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VIS 20 Final Study Guide The Early Renaissance to the International Style Europe 1400-1500: the Early Renaissance

French & Italian Period of Rebirth; interest of Classical Art 2 elements of art: (1) revival of Classical Greek/Roman art and literature; (2) Interest in the here and now; depicting what they see o revival of landscape and still life o depicting the real world, natural

The Merode Altarpiece by Robert Campin, 1425-28, patron Inghelbrechts Oil on wood; oil painting = new technique Commissioned for private use Belonged to the Merode but made for Inghelbrecht There are hinges wings can be closed over the painting so all paintings are facing inside; portable New current religion middle class merchants and traders feel that they need to pray to God directly, worshipping at home instead of Church Center annunciation archangel Gabriel tells Mary that she is pregnant with the son of God Ordinary space well kept middle class Flemish home architectural scene in the background of right wing confirms locale Illusion that the space continues behind the frame Inghelbrechts coat of armor this is where he lives Objects function as religious symbols reminder of miraculous nature Book, extinguished candle, lilies, copper basin, towels, fire screen, and bench Virgins purity and divine mission Mousetrap Christ as bait to catch the Devil Ax, saw, and rod carpenters trade and mentioned in bible Peter Inglebrecht and his wife able to witness event Closed garden Virgins purity Flowers Marys virtue Inghelbrecht (Angelbringer); Schrinmechers (Shrinemaker) interested in art that really reflects the world that they know founded in their time belonged to the Merode family - not made for them Englebrecht - made for him - he is depicted there, wool merchant, high in the textile guild - successful business man form - triptych - three panels - framed and each oft he paintings is actualy in wood 25 inches squared there are hinges - wings can be closed over the painting so all paintings are facing inside portable really small work of art, not for cathedral probably made for his home, personal devotions new current in religion - middle class merchants and traders - feel that they need to pray to God directly,

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

2 worshipping at home instead of Church took this with him materials - wood panel paint - new technique - oil painting - no oil painting yet fresco - traditional - water, grounded minerals tempera - minerals and egg yolk lin seed oil - northern painting - Italian artists knew about this but the Northern people are more interested in it dries very slowly glazes - translucent layers - very subtle gradations of shading and color - more intense colors achieve things tempera and fresco cannot fresco is very matte center - annunciation - tell Mary that she is pregnant with the son of God ordinary space window into the room looking into household illusion that the space continues behind the frame fireplace and screen windows - glass = expensive wooden shutters and wooden screen glass for upper panels Mr. Englebretchs coat of armor - this is where he lives virgin Mary reading a book - not aware of the Angel's appearance yet second open book on the table Angel Gabriel filled with objects - may have been the Englebretchs positions, porcelein pitcher, brass candleholder some carry religious symbolism candle - just been snuffed out room itself is very bright - broad daylight - would not light a candle in these conditions moment of the incarnation - when God became human flesh - Mary is going to be carrying this human fetus that is God divine light that has just been snuffed out Christian's believe that they no longer had eternal life incarnation or its Christ's death that washes away original sin - eternal life = possibility lily - purity - virginity of mary copper pot - passages in the bible - mary is described as the vessel most cleaned making religion real for people - visualize and understand this by bringing it into contemporary life style - pot - impression of light reflecting off of metal objects each of the objects crown on angel's head - individual elements is very realistic not convincingly created three dimensional space floor comes up too steeply objects don't look like they're sitting right perspective is not right not completely accurate yet Joseph in workshop - working at carpenter's bench window - wooden shutters - hinges, hook up from ceiling

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

3 work bench - space receding - tipped up too far two interesting objects - boxes - contractions mouse traps - hidden religious symbolism Saint Augustin - "the cross was Satin's mouse-trap" God sending his son to die on the cross Joseph = devil's mousetrap Satin is not going to know that this is a sacred birth miraculous religious event in the here and now door is ajar - angel has came through the door mr. Englebrecht and his wife - witnessing this event face - individual - very characteristic haircut, not a generic face, probably actually his portrait, on his knees, hat in his hands, actually looking in and watching rosary in her hands, she looks like she's looking down, she looks a little crammed in, she was added later so she could be included in the scene town messenger - outside the gate is a flourished town Englebrecht - means Angel bringer complement to the patron allows artist to indulge interest in the material world used to carry religious symbolism

Holy Trinity by Masaccio, ca. 1428, patron gonfaloniere Lenzi 2 principles of interest of Italian Renaissance: realism based on observation and the application of mathematics to pictorial organization Fresco Ancient Roman technique Masaccio single-point perspective Virgin Mary and Saint John appear on either side of the crucified Christ God the father emerges from behind Christ, supporting the arms of the cross Dove of Holy Spirit hovers between Gods and Christs head Portraits of the donors of the painting Lorenzo Lenzi and his wife kneel In front of the pilasters that enframe the chapel Tomb containing skeleton I was once what you are, and what I am you will become. Vanishing point at foot of cross eye level up trinity and down tomb First step into illusionistic painting Ascending pyramid of figures leads the viewer from the despair of death to the hope of resurrection and eternal life wall of church - huge rest of church has been remodeled painting has a very strong painted architecture resembled elemets of the church fresco - ancient roman technique opening in wall and looking into a chapel - corinthian cpaitlas - ionian cpitals - coffers that are in the distance pair of steps Mazachio - single point perspective taken eye level into account all lines of architecture converges on a single point - in order to convince the eye that you are looking into a correct space

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

4 looking up into the chapel painted columns - shadow on all of them something has been torn of the wall originally there was an altar added to illusionism that it is an extension of the wall underneath - tomb a stone sarcophagus that is coming out towards us realistic skeleton inscription - "I was once what you are and what I am you will become." altar - crucifixion above the altar steps pair of figures - outside the chapel on the edges no specific documents about commissioning Lenzi family - important ceremonial position the standard bearer carried processions - symbols of Florence red outfit - for the ________ may have actually been buried here had themselves included has to be a portrait - what specific individuals look like are important to artists christ on cross with virgin mary and saint john - saint john - ring in hands mary is in shock god is standing on ledge - presenting for our observation christ - body is pretty accurate anatomically - muscles in arms and rib cage witnessing this want themselves recorded

David by Donatello, late 1420s late 1450s For the Palazzo Medici courtyard first free standing nude since ancient times Reinvented the classical nude not pagan god, hero, or athlete biblical David, the symbol of independent Florentine republic. Relaxed contraposto stance and the proportions and sensuous beauty of Greek Praxitelean gods qualities absent from medieval figures The revival of classical statuary style appealed to the sculptors patrons, the Medici Selection of David as subject: Medici identified themselves with Florence or saw themselves as responsible for Florences prosperity and freedom

VIS 20 Final Study Guide Birth of Venus by Botticelli, ca. 1482, for Medici villa (p. 238)

Tempera on canvas Inspired by a Poliziano poem and classical statues of Aphrodite, Botticelli revived the theme of the female nude in this elegant and romantic representation of Venus born of the sea foam. Produced works for the Medici The nudity of Botticellis Venus figure was in itself an innovation. Compared to Virgin Mary made for metachi family villa out on the country side - Lorenzo - platonic academy of philosophy collect best scholars and humanists and reconcile ancient philosophy and christianity hymn to aphrodite (venus same thing) - sprang from foam of sea - construed as in poem - humanist philosopher - compared to virgin mary - expressions of divine love illustration of poem classical format goddess of love and beauty swept ashore west wind - blowing her so she'll go to shore - flora is his wife spring or nymph named pamona - cover the naked aphrodite - based on clasicaly statue caleld modest venus - changed head but position of hands are pretty much the same - also called Metachi venus expression of humanism - symbolism - associated with virgin mary - perfect example most people in florene were poor, epidemics - someone came to power came to be a spokesmen for these people priest ____ preaching fire and brimstone humanism - cult of paganism worldly and materialistic - calamity to punish them all if they did not renounce their previous beliefs bonfire of vanities - throw away paintings - books, musical instruments, chessboards, cosmetics, clothes, anything to do with vanity Metachi - run out of town - many things were burned marks the end of Florence as major artistic center republic of christ - people were forced to be ascetic followers - snivelers - artists - no more work end to florence hung him and burned him - went back to things as normal


A three-paneled painting or altarpiece. In the Renaissance, an emphasis on education and on expanding knowledge (especially of classical antiquity), the exploration of individual potential and a desire to excel, and a commitment to civic responsibility and moral duty. Reviving classical antiquity with Christianity All lines converge to a single point in the distance the vanishing


single point perspective

VIS 20 Final Study Guide point. Europe 1500-1600: High Renaissance David by Michelangelo, 1501-04

Like Donatellos David, Michelangelos version had a political dimension Heroicly nude, muscular sling shot draped over left shoulder, contraposto, completely nude Physical perfection is tied to moral perfection Statues placement near the west door of the Palazzo dell Signoria Young heros anatomy plays an important part in prelude to action Greatly admired Greco-Roman statues Compositionally and emotionally connected to an unseen presence beyond the statue Early 15th century add statues to sides and back of cathedral buttresses and platforms intended to have statues on them commissioned life sized sculptures were not big enough - project abandoned 1460s - resume project statues over life size - twice life size 6 tons block of stone local artist - began carving it - after a few years he gave up 1470s - another artist died sitting next to cathedral gave to Michelangelo - complete a statue of David symbol of Florence we don't know how much work had been done pose determined by stone available to him 14 feet and 3 inches high didn't want people watching - build an enclosure - never stand way back from the figure - more difficult because he is in small space heroically nude contraposto muscular heroic looking sling shoot draped over left shoulder hanging loosely by side vs. Donatello - Michelangelo's is completely nude physical perfection is tied to moral perfection made david a little older probably not a fully mature man - hands are extremely large for the body - teenager who still hasn't achieved his full growth Donatello's version - head of goliath at the feet of the hero Michelangelo's - head isn't shown really intense expression on his face - head is turned, scowling, extremely alert, on the watch for someone, waiting for goliath to appear relaxed pose but very alert and a sort of tension in his head and neck - before the battle - waiting with slingshot

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

7 Donatello - Medici - marking their residence as center of Florence - real business is accomplished - they control everything Michelangelo - worried about the return of the Medici figure symbolizing the republic supposed to be on guard message: watch out for the Medici - try to keep them away - mean very different things Jan 1504 - records of a big public meeting after it was finished - supposed to be high north side of the cathedral everyone thought the statue was wonderful - instead place outside of city hall - there's a copy - meant to be seen in the center of the city

Tempietto by Bramante, Rome, 1502 (?) Bramante was celebrated as the first to revive the classical style in architecture. His little temple was inspired by the ruins of Roman round temples in Italy, but he combined the classical parts in new ways. studied the ruins in Rome Tempietto - the little temple - pagan connotations Christian building St. Peters was crucified here in Rome, commissioned by queen and king of spain ferdinand and isabella as an act of piety more a site marker not a place where you had full religious services marking sacred site where it was believed st. peter died cloister - courtyard around the complex ground plan - raised on three steps 16 columns - Tuscan columns collonade walls of tempieto - originally by a round courtyard changed perception of building if it was the way he wanted it to be dome on top - perect half circle, circular drum or wall surrounded by ___columns and wall behind it variation of doric - metopes and triglyphs - doric frieze Christian belief - chalice for alter, cross, keys - to the kingdom of belief - and st. peters walls - behind each column on the wall behind there's a flattened column second floor - element that looks like a flattened column ribs form the dome between columns on bottom - niches some are rectangular - don't just see flat wall - really moves in and out - appears more sculptural circle is chosen for a reason - studying ancient texts aristotle - 4th century - the circle was actually an expression of the divine because it is perfect - has no beginning and has no end true beauty and perfection circle is found throughout nature - a lot of meaning Roman writer - vetruvius - the perfect man - vetruvian man by leonardo da vinci - fit in a square and a circle if it is fully extended universal and perfect geometric shape perfect church would be circular - architects at the time not very practical - but idea is "perfect"

VIS 20 Final Study Guide Philosophy (School of Athens), and Disputa, Raphael, Stanza della Segnatura, 1509-11

Julius II - portrait by Rafael - not in syllabus intelligent and ambitious man Rome - center of christianity and the center of ancient roman empire religious and political ambitions french out of northern italy - wanted to rule italy collected best scholars and artists commissioned some of the mots amazing art new st. peters tore down old st. peters centrally planned church with a big dome - pantheon dome medal - bramante tomb for himself - life sized figures by michelangelo sisteenth chapel for michelangelo very expensive for these projects - allowed churches, priests, monks to sell indulgences - worried about after they die - purgatory - good enough to go straight to heaven - work off all bad sins - thousands of years in purgatory - indulgence - little paper bought from the church that does not make you go through purgatory capitalism at its best popes can change their name - picked julius caesar wanted to be a successor to roman empire Stanza della Segnatura (Room of the Signature) formal business took function here, sign important things this was his private library (julius) 4 sides bookshelves paintings added later 2 doors, 2 windows Raphael - paint it in true fresco ceiling - decoration reflects the books and the way that they were organized - the way they thought knowledge was organized 4 fields of knowledge - 4 female figures justice across from poetry two panels - law - civil and church law civil - justinian - collective cannon - church - pope gregory 9th - collected cannon law - systematic law code that really strengthened the power Julius portrayed as pope gregory poetry big window view of mt. parnasus - apollo playing lyre - 9 muses beautiful women ancient greeks and romans - pretend portraits of all of the great poets throughout history - books would actually be shelved here theology the disputah - the disputation of sacred sacrament theological writings that the pope owns huge composition with dozens of figures - different levels earth below - not a lot of architecture lines of floor and steps and alter - everything converges in the center - alter is like some kind of reliquary - holds

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

9 water - montros? - christian belief - transubstatiation bread - body of christ - wine - blood of christ julius - strong on this issue - wafer - body of christ theologons during christian history who wrote about this subejct looks like an extension of the room - illusion of recession top - the more important its gonna be as its higher God is at top with angels fluttering next to him Christ - wounds of crucifixion - mary and st. john, the baptist old testament figures with new testament figures or saints dove of holy spirit - angels with 4 books - 4 gospels christ's life how we attain knowledge - originates from God - came to earth through Christ's teachings and his life then interpreted by theologian church writers' books at bottom drew all figures nude first and then sketched them with clothes on philosophy the school of athens architectures - very classical looking - barrel vaults and coffers - domes and niches - monochromatic tones meant to look like sculpture - apollo with lyre and athena civilzation and learnng - knoweldge and wisdom - apollo and athena all lines converge at one point eye drawn towards central space in the distance - two central figures aristotle and plato believed to be the leading greek philosophers plato - world is corrupt - gain knowledge through ideal pointing up is the ideal aristotle - observe human action, his hand is out, talking here surrounded by ideal collection of great philosophers of antiquity some not - euclid - compass - demonstrating geometry astronomore - combination of figures in an ideal space philosophers as big as theologians of the church - perfect expression of humanism christian and pagan belief are compatible - two sides of same core beliefs - pope's library - celebration of learning and wisdom of classical past 1517 - cranky monk - Martin Luther objections to sale of indulgences - 97 direct challenge to authority of pope pamphlets - ignore the church and pope - people can pray to god directly, don't need intermediary - don't need rituals of church obstacle to salvation only need faith and reading of the bible ideas spread across germany, scandanavia, scotland, netherlands, france (doesn't stick) gone to italy several times, knows all about humanism belini much more scientific in approach to painting woodblock that he carved - apparatus for depicting something that is forestortened

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

10 interested in optics greek and roman scultpure - engraving of adam and eve

The Four Apostles by Durer, 1526 Durer painted without commission to be hung in city hall John and Peter on the left panel, Mark and Paul on the right Emphasized the Bibles centrality by depicting it open to the passage In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God each panel a little over 7 feel bright colors - oil John, St. Peters, Mark and St. Paul two main figures face towards the center started out to paint a triptych started or never completed or on purpose focusing on the word of god - books st. peter - first pope - most important Durer - dark don't see his body subsidiary figure looking at the bible john mark st. paul all wrote the books bottom - passages from the bible - martin luther's translation of the bible - promotes literacy - read bible for yourself - translated into all sorts of languages - german and french - printing press - books are becoming much more widespread - 18 different translations of bible not made for church - protestants don't focus on church year before it was painted - meeting Durer was there voted to become protestand - gave two panels to city hall as a city of protestant beliefs and rjection to pope manifesto to protestantism st. peters did write books - the first pope, founded Christian church, most important of twelve disciples secondary though - primacy of written word 2 panels are a statement of protestant belief - millions of people across Europe - began to follow new system of belief - only thing that matters is faith and word of god of bible

Plato and Aristotle transubstantiation the Reformation Europe 1600-1700: Baroque Art in Italy Baroque - not really helpful, label to categorize, so much variety (particularly from country to country) Italy 3 qualities: interest in creating physical reality, realism in human figures, motion, portrayal of the world increased desire to involve the figure, trying to engage the emotions of the viewer, intellect relates to the counterreformation - major areas of Europe where people are becoming protestant - no longer obeying the pope, respond to criticism, re-authoritate the power of the church and return, stop selling indulgences, try to correct corruption establish inquisition - seek out those who differ from

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

11 church counsel of trent - church council - reexamine teachings of the church and determine if they're correct or incorrect reaffirm power of the pope, reaffirm saints rituals of the church - need for religious art, creating churches that are beautiful, appropriate place for rituals

Ecstasy of St. Theresa by Bernini, Cornaro Chapel, 1645-52 Full capabilities of architecture, sculpture and painting to charge the entire area with palpable tension Drawing on knowledge of the theater Chapel became a theater for the production of mystical drama dedicated to Mary victory of Catholic and Protestant churches help of the virgin corniveral chapel - off the side of the main nave Cornaro - family where there had been a number of cardinals - chapel essentially built so he could be buried here, one of the foremost artists of the time designs everything - multimedia burial vault - added stucco clouds - painting - sculptures 3D - dove of the holy spirit radiating light clouds are 3D flow over window frame angels - at an interesting angle - flying upwards into heaven down below - alter in front, walls surfaces are very richly decorated - colored, polished stone made to look like an opera/theatre box - beautiful colored materials, space is narrow - relief carving in the back illusion of side chapel - cleverly done for the point of perspective 4 marble figures - portraits of individuals animated conversation realistic cardinal cornaro, his father and other members - some are long dead - create personality for them, talking and discussing, looking at back wall of chael same illusion - immense room back at an angle - book that he's reading, animated conversation - figures are life-size, discussing the back wall back wall - very luxuriously decorated classical corinthian columns in pairs support a frieze angle of two columns, something has pressed through the wall, pairs of columns, pediment has a broken form figures are bursting through the walls niche - rays of golden light wood that has been guilded light source actually there - exterior window you can't see, myserious illumination of figures botoom of streaming light cloud floating swooning is St. Theresa of Ovula - perched on the cloud in front of her is a beautiful angel marble - smooth and reflective cloud - different texture, foamy and light angel - wings, cute, plump face, dimples, smirking to itself, dressed in strange drapery in sort of flame forms, very 3D,

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

12 erotic child figure, holding arrow guilded, starting to undress the woman, pulling back her clothing, she is swooning back on the cloud, upper body is not supported, attracted to angel - lift body towaords him, expressive strange drapery that covers her body, expressive long fingers and long toes, curling her toes in ecstasy face - head is thrown back, bottom of iris, looks like she's moaning devout and pious nun in Spain - relatively recent st in 1620s - part of counterreformation - known for piety barefoot carmelites - wrote an important book emphasized prayer - mental prayer to god - devotional exercises - understand god - through these exercises experienced revelations of god - ecstatic - united with god - felt her body levetate bernini - number of people were shocked and horrified and critical of him - taken a saint and pure and spiritual and religious experiences and confused spiritual experiences with erotic experiences, moaning in pleasure - prostituted saintly woman, inappropriate and bad st. theresa naive pious woman, idea of being united with god was a very physical sensation - very explicit physical terms - shaft piercing her with pain and joy trying to make it real for people founded jesuit order - bring people back to catholicism make religion real for people - imagine lives of saints or events in the bible, try to make yourself there conversation with st. peter, try to live these experiences essentially what Bernini was doing figures - audience, become a witness and a participant appeal to people's senses

San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Borromini, 1665-76 Emphasizing buildings sculptural qualities Concave and convex elements on two levels Emphasized 3-D effect with deeply recessed niches Fluid transition between interior and exterior public fountain on each of four corners facaade - asked to design strange and odd looking - doesn't look like any other churches squished in, facade is tall and narrow curving in and out, concave and convex and then concave shape of facade has no relation to what's behind it - no idea what the shape of the building's going to be like everything's new and strange classical architecture - Corinthian columns - Corinthian capitals - frieze - odd cornus weaving in and out columns at the bottom break - second building stuck on top of it another set of columns - walls are all concave except for little temple huge oval form - originally a picture of St. Carlos angels lifting it pediment is flame shaped break all the rules, try things in a new way facade - religious experience is going to be new and different

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

13 shape of building is strange - sort of ovular none of the walls are straight, everything is going in and out columns will be equally spaced, walls are very sculptural, niches that cut back into them difficult to photograph, very ornate and different look at ceiling - shape of walls - dome here, from outside you can't see the dome - oval - strange half domes deformed shapes in the corners dome is very dramatic - very bright and light, cornus series of windows hidden - natural light flooding at the base of the dome - a window (oculus) covered with stain glass lined with coffers - unique and change 0 some of them are crosses, a lot of them are hexagons and octagons - bigger at bottom and smaller towards top - seems higher than it actually is big irony - more grandiose the art as popes lose power

Cathedra Petri by Bernini, Saint Peters, 1657-66 17th cent - complete and expand Cathedra Petri, Bernini, Saint Peter's motherly arms of the church, brining people back recreated the interior alter - transept intersects back on the back wall - essentially a reliquary; cathedra throne - bishop's throne - throne of St. Peter; authority goes back to St. Peter; wooden chair they claimed that St. Peter used - essentially a relic; completely encased and housed in beautifully bronzed and guilded chair stained glass in the center; rays of light combines everything - sculpture, glass, painting base throne looks like its floating essentially big high pedestal - appear to be supports, touching them idly overblown drapery 4-5 centuries - most important theologians - basic elements of Christianity pope represent western church in the back eastern church; idea basically is - its not just the bible, its the church theologians, its St. Peters and his successors popes necessary to be truly Christian - keys to the kingdom of heaven - pair of angels on top kingdom of heaven - crown - waiting to crown pope pope's authority from Christ to saints to descendants angles - dove of holy spirit - beautiful gold light - figures are meant to look real - actually there, reaching out - very active and real - architecture back def of baroque - dramatic statement of the pope's authority

VIS 20 Final Study Guide David by Bernini, 1623


Expresses the Italian Baroque Spirit Expansive and theatrical, and the element of time usually plays an important role in it Differs in more restful figures of David portrayed by Donatello and Michelangelo Seem to be moving through time and through space Demands space to be around it moves out into and partakes of the physical space that surrounds it

Conversion of St. Paul by Carvaggio, ca. 1601 Physical reality: desire to record in more vivid way, desire to appeal/involve viewers emotions, historical element: counterreformation, fight back against the protestant reformation 7.5 feet tall commissioned by a side chapel off in Rome Used a perspective and a chiaroscuro intended to bring the viewer as close as possible to the scenes space and action, becoming almost a participant in the event Inclusion low horizon line Actual light from chapels windows functions as a kind of stage lighting for the production of a vision (analogous to rays in Berninis Ecstasy of Saint Teresa) Stark contrast of light and dark feature of Caravaggios style Light of divine revelation converting Saul to Christianity Mesh interest with everyday life with religion Paul Roman Centurion riding horse struck by blinding light and Christ spoke to him religious vision Three figures: large horse, figure of Paul very dramatic, sharp diagonal, coming out of canvas toward us, hands up having some sort of vision, details are very carefully painted, groom veins stick out, light reflecting off of sort, very real and present Compared to ecstasy of Teresa similar subjects Bernini recreates what she saw, physiologically explicit what shes feeling Carvaggio ordinary figures, just lying on the ground, we dont see what he sees, religious message is from the light, for Paul it is inner illumination

VIS 20 Final Study Guide Groom and horse are completely oblivious Typical of Baroque art counterreformation art tells stories of saints religious = interesting and exciting


Calling of Saint Matthew by Carvaggio, ca. 1597-1601 One of two large canvases honoring Saint Matthew that the artist painted for the side walls of the Contarelli Chapel Chapel dedicated to Matthew Christ called him to be 1 of 12 disciples Adopted a way of portraying this that was common in northern Europe Genre scene as a tavern scene Simple table with benches very little setting, just a wall Cheap Roman tavern very poor, window, wooden shutter cant afford glass, paper that is oiled little light in, humble setting Christ appeared from the right St. Peter almost blocks him intermediary between man and God Pointing at St. Matthews, very simply, bulky figure Two figures pointing Ray of light above Christs head could be natural, illuminates upper wall, points straight at Levi or Matthew pointing at himself Dressed with plumes, probably his agents counting coins Figures look quite ordinary only religious tiny halo natural light carried by the position of his hand quote of painting by Michelangelo Sisteenth chapel ceiling creation of Adam about to convey the spark of life reversed Idea is that Adams original sin is what caused mankind to suffer death second Adam washes away original sin and make salvation possible again

VIS 20 Final Study Guide Entombment by Carvaggio, ca. 1603


He thought that religious art should be realistic it should make religious stories real to common people Emphasized the importance of mass communion Take it frequently not just special occasions Did not just paint a pieta because there would be no movement, no narrative, likes things that are more active and happening, witnessing a story as it is being told, showing the dead Christ actually being lowered into the tomb Mary dark blue with white stripe bothered a lot of people Usually beautiful she looks younger than her dead son in Michelangelo middle aged doesnt look beautiful she looks like a real persons mother Others are very expressive grieving, really ordinary looking people Christ really looks dead weight of body Supposed to be lowered into tomb stone at an angle out of the wall towards us into our space two figures straining to lower the figure lower him out of the painting Anyone can understand it worshipping and trying to believe Actually see Christ and his suffering and his presence, some people did not appreciate, sacred people ugly, grungy and lower class, makes religion real

Counter Reformation genre scene Baroque Spain Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor) by Velasquez, 1656 Mastery of both form and content Visual and narrative complexity Almost looks like a genre painting Huge canvas Velasquez included himself in the painting Central figure little girl infant Margariti elegant outfit Two maids of honor aristocratic girls from the very best families who took care of royal children New members of court little boy teasing sleeping dog Walls seemed to be lined with huge framed paintings light in that image it looks like a mirror reflecting light, th Philip the 4 and Queen Mariana indistinct but standing outside in our space Everyone is watching them 3 interpretations: not mutually exclusive, all can be true (1) traditional: Infanta Margarita fussing over her, posing for a portrait, tired of posing and throwing a tantrum maids of honors are trying to appease her and calm her down, it would be a genre painting, daily life of court (2) king or queen posing to be painted in the background and fuzzy, flattering painting for the king everyones conscious of him, basically the idea that the kings eye controls everyone (3) painting about painting: Velasquez has included himself two very big paintings in the background can be identified, trying to raise social status in order to be

VIS 20 Final Study Guide admitted into the medieval order of knights prove you were noble and never worked in your life King and queen posing breaks boundaries of reality of canvas and real world


The Dutch Republic 7 provinces Dutch Republic or United Provinces no official title because other Europeans did not want to acknowledge them, not ack. Until 1698 United Kingdom of the Netherlands completely unique situation population is quite small, absolute economic powerhouse, few natural resources (no minerals or frests), based on trade and finance and some farming bank of Amsterdam was founded exchange rates for all the currencies in the world first middle class state in Europe largely middle class traders highest per capita income of Europe, literacy rate, religious tolerance, great thinkers Descartes art = completely different, church does not commission art, images are forbidden in bible middle class buys for homes, modest sizes, not commissioned, no patrons, art market in DR, creativity and freedom of artist but risky, artists start signing works, breaks illusion that youre looking into the world, four different categories of painting: portraiture, landscape, genre and still life Portraiture: people often in very modest clothing Calvinists dressed in all black only white collars and cuffs collars become more and more lavish and beautiful Beautiful people, hardworking

The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch) by Rembrandt van Rijn, 1642 Covered with a layer of varnish it yellows Without it a lot of contrast between light and dark Portrait not typical at all commissioned by a group Cloveneer company local militia group organized to th defend their city and fight against Spanish 14 century Legal rights to bear muskets, civic hall number of these in each major Dutch town hold a big banquet Captain Culk and lieutenant Reutenerg hang in musketeers hall edifice where they met Going to march in a parade company participated in it welcome the king of France Dowager queen loose cannon came on her own to visit Dutch Republic when other republics would not acknowledge them A lot of action things at diagonals makes composition more active Color leads eye to them red sash and yellow costume Pretty well-off people to afford own costume and firearms Captain cook? Culk? Gesturing with hands light source hand has a shadow over lieutenants shadow 2ft of canvas trimmed

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

18 View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen by van Ruisdael, ca. 1670 Precise and sensitive depictions of the Dutch landscape Saint Bavo church in the background Sky fills almost three-quarters of the picture space Probably made sketches from location not painted outdoors yet, painted at home Looking down much of their land is actually below sea level much of farmland pumped from sea used windmills to pump water out Horizon is very low 2/3 of the painting is sky study of clouds across flat country Town of Haarlem steeples and towers, great reform church prominent, local landmark Actually in shadow the clouds are passing and breaking up the sunshine Immediately below dunes looks like open fields tile and sleet roofs White strips on land linen fields bleaching fields important local businesses attraction artist tried to appeal to buyers souvenir Dutch originated idea of looking at nature and recording it, worthy of painting something about it This landmark has to do with their patriotism, identity as an independent republic, land held by small peasant farmers, extremely proud of what they were doing with the land, Dutch engineering ingenuity of bleaching fields New crops scientific approach to agriculture Tulips thriving business Tobacco important sell for cheaper (mix American and home grown tobacco)

The Linen Cupboard by de Hooch, 1663 Dutch cities were really clean and immaculate as well as their homes, modest but beautiful, many paintings show either exteriors or interiors middle class houses, built on canals, property is quite valuable, pride in home ownership Small painting Interior of narrow Dutch house One room wide Very careful perspective Through a door outer door, front door is open, looking out into the street Paintings up until now about great religious and historical events Painting about clean laundry housewife with elder daughter or servant stack of nice clean sheets everything is orderly Process of putting away linen, manuals how to keep houses clean Little girl playing a game little club fluted columns framing the door and windows Paintings small paintings you might find in art market Sculpture Roman god Mercury God of Trade holding up a little money bag Pictures of peoples houses for the first time

VIS 20 Final Study Guide Houses before this often included businesses Domestic realm depicted in paintings


Celebrating the Birth by Steen, ca. 1664 Takes place in kitchen, housewife works and cooks not servants; kitchen = important Living inside the room Woman just gave birth Neighborhood ladies come to celebrate womans universe mostly women New baby proud papa older women money Cooking with eggshells tossed all over the floor; boisterous and chaotic Doorway man slipping in or out holding his fingers up horns probably the father of the baby element of spontaneous humor and joy

Still Life with a Late Ming Ginger Jar by Kalf, 1669 No heroism, no message, other artists would turn their noses, still life is still an important category of Dutch painting Small scale Neutral background, niche in the background but plain Corner with very correct perspective Rich marble or veined colored stone Casual assortment of objects placed Carpet crumpled up and used as a table cloth Date the jar recent important from China Silver plate Dutch very ornate and fancy Beautiful, ornate glass and metal goblets Venetian goblets imported from Italy, pocket watch Fruit lemon party peeled, peach imported fruit Essentially arrangement of beautiful objects that show off Dutch central placement in global trade Showing off ability to paint different textures, particularly glass transparent liquid in it reflection from window light source off to the left something in the window that is reflecting off of the glass May have a moral message: watch time passing, worry about soul or could just be a complete celebration of materialism

The Enlightenment Associated usually with the later half of 18 century France and England England bears fruit largely middle class state Parliament free press, strong middle class Scientific development and progress are going to be developed

Illustrations from the Encyclopedia, first edition, 1751 17 volume accounts Published in France look up anything you want explains how to do something How you would clean iron ore and melt it, how you cast a bronze image of the king of France, program machine to

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

20 knit, practical things: soap, fight a duel Examined religious subjects approach everything from the point of view of reason Noah and the ark traditional literature people might explain its theological reasoning Encyclopedia purely rational standpoint All of the known animals in the world Two of each species, many species are carnivore factored in how much extra sheep and cows to feed lions and wolves, thinking in numbers/about things in a new way

A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrey, Wright of Derby, ca. 1763-65 Wrights celebration of the inventions of the Industrial Revolution was in tune with the Enlightenment doctrine of progress. In this dramatically lit scene, everyone is caught up in the wonders of scientific knowledge. Interested in science Sir Isaac Newton predict where planets are going to be Demonstrating these ideas to ordinary people Ring calendar ring marked with months of year and signs of zodiac Light is in a very scientific style light vs. St. Pauls religious light (painted in a secular conveys revelation literally enlightenment of knowledge, science that is illuminating the people) Genre every day life how ideas were spread travelling lecturers lecture on topics of science and new information ordinary people were very interested in this popular demand for this kind of information It really demonstrates social mobility Industrialization and science determining progress individuals who are not socially well-off can become someone important

Arkwrights Cottonmill, Wright of Derby, c. 1780 Commissioned by friend of painter by Arkwright Painting of cotton factory Still here today Cranford 15 miles outside of Derby Originally built next to a river and powered by water use steam engines to run his machinery later Dramatic nighttime scene, moon behind cloud Natural scene with cliffs nestled into nature are large brick windows Windows shining in the night illumination of progress and industry Optimistic, benevolent view of the factory, becomes part of nature Very positive view of industrialization Demand for cotton thread bad working conditions, long work hours, young children, lives were disrupted for workers Year before this was painted Arkwright had to defend company people attacked machinery saw it as destroying their way of life; industrialization causes great disruption Deafness, sickness, cotton fibers in air, people caught in

VIS 20 Final Study Guide machinery Saltworks and Ideal City of Chaux, Ledoux, 1775 ca. 1800


Utopian, perfect city People would be better behave better, healthful lives King asked to build saltworks salt monopoloy of king of France Plan engraving that was later published not all built Published ideas after French Revolution really influential Ideal city perfect utopian society circle perfect geometric form Triglyphs metopes lot of decoration actual entrance Unusual columns alternate square and circular blocks Reduction plans industrial building, should be beautiful very balanced and symmetrical sculpture in the front function of the building salty brine dripping out being converted into slat Same decoration and same style Vegetable plot in contact with nature Designed buildings that were never built ideas and inspiration Never constructed because there was no technology to build it, completely utopian views of the future, water inspectors house very important to community through the center of the house Odd building greek temple columns and pediments round projections

Industrial Revolution Neoclassicism Oath of Horatii by David, 1784 Narrative of ancient Roman patriotism and sacrifice features statuesque figures and classical architecture Rediscovery of Pompeii fad for ancient art and subject matter Ancient Greeks and Romans are really true and beautiful Story: City of Rome in conflict with one of its neighbors instead of involving whole community, each city would select its three best warriors fight to death whoever survived would be the victor Style: very simple figures are almost a sort of frieze in the foreground of the painting Background theatrical setting pair of Doric columns three arches in a sense divide the composition (simple walls and black background) Attention on human figures Rational painting lines on flooring single-point perspective right in the middle under the fathers left hand Three hands of son center hands point to the central point of composition Central figure father legs are very muscular with every vain triangular position stable in the center color tend to be very drab read cloak really draws attention to him Three sons wearing helmets, heroic, roman garb, legs

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

22 are very far apart pyramidal shape Arm around brother, embracing each other while taking oath and accepting duty from father Not physically possible to stand like this unanimity and sharp dramatic pose Group of women much lower in composition, very different in pose slumped over, swooning, soft, undulating silhouette outlines, colors are much more muted and pale, soft and sentimental, show the human cost of the battle men are taking, women add the human element don't participate in the world of men King of France seen as a painting that was noble completely opposite of rococo style in total control buys this to be part of the royal collection Goals of French Revolution abolish Christian church replace it with the cult of reason

The Death of Marat by David, 1793 David depicted Marat as a tragic martyr of the French Revolution, stabbed to death in his bath. Painting displays a severe Neoclassical spareness, its convincing realism conveys pain and outrage Record an important even in the revolution Inspiration and encouragement to the revolutionary forces Piece was meant to function as an altarpiece for the new civic religion Contracted skin disease spent a lot of time soaking in medicinal bath set up as an office July 1792 Charlotte Corday claiming she has a note about someone trying to undermine revolution stabled him to death Neutral background = brush strokes Bathtub is parallel to us almost looks like a tomb of sorts nd To Marat from David year 2 2 year of revolution Detailed and realistic Quill and inkpot, slumped towards us Gruesome wound, face does not look as if he suffered or in terror almost a sense of radiant and transfigured David was thinking of religious paintings of Christ Marats arm hands down very similar to entombment of Christ by Carvaggio Died for his beliefs noble image martyr to revolution abolished Christian church not supposed to believe in saints anymore hung over Marats tomb objects in painting actually on display modern relics they relate to this hero or saint of the revolution David trying to create a new religion in a sense for people who believe in the revolution

Romanticism Grows out of neoclassicism often about political freedom, inspiring people) Less about political freedom but person freedom, focus on the individual, emotions are exotic historical even presented in a very exotic way

VIS 20 Final Study Guide Napoleon at the Pesthouse at Jaffa, Gros, 1804


French painting glorifies him legend and myth of heroic and wonderful Napoleon 23 ft 7in first appeared in something called the salon put to work glorifying the king 1804 1799 Napoleon and his army in Java Bubonic plague strikes the soldiers Napoleon visits hospital and passes among his men words of encouragement laid hands on diseased soldiers foreground is really dark diseased and dying bodies piling up, golden light, the architecture pointed arches exotic and oriental meant to really appeal to emotions somehow framed in background French flag conquered Java focus graphic depiction of diseased men in foreground very elongated long expressive body, everybody is looking at Napoleon in an adoring way immediately around him look uncomfortable and want to get away chief of staff handkerchief on his nose Napoleon calm and serene and reaching out and touching armpit of sick soldier looking at him in admiration Turkish doctors Golden light at Napoleon Christ is supposed to heal the sick by touching them empathize with his soldiers Huge success Napoleon bought it created myth that he cared so much for his troops reality = quite different: suggested doctors give an overdose of opium to kill and abandon them 1804 rumors circulating painting counteracted rumors

The Third of May, 1808, Goya, 1814 Encouraged viewer empathy for the Spanish by portraying horrified expressions and anguish on their faces Humanity absent from the firing squad Christs position on the cross Stark use of darks and lights enhance drama Used to paint rococo scenes French rounded up 400 people and executed them claimed that these people started the riot and killed the French army Actually artist men and craftsmen Sketched the place after visiting church was not there combined two events to tell the whole story Very dramatic scene of execution of people, lots more waiting to be killed, dead pile of bodies French squad shoulder to shoulder and faceless inhuman, backs of figures, military machine, rifles and bayonets cross right to the center to the individuals discipline and orderliness of soldiers and disorders of the people being shot, hazy figure, virgin Mary (woman being veiled, hiding faces looking up at sky) Dramatically lit, hands look as if they have nail holds, almost crucified Bright white, yellow and blood colors of Spanish flag martyred figure Light source big lantern with glass sides Napoleon

VIS 20 Final Study Guide interested in new means of lighting Made after Napoleons fall to celebrate the return of th Ferdinand the 7 pageantry to welcome back king


Disasters of War by Goya, 1808-14 Etchings before Xeroxing and mass production of images you would make images you could create on a large scale metal plate sharp object and scratch design to see darkness varnish etch into metal plate ink over it force the paper to pick up ink thousands of images off of a single image Never printed images part of his personal possessions Personal necessity to record what he was seeing on a day to day basis unsellable Somewhat composed most of what he actually saw French army was not provisioned by the government constant contact with civilian population I saw this implication that hes recording what hed seen rape of Spanish women by French soldiers

Saturn Devouring One of his Children by Goya, 1819-1823 Ferdinand 7 restored to Spanish throne Irony of history welcomed back with open arms Expected benign and progressive rule god placed him on throne, repressive and terrible acts withdrew to suburbs of Madrid lost hearing, disillusioned with the world painting for himself on the walls of his home house of the deaf one painted in dining room originally on wall made his wife Rhea give children and he ate them no sense of setting, looming out of darkness legs jut forward cur off by the edge of the painting so huge he cant fit into the area of the painting ripping his children apart adult male well proportioned ripped off head, tearing flesh of torso looks insane and drive by fury knuckled looks like hes completely tense and stressed, hair disheveled, big wide staring eyes and mouth reflection of Goyas state of mind his personal historical situation and the country

Abbey in the Oak Forest by Friedrich, 1810 Pious protestant, god in nature, evocative interesting scenes of nature that have spiritual meaning for him Master of Romantic transcendental landscape Landscapes were temples his paintings themselves were altarpieces Like a solemn requiem Gloomy scene, dusk with sun going down, little color in sky Ground covered with snow Remains of gothic church with pointed empty stain glass window Entrance little line of figures, black silhouettes, heads

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

25 covered monks, carrying a coffin Emblems of death everywhere seasons desolation, the leaning crosses and tombstones, the black of mourning, skeletal trees, destruction time wrought on the church Meditation on human mortality Paint what he sees before him and what he sees with him Possible that this painting means more 1810 Germany was occupied by million French troops Oak trees = symbols of Germany Ruins are not imaginary specific site remains of Cistercian abbey destroyed when Swedes invaded Germany part of the 30 years war Memories of invasion still very current in northern Germany French occupation to the Swedish invasion, criticism of French occupation, Napoleon seized German churches and used them for headquarters, human mortality political statement as well

Raft of the Medusa by Gericault, 1818-19 23 ft x 16ft Depiction of an actual historical event Theatricality of Romanticism 1816 shipwreck off the African coast event was political dynamite displayed in public jumble of writhing bodies instead of organization of Neoclassical compositions horizon line ocean is really high big wave individuals under power of ocean powerful X-shaped composition diagonal so that a corner juts out toward the viewer further compels participation in this scene group of father and son son is dead not interested in rescue, just in despair, dark turgid colors subdued palette and prominent shadows ominous pall ensure a degree of accuracy visited hospitals and morgues to examine corpses model raft constructed in studio comment on practice of slavery artist was member of an abolitionist group that sought ways to end slave trade in the colonies black soldier at top aroused a lot of critical response ordinary sailors shown on a heroic state religious or royal figures painting unsalable protest against incompetent government, against censorship, against slavery because Senegal was an export point of slave trade Napoleon outlawed slave and slave trade - reopen

VIS 20 Final Study Guide Death of Sardanapalus by Delacroix, 1826


successor to Gericault 16ft across story from ancient history inspired by Lord Byrons poem Sardanapaulis but the painting does not illustrate text depicted last hour of the Assyrian king sacrificial suicide most previous possessions his women, saves, horses, and treasure are destroyed in his sight manifesto in romanticism not a drop of blood in it his richly colored and emotionally charged canvas is filled with exotic and erotic figures in daring and tortuous poses most conspicuous are the tortured and dying bodies of the harem women taps into the fantasies of the Romantic era good joke at the expense of the neoclassicists critics big loose brush strokes drunken broom oriental fantasy

The Slave Ship by Turner, 1840 became very popular very young clients would buy whatever he painted personal and unusual direction; looser and looser with paint; doing things no one at that time did shown in salon 1840 4ft x 3ft intense colors, loose brush strokes incident that occurred in 1783 and was reported in a widely read book titled The History of the Abolition of the Slave Trade, by Thomas Clarkson economic decision to throw people overboard even when they were alive ship looks insignificant, concentrated on barbaric nature the sun is transformed into an incandescent comet amid flying scarlet clouds reds and golds in sky sky reflected in water, cant tell if it is blood or not turbulent sea choked with the bodies of slaves sinking to their deaths immense power of nature over humans tied to mast witness the forces of nature in person personal expression, apocalyptic vision, punishing man and ship for inhumanity style visionary deeply rooted in the emotive power of pure color energetic brush strokes

etchings the Academy the Salon

Realism and Photography Leonardo da Vinci wrote about camera-obscura th 18 century industrial revolution and advancement in science preserve image in some way silver salts =

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

27 light sensitive image will be exposed and will appear there, no way to stop the exposure, darker and darker until its completely dark 1820s different way of stopping the exposure metal plate and copper plate mixture of mercury vapor and alcohol fix the image exposure time was 8 hours Photography really influenced artists in the way that they perceived the world Detailed and exact works, different subject matter not heroic battles or religious saviors Turned their attention to every day life Poor and their work Dispassionate objective, scientific way Recording exactly what they do and what they look like

Still Life in Studio by Daguerre, 1837, daguerreotype Copper plate coated with silver salts, exposed for about 15 minutes spray with vapor and had a fixed image One of the first successful plates Daguerre produced after perfecting his new photographic process was this still life, in which he was able to capture amazing detail and finely graduated tones from black to white. Everything is reversed and upside-down Cant print it single image on a metal plate Only photograph still objects Sculptures, curtains, relief of goddess overexposed, wine basket texture came out well, successful recording of objects 1839 French bought his technique on how to do this shared it with everybody America started setting up studios reduced exposure time to 1-2 minutes

Early Operation under Ether, Massachusetts General Hospital, Hawes and Southworth, ca. 1847, daguerreotype Record important events Important landmark in medical history Surgery did not know anything about anesthetics drink a lot of alcohol or people hold you down Values of recreational drugs Experimenting with ether as a social activity too much ether people passed out: patients Record of early operations Operating room nothing about sterilizing environment Observation area looking down into the room daguerreotype Most people wobbled a bit Patient is the only sharp figure

VIS 20 Final Study Guide A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, PA July 1863, wet-plate photograph


Wet-plate technology enabled photographers to record historical events on the spot and to comment on the high price of war, as in this photograph of dead Union soldiers at Gettysburg in 1863. Pane of glass mix a mixture of collodion or gun cotton, alcohol and other substances paint over class while its wet you expose it and process it Benefits: plate is negative, lighter sensitive paper, print copies (100s and 1000s), everything comes out the right way, exposure time comes down 3-20 seconds practical process Limitations: prepare plate, expose/fix it in a small amount of time American Civil War systematic recording of history No photographs of battle, cant record explosions or charges Travelling dark room wagon that was completely enclosed with black cloth glass plates and materials to make wet plates Arrived 1-2 days after event Record keeping terrible no dog tags Modulates from the precise clarity of the bodies of Union soldiers in the foreground, boots stole and pockets picked, to the almost illegible corpses in the distance, the suggestion of innumerable other dead soldiers is unavoidable. Gruesome images shows how much US population supported the war indication of public support for the war effort Exhibition of photography how is it presented? Basically seen as journalism documentation historical events photographs are going to be journalism camera is a mechanism no artist input Not the way we regard it Photographer made all sorts of decisions to get interesting effects Camera catches things human eyes cannot see or misses Collecting photographs to use as models in composing their paintings

Rue Transnonain, 1834, Daumier, lithograph Lithographs based on the idea that water and oil do not mix; stone porous, absorb water, draw image with grease pencil or ink that is grease based, soak the stone in water and the ink will stick to drawing; 1000s of images from a single block 15 x12 in sniper killed an officer soldiers chose a building and broke down door massacred everyone in building dragged out of beds, rumpled bed, sheets pulled off, doorway elderly man cut off of edge main figure man rumpled night shirt night cap awkward ugly slumped pose nothing heroic or glamorous about death blood stains shot or bayoneted child bleeding from head wound- blood across the room true to life and understandable

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

29 Daumier used lithographs, which could be produced in great numbers, to reach a wide audience for his social criticism and political protest. This print records the horrific 1834 massacre in a workers housing block. Sharp, realistic angle of vision Not the dramatic moment of exexcuteion but the terrible, quiet aftermath Broken, scattered forms lie amid violent disorder Pictorial manner is rough and spontaneous How it carries expressive exaggeration is part of its remarkable force

The Stone Breakers, Courbet, 1849 Courbet leading figure in Realist movement Using a palette of dirty browns and grays, he conveyed th the dreary and dismal nature of menial labor in mid-19 century France Lowest French society Shown with directness and accuracy Angular positioning of the older stone breakers limbs suggests a mechanical monotony Realism captured the ordinary rhythms of daily life Courbets depiction of stone breakers in 1849 was both timely and populist France making transition from agrarian to industrialized economy peasant class life becoming harder Based on two people he had seen year of 1848 revolution King Philip bloodless revolution 18ft across influenced by photography objective dispassionate record of what you see style sharp and detailed, do not glamorize figures; making faithful record of reality not just a style subject matter changes everyday life people working and misery political implications two miserable workers essentially creating immense heroic sized canvas depicting day lives pointless labor tied to industrialization expansion of Paris and cities realistically painted, brought laborers into studio to sketch hands are realistic, extremely harsh thistly drab environment, colors are drab patched clothes, hat farmer clothes filthy and torn pants are more city better shoes political prisoner dont see faces, some critics as a machine metaphor younger figure could be turning into older figure really natural but off balance poses satire on industrial civilization

Burial at Ornans, Courbet, 1849 Poor provincial area; Uncle was buried before this was painted attended funeral Scene of clergy, peasants and members of middle class Cut off canvas on bottom extends into our space Colors are drab and dark Cliffs exact correctly depicts the area Group of people that seem to be arranged very naturally Priest is talking or reading, little boy, portraits of individuals big red noses; members of dead persons

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

30 family; 37/51 faces identified; Courbets family some posed A lot of figures seem to be facing the wrong way Resembles a photograph cut off by the edge of canvas random shot of people Light reflecting off of metal; realistic careful details Shown in salon Critical reaction hated the painting, genre scene = unimportant, should be painted on a smaller scale, not heroic or inspiring in any way, lack of hierarchy among the figures, should be inspiring in some way Most people look bored How are you supposed to feel about this religious ritual Implying peoples belief in life after death; this is just so matter of fact

The Gross Clinic, Eakins, 1875 The too-brutal realism of Eakins unsparing depiction of the Jefferson Medical College operating amphitehatuer caused this paintings rejection from the Philadelphia exhibition celebrating Americas centennial. Paint things as he saw them rather than as the public might wish them portrayed Dr. Gross stopping and lecturing really the focus of the painting sky light really strikes his head very stern, serious expression, partly in shade, looks extremely intelligent; man of action and of theory Patients mother mother her hands makes painting carry a little bit of emotion, gruesomeness and the impact of whats going on Bloody fingers and scalpel, lectures about his surgery on a young mans leg Description of a contemporaneous event Understand human anatomy muscle and skeletal structure No patron; painted for exhibit at world fair theme = scientific progress 8ft in height deep colors contrast with light and shade Akins included himself; Samuel Gross really important person, innovator in surgery; developed completely new life saving procedure

Birth of Venus, Cabanel, 1863 Notes on the Salon: since 17 century every day open room in the Louvre frame to frame up to 5000 paintings jury chose which paintings got in; 4000 paintings rejected stamp unsellable; more ordinary people relate to landscapes and genre scenes, something hangable in home, popular subjects = nudes Not a significant work of art Cabanet best French artists at the time Huge success in the salon of 1863 Goddess of love and sexuality subject with long history in art famous artists have painted it over and over again Take the cupids away and this is a nude woman lying on a bed Nothing that looks mythological an excuse to ogle a

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

31 beautiful sensual woman not interested in the face it is foreshortened Curves of her body and beautiful hair Pose position of her legs and arms emphasize everything curves Very 3-D; skin looks soft; great technical artist 1863 bad year for salon jury = corrupt; end of the power of the salon never regarded in the same way for the opinion of what is good in art and what is not

Olympia, Manet, 1863 Over 6ft 3in Manet was thinking of well known masterpiece of the past Venus of Orbeno claiming this is the goddess of love and beauty when nothing recalls Venus at all Manets modernization of the painting Manet scandalized the French public with this painting of a nude prostitute and her black maid carrying a floral bouquet from a client. He was also faulted for using rought brush strokes and abruptly shifting tonality. Divider leads eyes to genitals Public and critics horrified Taken aback by shamelessness of Olympia and her look that verges on defiance Not a working class prostitute No gold glow, slightly harder edge, body is more realistic, lighting is harsh strong shadow, lighting to some early photographs emulsions to wash out the middle tones deep shadows and bright light Pose is different proper up more erectly, hips are on the bed, more alert, natural, hand over genitals but its really clamped down shes in control of her body Black maid + prostitute = moral depravity, inferiority, and animalistic sexuality Contrast racial divisions

Impressionism second phase of optical realism recording every day life city of paris momentary views focus on light and atmospheric effects

Impression: Sunrise, Money, 1872 The term impressionism had been used in art before but in relation to sketches abbreviation, speed, and spontaneity Brush strokes clearly evident No attempt to blend pigment to create smooth tonal gradations and an optically accurate scene Sketchy quality Impressionism operates at the intersection of what the artists saw and what they felt interaction between the objective and subjective responses they were sensations Main feature light effects, tons of smoke and pollution coupled with the early morning mist and the sun is a

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

32 burning red/orange, atmosphere is the main idea Monets paintings show his working process, he paints a particular view of an object and paints it over and over at different times and weather conditions. This is to capture how light reflect off of it Impressionists are concerned with the optics of the world around them, how things are perceived and how light reflect off of surfaces

Saint-Lazare Train Station, Monet, 1877 Impressionist canvas surfaces look unintelligible at close range, but the eye fuses the brush strokes at a distance. Monets agitated application of paint contributes to the sense of energy and vitality in this urban scene. Firmly anchored in the industrial development of the time Scenes in and around Paris industrialization and urbanization had their greatest impact Dominant aspect of Parisian life expanding railway network

Le Moulin de la Galette, Renoir, 1876 Renoirs painting of this popular Parisian dance hall is dappled by sunlight and shade, artfully blurred into the figures to produce just the effect of floating and fleeting light that the Impressionists so cultivated. Atmosphere is lively Classical art sought to express universal and timeless qualities Impressionism attempted to depict the incidental and the momentary Snapshot of a moment of an event

Viscount Lepic and his Daughters, Degas, 1873 Has a snapshot like quality Man cut off in the left hand side, main man is an aristocrat Fashionable, cigar, top hat, the girls are also fashionable, matching hats Not really clear as to what theyre doing because everyone is looking off in a random direction Unlike past paintings, the center is empty, its like from the POV of another pedestrian Unposed, unarranged, possesses a very spontaneous feel to it

VIS 20 Final Study Guide A Bar at the Folies-Bergeres, Manet, 1882


Painting inside of a cabaret hall Artificial light Looser in the painting style, subject is leisure time which is characteristic of the impressionists Were looking at a bar with a lot of alcohol on the counter Barmaid is nicely dressed with a blank look staring out towards the viewers but not necessarily at the viewer, maybe she is tired or disconnected from the world for the moment There is a mirror in the background, can see the chandeliers and the patrons, random green boots hanging down in the upper left corner that implies that there is entertainment going on at the moment There is a guy in a top hat and it looks weird because that reflection is in the wrong place, the man is unusually close to the woman, this man might be soliciting her because barkeepers were often moonlighting as prostitutes because they couldnt make enough money Showing the reality of Paris, the blank face on the woman support this

Post-Impressionism 1910 artists who begin with Impressionism and move onto something very unique artists are lumped into one very innovative and very personal th foundation of 20 century art

Starry Night, Van Gogh, 1889 Created while living in an asylum in France Windows that faced south east cypress trees extended up over upstairs windows Early morning hours dominated by sky 2/3 Filled with moon and stars and pulsing light huge brush strokes sky seems to be filled with motion very dynamic image of sky and nature Horizon very irregular and swirling Village church = just above horizon line Cluster of buildings own direction of brush strokes In Starry Night, van Gogh painted the vast night sky filled with whirling and exploding stars, the earth and humanity huddling beneath it. His paintings are almost abstract, expressive patterns of line, shape, and color. Communicated vastness of universe Turbulent brush strokes with the color suggests a quiet but pervasive depression Explanations: (1) hallucinations based on medical reasons (2) personal view of nature Very carefully composed intelligent, pleasing, and thought out composition Aware of contemporary interest in the heavens speculation about what are the origins of the universe Some of the earliest science fiction was being recognized People were learning that the universe is a very dynamic place Arrangement of stars is extremely exact bright light

VIS 20 Final Study Guide Venus One element that is not correct is the moon Church was not there he could not see it from his windows almost at the center of the painting seems insignificant and is overwhelmed by forces of nature Wrote about hypocracy of organized churches


Wheatfield with Crows, Van Gogh, 1890 July 27 , 1890 shot himself in the chest Release sadness and extreme solitude 40 in. x 20 in. less than half of the landscape is sky huge brush strokes are shown colors are intense using paint straight out of the tube forms an ominous element foreground consists of three pathways red clay bordered by green grass it doesnt seem to go anymore you cant tell where solid ground is ever since Renaissance artists had been structuring their paintings so that there is a converging point instead path goes toward the viewer seems to get bigger and are rising up and turning aggressive crows are turned on the viewer descriptions of the painting- felt himself having emotional crisis pouring out feelings in paint

The Basket of Apples, Cezanne, ca. 1895 Cezannes analytical approach to painting is evident in his still lifes. Here, he captured the solidity of bottles and fruit by juxtaposing color patches, but the resulting abstract shapes are not optically realistic. Tables are discontinuous and various objects seem to be depicted from different vantage points Two dimensional and three dimensional images simultaneously Wine bottle is distorted lighting to the left one side is not symmetrical Not worried about consistency anymore Cookies on top look as if they are levitating dont recede back properly Looking at each object separately painting it according to the space around it but not concerned with the overall scene from a single viewpoint Big brush strokes not hidden Angles to brush strokes its as though hes seeing these objects as flat planes of color that interlock with each other very structured image of these things Light reflecting off of wine bottle 3-D but apples more of a 2-D pattern

Expressionism 10-20 years after van Gogh use color in a very personal way brush strokes showing personality really pouring personal emotions into their paintings and getting a very subjective personal vision of the world

VIS 20 Final Study Guide around them not concerned with producing reality but their emotional reactions to that reality years just leading up to WWI Dresden capitalized and competitive society filled with materialism Artists and writers oppressed by German society filled with corruption, materialism, lack of any spiritual values around society around them


Street, Dresden, 1908, Kirchner, 1907 Kirchners perspetival distortions, disquieting figures, and color choices reflect the influence of the Fauves and of Edvard Munch, who made similar expressive use of formal elements German city before WWI Scene is jarring and dissonant Filled with people cut off by sides of canvas Street = pink not a natural color Woman on the left not proportionate Little girl bizarre angled legs with arms that stick out of her neck instead of shoulders Figure at right handpage with green claw red dripping internal organ the men along the side faces are green everyone doesnt look human at all Crowded together, no logical sense of space, filled at the top of the canvas no atmosphere or space to breathe Everyone is completely alone no human relationships view of urban life that seems to viscous, corrupt and dehumanizing Steep perspective of street pushing women out of the canvas increases confrontational nature Juxtapositions of bright orange and emerald green expressive impact Womens features zombielike and ghoulish garish, clashing colors

Improvisation 28, Kandinsky, 1912 Stopped naming paintings Improvisation with number and date Related to music idea of music improvising on a theme without any set score Always experienced music as color experienced color on an emotional level Choosing a canvas and started painting with no set subject matter There may be elements of landscape hill with grass, mountain with snow, building on top of a hill Primary intense colors, bright green First artist to essentially abandon subject matter Kandinsky believed that artists must express their innermost feelings by orchestrating color, form, line, and space. He was one of the first painters to explore complete abstraction in his canvases. Avante-garde expressive style Conveying feelings with color juxtapositions, intersecting linear elements, and implied spatial relationships Evolving blueprints for a more enlightened and liberated

VIS 20 Final Study Guide society emphasizing spirituality.


French, advance guard (in a platoon). Late 19 and 20 century artists who emphasized innovation and challenged established convention in their work. Also used as an adjective. Creation of art that is personal dont care about political claim own personal vision without regarding anything else In terms of subject matter not heroic acts, leaders, or religious figures, it might not even be reality Does not need to communicated to anyone else Art for arts sake Artists will have a new relationship with the public Hostile and antagonistic They dont care about pleasing the public or if critics approve




Cubism Cezanne - not a complete stationary view of a group of objects Artists eye changes = things are seen at different perspectives Less 3D more 3D Series of color panes interact with space around it in a sort of pattern Cubists inject a new element into painting element of time not from a fixed point view point objects tear up into geometric shapes depict flat on 2-D surface New physics group of physicists Max Plank, Albert Einstein shake up way people view the world matter vs. energy Development of motion picture Thomas Edison

Les Demoiselles dAvignon, Picasso, 1907 8 ft high First cubist work Prostitutes in the waiting room of a brothel in Barcelona working class brothel African and ancient Iberian sculpture and the late paintings of Cezanne lie behind this pivotal work, with which Picasso opened the door to a radically new method of representing forms in space. Focuses on representing the five female figures in their interior space Treatment of womens bodies reduced to geometric forms parts are becoming really abstract Head seems swiveled on neck Body at different angles simultaneously Fractured their shapes and interwove them with the equally jagged planes that represent drapery and empty space Space entwined with the bodies virtually illegible A dramatic departure from the careful presentation of a visual reality Faces 3 figures on left painted first inspired by early, primitive Spanish cultures 2 faces on right repainted or painted later inspired by

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

37 African masks triangular nose and harsh colors mask fetish primitive people symbols of contrast to civilization savagery making a statement about these women barbaric and savage in a sense attacking tradition of nude female form as something thats supposed to be ogled from mans POV jagged field of glass unfinished looking canvas overturned art being carefully crafted hand throughout the painting 2-D

Futurism Futurists originate in literature first in Northern Italy Modernization of Italy to get rid of the past Beauty of war cleanse society and start over Technology speed and dynamism airplanes and battleships and submarines Endorse destroying all museums, libraries and cultural institutions

Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, Boccioni, 1913 Boccioni applied Ballas representational technique to sculpture. This running figure is so expanded, interrupted, and broken in plane and contour that it disappears behind the blur of its movement. Not fixed movement in space but the sensation of movement itself Highlights the formal and spatial effects of motion rather than their source, the striding human figure Traditional material sleek and mechanistic and modern Human figure whos striding along- forms of body actually seem to interconnect with space around the figure Voids within the figure Shaped by air aerodynamic forms convey a sense of speed Space is interconnected and permeate each other Man as machine Emphasis on speed and futurist view of what its going to be like

Dada WWI modern technology millions killed trench warfare, machine guns, chemical mustard gas, shell shocked, disillusioned with government and art, the lost generation Zurich, Switzerland Neutral country in WWI Conscientious France and Germany together in Zurich a group of artists who bond together and make theatrical performances not an organized movement an act of anarchy Term essentially means nonsense Regression back to infancy

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

38 It meant nothing and could mean anything you wanted it to mean

Fountain, Duchamp, 1917 Duchamps ready-made sculptures were mass-produced common objects that the Dada artist selected and modified. (objects without aesthetics at all neutral objects) In Fountain, he conferred the status of art on a urinal and forced people to see the object in a new light. Irony or an attempt at showing the utility of trying to define art Porcelain urinal presented on its back, signed R. Mutt, and dated. The artists signature was a witty pseudonym derived from the Mott plumbing companys name and that of the short half of the Mutt and Jeff comic-strip team. NY exhibition of art in 1917 rejected Challenging the whole idea/everyones notion of what art is

Surrealism On realism or above realism Some level of reality that is more true and real and intense than what we see in the every day world Sigmond Freud Enlightenment positive view of mankind Surrealism not rational creatures we may think we are controlled by reason we have survival instincts, sexual drive, suppressed memories the unconscious determines a lot of what we do Artists embrace free association not interested in being cured almost as a source of creativity that they can draw out images from the unconscious

The Persistence of Memory, Dali, 1931 9 x13 Landscape with elements that make no sense Drawn out of his unconscious Juxtaposed things together that seem to not belong No brush strokes very sharp in detail and accurate trying to make it as real as possible Dali aimed to paint images of concrete irrationality. In this realistically rendered landscape including three decaying watches, he created a haunting allegory of empty space where time has ended. Never-setting sun illuminated the barren landscape, dark beach, body of water, cliffs reflected on water, big board reflected blue of sky Amorphous creature (piece of skin) draped with a limp pocket watch sleeps in the foreground; elements that recall a human face closed eye with eyelashes nose and phallic looking tongue dead or sleeping? Four watches 3 look as though they are rubber hands tend to point up and down Closed watch behaves more like metal but covered with ants Realistic fly on face of watch Decay? Smell and attract insects?

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

39 Surrealists use irrational images not supposed to make sense

The Treachery (or Perfidy) of Images, Magritte, 1928-29 The discrepancy between Magrittes meticulously painted briar pipe and his caption, This is not a pipe, challenges the viewers reliance on the conscious and the rational in the reading of visual art. Meticulously rendered depiction of a briar pipe Three dimensional; looks like a high quality ad Caption beneath: This is not a pipe. Ever since the Renaissance artists treated the canvas as a window, trying to create an illusion of reality Letter and writing were not a part of artistic tradition Other level of reality behind a dream represents something other level of meaning behind the pipe Questioning artistic tradition Questioning of what artists are supposed to be doing

The International Style Le Corbusier Towards a New Architecture Architects opportunity to come up with a new type of housing how do you create as many housing units as possible effectively and cheaply? Modernism or functionalism architecture becomes strictly functional If you build a building and it is as efficient as possible, it will be naturally harmonious and beautiful Rejecting the past decoration is superfluous takes labor and is not necessary structures that are more simple basic essentials Architecture should be like machinery Belief people could be improved through the place where they live Create a sort of clean functional living space they would be happier and better

Villa Savoye, Le Corbusier, 1929 Steel and ferroconcrete made it possible for Le Corbusier to invert the traditional practice of placing light architectural elements above heavy ones and to eliminate weight-bearing walls on the ground story. Walls can be made out of any material, no longer support for building Based off of Citroen automobile One of the major principles associated with the purism of the International Style Much of the houses interior is open space Thin steel columns supporting the concrete main living floor and roof garden area geometric shapes wind screen Major living rooms are on second floor wrapping around an open central court and lighted by industrially produced strip windows that run along the membrane-like exterior walls Lighting is industrial hung from roof Color is unnecessary

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

40 Ramp to second floor; originally designed for car to go up No definable entrance No traditional faade Inside and outside space intermingle Support columns straight up through the house honest about the structure of the house Curve on one side of the house has been carefully calculated to fit the turning radius of a Citroen car Furniture designed to be very sleek chrome plated steel hated buildings that were furnished with fussy furniture beautiful equipment efficient, modern space Modernistic streamline, efficient

Cubism: (encore) Guernica, Picasso, 1937 Cubist Style is not a traditional style Very specific reason for creation Guernica opposition to fascist Franco Displayed in Spanish Pavilion single most famous th painting of 20 century Picasso used Cubist techniques, especially the fragmentation of objects and dislocation of anatomical features, to expressive effect in this monumental painting condemning the Nazi bombing of the Basque capital. Bulls eyes seen at different viewpoints Slain warrior clutching a broken and useless sword A gored horse tramples him and reared back in fright as it dies lightbulb above it Anguished woman cradles her dead child Female figures womans head streaming out a window Falling through floor of building reps a house on fire Horse dash marks looks a little like newsprint reference to newspapers how he learned of this event Fragmentation of objects and the dislocation of anatomical figures: dissections and contortions of the human form in Guernica parallel what happened to the figures in real life Emphasize scenes severity and starkness reduced palette to black, white, and shades of gray Mixed interpretations: If you dont know about Guernica it doesnt explain anything. There are no bombs or heroes. There is just fragmentation and despair. Maybe it is a more universal statement against the destructive elements of war.

Abstract Expressionism End of WWII Two world powers Artists emerged extremely disillusioned and alienated from society US and SU divide up the world Iron curtain descended across Europe Paranoia about 2 power going to nuclear war Cold War fear of Soviets 1950s great deal of paranoia about communist infiltration into US people conformed artists are alienated from society style that develops for

VIS 20 Final Study Guide

41 the first time in America, trained in realism but abandon it and create an art that is completely abstract detached from politics and real world self expression need to express personal emotions o (Past revolutionary movements critics hate artists) Pollock and Rothko were accepted and received wonderful press US government even gave sponsors traveling exhibitions o during Cold War everything is construed as east vs. west o communist party controlled all commissions of art socialist realism glorify communist state and the workers, propaganda o abstract expressionism was a perfect opposite expression of freedom in the west showing how much freedom is given o work is not political at all but becomes a part of propaganda warfare with SU o all art is political even if it doesnt look like it Number 11, Pollock Creates gestural abstraction action painting uses whole body to fling paint and slap it on canvas No forethought Paint goes off of the edges of the canvas Layer paint onto canvas Ten feet across sometimes oil paint and industrial acrylic paint Dead end as a style of painting expression of his anguish Marks his despair with tradition of fine art destroying art jack the dripper

No. 14, Rothko, 1960 Pop Art Content images were surrounded by every day Andy Warhol takes consumer articles and repeats them Rothko was a chromatic abstractionist explores expressive quality of color Unlike Pollock, you cant see the hand of the artist you dont see brush strokes His paintings typically consisting of hazy rectangles of pure color hovering in front of a colored background are compositionally simple but compelling visual experiences. When properly lit, these paintings appear as shimmering veils of intensely luminous colors suspended in front of the canvases Built up color using glazes really saturated with paint Saw color as a doorway to another reality and he was convinced that color could express basic human emotions tragedy, ecstasy, doom Rothko produced highly evocative, moving paintings that relied on formal elements rather than specific representational content to raise emotions in the viewer Creating something that tries to defy all traditions of art

VIS 20 Final Study Guide Marilyn Diptych, Andy Warhol, 1962


Silk-screen roll paint over mesh; the way paint is applied is deliberately sloppy; color = highly artificial Warhols repetition of Monroes face reinforced her status as a consumer product, her glamorous, haunting visage confronting the viewer endlessly, as it did the American public in the aftermath of her death. Brand name her yellow hair, big smile, heavy eyeliner Selected a publicity photo of Monroe no insight into the real Norma Jean Baker rather all the viewer sees is a mask a persona generated by the Hollywood myth machine Garish colors and flat application of paint images masklike quality Disregards troubled life Repetition Monroes face reinforces her status as a consumer product Right half poor registration of pigment a sequence of film stills realm in which Monroe achieved her fame under and overexposed images Diptych two panel altarpiece has a religious overtone implication is in western art we have worshipped religious heroes and glorious events now we worship celebrities, consumer products, essentially a personality has turned into a commodity meaninglessness of type of image worshipping mass media


Ordinary manufactured objects that the artist selected and modified