# Pressure Measurement

Pressure:
• Force applied

to a surface or distributed over it.

• Measured as Force per Unit Area. • Force must act at right angle to calculate pressure •Force is generally exerted by gas, vapour and fluid

Unit of Pressure
• Measured either in British unit or in Metric unit also • In British unit-measured in Pounds(of force) per Square Inch(of area) (psi) • In Metric unit- measured in Newton per Square Metre • The standard atmospheric pressure is approximately 14.696 psi • In terms of liquid columns, standard atmospheric pressure will be equal to 760 mm of Hg • 1 atm = 1 bar = 1.03 kg/cm2 = 10300 mm of Wg = 760 mm of Hg

Pressure is measured in terms of either Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, Vacuum Pressure or Differential Pressure • Gauge Pressure • It is the difference between the measured(absolute) and atmospheric pressure • Zero gauge pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure 14.7 psi or 1.03 kg/cm2 at sea level and 20˚C • An instrument reads gauge pressure will change its reading with changes in atmospheric pressure • Absolute Pressure • It is total pressure acting on a surface (psia) • Scale starts from zero

• Vacuum • It the pressure in range between zero pressure and atmospheric pressure • Gauge that indicates gauge pressure may be designed to indicate pressure below zero • Such gauges are known as Vacuum Gauges • Differential Pressure • In this gauge pressure is the difference in absolute terms between pressure at two points

Different Pressure Measurement Techniques • Comparing an unknown pressure with a known pressure -Manometers • Inferring pressure from the measured deformation of elastic material -Diaphragm - Bellows - Bourdon tubes

Manometer
U-Tube Manometer

Air Water Manometer

Manometer
Well Type Manometer

Manometer
Inclined-Tube Manometer

Manometer
Barometer

BOURDON TUBE PRESSURE GAUGE

C - Type

BOURDON TUBE PRESSURE GAUGE

C – Type Differential Pressure Guage

BOURDON TUBE PRESSURE GAUGE

Spiral - Type

Helical - Type

DIAPHRAGM PRESSURE GAUGE

Calibrated scale

Diaphragm

Capsules Pressure Pressure

Metallic - Type

Slack - Type

BELLOWS PRESSURE GAUGE

VACUUM MEASUREMENT • MCLEOD GAUGE • THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY GAUGE • IONIZATION GAUGE

MCLEOD GAUGE

PIRANI (THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY) GAUGE

THERMOCOUPLE (THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY) GAUGE

IONIZATION GAUGE

Hot Cathode – Type

Cold Cathode – Type

IONIZATION GAUGE

Alphatron - Type

STRAIN GAUGE PRESSURE GAUGE

STRAIN GAUGE PRESSURE GAUGE

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