amet er
dat a wit h opt ional noise par amet er s and int er modulat ion t able dat a. The
Ampliﬁer P2D model only uses dat a r elat ed t o ampliﬁer modeling; it ignor es
fr equency t r anslat ion and int er modulat ion t able dat a t hat may be cont ained in
a gener ic P2D ﬁle. The r efer enced P2D ﬁle should r eside in t he dat a
subdir ect or y of t he cur r ent pr oject . For det ails on P2D ﬁle for mat , r efer t o t he
“P2D For mat ” sect ion in t he Circuit S imulation manual.
3. The Ampliﬁer P2D model blocks DC. For CE simulat ions, baseband signals ar e
blocked.
4. For smallsignal simulat ions such as AC and Spar amet er analyses,
Ampliﬁer P2D only uses t he smallsignal Spar amet er s of t he P2D ﬁle. For
Spar amet er analysis, t he nominal fr equency must be set as Fr eq=freq, wher e
freq is t he ambient simulat ion fr equency. If t he Fr eq par amet er value falls
out side t he r ange of fr equencies in t he smallsignal sect ion of t he P2D ﬁle, an
er r or message is r epor t ed in t he simulat or log window and t he is simulat ion
t er minat ed. Linear int er polat ion of Spar amet er s is per for med wit hin t he
smallsignal r ange t o emulat e behavior at a fr equency not explicit ly r egist er ed
in t he dat a ﬁle. Linear ext r apolat ion is enabled but not r ecommended out side
t he smallsignal fr equency r ange because modeling accur acy cannot be
guar ant eed out side t he dat a point s of t he P2D ﬁle.
5. For lar gesignal fr equency analysis such as t hose based on Har monic Balance,
t he powerdependent Spar amet er s fr om t he ACDATA block ar e used in
conjunct ion wit h smallsignal par amet er s. For t hese simulat ions, Fr eq must be
set t o t he fundament al fr equency explicit ly or t hr ough t he pr edeﬁned var iable
_freq1. Set t ing Fr eq=freq causes er r or s. For an Nt one Har monic Balance
simulat ion any of N fr equencies speciﬁed on t he cont r oller may be chosen as
nominal fr equency for t he Ampliﬁer P2D component by set t ing Fr eq=_freqX,
wher e X is in t he int eger r ange [1, N].
6. If t he Fr eq par amet er value falls out side t he r ange of fr equencies in t he
lar gesignal sect ion of t he P2D ﬁle, a war ning message is r epor t ed in t he
simulat or log window alt hough t he simulat ion is allowed t o pr oceed. Linear
810 AmpliﬁerP2D (P2D File Ampliﬁer; FDDBased, for Single Carrier Signal)
System Data Models
int er polat ion along t he fr equency axis is per mit t ed wit hin t he small and
lar gesignal r ange but ext r apolat ion is not advised on eit her side of t he
lar gesignal limit s because of insufﬁcient dat a. It is impor t ant t o scan t he
simulat or log window at t he end of any lar gesignal simulat ion involving t he
Ampliﬁer P2D component t o ensur e t hat fr equency limit s wer e not exceeded.
7. If t he power incident at t he input of t he ampliﬁer model dur ing lar gesignal
fr equency domain analyses, such as Har monic Balance, LSSP or Cir cuit
Envelope simulat ions, exceeds t he maximum value of P1 in t he P2D ﬁle a
war ning message is sent t he simulat or log window concer ning unsuppor t ed
modeling at high dr ive levels.
8. The Filt er ingOpt ion par amet er allows t he user t o r egulat e modeling of
dist or t ion effect s at t he fundament al fr equency due t o ot her fr equencies wit hin
t he envelope bandwidt h dur ing a cir cuit envelope simulat ion. Some har monics
and int er mods pr oduced by t he nonfundament al t ones wit hin t he CEband
cont r ibut e t o t he dist or t ion of t he fundament al t one at t he out put of t he
ampliﬁer for high dr ive levels at t he input . In t he design of complex cir cuit level
ampliﬁer s t his dist or t ion is eit her r egulat ed at t he ampliﬁer input or out put
using a nar r owband ﬁlt er. In or der t o imit at e t his feat ur e dur ing behavior al
simulat ion Ampliﬁer P2D enables t he user t o set t he Filt er ingOpt ion par amet er
t o PreFilter or PostFilter so t hat appr opr iat e ﬁlt er ing effect s can be modeled
wit hout changing t he P2D dat a ﬁle. It is useful t o per for m such CEband
dist or t ion evaluat ion for cer t ain applicat ions (communicat ions syst ems, for
example). The NoFilter default set t ing suppr esses est imat ion of envelope
bandwidt h dist or t ion at t he nominal fr equency Fr eq; t his set t ing is sufﬁcient
for all nonCE simulat ions.
9. The PreFilter or PostFilter opt ion is for use dur ing cir cuit envelope simulat ions
only. Pr eﬁlt er ing of nonfundament al fr equencies r educes t he pot ent ial of
dist or t ion close t o power sat ur at ion of t he fundament al fr equency at t he out put ;
post ﬁlt er ing allows maximal nonlinear dist or t ion t o occur at ampliﬁer out put .
Maximally ﬂat ﬁlt er ing is assumed acr oss t he ent ir e envelope bandwidt h. This
dist or t ion modeling feat ur e is highlight ed in t he example design
BEH_P2D_CE_ﬁlter.dsn.
10. The CEFreqS pacing par amet er is used t o select t he gr anular it y of envelope
band fr equencies t hat ar e allowed t o impact t he dist or t ion of t he fundament al
fr equency at ampliﬁer out put . Ther e is an inher ent per for mance t r adeoff in
using t his par amet er : t he smaller it s value t he mor e accur at e t he simulat ion
but t he longer t he dur at ion of t he CE simulat ion. If ﬁlt er ing is enabled and
CEFreqS pacing exceeds half t he value of Fr eq a war ning message is r epor t ed t o
AmpliﬁerP2D (P2D File Ampliﬁer; FDDBased, for Single Carrier Signal) 811
t he simulat ion log window and simulat ion pr oceeds wit hout t he use of ﬁlt er ing
due t o violat ion of t he Nyquist sampling r equir ement for CEFreqS pacing. The
r ecommended value for CEFreqS pacing is 10
3
× (value assigned t o Fr eq). This
feat ur e is highlight ed in t he example design BEH_P2D_CE_sample.dsn.
11. Ampliﬁer P2D is implement ed using t he FDD model. Unlike t he SML models
Ampliﬁer and Ampliﬁer 2 or t he VME model Ampliﬁer S2D, Ampliﬁer P2D does
not pr oduce har monics or int er mods in a Har monic Balance simulat ion.
In a Har monic Balance analysis, t he only fr equency component t hat can pass
t hr ough Ampliﬁer P2D is t hat speciﬁed by Fr eq. Signals at all ot her fr equencies
will see a gr ound at t he input of Ampliﬁer P2D. However, in a Cir cuit Envelope
simulat ion, t he envelope signal ar ound t he car r ier fr equency Fr eq will pass
t hr ough Ampliﬁer P2D and cause dist or t ion at t he fundament al Fr eq, wher eas
all signals out side t he envelope band ar e ignor ed.
To simulat e mult it one behavior involving har monic modeling, consider using
t he AmpH1H2 or Ampliﬁer S2D models.
12. The r esponse of Ampliﬁer P2D can be userselect ed fr om a body of
mult idimensional P2D dat a by specifying t he names and ambient values of
such var iables in t he iVarN and iValN ent r ies pr ior t o behavior al simulat ion.
Det ails of mult idimensional P2D ﬁle gener at ion ar e discussed in t he not es for
AmpliﬁerP2D_S etup component and t he for mat of t hese ﬁles is descr ibed in
Chapt er 4 of t he Circuit S imulation manual. If a given mult idimensional P2D
ﬁle cont ains “V” VAR var iables t hen t he names of all t hese var iables need t o be
assigned using t he iVar1 t hr ough iVarV par amet er s of t he Ampliﬁer P2D
inst ance. Alt hough t he or der ing of t hese names can be ar bit r ar y r elat ive t o
t hose in t he P2D ﬁle, t he exist ence and or der ing of values in t he iVal1 t hr ough
iValV par amet er s should always cor r espond t o t hat of iVar1 t hr ough iVarV. If a
mult idimensional VAR cont ained in t he P2D dat a ﬁle is not speciﬁed on t he
iVarN of an Ampliﬁer P2D inst ance r eading t hat ﬁle, t he simulat ion will be
t er minat ed on due t o insufﬁcient dat a for mult idimensional dat a indexing.
Cur r ent ly, only r eal and int eger values of mult idimensional iVarN ar e
suppor t ed.
812 AmpliﬁerP2D_Setup (Extractor Component for AmpliﬁerP2D)
System Data Models
AmpliﬁerP2D_Setup (Extractor Component for AmpliﬁerP2D)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Name Description Unit Default
Filename Name of P2D ﬁle to be generated by extractor “p2dﬁle.p2d”
Order Order for Harmonic Balance simulation inside extractor.
Must be an integer greater than 0.
10
Freq_Start Start value for sweep of largesignal frequencies.
Must be a positive real number.
Hz 1.0 GHz
Freq_Stop Stop value for sweep of largesignal frequencies.
Must be a positive real number.
Hz 2.5 GHz
Freq_Step
†
Interval for linear sweep of largesignal frequencies.
Must be a positive real number.
Hz 0.5 GHz
Pin_Start Start value for sweep of largesignal input power.
Must be a real number.
dBm 10 _dBm
Pin_Stop Stop value for sweep of largesignal input power.
Must be a real number.
dBm 15 _dBm
Pin_Step
†
Interval for linear sweep of largesignal input power.
Must be a positive real number.
dB 5 _dB
SSFreq_Start
††
Start value for sweep of smallsignal frequencies.
Must be a positive real number if speciﬁed.
Hz
SSFreq_Stop
††
Stop value for sweep of smallsignal frequencies.
Must be a positive real number if speciﬁed.
Hz
SSFreq_Step
†
,
††
Interval for linear sweep of smallsignal frequencies.
Must be a positive real number if speciﬁed.
Hz
† Only linear sweeps using intervals of Freq_Step, Pin_Step, SSFreq_Step are permitted frequency and power extractions using the
AmpliﬁerP2D_extractor.
†† Smallsignal frequency settings, if left unspeciﬁed, will default to largesignal frequency speciﬁcations. The default behavior of this
component is to enforce SSFreq_Start <= Freq_Start, SSFreq_Stop >= Freq_Stop and SSFreq_Step <= Freq_Step. Violations of this will
result in internal correction with warning messages being reported to the simulator log window. Refer to note 4 for modifying this default
behavior.
AmpliﬁerP2D_Setup (Extractor Component for AmpliﬁerP2D) 813
Notes/Equations
1. Ampliﬁer P2D_Set up is a dat a ﬁle ext r act or component used t o cr eat e
mult idimensional behavior al pr oﬁles of a cir cuit level ampliﬁer in t he P2D
for mat . The use of t his component is highlight ed in t he design
CKT_P2D_extraction.dsn of t he example pr oject AmpP2D_prj.
2. Ampliﬁer P2D_Set up can be pushed int o for a view of t he implement at ion. If
necessar y, t he component can be copied and modiﬁed t o suit individual needs.
3. Ampliﬁer P2D_Set up per for ms a linear swept input fr equency over linear swept
input power P2D (Har monic Balance) simulat ion of a cir cuit level ampliﬁer and
gener at es a P2D ﬁle for subsequent use by t he dat abased syst em model
Ampliﬁer P2D. The Freq_ and Pin_ par amet er s r egulat e t he lar gesignal
fr equency and input power sweeps, r espect ively.
4. The smallsignal fr equency sweep can be speciﬁed independent ly of t he lar ge
signal fr equency sweep using S S Freq_ par amet er s. When unspeciﬁed, t hese
values int er nally default t o lar gesignal values. When speciﬁed in violat ion of
t he r ule t hat SSFr eq_St ar t <= Fr eq_St ar t , SSFr eq_St op >= Fr eq_St op and
SSFr eq_St ep <= Fr eq_St ep, t his r ule is imposed int er nally dur ing simulat ion
and war ning messages appear in t he simulat or log window. This ensur es t he
smallsignal fr equency sweep spans t he lar gesignal fr equency sweep and is at
least as ﬁnely gr ained. This is t he coar sest gr anular it y for r eliable modeling
using t he Ampliﬁer P2D dat a model.
5. In or der for Ampliﬁer P2D t o pr oduce an accur at e model of t he cir cuit level
ampliﬁer char act er ized via Ampliﬁer P2D_Set up, t he Or der par amet er for
Ampliﬁer P2D_Set up must be lar ge enough t o pr event aliasing of higheror der
fr equency component s. Because t he Ampliﬁer P2D dat a model r eads and
oper at es pr imar ily on it s assigned fundament al fr equency, it is impor t ant t o
pr ovide an accur at e est imat e of t he fundament al r esponse at t he cir cuit level
ampliﬁer out put . Ther efor e, it is impor t ant t o use a lar ge or der of har monics in
Ampliﬁer P2D_Set up t o r econst r uct t he fundament al accur at ely dur ing dat a
modeling. The r ecommended value is 5 for mildly nonlinear cir cuit s and 1115
for highly nonlinear cir cuit s.
6. For infor mat ion r egar ding t he P2D dat a for mat , r efer t o t he “P2D For mat ”
sect ion in t he Circuit S imulation manual. Mult idimensional P2D ﬁles may be
gener at ed by simply placing a chain of ParamS weep cont r oller s above t he
Ampliﬁer P2D_Set up inst ance and assigning t he lowest sweep t o have
SimInst ance[1]=“Xi1.HB” wher e “Xi” is t he inst ance name of t he P2D ext r act or
and HB1 is t he default name of t he P2D cont r oller wit hin it s subcir cuit .
814 AmpliﬁerS2D (S2D File Ampliﬁer, Polynominal Model for Nonlinearity)
System Data Models
AmpliﬁerS2D (S2D File Ampliﬁer, Polynominal Model for Nonlinearity)
Symbols:
Available in ADS
Parameters
Name Description Unit Default
S2DFile
Filename for S2D data. Enumerated as {S2D ﬁlename, File Based}
†
“s2dﬁle.s2d”
SSFreq Small signal frequency for interpolating Sparameters. Enumerated as {auto, freq, _freq1,
_freq2, _freq3}.
auto††
InterpMode Interpolation mode. Enumerated as {Linear, Cubic Spline, Cubic, Value Lookup, .... , Value} Linear
InterpDom Interpolation geometry. Enumerated as {Data Based, Rectangular, Polar, DB} Data Based
GCFreq ††† Reference frequency for gain compression.
Must be a positive real number if speciﬁed.
Hz
VarName
#
Name of 1st multidimensional variable. Use if present in S2D ﬁle.
VarValue
#
Value of 1st multidimensional variable. Use real or integer values only.
iVarN
#
Name of Nth multidimensional variables N={2,...,N}. Use if present in S2D ﬁle.
iValN
#
Value of Nth multidimensional variables N={2,...,N}. Use real or integer values only.
ImpNoncausalLength ‡ Noncausal function impulse response order.
ImpMode ‡ Convolution mode.
ImpMaxFreq ‡ Maximum frequency to which device is evaluated.
Must be a positive real number if speciﬁed.
Hz
ImpDeltaFreq ‡ Sample spacing in frequency. Hz
ImpMaxOrder ‡ Maximum allowed impulse response order.
Must be a positive integer if speciﬁed.
ImpWindow ‡ Smoothing window.
Must be a positive integer if speciﬁed.
ImpRelTol ‡ Relative impulse response truncation factor.
Must be a positive real number if speciﬁed.
AmpliﬁerS2D (S2D File Ampliﬁer, Polynominal Model for Nonlinearity) 815
Range of Usage
S2D gain compr ession valid par amet er r anges:
GCOMP3: IP3 > 1DBC + 10.6
GCOMP4: IP3 > PS + 8.6
GCOMP5: PS > 1DBC + 3
GCOMP6: PS > 1DBC + 3, IP3 > 1DBC + 10.6
Notes/Equations
1. Ampliﬁer S2D is a dat abased behavior al model t hat can r epr esent fundament al
t one(s), oddor der har monics and oddor der int er modulat ion pr oduct s of a
cir cuit level ampliﬁer. This model accept s S2D dat a pr oﬁles which can be
gener at ed using t he Ampliﬁer S2D_Set up component as shown in t he design
CKT_S 2D_extraction.dsn in t he example pr oject AmpS 2D_prj. Var ious
examples of t he use of Ampliﬁer S2D ar e also pr ovided in t his pr oject .
2. An S2D ﬁle, named *.s2d, cont ains smallsignal 2por t Spar amet er dat a wit h
opt ional noise par amet er s. In addit ion, it cont ains smallsignal Spar amet er
dat a blocks, noise dat a blocks, and one of seven possible gain compr ession
blocks {GCOMP1, ... , GCOMP7}. For infor mat ion r egar ding t he small or
lar gesignal Spar amet er *.s2d dat a for mat , r efer t o t he “S2D For mat ” sect ion
in t he Circuit S imulation manual. The Ampliﬁer S2D model only uses dat a
r elat ed t o ampliﬁer modeling; it ignor es fr equency t r anslat ion dat a t hat may be
cont ained in a gener ic S2D ﬁle. The r efer enced S2D ﬁle should r eside in t he
dat a subdir ect or y of t he cur r ent pr oject . The Ampliﬁer S2D_Set up ext r act or
model can be used t o aut omat ically gener at e S2D ﬁles.
ImpAbsTol ‡ Absolute impulse response truncation factor.
Must be a positive real number if speciﬁed.
† The “S2D Filename” option allows the entry of an S2D ﬁle directly. The “File Based” option enables the use of a
DataAccessComponent (DAC) for reading in nonS2D ﬁle based data.
†† Implies “_freq1” for nonDC part of HB/CE/LSSP simulations. It implies “freq” for all other simulations. For multitone simulations
setting SSFreq=_freq1 explicitly gives better results. In general “_freqX” allows the speciﬁcation of any one of the X tones in an Xtone
Harmonic Balance simulation, e.g. selecting SSFreq=_freq2 sets the smallsignal frequency of interest to be the second tone of a 2+ tone
HB simulation.
††† If manually speciﬁed, this frequency must explicitly exist in the S2D ﬁle. No interpolation or extrapolation is done along frequency
axis for estimating compression characteristics.
‡ These parameters are also used as speciﬁcations for the Ampliﬁer and Ampliﬁer2 components.
# If multidimensional VAR statements are present in the S2DFile, then these variables are required to be listed in iVarN as
indicated in note 8 and corresponding values assigned to them using the iValN parameter. Note that VarName and VarValue
serve as iVar1 and iVal1 respectively because of historical reasons.
Name Description Unit Default
816 AmpliﬁerS2D (S2D File Ampliﬁer, Polynominal Model for Nonlinearity)
System Data Models
3. The Ampliﬁer S2D model blocks DC. For CE simulat ions, baseband signals ar e
blocked.
4. For small signal simulat ions such as AC and Spar amet er analyses,
Ampliﬁer S2D uses only t he small signal ACDATA sect ion of t he S2D ﬁle. For
small signal simulat ions S S Freq is effect ively set t o freq int er nally r egar dless of
user deﬁned enumer at ion. The GCFreq par amet er has no effect on small signal
simulat ions and may be left unassigned.
For lar ge signal simulat ions, S S Freq may be deﬁned using any of t he ﬁve
possible enumer at ions wit h t he following effect s:
• S S Freq = auto implies ﬁr st HB/Envelope t one. This implies t hat t he
r efer ence value for small signal Spar amet er s is ﬁxed at t he 2 por t values for
_freq1 r egar dless of t he oper at ional compr ession fr equency GCFreq. This is
t he desir able set t ing for single t one HB/Envelope simulat ions.
• S S Freq = freq implies t hat t he ampliﬁer will be sensit ive t o small signal
values based on individual input t ones. This set t ing is desir able for
mult it one HB / Envelope analyses.
• S S Freq = _freqN, N={1,2,3}, pr ovides a special pr ovision allowing you t o
select t he small signal value at t he ﬁr st , second, or t hir d HB/Envelope t one
on ﬁle as t he r efer ence for all incoming t ones in a gener ic HB simulat ion.
Note Leaving t he default value of S S Freq=auto enables t he Ampliﬁer S2D
inst ance t o funct ion adequat ely and convenient ly for small signal SP/AC as well
as single t one HB/Envelope simulat ions. For mult it one lar ge signal
simulat ions, S S Freq should be set t o freq t o allow small signal fr equency
sensit ivit y.
5. For lar gesignal fr equency analysis such as t hose based on Har monic Balance,
t he smallsignal Spar amet er s ar e used in conjunct ion wit h gain compr ession
infor mat ion in t he GCOMPx block. Only oddor der har monics ar e modeled
dur ing such lar gesignal simulat ions because infor mat ion about evenor der
har monics cannot be der ived fr om t he GCOMPx speciﬁcat ion.
6. If gain compr ession infor mat ion is pr esent ed in t he GCOMP7 for mat at
mult iple fr equencies, t he Ampliﬁer S2D GCFreq par amet er must be assigned t o
one of t he explicit ly deﬁned lar gesignal fr equencies of t he *.s2d ﬁle. The dat a
model does not int er polat e acr oss lar gesignal fr equencies so any violat ion of
t his r equir ement will r esult in t er minat ion of t he simulat ion. This model
AmpliﬁerS2D (S2D File Ampliﬁer, Polynominal Model for Nonlinearity) 817
r esolves conﬂict s bet ween userassigned GCFreq values and lar gesignal
fr equency point s in GCOMP7based S2D ﬁles as shown in Table 82.
7. For good per for mance using Ampliﬁer S2D, include mult iple GCOMP7 blocks at
closelyspaced fr equencies.
8. Ampliﬁer S2D can access mult idimensional S2D ﬁles as shown in
BEH_S 2D_HB_1tone.dsn of t he example pr oject AmpS 2D_prj. Pr evious
ver sions of t his component r equir ed a DataAccessComponent (DAC) for
accessing mult idimensional dat a. A DAC is no longer necessar y t o access S2D
dat a fr om a single ﬁle. Please not e t hat mult iple S2D ﬁles cannot be fed t o t he
same Ampliﬁer S2D component in t he cour se of a single simulat ion. When S2D
dat a is available in mult iple ﬁles, consolidat e t he S2D dat a int o one ﬁle and use
t his mast er ﬁle as t he input t o Ampliﬁer S2D. Relevant sect ions of t his new ﬁle
can now be convenient ly accessed using t he VarName, VarValue and iVar2,
iVal2 t hr ough iVar10 and iVal10 par amet er s of t he component . Aut omat ic
mult idimensional S2D ﬁle gener at ion is facilit at ed by using t he
Ampliﬁer S2D_Set up component .
9. The S21 values expr essed in t he GCOMP7 block ar e not absolut e values of S21
at t he var ious input power PIN levels. They ar e differ ent ial values in dB
domain bet ween powerswept Spar amet er s at t he fr equency of t he GCOMP7
block and t he smallsignal Spar amet er s at t he same fr equency in t he ACDATA
Table 82. Using GCFr eq t o Resolve GCOMP7 Fr equency Conﬂict s
Number of
GCOMP7
blocks
Large signal
frequencies
(s2dfreq) speciﬁed
in S2D ﬁle?
GCFreq
speciﬁed on
AmpliﬁerS2D?
GCFreq = one
s2dfreq? Simulation Result. Compression data used at ...
0 N/A any N/A N/A
1 no no N/A simulation frequency
yes N/A GCFreq
yes no N/A s2dfreq
yes no N/A. Simulation terminated with error message.
yes GCFreq = s2dfreq
> 1 no no N/A simulation frequency
yes N/A GCFreq. Use ﬁrst available power sweep from GCOMP7
yes no N/A N/A. Simulation terminated with error message.
yes no N/A. Simulation terminated with error message.
yes GCFreq = s2dfreq
818 AmpliﬁerS2D (S2D File Ampliﬁer, Polynominal Model for Nonlinearity)
System Data Models
block of t he *.s2d ﬁle. The for mat s in which ACDATA and GCOMP7 dat a ar e
r epr esent ed in t he same ﬁle may differ and may be in any of t he for ms DB / MA
/ RI. When calculat ing GCOMP7 values manually, exer cise car e t o conver t
absolut e values of bot h lar ge and smallsignal Spar amet er s t o t he dB domain
befor e subt r act ing t he smallsignal Spar amet er s fr om t he lar gesignal
Spar amet er s t o obt ain t he numer ic values in t he GCOMP7 sect ion.
10. Ampliﬁer S2D is implement ed using t he SML Ampliﬁer model. However, t he
gain compr ession infor mat ion available via an S2D ﬁle is limit ed t o t he for war d
t r ansmission char act er ist ic deﬁned by S21. If an applicat ion r equir es t he
knowledge and use of all four 2por t Spar amet er var iat ions but not t he use of
har monics, consider using t he Ampliﬁer P2D model. If evenor der har monics
must be modeled but sweeps of fr equency ar e not r equir ed, consider using t he
AmpH1H2 model inst ead.
AmpliﬁerS2D_Setup (Extractor Component for AmpliﬁerS2D) 819
AmpliﬁerS2D_Setup (Extractor Component for AmpliﬁerS2D)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Name Description Unit Default
Filename Name of S2D ﬁle to be generated by extractor “s2dﬁle.s2d”
Order Order for Harmonic Balance simulation inside extractor.
Must be an integer greater than 0.
10
Freq_Start Start value for sweep of largesignal frequencies.
Must be a positive real number.
Hz 1.0 GHz
Freq_Stop Stop value for sweep of largesignal frequencies.
Must be a positive real number.
Hz 2.5 GHz
Freq_Step
†
Interval for linear sweep of largesignal frequencies.
Must be a positive real number.
Hz 0.5 GHz
Pin_Start Start value for sweep of largesignal input power.
Must be a real number.
dBm 10 _dBm
Pin_Stop Stop value for sweep of largesignal input power.
Must be a real number.
dBm 15 _dBm
Pin_Step
†
Interval for linear sweep of largesignal input power.
Must be a positive real number.
dB 5 _dB
SSFreq_Start
††
Start value for sweep of smallsignal frequencies.
Must be a positive real number if speciﬁed.
Hz
SSFreq_Stop
††
Stop value for sweep of smallsignal frequencies.
Must be a positive real number if speciﬁed.
Hz
SSFreq_Step
†
,
††
Interval for linear sweep of smallsignal frequencies.
Must be a positive real number if speciﬁed.
Hz
† Only linear sweeps using intervals of Freq_Step, Pin_Step, SSFreq_Step are permitted frequency and power extractions using the
AmpliﬁerP2D_extractor.
†† Smallsignal frequency settings, if left unspeciﬁed, will default to largesignal frequency speciﬁcations. The default behavior of this
component is to enforce SSFreq_Start <= Freq_Start, SSFreq_Stop >= Freq_Stop and SSFreq_Step <= Freq_Step. Violations of this will
result in internal correction with warning messages being reported to the simulator log window. Refer to note 4 for modifying this default
behavior.
820 AmpliﬁerS2D_Setup (Extractor Component for AmpliﬁerS2D)
System Data Models
Notes/Equations
1. Ampliﬁer S2D_Set up is a dat a ﬁle ext r act or component used t o cr eat e
mult idimensional behavior al pr oﬁles of a cir cuit level ampliﬁer in t he S2D
GCOMP7 for mat . The use of t his component is highlight ed in t he design
CKT_S 2D_extraction.dsn of t he example pr oject AmpS 2D_prj.
2. Ampliﬁer S2D_Set up can be pushed int o for a view of t he implement at ion. If
necessar y, t he component can be copied and modiﬁed t o suit individual needs.
3. Ampliﬁer S2D_Set up per for ms a linear swept input fr equency over linear swept
input power P2D (Har monic Balance) simulat ion of a cir cuit level ampliﬁer and
gener at es an S2D ﬁle for subsequent use by t he dat abased syst em model
Ampliﬁer P2D. The Freq_ and Pin_ par amet er s r egulat e t he lar gesignal
fr equency and input power sweeps, r espect ively. The power sweep is r egist er ed
in t he GCOMP7 for mat .
4. The smallsignal fr equency sweep can be speciﬁed independent ly of t he lar ge
signal fr equency sweep using S S Freq_ par amet er s. When unspeciﬁed, t hese
values int er nally default t o lar gesignal values. When speciﬁed in violat ion of
t he r ule t hat S S Freq_S tart <= Freq_S tart, S S Freq_S top >= Freq_S top and
S S Freq_S tep <= Freq_S tep, t his r ule is imposed int er nally dur ing simulat ion
and war ning messages appear in t he simulat or log window. This ensur es t he
smallsignal fr equency sweep spans t he lar gesignal fr equency sweep and is at
least as ﬁnely gr ained. This is t he coar sest gr anular it y for r eliable modeling
using t he Ampliﬁer S2D dat a model.
5. In or der for Ampliﬁer S2D t o pr oduce an accur at e model of t he cir cuit level
ampliﬁer char act er ized via Ampliﬁer S2D_Set up, t he Or der par amet er for
Ampliﬁer S2D_Set up must be lar ge enough t o pr event aliasing of higheror der
fr equency component s. Because t he Ampliﬁer S2D dat a model r eads and
oper at es pr imar ily on it s assigned fundament al fr equency, and uses t his
fr equency t o cr eat e oddor der har monics at t he out put , it is impor t ant t o
pr ovide an accur at e est imat e of t he fundament al r esponse at t he cir cuit level
ampliﬁer out put . Ther efor e, it is impor t ant t o use a lar ge or der of har monics in
Ampliﬁer S2D_Set up t o r econst r uct t he fundament al accur at ely dur ing dat a
modeling. The r ecommended value is 5 for mildly nonlinear cir cuit s and 1115
for highly nonlinear cir cuit s.
AmpliﬁerS2D_Setup (Extractor Component for AmpliﬁerS2D) 821
6. For infor mat ion r egar ding t he S2D dat a for mat , r efer t o t he “S2D For mat ”
sect ion in t he Circuit S imulation manual. Mult idimensional S2D ﬁles may be
gener at ed by simply placing a chain of ParamS weep cont r oller s above t he
Ampliﬁer S2D_Set up inst ance and assigning t he lowest sweep t o have
S imInstance[1]=”Xi.HB1”wher e “Xi” is t he inst ance name of t he S2D ext r act or
and HB1 is t he default name of t he P2D cont r oller wit hin it s subcir cuit .
822 AmpLoadPull (SDD LoadPull Ampliﬁer)
System Data Models
AmpLoadPull (SDD LoadPull Ampliﬁer)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Notes/Equations
1. For ampliﬁer designer s, t he AmpLoadPull and LoadPullSet up component s
addr ess t he issue of out put mat ch in one or mor e fr equency bands. This is oft en
invest igat ed via loadpull cont our s indicat ing t he load impedances, which,
when pr esent ed t o t he out put of an ampliﬁer wit h a given sour ce impedance
and power, cause a cer t ain power t o be deliver ed t o t he load. The LoadPullSet up
component ext r act s a dat aset , given r anges and st eps for input power, out put
r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient magnit ude and out put r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient angle.
AmpLoadPull uses t his dat aset and allows fast behavior al ampliﬁer
simulat ions for all input power and out put r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient values in t he
speciﬁed r anges.
2. This ampliﬁer model uses t he loadpull ADS dat aset gener at ed by t he
LoadPullSet up component . This behavior al pr oﬁle can be r efer enced using t he
Dat aset par amet er of t he AmpLoadPull component .
3. AmpLoadPull is useful in modeling nonlinear ampliﬁer s wit h or wit hout
input /out put mat ching net wor ks. This model can be used in all t ypes of
simulat ions.
4. When using t his model in ot her simulat ions, ensur e t he input power and t he
load value ar e wit hin t he r ange of t he or iginal dat a.
5. The use of t his device and it s ext r act or component is highlight ed in t he example
pr oject AmpLoadPull_prj.
Name Description Unit Default
Dataset
†
Name of dataset containing loadpull data for this ampliﬁer model. “dataset.ds“
†
Filebased data is also supported via use of the DataAccessComponent.
AmpLoadPull (SDD LoadPull Ampliﬁer) 823
6. This model does not gener at e har monics, and it s per for mance is not affect ed by
t he sour ce or load impedances pr esent ed t o it at t he har monic fr equencies.
824 Balun3Port (Balun, 3port)
System Data Models
Balun3Port (Balun, 3port)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
None
Notes/Equations
1. Balun3Por t r ealizes t he ideal t r ansfor mat ion bet ween a balanced
differ ent ialmode signal and unbalanced, singleended signals. It can be useful
t o connect a sour ce t o a differ ent ially fed cir cuit , alt hough it does ignor e
commonmode effect s.
2. Balun3Por t r ealizes t he volt age and cur r ent t r ansfor mat ions given by:
v
d
= v
+
 v

i
+
= i

= i
d
wher e
v
d
/i
d
= t he differ ent ial mode volt age/cur r ent at pin d
v
+
/i
+
= t he single line volt age/cur r ent at pin +
v

/i

= t he single line volt age/cur r ent at pin 
See P.R. Gr ay and R.G. Meyer, “Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated
Circuits,” Thir d Edit ion, J ohn Wiley & Sons, NY, 1993, equat ions 3.91 & 3.92.
The minus signs in t he cur r ent deﬁnit ions ar e due t o t he st andar d deﬁnit ion of
cur r ent s dir ect ed into t he Balun3Por t component .
3. An equivalent funct ionalit y can be r ealized wit h a Balun4Por t t hat has t he
commonmode pin gr ounded. However, t he Balun3Por t pr ovides bet t er
conver gence pr oper t ies.
4. Balun3Por t is bidir ect ional. When fed at t he differ ent ialmode pin, it r ealizes
t he t r ansfor mat ions:
Balun3Port (Balun, 3port) 825
v
+
= v

= (v
d
)/2
i
+
=  i

= i
d
5. Examples of using Balun3Por t t o conver t bet ween (unbalanced) ADS sour ces
and balanced cir cuit s ar e pr ovided in t he ADS examples dir ect or y; access t hese
examples fr om t he ADS Main window > File > Example Project.
• RFIC > MixerDiffMode_prj demonst r at es t he use of Balun4Por t t o pr esent
differ ent ialmode sour ces (as well as common mode biases) t o t he RF and LO
input s. It also shows t he use of Balun3Por t t o singleended
(differ ent ialmode) IF out put , which is needed t o pr oper ly calculat e t he noise
ﬁgur e.
• BehavioralModels > DifferentialModels_prj demonst r at es t he use of
Balun3Por t and Balun4Por t in conjunct ion wit h singleended Syst emDat a
Models in or der t o cr eat e a dat abased behavior al model of a differ ent ially fed
mixer.
826 Balun4Port (Balun, 4port)
System Data Models
Balun4Port (Balun, 4port)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
None
Notes/Equations
1. Balun4Por t r ealizes t he ideal t r ansfor mat ion bet ween balanced (differ ent ial
and commonmode) signals and unbalanced (singleended) signals. It can be
used t o connect sour ces t o a differ ent ially fed cir cuit , par t icular ly when
modeling commonmode effect s ar e impor t ant .
2. Balun4Por t r ealizes volt age and cur r ent t r ansfor mat ions given by:
v
d
= v
+
 v

v
c
= (v
+
+ v

)/2
i
d
= (i
+
 i

)/2
i
c
= (i
+
+ i

)
wher e
v
d
/i
d
= differ ent ial mode volt age/cur r ent at pin d
v
c
/i
c
= common mode volt age/cur r ent at pin c
v
+
/i
+
= single line volt age/cur r ent at pin +
v

/i

= single line volt age/cur r ent at pin 
See P.R. Gr ay and R.G. Meyer, “Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated
Circuits,” Thir d Edit ion, J ohn Wiley & Sons, NY, 1993, equat ions 3.91 & 3.92.
The minus signs in t he cur r ent deﬁnit ions ar e due t o t he st andar d deﬁnit ion of
cur r ent s dir ect ed into t he Balun4Por t component .
3. Balun4Por t is bidir ect ional. It conver t s common/differ ent ialmode signals int o
t wo singleended signals, as well as conver t ing t wo singleended signals int o
common/differ ent ial mode signals.
Balun4Port (Balun, 4port) 827
4. If commonmode effect s ar e not desir ed, Balun3Por t pr ovides an equivalent , but
numer ically mor e r obust , r esult as gr ounding t he commonmode pin of
Balun4Por t .
5. Examples of using Balun4Por t t o conver t bet ween (unbalanced) ADS sour ces
and balanced cir cuit s ar e pr ovided in t he ADS examples dir ect or y; access t hese
examples fr om t he ADS Main window > File > Example Project.
• RFIC > MixerDiffMode_prj demonst r at es t he use of Balun4Por t t o pr esent
differ ent ialmode sour ces (as well as common mode biases) t o t he RF and LO
input s. It also shows t he use of Balun3Por t t o singleended
(differ ent ialmode) IF out put , which is needed t o pr oper ly calculat e t he noise
ﬁgur e.
• BehavioralModels > DifferentialModels_prj demonst r at es t he use of
Balun3Por t and Balun4Por t in conjunct ion wit h singleended Syst emDat a
Models in or der t o cr eat e a dat abased behavior al model of a differ ent ially fed
mixer.
828 IQ_Demod_Data (IQ Demodulator Behavioral Model)
System Data Models
IQ_Demod_Data (IQ Demodulator Behavioral Model)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Notes/Equations
1. IQ_Demod_Dat a is a dat abased syst em model of a cir cuit level I/Q
demodulat or. The cir cuit level demodulat or is char act er ized by a dat aset
gener at ed by t he syst em component IQ_Demod_Set up. The use of t his
component is highlight ed in t he example pr oject IQ_Demod_prj.
2. The demodulat ion behavior s ar e ext r act ed for a single car r ier fr equency. Only
t he demodulat ion dist or t ions ar e char act er ized, so it is possible t o set t he
fr equency par amet er in IQ_Demod_Dat a t o differ fr om t he value set in
IQ_Demod_Set up. The demodulat ion will occur at t he fr equency set in
IQ_Demod_Dat a. The ext r act ed dist or t ions t o t he baseband signal as it passes
t hr ough IQ_Demod_Dat a will be applied at t his fr equency. IQ_Demod_Dat a
does not model any disper sion in t hese dist or t ions acr oss t he baseband
bandwidt h.
3. IQ_Demod_Dat a is designed for Cir cuit Envelope syst em ver iﬁcat ion wher e
var ious ﬁlt er s t ypically eliminat e unwant ed fr equency component s. Ther efor e,
IQ_Demod_Dat a makes no at t empt t o model har monic component s. The signals
gener at ed on t he I and Q out put por t s ar e pur ely baseband signals.
IQ_Demod_Dat a does not gener at e any fr equency component s at any car r ier
fr equency.
4. In or der for IQ_Demod_Dat a t o pr oduce an accur at e model of t he cir cuit level
demodulat or char act er ized via IQ_Demod_Set up, t he IQ_Demod_Set up Or der
Name Description Unit Default
Dataset Name of dataset generated by IQ_Demod_Setup. “dataset.ds“
Freq Modulation carrier frequency.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Hz 1.0 GHz
IQ_Demod_Data (IQ Demodulator Behavioral Model) 829
par amet er must be lar ge enough t o pr event aliasing of higheror der fr equency
component s. For mildly nonlinear cir cuit s, an Or der of about 5 should sufﬁce,
while an Or der in t he r ange of 1015 is r ecommended for highly nonlinear
cir cuit s. Pr oviding t his cr it er ion is met , t he Or der par amet er for t he simulat ion
cont r oller can be ver y low when using IQ_Demod_Dat a in a Cir cuit Envelope
simulat ion. Typically, an Or der of ar ound 3 should sufﬁce for accur at e
demodulat ion modeling. Not e, however, t hat accur at e modeling of ot her
component s of t he complet e syst em may necessit at e a lar ger value for t his
par amet er.
5. For a cir cuit level demodulat or, t he impedances pr esent ed by t he input and
out put pins will gener ally be a complicat ed funct ion of all st at e var iables wit hin
t he demodulat or. For t he IQ_Demod_Dat a, a cer t ain simpliﬁcat ion is necessar y
as no infor mat ion about t he envir onment in which t he demodulat or will lat er
r eside is known at t he t ime of ext r act ion. The input impedance at t he RF input
pin is ext r act ed at t he RF car r ier fr equency speciﬁed in IQ_Demod_Set up, and
is a funct ion of t he input power. The impedances at t he I and Q out put pins ar e
ext r act ed at DC, and ar e modeled as const ant impedances.
6. The ext r apolat ion pr oper t ies of IQ_Demod_Dat a above PinSt op ar e ver y poor.
When using IQ_Demod_Dat a, ensur e t hat t he RF input signal does not exceed
t he Pin_S top value set in IQ_Demod_Set up when t he model was ext r act ed.
Ext r apolat ion t o signal levels below t he Pin_S tart value set in
IQ_Demod_Set up will gener ally be good as long as t he Pin_S tart value lies
wit hin t he linear oper at ing r ange of t he demodulat or.
7. IQ_Demod_Dat a does not model noise.
830 IQ_Demod_Setup (IQ Demodulator Setup)
System Data Models
IQ_Demod_Setup (IQ Demodulator Setup)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Notes/Equations
1. IQ_Demod_Set up per for ms a swept Har monic Balance simulat ion of a
cir cuit level I/Q demodulat or and gener at es a dat aset for subsequent use by t he
dat abased syst em model IQ_Demod_Dat a.The use of t his component is
highlight ed in t he example pr oject IQ_Demod_prj.
2. In or der for IQ_Demod_Dat a t o pr oduce an accur at e model of t he cir cuit level
demodulat or char act er ized by IQ_Demod_Set up, t he Or der par amet er for
IQ_Demod_Set up must be lar ge enough t o pr event aliasing of higheror der
fr equency component s. For mildly nonlinear cir cuit s, an Or der of
appr oximat ely 5 should sufﬁce, while an Or der in t he r ange of 1015 is
r ecommended for highly nonlinear cir cuit s.
3. The demodulat ion behavior s ar e ext r act ed for a single car r ier fr equency and
over t he r ange of modulat ed signal power speciﬁed by Pin_S tart and Pin_S top.
Name Description Unit Default
Freq Modulation carrier frequency.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Hz 1.0 GHz
Order Order for Harmonic Balance analysis.
Must be a positive integer greater than 0.
10
Pin_Start
†
Start value of input power sweep for harmonic balance analysis. dBm 40 dBm
Pin_Stop
†
Stop value for input power sweep for harmonic balance analysis. dBm 10 dBm
Pin_Step
†
Interval for input power sweep during harmonic balance analysis. dB 2 dB
†
All power values are referenced to a 50 Ohm system. Pin_Stop >= the following values:
10 + 20 * log10 (v
max
) where v
max
is the maximum peak voltage magnitude of the modulated signal.
P
max,z
+ 10*log10(z/50) where P
max,z
, is the maximum modulated signal power in dBm for a z Ohm system.
IQ_Demod_Setup (IQ Demodulator Setup) 831
These power values ar e speciﬁed in dBm wit h r espect t o a 50 Ohm syst em. For
an accur at e IQ_Demod_Dat a behavior al model, Pin_St op must be set at least as
lar ge as t he expect ed maximum modulat ed signal power level. Refer t o t he
Par amet er s t able foot not es for conver sion if wor king in ot her t han a 50Ohm
syst em.
4. Push int o IQ_Demod_Set up in a Schemat ic window for a view of t he swept
Har monic Balance simulat ion cont r oller s. This component can be copied and
modiﬁed t o suit individual needs; t ypically, t his would ent ail changing t he
Har monic Balance cont r oller HB1 t o achieve mor e efﬁcient simulat ions.For
mor e infor mat ion, r efer t o t he Har monic Balance Simulat ion manual.
5. The ext r act ed ADS dat aset is assigned t he name of t he ext r act ion design by
default .
832 IQ_Mod_Data (IQ Modulator Behavioral Model)
System Data Models
IQ_Mod_Data (IQ Modulator Behavioral Model)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Notes/Equations
1. IQ_Mod_Dat a is a dat abased syst em model of a cir cuit level I/Q modulat or. The
cir cuit level modulat or is char act er ized by a dat aset gener at ed by t he syst em
component IQ_Mod_Set up.The use of t his component is highlight ed in t he
example pr oject IQ_Mod_prj.
2. The modulat ion behavior s ar e ext r act ed for a single car r ier fr equency. Only t he
modulat ion dist or t ions ar e char act er ized, so it is possible t o set t he fr equency
par amet er in IQ_Mod_Dat a t o differ fr om t he value set in IQ_Mod_Set up. The
modulat ion will occur at t he fr equency set in IQ_Mod_Dat a. The ext r act ed
dist or t ions t o t he baseband signal as it passes t hr ough IQ_Mod_Dat a will be
applied at t his fr equency. IQ_Mod_Dat a does not model any disper sion in t hese
dist or t ions acr oss t he baseband bandwidt h.
3. IQ_Mod_Dat a is designed for Cir cuit Envelope syst em ver iﬁcat ion wher e
var ious ﬁlt er s t ypically eliminat e unwant ed fr equency component s. Ther efor e,
IQ_Demod_Dat a makes no at t empt t o model har monic component s. The signal
gener at ed on RF out put por t is only a baseband signal modulat ed ont o t he
car r ier fr equency. IQ_Mod_Dat a does not gener at e any fr equency component s
at DC or at any har monic of t he car r ier fr equency.
4. In or der for IQ_Mod_Dat a t o pr oduce an accur at e model of t he cir cuit level
demodulat or char act er ized via IQ_Mod_Set up, t he Or der par amet er for
IQ_Mod_Set up must be lar ge enough t o pr event aliasing of higheror der
fr equency component s. For mildly nonlinear cir cuit s, an Or der of
Name Description Unit Default
Dataset Name of dataset generated by IQ_Mod_Setup. “dataset.ds“
Freq Modulation carrier frequency.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Hz 1.0 GHz
IQ_Mod_Data (IQ Modulator Behavioral Model) 833
appr oximat ely 5 should sufﬁce, while an Or der in t he r ange of 1015 is
r ecommended for highly nonlinear cir cuit s. Pr oviding t his cr it er ion is met , t he
Or der par amet er for t he simulat ion cont r oller can be ver y low when using
IQ_Mod_Dat a in a Cir cuit Envelope simulat ion. Typically, an Or der of
appr oximat ely 3 should sufﬁce for accur at e demodulat ion modeling. Not e,
however, t hat accur at e modeling of ot her component s of t he complet e syst em
may necessit at e a lar ger value for t his par amet er.
5. For a cir cuit level modulat or, t he impedances pr esent ed by t he input and out put
pins will gener ally be a complicat ed funct ion of all st at e var iables wit hin t he
modulat or. For t he IQ_Mod_Dat a, a cer t ain simpliﬁcat ion is necessar y as no
infor mat ion about t he envir onment in which t he modulat or will lat er r eside is
known at t he t ime of ext r act ion. Speciﬁcally, IQ_Mod_Dat a pr esent s a const ant
inwar dlooking impedance at t he input and out put pins. The input impedances
at t he baseband input pins ar e ext r act ed at DC, while t he impedance at t he RF
out put pin is ext r act ed at t he RF car r ier fr equency speciﬁed in IQ_Mod_Set up.
6. The ext r apolat ion pr oper t ies of IQ_Mod_Dat a above PinS top ar e ver y poor.
When using IQ_Mod_Dat a, please ensur e t hat t he input baseband signal does
not exceed t he Pin_St op value set in IQ_Mod_Set up when t he model was
ext r act ed. Not e t hat t he Pin_S top value is in r efer ence t o t he complex baseband
signal, which is t ypically a fact or of sqr t (2), or 3 dB, lar ger t han t he power of t he
signal at eit her individual input pin. Ext r apolat ion t o signal levels below t he
Pin_S tart value set in IQ_Mod_Set up will gener ally be good as long as t he
Pin_S tart value lies wit hin t he linear oper at ing r ange of t he modulat or.
7. IQ_Mod_Dat a does not model noise.
834 IQ_Mod_Setup (IQ Modulator Setup)
System Data Models
IQ_Mod_Setup (IQ Modulator Setup)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Notes/Equations
1. IQ_Mod_Set up per for ms a swept Har monic Balance simulat ion of a cir cuit level
I/Q modulat or and gener at es a dat aset for subsequent use by t he dat abased
syst em model IQ_Mod_Dat a.The use of t his component is highlight ed in t he
example pr oject IQ_Mod_prj.
2. In or der for IQ_Mod_Dat a t o pr oduce an accur at e model of t he cir cuit level
demodulat or char act er ized by IQ_Mod_Set up, t he Or der par amet er for
IQ_Mod_Set up must be lar ge enough t o pr event aliasing of higheror der
fr equency component s. For mildly nonlinear cir cuit s, an Or der of
appr oximat ely 5 should sufﬁce, while an Or der in t he r ange of 1015 is
r ecommended for highly nonlinear cir cuit s.
3. The modulat ion behavior s ar e ext r act ed for a single car r ier fr equency and over
t he r ange of modulat ion signal power speciﬁed by Pin_S tart and Pin_S top.
Name Description Unit Default
Freq Modulation carrier frequency.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Hz 1.0 GHz
Order Order for Harmonic Balance analysis.
Must be a positive integer greater than 0.
10
Pin_Start
†
Start value of input power sweep for harmonic balance analysis. dBm 40 dBm
Pin_Stop
†
Stop value for input power sweep for harmonic balance analysis. dBm 10 dBm
Pin_Step
†
Interval for input power sweep during harmonic balance analysis. dB 2 dB
†
All power values are referenced to a 50Ohm system. Pin_Stop >= the following values:
10 + 20 * log10 (v
max
) where v
max
is the maximum peak voltage magnitude of the modulated signal sqrt(V
i

2
+ V
q

2
).
P
max,z
+ 10*log10(z/50) where P
max,z
, is the maximum modulated signal power in dBm for a z Ohm system.
IQ_Mod_Setup (IQ Modulator Setup) 835
These power values ar e speciﬁed in dBm wit h r espect t o a 50Ohm syst em. For
an accur at e IQ_Mod_Dat a behavior al model, Pin_S top must be set at least as
lar ge as t he expect ed maximum modulat ed signal power level. Refer t o t he
Par amet er s t able foot not es for conver sion if wor king in ot her t han a 50Ohm
syst em.
4. Push int o IQ_Mod_Set up in a Schemat ic window for a view of t he swept
Har monic Balance simulat ion cont r oller s. This component can be copied and
modiﬁed t o suit individual needs; t ypically, t his would ent ail changing t he
Har monic Balance cont r oller HB1 t o achieve mor e efﬁcient simulat ions. For
mor e infor mat ion, r efer t o t he Har monic Balance Simulat ion manual.
5. The ext r act ed ADS dat aset is assigned t he name of t he ext r act ion design by
default .
836 LoadPullSetup (Load Pull Setup)
System Data Models
LoadPullSetup (Load Pull Setup)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Notes/Equations
1. For ampliﬁer designer s, t he AmpLoadPull and LoadPullSet up component s
addr ess t he issue of out put mat ch in one or mor e fr equency bands. This is oft en
invest igat ed via loadpull cont our s indicat ing t he load impedances t hat , when
pr esent ed t o t he out put of an ampliﬁer wit h a given sour ce impedance and
Name Description Unit Default
Freq Frequency of extraction.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Hz 1.0 GHz
Order Order for Harmonic Balance simulation inside extractor.
Must be an integer greater than 0.
10
Pin_Start Start value for sweep of largesignal input power.
Must be a real number.
dBm 50 dBm
Pin_Stop Stop value for sweep of largesignal input power.
Must be a real number.
dBm 20 dBm
Pin_Step Interval for linear sweep of largesignal input power.
Must be a positive real number.
dB 10 dB
GamAng_Start Start value for angle of output reﬂection coefﬁcient.
Must be a real number.
deg 180 deg
GamAng_Stop Stop value for angle of output reﬂection coefﬁcient.
Must be a real number.
deg 180 deg
GamAng_Step
†
Interval for angle of output reﬂection coefﬁcient.
Must be a real number.
deg 20 deg
GamMag_Start Start value for magnitude of output reﬂection coefﬁcient.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
0.1
GamMag_Stop Stop value for magnitude of output reﬂection coefﬁcient.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
0.9
GamMag_Step
†
Interval for magnitude of output reﬂection coefﬁcient.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
0.1
† Only linear sweeps using intervals of GamAng_Step, GamMag_Step are permitted using LoadAmpPull.
LoadPullSetup (Load Pull Setup) 837
power, cause a cer t ain power t o be deliver ed t o t he load. The LoadPullSet up
component ext r act s an ADS dat aset , given r anges and st eps for input power,
out put r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient magnit ude and out put r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient angle.
AmpLoadPull uses t his dat aset and allows fast behavior al ampliﬁer
simulat ions for all input power and out put r eﬂect ion coefﬁcient values in t he
speciﬁed r anges.The use of t his component is highlight ed in t he example pr oject
AmpLoadPull_prj.
2. Alt hough t he behavior al dat a collect ed via LoadPullSet up is found using
Har monic Balance simulat ions, t he subsequent behavior al ampliﬁer
simulat ions ar e not r est r ict ed t o Har monic Balance. In fact , t he behavior al
ampliﬁer is assumed t o be used for subsequent syst em ver iﬁcat ion (BER, ACPR
et c. for Tx, Rx) wit hin a Cir cuit Envelope fr amewor k. In such applicat ions,
var ious ﬁlt er s t ypically eliminat e unwant ed DC and har monic component s.
Ther efor e, t he loadpull suit e was not designed t o pr edict such component s.
This means t hat
• for a 1t one Har monic Balance simulat ion at fr equency f, only t he fr equency
component at f (fundament al) is r et ained. All ot her s will be invalid or zer o as
t hey ar e assumed t o be ﬁlt er ed lat er.
• for a 2t one Har monic Balance simulat ion at fr equencies f1 and f2
(pr act ically ver y close), only t he fr equency component s at f1 and f2
(fundament als) and t hose at 2 × f1f2 and 2 × f2f1 (int er modulat ion) ar e
r et ained as t hese will be ver y close and cannot be assumed t o be ﬁlt er ed. All
ot her s will be invalid or zer o as t hey ar e assumed t o be ﬁlt er ed lat er.
3. LoadPullSet up can be pushed int o for a view of t he implement at ion. If
necessar y, t he component can be copied and modiﬁed t o suit individual needs.
4. The ext r act ed ADS dat aset is assigned t he name of t he ext r act ion design by
default .
838 MixerHBdata (2Tone HB Mixer)
System Data Models
MixerHBdata (2Tone HB Mixer)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Name Description Unit Default
Dataset Name of dataset for 2tone harmonic balance mixer generated by MixerHBsetup. “dataset.ds“
RFindexExpr
†
RF tone mixing index deﬁned in the MixerHBsetup component at the time of dataset
extraction. Typically set to “Mix(2)”.
“Mix(2)”
LOindexExpr
†
LO tone mixing index deﬁned in the MixerHBsetup component at the time of dataset
extraction. Typically set to “Mix(1)”.
“Mix(1)“
IFwaveExpr
†
IF wave variable deﬁned in the MixerHBsetup component at the time of dataset
extraction. Typically set to “b2”.
“b2”
IMdata
†
Intermodulation data ﬂag.
Can be 1 or 1 only.
1
ConvGain
†††
Conversion gain multiplier from RF port (Port 1) to IF port (Port 2). dbpolar(0,0)
SP11
†††
RF port reﬂection coefﬁcient. polar(0,0)
SP12
†††
IF port to RF port leakage coefﬁcient. polar(0,0)
SP13
†††
LO port to RF port leakage coefﬁcient. polar(0,0)
SP21
†††
RF port to IF port transmission/leakage
‡
coefﬁcient.
polar(0,0)
SP22
†††
IF port reﬂection coefﬁcient. polar(0,180)
SP23
†††
LO port to IF port transmission/leakage
‡
coefﬁcient.
polar(0,0)
SP31
†††
RF port to LO port leakage coefﬁcient. polar(0,0)
SP32
†††
IF port to LO port leakage coefﬁcient. polar(0,0)
SP33
†††
LO port reﬂection coefﬁcient. 0
†
Typically not edited by user. Should be synchronized with expressions registered in dataset created using MixerHBsetup.
† †
Set to 1for lower sideband and 1 for upper sideband. Refer to note 4 for details.
† † †
These parameters can be reported in any of the following complex number formats: x + j*y, polar(x,y), dbpolar(x,y), vswrpolar(x,y)
‡
Transmission/leakage implies that the value of this parameter is used as an additive supplement to gain expressions between RF>IF
and LO>IF ports.
‡‡
Refer to note 6 for details.
MixerHBdata (2Tone HB Mixer) 839
Notes/Equations
1. Mixer HBdat a is a dat abased syst em model of a cir cuit level mixer. The dat aset
used by Mixer HBdat a is gener at ed fr om t he cir cuit level mixer by t he
behavior al ext r act or component Mixer HBset up (available in t he Syst emDat a
Models palet t e). Por t s 1, 2 and 3 on Mixer HBdat a cor r espond t o t he RF, IF and
LO por t s of Mixer HBset up.
2. Mixer HBdat a can be used in Har monic Balance, Cir cuit Envelope, and
Tr ansient simulat ions.
3. Mixer HBdat a is cur r ent ly conﬁgur ed t o pr oduce IF out put wit h zer o phase
r egar dless of t he IF out put phase r epr esent ed in t he Mixer HBset up ext r act ed
dat aset .
4. A dat aset ext r act ed using t he Mixer HBset up component cont ains bot h upper
and lower sideband har monics and int er modulat ion pr oduct s. By for mal
deﬁnit ion t he upper sideband cont ains fr equencies above t he higher of t he t wo
mixing fr equencies. For example, in a t ypical RFIC r eceiver, t he cent er
NF Input double side band noise ﬁgure. dB
NFmin Minimum double sideband noise ﬁgure at Sopt. dB
Sopt
†††
Optimum source reﬂection for minimum noise ﬁgure.
Rn Equivalent noise resistance.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Ohm
Z1 Reference impedance for RF port. Ohm
Z2 Reference impedance for IF port. Ohm
Z3 Reference impedance for LO port. Ohm
P_RFnom
‡‡
Power incident at the RF port.
Must be manually synchronized with source signal value at this port.
dBm 50 dBm
P_LOnom
‡‡
Power incident at the LO port.
Must be manually synchronized with source signal value at this port.
dBm 5 dBm
M_RF
‡‡
Number of RF harmonics to be considered from dataset. 10
N_LO
‡‡
Number of LO harmonics to be considered from dataset. 10
Name Description Unit Default
†
Typically not edited by user. Should be synchronized with expressions registered in dataset created using MixerHBsetup.
† †
Set to 1for lower sideband and 1 for upper sideband. Refer to note 4 for details.
† † †
These parameters can be reported in any of the following complex number formats: x + j*y, polar(x,y), dbpolar(x,y), vswrpolar(x,y)
‡
Transmission/leakage implies that the value of this parameter is used as an additive supplement to gain expressions between RF>IF
and LO>IF ports.
‡‡
Refer to note 6 for details.
840 MixerHBdata (2Tone HB Mixer)
System Data Models
fr equency is t he RFfreq because LOfr eq < RFfr eq. In t he Mixer HBdat a
component t he IMdata par amet er is used t o pr ompt t he use of only one of t hese
t wo bands for der iving an int er nal polynomial model for fr equency r esponse.
Once t his model has been const r uct ed, it is used t o r epr esent behavior of bot h
sidebands in t he Mixer HBdat a simulat ion out put .
5. If a 2t one Har monic Balance simulat ion is t o be per for med on a Mixer HBdat a
component using Fr eq[1]=LOfr eq and Fr eq[2]=RFfr eq in t he simulat or
component , t hen set t ing IMdat a=1 select s t he lower sideband fr equencies and
IMdat a=1 select s t he upper sideband fr equencies fr om t he dat aset . The
har monics and int er modulat ion pr oduct s ar e deﬁned as  m × RFfr eq 
n × LOfr eq in t he lower sideband and  m × RFfr eq + n × LOfr eq in t he upper
sideband, wher e m and n ar e int eger s whose absolut e values ar e bounded by
M_RF and N_LO (t he maximum har monic or der par amet er s of t he
Mixer HBdat a component ).
6. By t he convent ion t hat M_RF ≤ m ≤ M_RF and N_LO ≤ n ≤ N_LO, and t he
assumpt ion t hat M_RF and N_LO ar e of compar able magnit udes, t he differ ence
fr equencies  m × RFfr eq  n × LOfr eq ar e guar ant eed t o be lower t han RFfr eq
and t he summed fr equencies  m × RFfr eq + n × LOfr eq ar e guar ant eed t o be
higher t han RFfr eq. Thus, t he IMdat a par amet er helps in sideband select ion
and should be assigned values of 1 or 1 only. For pr oper modeling M_RF and
N_LO of t he Mixer HBdat a component should be set t o t he value of RFor der and
LOor der set t ings of t he Mixer HBset up t hat was used t o ext r act t he behavior al
dat aset .
7. The use of t his component is highlight ed in t he example pr oject
MixerHBdata_prj.
MixerHBsetup (2Tone HB Mixer Setup) 841
MixerHBsetup (2Tone HB Mixer Setup)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Notes/Equations
1. Mixer HBset up ext r act s t he behavior of a cir cuit level mixer using a Har monic
Balance simulat ion. The ext r act ed dat aset can be subsequent ly used by t he
cor r esponding dat abased syst em model Mixer HBdat a. Por t s RF, IF and LO
por t s of t he Mixer HBset up component cor r espond t o t he por t s 1, 2 and 3 on t he
Mixer HBdat a component .
2. Mixer HBset up can be pushed int o for a view of t he ext r act or implement at ion
including access t o t he built in Har monic Balance simulat or component . Not e
t hat equat ions and var iables of t he ext r act or subcir cuit ar e r efer enced by name
fr om par amet er s of t he Mixer HBdat a component . Any userinit iat ed changes
made t o a speciﬁc inst ance of Mixer HBset up must be r eﬂect ed in a
complement ar y inst ance of Mixer HBdat a for cor r ect dat aset indexing for
behavior al modeling.
Name Description Unit Default
RFfreq RF frequency. Denotes incoming message signal whether it is intended for up or down
conversion.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Hz 1.0 GHz
LOfreq LO frequency. Denotes frequency of local oscillator or carrier frequency.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Hz 1.1 GHz
RFpwr Power incident at the RF port.
Must be manually synchronized with source signal value at this port.
dBm 50 dBm
LOpwr Power incident at the LO port.
Must be manually synchronized with source signal value at this port.
dBm 50 dBm
RForder Number of RF harmonics allowed to participating in mixing.
Must be a positive integer greater than 0.
10
LOorder Number of LO harmonics allowed to participating in mixing.
Must be a positive integer greater than 0.
10
842 MixerHBsetup (2Tone HB Mixer Setup)
System Data Models
3. The use of t his component is highlight ed in t he example pr oject
MixerHBdata_prj.
4. The ext r act ed ADS dat aset is assigned t he name of t he ext r act ion design by
default .
MixerIMT (Obsolete Intermodulation Table Mixer) 843
MixerIMT (Obsolete Intermodulation Table Mixer)
Symbols:
Available in ADS
Parameters
Notes/Equations:
Name Description Unit Default
SS_SideBand Produce UPPER or LOWER sideband at output port for linear analysis. UPPER
ConvGain
†
Conversion gain multiplier from RF port (Port 1) to IF port (Port 2). dbpolar(0,0)
SP11
†
RF port reﬂection coefﬁcient. polar(0,0)
SP22
†
IF port reﬂection coefﬁcient. polar(0,180)
SP33
†
LO port reﬂection coefﬁcient. 0
NF Input double side band noise ﬁgure.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
dB
NFmin Minimum double sideband noise ﬁgure at Sopt.
Must be a positive real number.
dB
Sopt
†
Optimum source reﬂection for minimum noise ﬁgure.
Must have magnitude less than 1.0.
Rn Equivalent noise resistance.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Ohm
R1 Reference impedance for RF port.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Ohm
R2 Reference impedance for IF port.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Ohm
R3 Reference impedance for LO port.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Ohm
InThresh Voltage threshold for signal input at RF port.
Must be a positive real number.
V
LoThresh Voltage threshold for signal input at LO port.
Must be a positive real number.
V
IMT_File File containing intermodulation table. Accepted formats MDIF: IMT, P2D, S2D. “imtﬁle.imt”
†
These parameters can be reported in any of the following complex number formats: x + j*y, polar(x,y), dbpolar(x,y), vswrpolar(x,y)
844 MixerIMT (Obsolete Intermodulation Table Mixer)
System Data Models
1. This component is included for t he convenience of cust omer s who have exist ing
designs wit h t he Mixer IMT model. New inst ances can be accessed by t yping
Mixer IMT int o t he Component Hist or y ﬁeld in t he Schemat ic window, pr essing
Ent er, and moving your cur sor t o t he dr awing ar ea t o place it .
2. Mixer IMT does not funct ion in Tr ansient simulat ions; Mixer IMT blocks
baseband signals in Cir cuit Envelope simulat ions; Mixer IMT does not pr oduce
int er modulat ion among RF input t ones (r efer t o not e 9). Replace Mixer IMT
wit h Mixer IMT2 for t hese funct ions.
3. The default value of S12=0 t o avoid cr eat ing cyclic int er dependencies bet ween
t he RF and IF por t s.
4. If no IMT ﬁle is r efer enced, t he out put (IF) signal is t he pr oduct of t he input RF
and LO spect r al t ones only.
5. If NFmin, S opt, and Rn ar e used t o char act er ize noise, t he following cr it er ia
must be met for a r ealist ic model:
Rn will be r eset t o a value t hat meet s t his cr it er ia if it does not sat isfy t his
condit ion.
6. Use t he funct ion polar (mag,ang), or dbpolar (dB,ang), or VSWRpolar (VSWR,
ang) t o conver t t hese speciﬁcat ions int o a complex number.
7. For an Spar amet er or a noise ﬁgur e sinusoidal r ipple, use t he funct ion r ipple
(mag, int er cept , per iod, var iable); for example r ipple(01, 01, 10 MHz, Fr eq).
Example: S21=dbpolar (10+r ipple(),0.)
8. This model blocks dc.
9. Mixer IMT pr oduces int er modulat ion pr oduct s at fr equencies
 m × LO +/ n × S ignal
wher e
M ≤ m ≤ M and N ≤ n ≤ N
Also, M and N ar e t he or der s for LO and RF signal fr equencies set in t he
Har monic Balance or Cir cuit Envelope simulat ion cont r oller s.
R n
Z o

T o Fm i n 1 – ( ) 1 S opt +
2
T 4

1 S
11
2
– ( )
1 S opt S
11
–
2
  ≥
MixerIMT (Obsolete Intermodulation Table Mixer) 845
If t her e ar e mult iple fr equencies at t he RF and LO por t s, t her e will be a
super posit ion of t he RFLO int er modulat ion t ones. For example, given t he
fr equencies LO
1
and LO
2
at t he LO por t , and S ignal
1
and S ignal
2
at t he RF
por t , t her e will be int er modulat ion pr oduct s at t he fr equencies:
 m × LO
1
+/ n × S ignal
1
 ,  m × LO
1
+/ n × S ignal
2
 ,
 m × LO
2
+/ n × S ignal
1
 ,  m × LO
2
+/ n × S ignal
2

wher e
M_RF ≤ m ≤ M_RF and N_LO ≤ n ≤ N_LO
Ther e will be no pr oduct s at  LO
1
+/ LO
2
 ,  S ignal
1
+/ S ignal
2
 or any ot her
RF or LO selfmodulat ion pr oduct s.
Intermodulation Product Table File Used with MixerIMT
The int er modulat ion pr oduct t able (.imt ) ﬁle is a userdeﬁned t able of mixer
int er modulat ion (IM) pr oduct s bet ween t he LO and input signal. It r elat es your
mixer IM out put level t o t he out put signal level. The out put signal is a dir ect
mapping of each input t one wit h each LO t one. Int er act ion bet ween input signal
t ones ar e not char act er ized in t his model. Example IMT ﬁles ar e pr ovided in
Figur e 81 and Figur e 82. Aft er select ing t he IMT_File par amet er, click t he Copy
template but t on in t he dialog box t o select a ﬁle.
In t he IMT t ables:
• The ver t ical r ow number N (0, 1, t o 15) indicat es t he har monic of t he signal
used in der iving t he spur ious out put signal.
• The hor izont al column number M (0, 1, t o 15) indicat es t he har monic of t he
local oscillat or used in der iving t he spur ious out put signal.
• In r ow 2, column 4, t he dat a is 13. This means t hat for an input signal at −10
dBm input , wit h an LO dr ive of +7dBm, an out put spur ious signal will occur at
3 × LO +/  1 × signal, wit h a level t hat is 13 dB below t he fundament al out put
signal.
• If t he input signal differ s fr om t he −10 dBm r efer ence power level list ed at t he
t op of t he t able by X dB, t hen t he number in t he t able is adjust ed by adding
(N−1) × X dB t o it . This manner of adjust ment is good for input power levels up
t o 5 dB gr eat er t han t he r efer ence signal power.
• If t he local oscillat or signal differ s fr om t he +7 dBm r efer ence power level list ed
at t he t op of t he t able by X dB, t hen t he number in t he t able is adjust ed by
846 MixerIMT (Obsolete Intermodulation Table Mixer)
System Data Models
adding it by M × X dB t o it . This manner of adjust ment is good for local
oscillat or power levels fr om t he r efer ence level minus 10 dB t o t he r efer ence
level plus 3 dB.
• If it ems ar e missing fr om t he IMT t able, a t r iangular t able, t hey ar e loaded as
200 dB down fr om input r efer ence.
Figur e 81. dbl1.imt File Example
BEGIN IMT_DATA
! DLB1.IMT
! Intermodulation table for double balanced mixer #1
! Signal Level (dBm) Lo Level (dBm)
# IMT (10 7)
! M x Lo (Horizontal) N x Signal (Vertical)
% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
!
99 26 35 39 50 41 53 49 51 45 65 55 75 65 85 99 !row0
24 0 35 13 40 24 45 28 49 35 55 45 65 55 99 !row1
73 73 74 70 71 64 69 64 69 65 75 75 85 99 !row2
67 64 69 50 77 47 74 44 74 45 75 55 99 !row3
86 90 86 88 88 85 86 85 90 85 85 99 !row4
90 80 90 71 90 68 90 65 88 65 99 !row5
90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 99 !row6
90 90 90 90 90 87 90 90 99 !row7
99 95 99 95 99 95 99 99 !row8
90 95 90 95 90 99 99 !row9
99 99 99 99 99 99 !row10
90 99 99 99 99 !row11
99 99 99 99 !row12
99 99 99 !row13
99 99 !row14
99 !row15
END
MixerIMT (Obsolete Intermodulation Table Mixer) 847
Figur e 82. dbl2.imt File Example
BEGIN IMT_DATA
! DLB2.IMT
! Intermodulation table for double balanced mixer #2
! Signal Level (dBm) Lo Level (dBm)
# IMT (10 17)
! M x Lo (Horizontal) N x Signal (Vertical)
% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
!
99 39 42 46 58 37 65 49 75 62 72 61 70 57 87 60 !row0
25 0 39 11 50 16 59 19 59 43 63 52 70 57 73 99 !row1
68 67 76 67 80 66 82 66 83 72 84 72 82 70 99 !row2
63 58 65 60 65 55 64 54 66 57 85 54 70 99 !row3
96 80 96 80 95 82 98 78 90 95 95 95 99 !row4
93 73 87 72 88 66 85 64 82 75 95 99 !row5
99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 !row6
99 79 99 78 99 78 99 81 99 99 !row7
99 95 99 95 99 95 99 95 99 !row8
90 95 90 90 90 99 90 99 !row9
99 99 99 99 99 99 99 !row10
90 99 90 95 90 99 !row11
99 99 99 99 99 !row12
90 99 90 99 !row13
99 99 99 !row14
99 99 !row15
END
848 MixerIMT2 (Intermodulation Table Mixer)
System Data Models
MixerIMT2 (Intermodulation Table Mixer)
Symbols:
Available in ADS
Parameters
Name Description Unit Default
ConvGain
†
Conversion gain multiplier from RF port (Port 1) to IF port (Port 2). dbpolar(0,0)
SP11
†
RF port reﬂection coefﬁcient. polar(0,0)
SP12
†
IF port to RF port leakage coefﬁcient. polar(0,0)
SP13
†
LO port to RF port leakage coefﬁcient. polar(0,0)
SP21
†
RF port to IF port transmission/leakage
††
coefﬁcient.
polar(0,0)
SP22
†
IF port reﬂection coefﬁcient. polar(0,180)
SP23
†
LO port to IF port transmission/leakage
††
coefﬁcient.
polar(0,0)
SP31
†
RF port to LO port leakage coefﬁcient. polar(0,0)
SP32
†
IF port to LO port leakage coefﬁcient. polar(0,0)
SP33
†
LO port reﬂection coefﬁcient. 0
NF Input double side band noise ﬁgure.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
dB
NFmin Minimum double sideband noise ﬁgure at Sopt.
Must be a positive real number.
dB
Sopt
†
Optimum source reﬂection for minimum noise ﬁgure.
Must have magnitude less than 1.0.
Rn Equivalent noise resistance.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Ohm
R1 Reference impedance for RF port.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Ohm
†
These parameters can be reported in any of the following complex number formats: x + j*y, polar(x,y), dbpolar(x,y), vswrpolar(x,y)
††
Transmission/leakage implies that the value of this parameter is used as an additive supplement to gain expressions between
RF>IF and LO>IF ports.
†††
Must be set to a value less than or equal to the number of harmonics represented in the IMT table. The limit on the number of
rows and columns in an IMT table is 15.
MixerIMT2 (Intermodulation Table Mixer) 849
Notes/Equations
1. To use NFmin, S opt, and Rn t o char act er ize noise, t he following condit ion must
be sat isﬁed for a r ealist ic model:
If t he noise par amet er s at t empt t o descr ibe a syst em t hat r equir es negat ive
noise (due t o Rn being t oo small), t he negat ive par t of t he noise will be set t o 0
and a war ning message will be issued.
2. Use t he funct ion polar (mag,ang), or dbpolar (dB,ang), or vswr polar (VSWR,ang)
t o conver t t hese speciﬁcat ions int o a complex number.
3. For an Spar amet er or a noise ﬁgur e sinusoidal r ipple, use t he funct ion r ipple
(mag, int er cept , per iod, var iable); for example r ipple(01, 01, 10 MHz, Fr eq).
Example: S21=dbpolar (10+r ipple(),0.)
4. When supplied a signal at fr equency Freq_S ignal at t he RF por t and a local
oscillat or fr equency Freq_LO at t he LO por t , Mixer IMT2 pr oduces
int er modulat ion pr oduct s at all fr equencies
 m × Freq_LO +/ n × Freq_S ignal
wher e
R2 Reference impedance for IF port.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Ohm
R3 Reference impedance for LO port.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Ohm
M_RF
†††
IMT order for RF port. 15
N_LO
†††
IMT order for LO port. 15
IMTValueType IMT value type.
Enumerated as {dB, dBm}.
dB
IMT_File File containing intermodulation table. Accepted formats MDIF: IMT, P2D, S2D. “imtﬁle.imt”
Name Description Unit Default
†
These parameters can be reported in any of the following complex number formats: x + j*y, polar(x,y), dbpolar(x,y), vswrpolar(x,y)
††
Transmission/leakage implies that the value of this parameter is used as an additive supplement to gain expressions between
RF>IF and LO>IF ports.
†††
Must be set to a value less than or equal to the number of harmonics represented in the IMT table. The limit on the number of
rows and columns in an IMT table is 15.
R n
Z o

T o Fm i n 1 – ( ) 1 S opt +
2
T 4

1 S
11
2
– ( )
1 S opt S
11
–
2
 ≥
850 MixerIMT2 (Intermodulation Table Mixer)
System Data Models
M_RF ≤ m ≤ M_RF and N_LO ≤ n ≤ N_LO
The simulat ion cont r oller may be set t o comput e fewer fr equency component s
t han shown in t he above equat ion. As a gener al r ule, t he values of M_RF and
N_LO should be set t o t he or der (s) of RF and LO t ones on t he simulat or
component and t hese values must be less t han or equal t o t he number of r ows
and columns of t he IMT t able. The lar gest IMT t able suppor t ed by t his
component is of size 16 × 16.
If t her e ar e mult iple fr equencies at t he RF and LO por t s, t her e will be a
super posit ion of t he RFLO int er modulat ion t ones. For example, given t he
fr equencies LO
1
and LO
2
at t he LO por t , and Signal
1
and Signal
2
at t he RF
por t , t her e will be int er modulat ion pr oduct s at t he fr equencies:
 m × Freq_LO
1
+/ n × Freq_S ignal
1
 ,
 m × Freq_LO
1
+/ n × Freq_S ignal
2
 ,
 m × Freq_LO
2
+/ n × Freq_S ignal
1
 ,
 m × Freq_LO
2
+/ n × Freq_S ignal
2

wher e
M_RF ≤ m ≤ M_RF and N_LO ≤ n ≤ N_LO
Not e t hat t her e will be no pr oduct s at  LO
1
+/ LO
2
 ,  S ignal
1
+/ S ignal
2
 and
ot her RF or LO selfmodulat ion pr oduct s at t he out put of t he mixer.
5. Mixer IMT2 can be used in all simulat ions except for Fr equency Conver t ing AC
analysis.
6. Mixer IMT2 leakage t er ms ar e speciﬁed in t wo separ at e ways: t he IMT ﬁle
ent r ies, and t he S Pij par amet er s. For example, LO t o IF leakage is given by t he
(M=1, N=0) t er m in t he IMT ﬁle as well as t he SP23 par amet er. When bot h
speciﬁcat ions ar e given, t he t ot al leakage is given by t he complex sum of t he
t wo speciﬁcat ions. It is gener ally advisable t o leave SP23=SP13=0; in t his case,
t he LO t o IF and t he RF t o IF leakages ar e speciﬁed by t he IMT ﬁle.
Intermodulation Product Table File Used with MixerIMT and MixerIMT2
The int er modulat ionpr oduct t able (.imt) ﬁle is a userdeﬁned t able of mixer
int er modulat ion (IM) pr oduct s gener at ed at t he IF out put due t o t he mixing of a
single t one LO and a single t one RF input signal. Int er act ion bet ween input signal
t ones ar e not char act er ized in t his model. An example of an IMT ﬁle is shown in
MixerIMT2 (Intermodulation Table Mixer) 851
Figur e 84. Aft er select ing t he IMT_File par amet er, click t he Copy template but t on in
t he dialog box t o select a ﬁle.
1. An IMT t able r eﬂect s t he st r engt h of spect r al component s at t he mixer out put
when t her e is exact ly one t one at t he RF input and one at t he LO input . The
for mat line beginning wit h t he ‘#’ symbol speciﬁes t he nominal signal and local
oscillat or power s in dBm at t he r espect ive input s. In t he following t able, signal
st r engt h was set t o 10 dBm and LO st r engt h t o +7 dBm. It is implicit ly
under st ood t hat when supplied t his IMT t able, t he mixer model will be used for
near ly similar set t ings of power s in behavior al simulat ion. See not e 4.
2. The comment ed line below t he signal st r engt h for mat line aler t s anyone
r eading t he ﬁle t hat m or M is t he index for column number along any
hor izont al r ow and n or N is t he index for r ow number along any ver t ical
column. The for mat line for column number st ar t ing wit h t he ‘%’ symbol
pr ovides t he numer ic values of m suppor t ed by t his t able. Ther e is no such
explicit list ing of n alongside each r ow. Read (m,n): = (3,2) as t he ent r y at t he
(m+1) = 4t h column of t he (n+1) = 3r d r ow. If it ems ar e missing fr om t he IMT
t able, a t r iangular t able, t hey ar e loaded as 200 dB down fr om t he input
r efer ence. Not e t hat r ows ar e associat ed wit h t he har monics of t he signal t one
Freq_S ignal, but t he r ow number associat ed wit h it is n, which is a var iat ion of
t he local oscillat or t one Freq_LO in t he equat ions ment ioned above. This
unusual pair ing of var iables is int ent ional and can be explained by
mat hemat ical analysis of mixer oper at ion.
3. IMT t ables suppor t spect r al st r engt h speciﬁcat ions using mult iple convent ions:
• If t he value of t he fundament al at IF or t he {1,1} mixing t er m at t he 2nd
column of t he 2nd r ow is set t o a nonzer o value, it is implied t hat all ent r ies
of t he t able ar e absolut e power s in dBm and t he Mixer IMT2 component
r eading such a t able should have it s IMTvalueType=dBm. The following is an
example of an absolut e valued IMT t able.
852 MixerIMT2 (Intermodulation Table Mixer)
System Data Models
Figur e 83. Absolut e Valued (dBm) IMT Table
• If t he value of t he fundament al at IF or t he {1,1} mixing t er m at t he 2nd
column of t he 2nd r ow is set t o zer o, it is implied t hat all ent r ies of t he t able
ar e absolut e power s in dBm and t he Mixer IMT2 component r eading such a
t able should have it s IMTvalueType=dB. The t able in Figur e 83 is an
example of an absolut e valued IMT t able.
Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models 853
Figur e 84. Relat ive Values (dB) IMT Table
4. Typically an IMT t able shows r elat ive spect r al st r engt hs and cont ains only
nonnegat ive number s at all point s of t he mat r ix as shown in Figur e 84. It is
implicit ly under st ood t hat all number s indicat e suppr ession r elat ive t o t he IF
fundament al. For inst ance, t he number at t he 4t h column (m=3) of t he 2nd r ow
(n=1) is 13. This value indicat es t hat t he st r engt h of t he t wo spect r al
component s at  3 × Freq_LO + Freq_S ignal  and
 3 × Freq_LO  Fr eq_S ignal  will be 13 dB below t hat of t he IF fundament al.
Since lar ge signal simulat ion cont r oller s like Har monic Balance, t ypically
r equir e t he st r onger signal t o be list ed ﬁr st in t he mixing mat r ix, for mixer s, t he
freq_LO t er m is list ed ﬁr st making t he value of 13 above cor r espond t o t he {3,1}
mixing t er m. Likewise, t he {3,2} mixing t er m wit h m=3, n=2 is 70 indicat ing
t hat t he spect r al component s at  3 × Freq_LO + 2 × Freq_S ignal  and  3 ×
Freq_LO  2 × Freq_S ignal  will each be 70 dB below t he IF fundament al
st r engt h.
BEGIN IMT_DATA
! DLB1.IMT
! Intermodulation table for double balanced mixer #1
! Signal Level (dBm) Lo Level (dBm)
# IMT (10 7)
! M x Lo (Horizontal) N x Signal (Vertical)
% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
!
99 26 35 39 50 41 53 49 51 45 65 55 75 65 85 99 !row0
24 0 35 13 40 24 45 28 49 35 55 45 65 55 99 !row1
73 73 74 70 71 64 69 64 69 65 75 75 85 99 !row2
67 64 69 50 77 47 74 44 74 45 75 55 99 !row3
86 90 86 88 88 85 86 85 90 85 85 99 !row4
90 80 90 71 90 68 90 65 88 65 99 !row5
90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 90 99 !row6
90 90 90 90 90 87 90 90 99 !row7
99 95 99 95 99 95 99 99 !row8
90 95 90 95 90 99 99 !row9
99 99 99 99 99 99 !row10
90 99 99 99 99 !row11
99 99 99 99 !row12
99 99 99 !row13
99 99 !row14
99 !row15
END
854 Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models
System Data Models
5. When using t he t able in Figur e 84, if t he input signal exceeds t he 10 dBm
r efer ence power level list ed at t he t op of t he t able by X dB (i.e., supplied Signal
power at RF input is (10+X) dBm, t hen t he ever y spect r al t er m is int er pr et ed
by t he mixer model t o be st r onger by an addit ional (n × X) dB). For inst ance, if
supplied RF signal power is 6 dBm inst ead of 10 dBm, t he {3,2} t er m which is
st at ed at 70 dB below IF fundament al will now be r ead in as Y =  70 + 2 × {6 
(10)}  = (870) dB = 62 dB, implying t hat t he cor r esponding spect r al
component s will only be 62 dB below t he IF fundament al for t he new input
dr ive. Input signals of up t o +5 dB above IMT t able values may be applied t o t he
Mixer IMT2 component for r ealist ic modeling. RF signal st r engt h is t ypically
1015 dB below LO st r engt h. Figur e 85 illust r at es an example of effect ive
var iat ions of IMT values due t o changes in mixer input st r engt hs dur ing
simulat ion.
6. If t he LO signal st r engt h exceeds t he t able speciﬁed value of +7 dBm by P dB,
(e.g., t he supplied LO power is (7+P) dBm, t hen t he ever y spect r al t er m is
int er pr et ed by t he mixer model t o be st r onger by an addit ional (10 + m × P) dB).
For inst ance, if supplied LO power is +9 dBm inst ead of +7 dBm, t he {3,2}t er m
which is st at ed at 70 dB below IF fundament al will now be r ead in as Z = 70 +
10 + (3) {9  7} = (1670) dB = 54 dB, implying t hat t he cor r esponding spect r al
component s will only be 51 dB below t he IF fundament al for t he new input
dr ive. LO signals of wit hin {10, +3} dB of t he IMT t able LO st r engt h may be
applied t o t he Mixer IMT2 component for r ealist ic modeling. Figur e 85
illust r at es an example of effect ive var iat ions of IMT values due t o changes in
mixer input st r engt hs dur ing simulat ion.
Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models 855
Figur e 85. Effect ive Var iat ions of IMT Values Due t o Changes in Mixer Input s
856 Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models
System Data Models
VCA_Data (Voltage Controlled Ampliﬁer)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Notes/Equations
1. VCA_Dat a is a dat abased syst em model of a cir cuit level VCA. The cir cuit level
VCA is char act er ized by a dat aset gener at ed by t he syst em component
VCA_Set up. The use of t his component is highlight ed in t he example pr oject
VCA_prj.
2. VCA_Dat a is t he most advanced dat abased syst em ampliﬁer. If no special
cir cumst ances make Ampliﬁer S2D, Ampliﬁer P2D, AmpH1H2 or AmpLoadPull
super ior t o VCA_Dat a, t he lat t er model should be used for dat abased syst em
modeling of ampliﬁer s. Since t he VCA_Dat a does not have pr ovisions for
explicit cont r ol of fr equency, or der of har monics or bias volt age at t he inst ance
level, it is advised t hat behavior al simulat ion and ext r act ion simulat ion
envir onment s be closely mat ched for r eliable modeling.
3. VCA_Set up and VCA_Dat a wor k equally well for ampliﬁer s wit h or wit hout a
cont r ol volt age. For ampliﬁer s wit hout a cont r ol volt age, t he cont r ol pin should
be gr ounded.
4. VCA_Dat a is designed for Har monic Balance or Cir cuit Envelope syst em
ver iﬁcat ion (ACPR, BER, et c.) wher e var ious ﬁlt er s t ypically eliminat e
unwant ed fr equency component s. Ther efor e, VCA_Dat a makes no at t empt t o
Name Description Unit Default
Dataset Name of dataset generated by VCA_Setup model. “dataset.ds“
iVarN
#
Name of Nth multidimensional variables N={1,...,N}. Use if present in P2D ﬁle.
iValN
#
Value of Nth multidimensional variables N={1,...,N}. Use real or integer values only.
#
If multidimensional variables are present in the Dataset, then these variables are required to be listed in iVarN as
indicated in note 11 and corresponding values assigned to themusing the iVaN parameter.Multidimensional VCA datasets
are generated using parametric sweeps over the VCA_Setup component.
Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models 857
model har monic component s. This means t hat for a 1t one Har monic Balance
simulat ion at fr equency f, only t he fr equency component at f (fundament al) is
r et ained. All ot her s will be invalid or zer o as t hey ar e assumed t o be ﬁlt er ed
lat er.
For a 2t one Har monic Balance simulat ion at fr equencies f1 and f2 (pr act ically
ver y close), only t he fr equency component s at f1 and f2 (fundament als) and
t hose at 2 x f1f2 and 2 x f2f1 (int er modulat ion) ar e r et ained. These fr equency
component s ar e ver y close and ﬁlt er ing cannot be guar ant eed. All ot her
fr equency component s ar e invalid or zer o, it is assumed t hat t hey will be
ﬁlt er ed lat er. Similar ly, for a Cir cuit Envelope simulat ion, nar r owband
modulat ed component s ar ound t he car r ier (s) ar e r et ained. All ot her s ar e invalid
or zer o, it is assumed t hey will be ﬁlt er ed lat er.
VCA_Dat a will also r un in Transient but t his is not a r ecommended simulat ion
cont r oller. Since VCA_Set up is based on Har monic Balance analysis, t he
dat aset cr eat ed by VCA_Set up cont ains st eadyst at e infor mat ion only.
Tr ansient analysis can only pr edict t he cor r ect st eadyst at e r esponse. This
likely t o r esult in an incor r ect t r ansient r esponse.
5. In or der for VCA_Dat a t o pr oduce an accur at e model of t he cir cuit level VCA
char act er ized via VCA_Set up, t he Or der par amet er for VCA_Set up must be
lar ge enough t o pr event aliasing of higheror der fr equency component s. For
mildly nonlinear cir cuit s, an Or der of appr oximat ely 5 should sufﬁce while a
r ange of 1015 is r ecommended for highly nonlinear cir cuit s. Pr ovided t his
cr it er ion is met , t he Or der par amet er for t he simulat ion cont r oller can be ver y
low when using VCA_Dat a in a Har monic Balance or Cir cuit Envelope
simulat ion. Typically, an Or der of appr oximat ely 3 should sufﬁce for accur at e
VCA modeling. However, accur at e modeling of t he ot her component s in t he
complet e syst em may necessit at e t he need for a lar ger value for t his par amet er.
6. For a cir cuit level VCA, t he impedances pr esent ed by t he input , out put and
cont r ol pins ar e usually highly complicat ed funct ions of all st at e var iables
wit hin t he cir cuit of which t he VCA is par t . For a dat abased VCA, a
simpliﬁcat ion is necessar y because no infor mat ion about t he envir onment in
which t he VCA will be placed is known at t he t ime of ext r act ion. Speciﬁcally,
VCA_Dat a pr esent s an input power and cont r ol volt age dependent impedance
at t he input , out put and cont r ol pins, wit h t he input and cont r ol impedances
assuming an opencir cuit out put pin. The input and out put impedances ar e
volt aget ocur r ent r at ios at RF while t he cont r ol impedance is a
volt aget ocur r ent r at io at DC.
858 Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models
System Data Models
7. Assuming pr oper sampling, t he int er polat ion pr oper t ies of VCA_Dat a ar e
gener ally good, but occasionally br eak down near t he limit s of t he r anges t o
which input power and cont r ol volt age wer e const r ained when gener at ing t he
dat aset using VCA_Set up. To safeguar d against such a br eakdown, t he upper
and lower limit s of t hese r anges can be ext ended about 6 dB in input power and
1 V in cont r ol volt age.
8. The ext r apolat ion pr oper t ies of VCA_Dat a ar e ver y poor. When using
VCA_Dat a, please ensur e t hat input power and cont r ol volt age ar e wit hin t he
r anges t o which input power and cont r ol volt age wer e const r ained when
gener at ing t he dat aset using VCA_Set up.
9. VCA_Dat a does not model noise.
10. VCA_Set up and VCA_Dat a can be used for simulat ing an ampliﬁer wit h an
ar bit r ar y swept cont r ol par amet er, for example, a t emper at ur e. Simply conver t
a 2pin ampliﬁer dependent on a given par amet er, in t his case Par, t o a 3pin
ampliﬁer wit h t he t hir d pin connect ed t o a gr ounded DC volt age sour ce whose
st r engt h equals Par. By sweeping t he cont r ol volt age of VCA_Set up in t he
desir ed par amet er r ange for Par and subsequent ly connect ing t he cont r ol pin of
VCA_Dat a t o a gr ounded DC volt age sour ce, Par values in t he appr opr iat e
r ange can be select ed by set t ing t he st r engt h of t his volt age sour ce pr oper ly.
11. The r esponse of VCA_Dat a can be userselect ed fr om a body of a
mult idimensional VCA dat aset by specifying t he names and values of such
var iables in t he iVarN and iValN par amet er s pr ior t o behavior al simulat ion.
Det ails of mult idimensional VCA dat aset gener at ion ar e discussed in
“Not es/Equat ions” on page 860 in t he VCA_Set up component document at ion. If
a given mult idimensional VCA dat aset cont ains “V” var iables in t he for m of
ext er nal sweeps above t he Vcont r ol sweep, t hen t he names of t hese var iables
need t o be assigned t o an iVarN par amet er of t he VCA_Dat a inst ance. Alt hough
t he or der ing of t hese names can be ar bit r ar y r elat ive t o t he or der in t he P2D
ﬁle, t he exist ence and or der ing of values in t he iVal1 t hr ough iValV par amet er s
should always cor r espond t o t hose in iVar1 t hr ough iVarV. If a
mult idimensional var iable cont ained in t he VCA dat aset is not speciﬁed in t he
iVarN of a VCA_Dat a inst ance r eading t hat ﬁle, t hen t he simulat ion will be
t er minat ed due t o insufﬁcient dat a for mult idimensional dat a indexing. Only
r eal and int eger values of mult idimensional iVarN ar e suppor t ed.
Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models 859
12. A number of new feat ur es have been added t o enhance t he per for mance of
VCA_Dat a in t he ADS2004A r elease. Please not e t hat t he ADS2004A ver sion of
VCA_Dat a is compat ible only wit h dat aset s gener at ed by t he ADS2004A
ver sion of VCA_Set up. If a VCA dat aset gener at ed by an ear lier ver sion of t he
ext r act or model is applied t o a new ver sion of t he dat a model, an er r or message
is gener at ed asking t he user t o r eper for m t he ext r act ion pr ocess pr ior t o
behavior al modeling.
860 Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models
System Data Models
VCA_Setup (Voltage Controlled Ampliﬁer Setup)
Symbol
Available in ADS
Parameters
Notes/Equations
1. VCA_Set up per for ms a swept cont r ol volt age and swept input power simulat ion
of a cir cuit level VCA and gener at es a dat aset for subsequent use by t he
dat abased syst em model VCA_Dat a. The use of t his component is highlight ed
in t he example pr oject VCA_prj.
2. VCA_Set up and VCA_Dat a wor k equally well for ampliﬁer s wit h or wit hout a
cont r ol volt age. For ampliﬁer s wit hout a cont r ol volt age, t he cont r ol pin should
be gr ounded.
3. In or der for VCA_Dat a t o pr oduce an accur at e model of t he cir cuit level VCA
char act er ized via VCA_Set up, t he Or der par amet er for VCA_Set up must be
lar ge enough t o pr event aliasing of higheror der fr equency component s. For
Name Description Unit Default
Freq Fundamental frequency.
Must be a nonnegative real number.
Hz 1.0 GHz
Order Order for Harmonic Balance simulation inside extractor.
Must be an integer greater than 0.
10
Pin_Start Start value for sweep of largesignal input power.
Must be a real number.
dBm 10 _dBm
Pin_Stop Stop value for sweep of largesignal input power.
Must be a real number.
dBm 15 _dBm
Pin_Step Interval for linear sweep of largesignal input power.
Must be a positive real number.
dB 5 _dB
Vcontrol_Start Start value for sweep of control voltage.
Must be a real number.
V 0.0 V
Vcontrol_Stop Stop value for sweep of control voltage.
Must be a real number.
V 1.0 V
Vcontrol_Step Interval for linear sweep of control voltage.
Must be a real number.
V 0.1 V
Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models 861
mildly nonlinear cir cuit s, an Or der of appr oximat ely 5 is sufﬁcent while an
Or der in t he r ange 1015 is r ecommended for highly nonlinear cir cuit s.
4. Push int o VCA_Set up in a Schemat ic window for a view of t he swept Har monic
Balance simulat ion cont r oller s. This component can be copied and modiﬁed t o
suit individual needs; t ypically, t his would ent ail changing t he Har monic
Balance cont r oller HB1 t o achieve mor e efﬁcient simulat ions. For mor e
infor mat ion, r efer t o t he Har monic Balance Simulat ion manual.
5. When simulat ing an exist ing ADS2002 design cont aining a VCA_Set up
inst ance in t he cur r ent ver sion of ADS, you must subst it ut e a newer ver sion of
VCA_Set up. Failur e t o do t his will r esult in t he gener at ion of war ning messages
and cor r upt ion of t he ext r act ed dat aset .
6. The ext r act ed ADS dat aset is assigned t he name of t he ext r act ion design by
default .
7. It is possible t o gener at e ar bit r ar y mult idimensional VCA dat aset s using a
VCA_Set up component by applying a chain of Par amSweep cont r oller s in t he
ext r act ion level design and assigning t he SimInst ance[1] value of t he
innermost sweep t o be “Xi.Vcont r ol” wher e “Xi” is t he inst ance name of t he
VCA_Set up component in use. Vcontrol is a default upper most sweep inside t he
ext r act or subcir cuit , hence t his assignment br idges t he gap bet ween t he
minimum viable par amet er s necessar y for volt age cont r olled ampliﬁer
modeling and t hose necessar y t o adapt such a model for your own applicat ion
needs. Refer t o t he example design CKT_VCA_extraction.dsn for an
under st anding of t he mult idimensional ext r act ion pr ocess. The dat aset s
gener at ed by ADS2003C and pr ior ver sions of VCA_Set up ar e signiﬁcant ly
differ ent fr om t hat gener at ed by t he ADS2004A and subsequent ver sions. To
lear n how t o access t he cust omized mult idimensional VCA dat aset r efer t o
“VCA_Dat a (Volt age Cont r olled Ampliﬁer )” on page 856.
862 Classiﬁcation of ADS System Data Models
System Data Models
Index1
Index
A
AGC_Amp, 13
AGC_PwrControl, 16
AM_DemodTuned, 33
AM_ModTuned, 34
AmpH1H2, 84
AmpH1H2_Setup, 86
Amplifier, 19
Amplifier2, 117
AmplifierP2D, 88
AmplifierP2D_Setup, 812
AmplifierS2D, 814
AmplifierS2D_Setup, 819
AmplifierVC, 141
AmpLoadPull, 822
AmpSingleCarrier, 142
AntLoad, 42
Attenuator, 44
B
Balun3Port, 49, 824
Balun4Port, 411, 826
Balun6Port, 413
BPF_Bessel, 26
BPF_Butterworth, 27
BPF_Chebyshev, 29
BPF_Elliptic, 211
BPF_Gaussian, 213
BPF_PoleZero, 214
BPF_Polynomial, 216
BPF_RaisedCos, 217
BSF_Bessel, 220
BSF_Butterworth, 221
BSF_Chebyshev, 222
BSF_Elliptic, 224
BSF_Gaussian, 226
BSF_PoleZero, 227
BSF_Polynomial, 228
BSF_RaisedCos, 230
C
Circulator, 414
ClockLFSR, 63
Comparator, 62
CouplerDual, 416
CouplerSingle, 418
D
Differentiator, 67
DivideByN, 52
DPDT_Static, 68
F
FM_DemodTuned, 35
FM_ModTuned, 37
FreqMult, 144
G
Gyrator, 420
H
HPF_Bessel, 233
HPF_Butterworth, 234
HPF_Chebyshev, 235
HPF_Elliptic, 236
HPF_Gaussian, 237
HPF_PoleZero, 238
HPF_Polynomial, 239
HPF_RaisedCos, 240
Hybrid180, 423
Hybrid90, 421
I
IntegratorSML, 610
IQ_Demod_Data, 828
IQ_Demod_Setup, 830
IQ_DemodTuned, 39
IQ_Mod_Data, 832
IQ_Mod_Setup, 834
IQ_ModTuned, 310
IsolatorSML, 425
L
LimiterSML, 611
LoadPullSetup, 836
LogACDemod, 146
LogDC, 147
LogSuccDetect, 148
LogTrue, 149
LOS_Link, 427
LPF_Bessel, 243
Index2
LPF_Butterworth, 245
LPF_Chebyshev, 247
LPF_Elliptic, 249
LPF_Gaussian, 251
LPF_GMSK, 253
LPF_PoleZero, 255
LPF_Polynomial, 256
LPF_RaisedCos, 257
M
Mixer, 150
Mixer2, 155
MixerHBdata, 838
MixerHBsetup, 841
MixerIMT, 843
MixerIMT2, 848
MixerWithLO, 183
N
N_StateDemod, 311
N_StateMod, 312
O
OpAmp, 185
OpAmpIdeal, 188
P
Pad, 429
ParallelSerial, 613
PathSelect2, 614
PhaseFreqDet, 55
PhaseFreqDet2, 59
PhaseFreqDetCP, 513
PhaseFreqDetTuned, 514
PhaseNoiseMod, 517
PhaseShiftSML, 432
PI4DQPSK_ModTuned, 315
PM_DemodTuned, 317
PM_ModTuned, 318
PM_UnwrapDemodTuned, 319
PwrSplit2, 434
PwrSplit3, 435
Q
QPSK_ModTuned, 320
QuantizerSML, 616
R
ResetSwitch, 618
RF_PA_CKT, 72
RF_RX_SML, 73
RF_TX_SML, 74
S
SampleHoldSML, 619
Sampler, 620
SAW_Filter, 260
SerialParallel, 624
SPDT_Dynamic, 625
SPDT_Static, 627
SwitchV, 629
SwitchV_Model, 631
T
TimeDelay, 436
Transformer, 437
TransformerG, 439
TwoPort, 440
V
VCA_Data, 856
VCA_Setup, 860
VCO, 519
VCO_DivideByN, 522
VMult, 190
VSum, 632
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